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Poultry Science

Wenrui Zhen, Yujing Shao, Xiuyan Gong, Yuanyuan Wu, Yanqiang Geng, Zhong Wang, Yuming Guo
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective efficacy of dietary Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) supplementation in birds receiving Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments with 2 levels of dietary B. coagulans (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 levels of SE challenge (0 or 1 × 109 SE between d 9 to 11). Results showed that SE infection did not affect growth performance, but caused intestinal inflammation and barrier function impairment by reducing intestinal goblet cells and beneficial bacteria numbers, increasing cecal Salmonella colonization and liver Salmonella invasion, downregulating jejunal mucin-2 (at 7 and 17 d post-infection, DPI), TLR2 (at 7 and 17 DPI), TLR4 (at 17 DPI), TNFSF15 (at 7 and 17 DPI) gene mRNA levels, and upregulating jejunal IFN-γ mRNA levels (at 17 DPI) compared to uninfected birds...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Adriano Sakai Okamoto, Raphael Lucio Andreatti Filho, Elisane Lenita Milbradt, Ana Carolina Izidoro Moraes, Igor Henrique Bastos Vellano, Priscylla Tatiana Chalfun Guimarães-Okamoto
Bacterial communication has become an increasingly studied topic aiming at the discovery of new products to aid the treatment of diseases for which conventional options do not work. The production of safe foods, free of pathogens, has been receiving increasing attention due to market demands for food products of high quality and free of residues. This study assessed the communication between Lactobacillus spp. during the in vitro inhibition of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) and the impact an autoinducer produced by a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum has on communication in the normal microbiota and inhibiting SH in newborn chicks...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Raghad A Abdaljaleel, Morouj Al-Ajeeli, Yasser Jameel, Mohammed M Hashim, Christopher A Bailey
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether or not the use of a prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) affects threonine requirements in starter broilers. Two hundred and forty 1-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were distributed among 2 Petersime battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds per pen). Different threonine to lysine ratios (0.60, 0.65, and 0.70 to 1.0) with 1.22% available lysine with and without YCW at 250 ppm was fed to the chickens in order to evaluate performance and intestinal morphology over a 21-d trial...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
X W Lou, Y B Zhang, Y Y Sun, Y Wang, D D Pan, J X Cao
Vinasse-cured duck was processed by boiling, salting, and vinasse-dry-curing or vinasse-wet-curing. Volatile compounds, moisture contents, reducing sugars, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values during processing were determined. Reducing sugars decreased during boiling and increased after vinasse-curing. TBARS values increased throughout the processing. The volatiles of ducks during processing and vinasse-curing agents (dry vinasse and vinasse sauce) were 125 compounds. The first principal component (PC1) belonged to the flavor of cooked duck, whereas the second principal component (PC2) represented the flavor of yellow rice wine...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Kaiwen Bai, Chengcheng Feng, Luyi Jiang, Ligen Zhang, Jingfei Zhang, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
This paper aimed to study the dietary effects of Bacillus subtilis fmbj (BS fmbj) on growth performance, small intestinal histomorphology, and its antioxidant capacity of broilers at 21 d of raising. A total of 300 1-d old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 5 groups: broilers fed the basal diets with 0 g/kg BS fmbj (CON), 0.2 g/kg BS fmbj (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg BS fmbj (BS-2), 0.4 g/kg BS fmbj (BS-3), and 0.5 g/kg BS fmbj (BS-4). The results showed that there were no differences in the growth performance among treatments during the trail...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Yao-Ming Cui, Jing Wang, Wei Lu, Hai-Jun Zhang, Shu-Geng Wu, Guang-Hai Qi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and oxidative stability of breast muscle in broilers. A total of 720 1-d-old male Arbor Acres birds were randomly divided into 6 dietary groups, which were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15% MOL, respectively. Each group had 6 replicates of 20 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 42 d. The results showed dietary MOL supplementation linearly and quadratically decreased body weight and average daily gain (P < 0...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
C A B Sass, S Kuriya, G V da Silva, H L A Silva, A G da Cruz, E A Esmerino, M Q Freitas
The choice and consumption of eggs are made considering a consumers' multidimensional perception, and their understanding becomes essential to the production targeting and the products' success in the market. In this context, this work aimed to verify the consumers' perception about the distinct types of hens' eggs, using a projective technique of completion task combined with presentation of images. A hundred consumers (n = 100) evaluated the main factors, both positive and negative, involved at the purchase time of eggs besides estimating their price...
