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Poultry Science

Yao Zhang, Xiaolu Guan, Zhiwu Chen, Dingguo Cao, Zhaofeng Kang, Qiancheng Shen, Qiuxia Lei, Fuwei Li, Haiqin Li, Muhammad Farooque Leghari, Yongqiang Wang, Xiaole Qi, Xiaomei Wang, Yulong Gao
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a tumor-inducing virus that spreads among most chicken species, causing serious financial losses for the poultry industry. Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is a recombinant exogenous ALV, which shows more extensive host range in comparison with other subgroups, especially in Chinese local chickens. To identify the relationship between ALV-J host range and the polymorphism of its cellular receptors, we performed a wide range epidemiological investigation of current ALV-J infection in Chinese local chickens, and discovered that all the 18 local chicken breeds being investigated from main local chicken breeding provinces were ALV-J positive...
August 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Xing-He Wang, Wei Li, Xing-Hui Wang, Mei-Yu Han, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xiu-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Qi Sun, Xiao-Xu Cui
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is very harmful for broiler production and public health. The water-soluble castoff in gluten production, i.e., the water-soluble substances of wheat (WSW) that contains 14% pentosan has positive effect on animal nutrient absorption, immunity, and antioxidation. Our study aims to investigate the preventive effects of WSW against AFB1-induced broiler liver injury. One day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly separated to 4 groups and were, respectively, fed with control diet, diet with 5 mg/kg AFB1 standard, diet with 5 mg/kg AFB1 standard and 214 ml/kg WSW, and diet with 214 ml/kg WSW continuously for 28 d...
August 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Y Yu, Y H Zhang, Z Y Xu, T Y Liu, Q X Wang, C B Ou, J Y Ma
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that plays a modulatory role in the immune system. Studies have demonstrated that mammal ghrelin level is influenced by pathological status. However, it has not been reported whether chicken ghrelin level changes during pathogen infection. This study was designed to investigate changes of ghrelin levels in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and to explore the relationship between ghrelin changes and bursal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by IBDV...
August 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Mohamed F A Farghly, Khalid M Mahrose, Ross G Cooper, Z Ullah, Z Rehman, C Ding
Floor type management is an important factor in turkey production in hot climates exceeding 30°C. In this study, a total of 360 turkeys aged 4 wk were randomly distributed to investigate growth performance, carcass characteristics, certain health aspects (breast blisters score, footpad burns, hock discoloration, and plumage condition), and airborne conditions. Birds in the first group were raised on a littered floor (control; C), whereas birds in the other groups (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) were raised on cement, wire net, rubber mat, plastic and wooden slatted floors, respectively...
August 13, 2018: Poultry Science
D L M Campbell, E N de Haas, C Lee
Globally, laying hen production systems are a focus of concern for animal welfare. Recently, the impacts of rearing environments have attracted attention, particularly with the trend toward more complex production systems including aviaries, furnished cages, barn, and free-range. Enriching the rearing environments with physical, sensory, and stimulatory additions can optimize the bird's development but commercial-scale research is limited. In this review, "enrichment" is defined as anything additional added to the bird's environment including structurally complex rearing systems...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Kadir Onk, Hulya Yalcintan, Mehmet Sari, Serpil Adiguzel Isik, Akin Yakan, Bulent Ekiz
Study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype and sex on the technological properties and fatty acid composition of duck meat. Native (n = 15) and Peking (n = 15) ducks were slaughtered at 10 wk old, and meat samples were taken from M. pectoralis major (breast) and M. peroneus longus (thigh). The pH24, drip loss, expressed juice, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), color variables, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics were examined. Ultimate pH of breast meat in Peking ducks (6...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Luoyi Zhu, Ao Yang, Yang Mu, Niya Zhang, Lvhui Sun, Shahid Ali Rajput, Desheng Qi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary non-gossypol cottonseed oil (CSO) or cottonseed meal (CSM) and their interactions on the texture properties, structure, nutritional composition, and edible safety of egg yolk. A total of 162 24-wk-old Hy-line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated into 9 diet treatments with 6 replicates of 3 hens per cage. A 3 × 3 factorial design using corn soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 6, or 12% CSM and 0, 2, or 4% CSO in place of soybean meal and soybean oil, respectively, was utilized...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
A E Blanco, D Cavero, W Icken, M Voss, M Schmutz, R Preisinger, A R Sharifi
Selection to reduce susceptibility to Enterococcus faecalis infection in laying hens may contribute to the prevention of amyloid arthropathy since it is mainly induced by this bacterium. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility to select more laying hens that are resistant against E. faecalis infection through the embryo lethality assay (ELA), which is proposed as an alternative model to replace the adult avian challenge assay. Ten-day-old embryos of 500 Lohmann Brown layers were inoculated into the allantoic cavity with an infectious dose of 2...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Yiyang Wang, Zihao Wang, Yuanyuan Shan
Ovomucin is known to be critical for keeping the high quality and freshness of thick albumen, but there is lack of understanding on the dynamics changes of this important protein during storage. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ovomucin content and egg freshness during storage. Firstly, the viscoelasticity of albumen was shown to be much higher than that of ovomucin-depleted albumen from rheological analysis results, indicating that ovomucin is an important component in maintaining the natural viscoelasticity of albumen...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Jian Chen, Zijun Zhao, Yangyijun Chen, Jie Zhang, Lifu Yan, Xiaocui Zheng, Ming Liao, Weisheng Cao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
J W Kim, N Sanjayan, P Leterme, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of P in high-protein sunflower meal (HP-SFM) fed to broiler chickens based on bone traits and to determine the effects of dietary phytase supplementation and increasing levels of HP-SFM as a P source on bone traits, growth performance, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of DM and nutrients. In total, 240 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 10 experimental diets with 6 replicate cages of 4 birds each and fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21 of age...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
A Wolc, T Jankowski, J Arango, P Settar, J E Fulton, N P O'Sullivan, J C M Dekkers
Clutch traits were proposed as a more detailed description of egg-laying patterns than simple total egg production. In this study, egg production of 23,809 Rhode Island Red (RIR) and 22,210 White Leghorn (WL) hens was described in terms of number of clutches, average and maximum clutch size, age at first egg, total saleable egg production, and percentage of egg defects. Genetic parameters were estimated using a six-trait animal model. Of the phenotyped birds, 1433 RIR hens and 1515 WL hens were genotyped with line specific 50K Affymetrix Axiom single nucleotide polymorphism chips to perform genome-wide association analyses...
