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Poultry Science

G D Xue, R Barekatain, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a factorial arrangement of treatments with factors: NE challenge, no or yes; dietary Gln inclusion, 0 g/kg in starter (S), d 0 to 10, grower (G) d 10 to 24, and finisher (F) d 24 to 35; 10 g/kg in S, G, F, or 10 g/kg in S, G only...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Y N Min, Z Y Niu, T T Sun, Z P Wang, P X Jiao, B B Zi, P P Chen, D L Tian, F Z Liu
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on antioxidant capacity and immune function in oxidative-stressed breeder roosters. One hundred twenty 45-week-old Lveyang black-boned breeder roosters were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments, including negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), and 3 trial groups, which were fed the diets containing 300 mg/kg VC, 200 mg/kg VE, or 300 mg/kg VC and 200 mg/kg VE (VC+VE). At 47 wk of age, the positive control and trial groups were subcutaneously injected 3 times every other d with dexamethasone (DEX) 4 mg/kg of body weight, the negative control group was injected with saline...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Haizhu Zhou, Wei Guo, Tao Zhang, Bo Xu, Di Zhang, Zhanwei Teng, Dapeng Tao, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
Geese are capable of digesting and making use of a high-fiber diet, but the mechanism is not well understood and would be of great significance for the development and utilization of roughage resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary fiber (source: corn stover and alfalfa, included at 5% or 8%) on microflora in goose intestines. We used 35-day-old Carlos geese in which we first studied the influence of fiber ingestion on diet digestibility and immune organ indices of geese and found that high dietary fiber (8% content) significantly increased feed intake, the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and thymus, bursa, and spleen size...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
W X Li, Y Q Chen, L H Zhao, Q G Ma, J Y Zhang, C Ji
Over supplementation of copper (Cu) in animal diets may cause serious pollution in soil, water and harvested crops. To minimize the potential pollution, the effects of corn-soybean basal diet with or without supplementation of 8 mg Cu/kg on laying performance, plasma biochemical metabolic indices, and antioxidant status in laying hens were evaluated under normal and cyclic high temperatures. A total of 240 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 10 hens per replicate according to factorial design involved in 2 temperatures [normal temperature (NT) vs...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
N Pokhrel, E Ben-Tal Cohen, O Genin, M Ruzal, D Sela-Donenfeld, Y Cinnamon
Storing eggs at low temperature prior to incubation is common practice in the broiler hatchery industry; however, prolonged storage (beyond 7 d) is known to increase early embryonic mortality and reduce chick quality and performance. To better understand the basis of this mortality, we previously published milestone criteria to evaluate morphological and cellular properties of the freshly laid embryo. Using these criteria, in the present study we checked the effects of storage at 18°C and 12°C for up to 28 d on hatchability and chick quality...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
H N Hall, H V Masey O'Neill, D Scholey, E Burton, M Dickinson, E C Fitches
Work was undertaken to investigate the potential use of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae reared on broiler manure as a source of nutrition for poultry production in the United Kingdom. Nutritional analysis showed that larvae have a high (>45% dry wt.) protein content and a favorable amino acid profile that is rich in key amino acids, such as lysine and methionine. A broiler digestibility trial was carried out to determine the apparent ileal digestibility coefficients (AIDC) and true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDC) of amino acids (AA) from insect larval meal (ILM) from M...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
J C Han, J G Wang, G H Chen, J L Zhang, N Zhang, H X Qu, Y Guo, Y F Yan, X J Yang
1α-Hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D3) is a vitamin D derivative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1α-OH-D3 on the growth and the mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the small intestine and kidney of chickens. A total of 240 males of one-day-old Ross 308 broilers was randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 12 birds per replicate. Three levels of 1α-OH-D3 (1.25, 2.5, and 5 μg/kg) were added to a basal diet containing 0.50% calcium (Ca), 0.25% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), and without supplemental cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
C L Walk, M R Bedford, O A Olukosi
An experiment was conducted to evaluate phytase supplementation on growth, phytate degradation, and the gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in 21-day old broilers. Ross 308, male broilers (n = 240) were assigned to one of four diets, with 10 pens/diet and six birds/pen from day one to 21. The diets consisted of a negative control (NC) formulated to meet or exceed Ross 308 nutrient requirements, with the exception of calcium (Ca) and available P (avP), which were reduced by 0.16 and 0.15%, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Poultry Science
M Brus, L Gradišnik, M Trapecar, D Škorjanc, R Frangež
Feed and water supplementation with powdered hydrolyzable tannins from chestnut represents a valuable alternative strategy to antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we evaluated the effects and safety of a water-soluble form of chestnut tannin (WST) in an in vitro model of chicken small intestinal epithelial cells (CSIEC). A chicken cell culture was established, and WST in concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% were tested for cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, metabolic activity, production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidative potential, genotoxicity, and influence on the epithelia cell cycle...
February 12, 2018: Poultry Science
M E Aguirre, C M Owens, R K Miller, C Z Alvarado
The broiler industry is currently experiencing a muscle anomaly referred to as "woody breast," and the effect of different cooking methods on the marination properties of severe woody breast (SWB) has not yet been reported. This study compared the texture attributes of marinated (injected) normal (NOR) and SWB using a convection oven and a flat-top grill. The objectives were 1) to develop and validate a descriptive texture attribute panel with 6 trained panelists using a 16-point scale and 2) to evaluate the instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) using a texture analyzer...
