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Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920198/effects-of-breeder-age-strain-and-eggshell-temperature-on-nutrient-metabolism-of-broiler-embryos
#1
A Nangsuay, R Meijerhof, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
Breeder age and broiler strain influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen through yolk size and eggshell conductance, and the effects of these egg characteristics on nutrient metabolism might be influenced by eggshell temperature (EST). This study aims to determine effects of breeder age, strain, and EST on nutrient metabolism of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using four batches of in total 4,464 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920197/supplementation-of-fine-and-coarse-limestone-in-different-ratios-in-a-split-feeding-system-effects-on-performance-egg-quality-and-bone-strength-in-old-laying-hens
#2
A Molnár, L Maertens, B Ampe, J Buyse, J Zoons, E Delezie
Different ratios of fine- (FL) and coarse limestone (CL) were compared (50FL:50CL, 30FL:70CL, 0FL:100CL) in conventional (C) and split feeding (S) for their effects on performance, egg quality traits, and bone quality of old, brown laying hens (72 to 83 wk). Each treatment consisted of 42 hens (7 hens × 6 replicates). In the C system diets supplemented with limestone were provided during the whole day, whereas in the S system a morning diet was fed without added limestone, and only the afternoon diet was supplemented with different limestone ratios...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920196/regulation-of-turkey-myogenic-satellite-cell-migration-by-micrornas-mir-128-and-mir-24
#3
S G Velleman, R L Harding
Myogenic satellite cells are an adult stem cell responsible for all post-hatch muscle growth in poultry. As a stem cell population, satellite cells are highly heterogeneous, but the origin of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Heterogeneity is, in part, regulated by gene expression. One method of endogenous gene regulation that may contribute to heterogeneity is microRNAs (miRNAs). Two miRNAs previously shown to regulate poultry myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, miR-128 and miR-24, were studied to determine if they also affected satellite cell migration...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920195/efficacy-of-1-3-diacylglycerol-as-a-fat-emulsifier-in-low-density-diet-for-broilers
#4
S D Upadhaya, J W Park, J H Park, I H Kim
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of 1,3-diacylglycerol (DAG) as an emulsifier in a low-density diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old male 308 Ross broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 5 treatments: Control, fed a basal diet (CON), basal diet minus 100 kcal ME diet (LE), T1 (LE + 0.075% 1,3-DAG), T2 (LE + 0.10% 1,3-DAG), and T3 (LE + 0.15% 1,3-DAG)...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920194/experimental-validation-of-the-avivet-trap-a-tool-to-quantitatively-monitor-the-dynamics-of-dermanyssus-gallinae-populations-in-laying-hens
#5
G A Lammers, R G G Bronneberg, J C M Vernooij, J A Stegeman
Dermanyssus gallinae (D.gallinae) infestation causes economic losses due to impaired health and production of hens and costs of parasite control across the world. Moreover, infestations are associated with reduced welfare of hens and may cause itching in humans. To effectively implement control methods it is crucially important to have high quality information about the D.gallinae populations in poultry houses in space and time. At present no validated tool is available to quantitatively monitor the dynamics of all four stages of D...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920193/light-intensity-of-5-or-20%C3%A2-lux-on-broiler-behavior-welfare-and-productivity
#6
Jean-Loup Rault, Katie Clark, Peter J Groves, Greg M Cronin
Light intensity can influence broiler behavior, but discrepancies in the scientific literature remain. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the welfare implications induced by varying light intensity. We investigated the effects of providing 5 or 20 lux light intensity on broiler behavior, welfare and productivity. A total of 1,872 Ross 308 broilers of mixed sex were studied across 2 replicates. Treatments began on d 8 with one of 2 light intensity levels: 5 lux or 20 lux, using LED lights on a 16L:8D photoperiod with 30 min sunrise and sunset periods...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920192/results-of-an-international-phosphorus-digestibility-ring-test-with-broiler-chickens
#7
M Rodehutscord, O Adeola, R Angel, P Bikker, E Delezie, W A Dozier, M Umar Faruk, M Francesch, C Kwakernaak, A Narcy, C M Nyachoti, O A Olukosi, A Preynat, B Renouf, A Saiz Del Barrio, K Schedle, W Siegert, S Steenfeldt, M M van Krimpen, S M Waititu, M Witzig
The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different inclusion levels of SBM were mixed in a feed mill specialized in experimental diets and transported to 17 collaborating stations. Broiler chicks were raised on commercial starter diets according to station-specific management routine...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920191/effect-of-in-ovo-injection-of-raffinose-on-growth-performance-and-gut-health-parameters-of-broiler-chicken
#8
J D Berrocoso, R Kida, A K Singh, Y S Kim, R Jha