April 5, 2018: Poultry Science
B L Belote, A Tujimoto-Silva, P H Hümmelgen, A W D Sanches, J C S Wammes, R M Hayashi, E Santin
The maintenance of integrity of the gastrointestinal tract is an important aspect for animal productivity, since it is able to absorb nutrients more efficiently and serves as a barrier against microorganisms. To control agents detrimental to intestinal integrity, growth-promoting antibiotics (AGP) are used, which reduce the number of toxin-producing microorganisms in the intestinal lumen, acting as anti-inflammatory agents. There is a demand for restriction of use of AGP in animal feed, but there are few studies showing what parameters we should observe to search for alternative additives...
April 5, 2018: Poultry Science
S Bi, X Chi, Y Zhang, X Ma, S Liang, Y Wang, S H Hu
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginsenoside Rg1 on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens. Ninety-six chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 24 birds. Groups 2 and 3 received intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide at 100 mg/kg body weight for 3 d to induce oxidative stress and immune suppression. Groups 1 and 4 were injected with saline in the same way as groups 2 and 3. Then chickens in group 3 were orally administrated Rg1 of 1 mg/kg body weight in drinking water for 7 d...
April 5, 2018: Poultry Science
J S Kim, A R Hosseindoust, Y H Shim, S H Lee, Y H Choi, M J Kim, S M Oh, H B Ham, A Kumar, B J Chae
The present study investigated the effects of feed form and distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestine microbiota in broilers. A total of 720 broilers (Ross 308; average BW 541 ± 6 g) was randomly allotted to 6 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 6 replicates in each treatment with 20 birds per replicate. Birds were fed 3 different feed forms (mash, simple pellet, and expanded pellet) and DDGS (0 or 20% of diet) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement...
April 3, 2018: Poultry Science
A E Geiger, M R Daughtry, C M Gow, P B Siegel, H Shi, D E Gerrard
Muscle satellite cells (SC) are resident stem-like cells that play an integral role in skeletal muscle growth and repair. Understanding how SC maintain their identities and dynamic properties is critical to animal growth. However, the genetic and environmental factors governing SC behaviors and the underpinning mechanisms remain unknown. To explore whether genetic selection influences SC behaviors, we used 2 lines of chickens selected for over 50 generations with over a 10-fold difference in body weight at 56 d of age-the Virginia high weight selection (HWS) and low weight selection (LWS) lines...
April 3, 2018: Poultry Science
K Andraszek, D Banaszewska, B Biesiada-Drzazga
Many of the methods used to stain semen result in very pronounced coloring of the sperm, but unfortunately they do not distinguish their individual structures, which play a key role in the fertilization process. Hence the aim of this study was to identify sperm structures using two staining techniques in the semen of roosters from breeding flocks. The subject of the study was the sperm of roosters from a Ross 308 breeding flock. To capture the differences in the dimensions of sperm subjected to the effect of different chemical substances in dyes, microscope slides were stained by two techniques: with an AgNO3 solution and by a differential method (eosin-nigrosin test)...
April 3, 2018: Poultry Science
D R Jones, D M Karcher, P Regmi, C O Robison, R K Gast
In the United States, there is an increase in need for cage-free eggs in retail and food manufacturing sectors. Understanding the impact of cage-free systems and the corresponding management on egg quality is pertinent as the U.S. industry adapts existing housing and builds new cage-free housing structures. A study was conducted comparing 2 brown shell and 2 white shell hen strains housed in a cage-free aviary system. Each set of eggs were placed in cold storage and assessed at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk. Eggs were collected at 21, 31, 42, and 60 wk of hen age...