August 8, 2018: Poultry Science
S Serpunja, I H Kim
A total of 768 1-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens with an average body weight of 43.64 ± 0.59 g were used in a 5-wk feeding trial. The chickens were distributed into 4 treatments of 12 replications per treatment with 16 chickens per pen. Dietary treatments included the following: TRT1, basal diet; TRT2, -40 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier; TRT3, -60 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier; TRT4, -80 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier. The emulsifier contained 80% sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and 20% tween 20. In our study, the treatment diets had no significant effect on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, serum lipid profiles, and excreta microbiota...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Ying Xu, Yachen Hu, Yaxin Guo, Zihao Zhou, Dan Xiong, Chuang Meng, Qiuchun Li, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) and biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) are gram-negative bacteria, members of the most important infectious pathogens, and have caused common problems in the poultry industry, especially in the developing countries. O- and H-antigen specific anti-sera are commonly for slide and tube agglutination tests to identify Salmonella serovars. However, it is both labor intensive and time consuming, so there is an urgent need for a new technique for the rapid detection of the major Salmonella serovars...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
J L Peng, S P Bai, J P Wang, X M Ding, Q F Zeng, K Y Zhang
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of deficiency or high level addition of methionine (Met) in diet on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and hepatic lipid metabolism in broiler. A completely random design was used with 3 dietary treatments with the addition of Met from DL-methionine (DLM) at 0%, 0.22%, and 0.32% in a basal diet. The analyzed dietary Met was 0.271%, 0.485%, and 0.584% respectively for the Met-deficient, sufficient, and excessive diet. A total of 360 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to the treatments...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Elidiane Lorenzetti, Bruna Maria Saorin Puton, Ilizandra Aparecida Fernandes, Naimara Vieira do Prado, Rudson Frigotto, Silvane Souza Roman, Alexander Junges, Clarice Steffens, Jamile Zeni, Juliana Steffens, Geciane Toniazzo Backes, Rogério Luis Cansian, Eunice Valduga
This study aimed to evaluate the parameters that influence the water absorption and drip of chicken carcasses due to the processing and pre-cooling of the meat in an industrial chiller. A total of 1,179 chickens were sampled during industrial processing to evaluate the influence of variables, validate the parameters, and conduct histological analysis. The best parameters for guaranteeing absorption levels and drip tests within acceptable limits on chicken carcasses were total residence time of 60 min (in the pre-chiller, chiller 1, and chiller 2); air pressure of chillers at 0...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
T Ribeiro, V Cardoso, L M A Ferreira, M M S Lordelo, E Coelho, A S P Moreira, M R M Domingues, M A Coimbra, M R Bedford, C M G A Fontes
It is now well established that exogenous β-1,4-xylanases improve the nutritive value of wheat-based diets for poultry. Among other factors, the mechanism of action of exogenous enzymes may involve a microbial route resulting from the generation of prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) in the birds' gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. In a series of three experiments, the effect of XOS on the performance of broilers fed wheat or corn-based diets was investigated. In experiment 1, birds receiving diets supplemented with XOS displayed an increased weight gain (P = 0...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Shugang Li, Yang Huang, Fengping An, Qun Huang, Fang Geng, Meihu Ma
As the most abundant protein in chicken eggs, ovalbumin plays an important role in the processing of high value-added poultry products. The present study investigated the effects of hydroxyl radical-induced early stage oxidation on the physicochemical and interfacial properties of chicken egg white ovalbumin. Protein carbonyl content of ovalbumin increased (from 0.78 to 1.13 nmol/mg) with the oxidation time (0-5 h), while free sulfhydryl content (from 0.43 to 0.09 nmol/mg) and free amino group content (from 0...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Matthew L Livingston, C Landon, H J Barnes, J Brake
The effects of time-limited feeding, genetic background, and egg storage on white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB) in broilers were studied. Male chicks (240) from 2 genetic backgrounds and 2 egg storage periods were fed on either an ad libitum (AL) or time-limited (TL) program from 7 d of age. A rapid growth strain (Growth) and an enhanced yield strain (Yield) of broiler breeder males were mated to a single female line and eggs were stored for periods of either 1 to 7 d or 8 to 14 d. Body weight (BW), feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Ahmed Ali, Walid H Kilany, Mohamed A Zain El-Abideen, Magdy El Sayed, Magdy Elkady
Vaccination programs against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Egypt depend on both classical and/or imported variant IBV strain vaccines. However, many IBV outbreaks associated with respiratory distress, nephropathy, and high mortalities were attributed to the circulation of both classical and new nephropathogenic IBV variant 2 strains. In the present study, we report the development of attenuated IBV candidate vaccines using the classic IBV strains (IBM41 and IB2) and a nephropathogenic strain (IBvar2)...
August 6, 2018: Poultry Science
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