The effects of in ovo injection of raffinose (RFO) as a prebiotic on growth performance, relative weight of proventriculus, gizzard, drumstick and breast muscles, and ileum mucosa morphology were examined in Cobb 500 broilers. A total of 240 fertilized eggs were divided into 4 groups: a non-injected with intact shell and 3 levels of RFO solution (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mg in 0.2 mL of an aqueous diluents). The RFO solution was injected into the air sac on d 12 of incubation. In total 144 birds were fed a standard diet and management and sacrificed at d 21 post hatch for collection of samples...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920190/evaluation-of-chlorine-dioxide-based-product-as-a-hatchery-sanitizer
#9
P Maharjan, S Cox, U Gadde, F D Clark, K Bramwell, S E Watkins
Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920189/effects-of-maize-naturally-contaminated-with-aflatoxin-b1-on-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-and-digestive-physiology-in-ducks
#10
G D Feng, J He, X Ao, D W Chen
This study was conducted to determine the effects of maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, relative digestive organs weight, digestive enzymes activities, and biochemical index of intestinal development in ducks. A total of 640 ducks was blocked on the basis of sex and body weight, and then allocated randomly to 2 treatments with 20 pens per treatment and 16 ducks per pen. The experiment lasted for 5 wk, and dietary treatments included basal diet (CON) and diets with 100% of normal maize replaced by AFB1 contaminated maize...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915271/changes-in-renal-gene-expression-associated-with-induced-ochratoxicosis-in-chickens-activation-and-deactivation-of-transcripts-after-varying-durations-of-exposure
#11
Cynthia P Zeferino, Kevin D Wells, Ana Silvia A M T Moura, George E Rottinghaus, David R Ledoux
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) can lead to changes in global gene expression. This study investigated the individual expression of genes turned on and off in renal cells of chicks after different durations of exposure to dietary OTA. One hundred and eighty day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (3 levels of OTA: 0, 1 and 2 mg OTA/kg diet and 3 time periods: 7, 14 and 21 d). Birds were allocated to 36 pens (4 replicate pens of 5 birds each per treatment)...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915270/chemoprevention-of-spontaneous-ovarian-cancer-in-the-domestic-hen
#12
E H Mocka, R A Stern, O J Fletcher, K E Anderson, J N Petitte, P E Mozdziak
The hen is an attractive animal model for in vivo testing of agents that thwart ovarian carcinogenesis because ovarian cancer in the domestic hen features clinical and molecular alterations that are similar to ovarian cancer in humans, including a high incidence of p53 mutations. The objective of the study was to test the potential ovarian cancer chemopreventive effect of the p53 stabilizing compound CP-31398 on hens that spontaneously present the ovarian cancer phenotype. Beginning at 79 wk of age, 576 egg-laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were randomized to diets containing different amounts of CP-31398 for 94 wk, 5 d, comprising a control group (C) (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 0 ppm (mg/kg) of CP-31398; a low-dose treatment (LDT) group (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 100 ppm of CP-31398; a moderate-dose treatment (MDT) group (n = 144) which was fed a diet containing 200 ppm of CP-31398; and a high-dose treatment (HDT) group (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 300 ppm of CP-31398...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915269/effect-of-ph-on-the-interaction-of-volatile-compounds-with-the-myofibrillar-proteins-of-duck-meat
#13
Q L Yang, X W Lou, Y Wang, D D Pan, Y Y Sun, J X Cao
In order to clarify the influence of curing agents on the flavor of duck, the effect of pH on the surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures, and adsorption capacity of myofibrillar proteins to alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters was assessed using Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, and other methodologies. The hydrophobicity decreased as pH increased from 5.0 to 8.0; β-turn turned into α-helix and random coil as pH increased from 5.0 to 7.0, while α-helix and random coil turned into β-sheet and β-turn as pH increased from 7...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915268/equations-of-prediction-for-abdominal-fat-in-brown-egg-laying-hens-fed-different-diets
#14
C Souza, J J B Jaimes, C E Gewehr
The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838611/compliance-non-compliance-with-biosecurity-rules-specified-in-the-danish-quality-assurance-system-kik-and-campylobacter-positive-broiler-flocks-2012-and-2013
#15
M Sandberg, J Dahl, L L Lindegaard, J R Pedersen
One source for Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans could be consumption of broiler meat. Transmission of Campylobacter into broiler houses/flocks occurs via many routes. A number of biosecurity rules is specified in the Quality Assurance System in Danish Chicken Production (KIK) - for which the broiler producers annually are audited for compliance with, by bureau Veritas. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigated the association between Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules and Campylobacter-positive flocks - on KIK data from 2012 and 2013...