February 8, 2018: Poultry Science
J F Zhang, K W Bai, W P Su, A A Wang, L L Zhang, K H Huang, T Wang
The object of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on modulating the glutathione (GSH)-related antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant responses via NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in heat-stressed broiler chickens. A total of 400 one-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks was reared in an environmentally controlled room. At 21 d, broiler chicks were divided into 5 treatment groups and were fed one of 4 diets under 2 temperature conditions: 22°C + a basal diet (CON treatment); 34°C for 8 h (0900-1700) + a basal diet supplemented with 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg curcumin (HS, CMN1, CMN2, and CMN3 treatments, respectively)...
February 8, 2018: Poultry Science
M N Al-Ajeeli, R K Miller, H Leyva, M M Hashim, R A Abdaljaleel, Y Jameel, C A Bailey
Consumers have begun to awaken to the food on their plates with respect to human health and the environment, as well as animal welfare. They have become more demanding about what they buy or prefer in their food, such as soy-free, gluten-free, or organic products. The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer acceptance of eggs from hens fed soybean meal or soybean-free diets utilizing cottonseed meal and distillers' dried grains, using cage or free-range rearing systems. All eggs were stored at the sensory lab at Texas A&M University (TAMU) for a d prior to each test at 4°C...
January 29, 2018: Poultry Science
A H Smith, T G Rehberger
Microbial colonization of the intestinal tract of commercial poultry is highly variable, likely due to the fact that poults and chicks are hatched and raised without exposure to adult birds and their microbiota. In industrial poultry production, it is hypothesized that most of the microbiota is obtained through horizontal transmission from the environment and very little by maternal transmission. The initial gut microbiota will therefore differ between flocks and companies based on environmental conditions at the hatchery...
January 29, 2018: Poultry Science
D Stepien-Pysniak, U Kosikowska, T Hauschild, A Burzynski, J Wilczynski, A Kolinska, A Nowaczek, A Marek
This paper reports on the development and validation of a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) for rapid and specific identification of Gallibacterium anatis. To design a set of 6 primers using the LAMP technique, the conserved region of the G. anatis sodA gene was selected as a target. To evaluate primer specificity we used 120 field strains, the reference strain G. anatis ATCC 43329, and 9 non-G. anatis bacteria. The results confirmed positive reactions for all G. anatis strains tested by LAMP at 63°C for 60 min, with no cross-reactivity observed for the negative control bacteria, i...
January 25, 2018: Poultry Science
A Watteyn, S Croubels, S De Baere, P De Backer, M Devreese
Florfenicol (FF) is registered for treatment of bovine and swine respiratory diseases. Although, turkeys often suffer from bacterial respiratory tract infections, there is no registered formulation based on FF for poultry available in Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic behavior of FF in turkeys in plasma, lung tissue, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF).The concentration and pharmacokinetic characteristics of FF in plasma, lung tissue, and PELF in turkeys were determined, either after a single oral bolus (30 mg/kg body weight, BW) or during and after continuous drinking water medication (30 mg/kg BW/d for 5 d)...
January 25, 2018: Poultry Science
I Zulkifli, A F Akmal, A F Soleimani, M A Hossain, E A Awad
A study with a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effects of 4 dietary protein levels and 2 environmental conditions on acute phase proteins (APP), brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, and growth performance of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were fed isocaloric diets but with various levels of crude protein (CP), namely, (1) 21.0 and 19.0% CP in starter and finisher diets, respectively (control), (2) 19.5 and 17.5% CP in starter and finisher diets, respectively (Diet A), (3) 18...
January 25, 2018: Poultry Science
T Zeng, H Zhang, J Liu, L Chen, Y Tian, J Shen, L Lu
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for feed efficiency and relevant traits in 2 laying duck breeds, and to determine the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with feed efficiency and egg quality traits. Phenotypic records on 3,000 female laying ducks (1,500 Shaoxing ducks and 1,500 Jinyun ducks) from a random mating population were used to estimate genetic parameters for RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed intake (FI), BW, BW gain (BWG), and egg mass laid (EML) at 42 to 46 wk of age...
January 22, 2018: Poultry Science
F Mosca, L Zaniboni, S Stella, C A Kuster, N Iaffaldano, S Cerolini
The study aimed to characterize meat quality traits of Milanino chickens reared according to a specific free-range farming program. A total of 120 birds was reared straight-run in outdoor pens (8 m2/bird) from 35 d of life and fed ad libitum a low (16%) protein diet. At 180 d of age, 20 birds (10 birds/sex) were slaughtered, and carcass weight data were recorded. After processing, carcasses were refrigerated at 4°C for 24 hours. Then, the right breast and thigh with skin were collected and color parameters, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), and chemical composition were determined...
January 22, 2018: Poultry Science
Y Niu, Q Sun, M Zhu, J Zhao, G Zhang, X Liu, Y Xiao, S Liu
An outbreak of hydropericardium syndrome has been ongoing in East China since 2015. To decipher the disease etiology, 26 full-length sequences of the adenovirus hexon gene were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic trees and sequence alignments revealed that all 26 strains belonged to subgroup C serotype 4 and shared some consistent molecular characteristics that showed only 9 mutations without amino acid (AA) deletions. Eight sites were located in L1 and one in L2. To determine whether the complete hexon gene was under positive selection pressure, site-by-site analysis was performed to identify specific codons that underwent evolutionary selection...
January 22, 2018: Poultry Science
Adelino da Cunha-Neto, Larrayane Albuês Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares Carvalho, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Sergio Borges Mano, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza Figueiredo, Carlos Adam Conte-Junior
Salmonella is one of the major causative agents of foodborne infections. Salmonellosis becomes more dangerous when strains resistant to several antibiotics are found in food, especially in chicken, one of the primary transmission vehicles of this pathogen for humans. The present study aimed to estimate the occurrence of Salmonella in chicken carcasses from the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, as well as determine the antibiotic resistance profile and genotypic characteristic of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates...
January 20, 2018: Poultry Science
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