April 2, 2018: Poultry Science
Fang-Bin Lin, Feng Zhu, Jin-Ping Hao, Fang-Xi Yang, Zhuo-Cheng Hou
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between live body measurements and several fat traits in Pekin ducks, and ultimately to formulate multiple regression equations for the in vivo estimation of the carcass fatness of Pekin ducks. Several traits were measured in a total of 208 Pekin ducks aged 6 wk (107 males and 101 females). All ducks were weighed and measured for a set of body measurements including live body weight, body slope length, breast muscle thickness, skin fat thickness, chest width, keel length, and neck length...
March 31, 2018: Poultry Science
Michael H Kogut, Kenneth J Genovese, Christina L Swaggerty, Haiqi He, Leon Broom
The intestinal tract harbors a diverse community of microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. Although many of these microbes execute functions that are critical for host physiology, the host immune system must control the microbial community so that the dynamics of this interdependent relationship is maintained. To facilitate host homeostasis, the immune system ensures that the microbial load is tolerated, but anatomically contained, while remaining reactive to microbial invasion. Inflammation is the most prevalent manifestation of host defense in reaction to alterations in tissue homeostasis and is elicited by innate immune receptors that recognize and detect infection, host damage, and danger signaling molecules that activate a highly regulated network of immunological and physiological events for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis and restoring functionality...
March 30, 2018: Poultry Science
M Jing, S Zhao, A Rogiewicz, B A Slominski, J D House
The oversupply of dietary phosphorus (P) leads to increased feed costs and discharge of excessive P to the environment, thus directly impacting the sustainability of egg production practices. The present study was conducted to better define the minimal available P needs of laying hens. Fifty-six Lohmann white laying hens were individually caged and fed one of 7 diets with graded levels of available P (0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, or 0.45%) for 12 weeks. Records were maintained for body weight, feed intake, and egg production during the experimental period...
March 28, 2018: Poultry Science
S J Dai, K Y Zhang, X M Ding, S P Bai, Y H Luo, J P Wang, Q F Zeng
The study was conducted to distinguish the effect of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) levels on the community diversity and structure of the cecal microbiota in meat duck based on 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. In total, 525 1-d-old ducklings were fed diets (105 ducklings, 7 pens of 15 ducklings, on each diet) containing five levels of NPP (0.22, 0.34, 0.40, 0.46, and 0.58%) for 21 days. The results showed that dietary NPP levels linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) 21 d body weight, 1 to 21 d feed intake and NPP intake, and contrarily, linearly decreased (P < 0...
March 28, 2018: Poultry Science
Jian Chen, Zijun Zhao, Yangyijun Chen, Jie Zhang, Lifu Yan, Xiaocui Zheng, Ming Liao, Weisheng Cao
Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen...
March 28, 2018: Poultry Science
E D Peebles
The various methods employed for the in ovo administration of different materials for promoting the health and productivity of poultry are discussed in this review article. The amnion has proven to be an effective site for injection and the timing of in ovo injection has commonly occurred at transfer. However, the volumes and dosages or concentrations of the materials administered vary depending on bird type, egg size, timing and site of injection, incubation system and regimen, and the type of material. Both manual and automated injections have been shown to be effective...
March 28, 2018: Poultry Science
C G Velasquez, K S Macklin, S Kumar, M Bailey, P E Ebner, H F Oliver, F S Martin-Gonzalez, M Singh
Salmonella spp. are among the most common foodborne pathogens, and increase in the occurrence of antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella poses a severe risk to public health. The main objective of this study was to determine changes in Salmonella prevalence and their antimicrobial resistance on poultry farms following recommendations to changes in biosecurity practices. Four poultry farms were sampled by collecting cloacal swabs, drag swabs, and litter samples prior to recommended biosecurity changes (March-April) and post recommendations (October-November)...
March 27, 2018: Poultry Science
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