November 12, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837119/the-efficacy-of-raw-and-concentrated-bentonite-clay-in-reducing-the-toxic-effects-of-aflatoxin-in-broiler-chicks
#16
T A Shannon, D R Ledoux, G E Rottinghaus, D P Shaw, A Daković, M Marković
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two adsorbents, a raw bentonite clay (RC) and a concentrated bentonite clay (CC), in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Results of the in vitro study (pH 3.0) indicated the CC adsorbed more AFB1 than RC (93.39 mg/g vs. 79.30 mg/g) suggesting that CC may be more effective than RC in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1 One hundred and eighty day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 6 replicate pens of 5 chicks each and assigned to 6 dietary treatments from hatch to day 21...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837118/effects-of-dietary-organic-zinc-and-%C3%AE-tocopheryl-acetate-supplements-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-tissues-minerals-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-deposition-in-broiler-chickens
#17
R Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R Bakhshalinejad, A Hassanabadi, P Ferket
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of zinc (Zn) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) on broilers performance, meat quality, Zn, selenium (Se), and α-tocopherol (α-TO) tissue depositions. A total of 1,080 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens (mixed-sex) were allocated to nine dietary treatments. Three levels of supplemental Zn (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of α-TOA (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg of diet) were combined as a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837117/high-resolution-melting-hrm-analysis-as-a-new-tool-for-rapid-identification-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-gallinarum-biovars-pullorum-and-gallinarum
#18
Xingxing Ren, Ying Fu, Chenggang Xu, Zhou Feng, Miao Li, Lina Zhang, Jianmin Zhang, Ming Liao
Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Pullorum and Gallinarum represent the most common causative agents of chicken salmonellosis, which result in high mortality and morbidity throughout the world. It is difficult and laborious to discriminate these diseases based on biochemical or phenotypic methods. Herein, we report the development of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR-high resolution melt (PCR-HRM) assay for the detection and discrimination of both S Pullorum and S Gallinarun. The gene rfbS, which encodes a factor involved in the biosynthesis of ADP paratose in serogroup D of Salmonella, has been identified as a robust genetic marker for the identification of S Pullorum and S Gallinarun based on polymorphisms at positions 237 and 598...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837116/predicting-hairline-fractures-in-eggs-of-mature-hens
#19
S van Mourik, B P G J Alders, F Helderman, L J F van de Ven, P W G Groot Koerkamp
Eggshell damage poses a serious problem for the consumption egg industry. Increasing the maximum age of laying hens will increase eggshell damage due to loss of shell strength. This poses a serious problem for automatic collection, packing, and transport. We performed a model based study focused on hairline fractures in eggs of 88-week-old hens, and simulated side collisions on 1,235 eggs using a specially designed pendulum. The kinetic energy at the moment of impact was related to the accelerations measured by an electronic egg going through the transport chain...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837115/precipitation-and-ultimate-ph-effect-on-chemical-and-gelation-properties-of-protein-prepared-by-isoelectric-solubilization-precipitation-process-from-pale-soft-exudative-pse-like-chicken-breast-meat
#20
X Zhao, T Xing, X Chen, M-Y Han, X Li, X-L Xu, G-H Zhou
Pale, soft, exudative (PSE)-like chicken breast is considered deteriorated raw material in the poultry meat industry that has inferior processing ability. The chemical and gelation properties of PSE-like chicken breast meat paste were studied. These pastes were prepared by the pH adjustment method and protein isolation using the isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) process from PSE-like chicken meat. The ISP-isolated samples were solubilized at pH 11.0 and recovered at pH 5.5 and 6.2. The ultimate pH of the ISP-isolated protein and meat paste was adjusted to 6...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
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