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Poultry Science

D M Lamot, D Sapkota, P J A Wijtten, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
The current study aimed to investigate whether diet density affects growth performance and nutrient digestion during the first wk after hatch and digestive organ weight at 7 d of age. Effects were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The dietary fat level was increased through soybean oil inclusion. Amino acids, minerals, and the premix were increased at the same ratio as dietary fat. Consequently, diets were kept neither isocaloric nor isonitrogenous...
December 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Nataliya Roth, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Sigrid Mayrhofer, Ulrike Zitz, Charles Hofacre, Konrad J Domig
The increase in antibiotic resistance is a global concern for human and animal health. Resistant microorganisms can spread between food-producing animals and humans. The objective of this review was to identify the type and amount of antibiotics used in poultry production and the level of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from broilers. Isolate information was obtained from national monitoring programs and research studies conducted in large poultry-producing regions: US, China, Brazil, and countries of EU-Poland, United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Spain...
December 13, 2018: Poultry Science
R Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, Z Lu, A Thanabalan, H Leung, M Mohammadigheisar, E Kiarie
There is limited information on the effects of enteric pathogen on bone quality in rapidly growing broiler chicks. We examined tibia and femur attributes (length, diameter, relative weight of ash content [AC] to the BW, ash concentration [AP]) and serum bone-turnover markers including receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) for resorption, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for mineralization, and selected serum metabolites in 14-day-old broilers challenged with Eimeria. A total of 160 (80 males and 80 females) 1-day-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were used...
December 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Shuai Cui, Yang Li, Yixin Wang, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
Contamination of avian attenuated vaccines by avian leukosis virus (ALV) is considered to be a specific horizontal transmission of ALV. Eradication of ALV contamination in vaccine virus seeds is thus a precondition of qualified vaccine production. In this study, we used the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor azidothymidine (AZT) together with monofactor antiserum against avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A) to remove ALV-A from vaccine virus seeds. Different doses of ALV-A were artificially added to the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine seeds, then the ALV-contaminated attenuated virus vaccine virus seeds were cultured in DF-1 cells...
December 13, 2018: Poultry Science
S Cerrate, J T Halley, A Corzo, B I Fancher
The effects of 3 dietary amino acid (AA) profiles during lay on reproductive performance of broiler breeders were investigated. A flock of 2,376 Ross 708 female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 3 treatments with 12 replicates of 66 females per replicate, and fed 2 breeder feed phases (breeder 1: 25 to 36 wk; breeder 2: 37 to 60 wk) which were formulated to 3 different AA densities (Aviagen advice = control; 10% increased AA in Aviagen advice = high-AA; and estimated AA needs for maintenance, growth, and egg mass = estimated-AA)...
December 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Chunyan Han, Xinxin Niu, Lanlan Liu, Jiukuan Li, Jing Li, Shuai Yao, Xiuqing Song, Honglei Gao, Yulong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Xiangwei Zeng, Yongqiang Wang, Xiaomei Wang
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) infection has been reported in various poultry industries worldwide. Since CAV infection is becoming increasingly prevalent, especially in local chickens of China, rapid CAV detection has become essential. The conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming and need special expertise. Therefore, in this study, we developed a specific and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for CAV detection by using multiple sequence alignment of VP2. This assay was performed at 61°C for 1 h, and there was no non-specific reaction to common avian disease viruses...
December 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Ondulla T Toomer, Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Lisa L Dean, Deborah L Boykin, Ramon Malheiros, Kenneth E Anderson
Previous studies have identified normal-oleic peanuts as a suitable and economical broiler feed ingredient. However, no studies to date have examined the use of high-oleic (HO) peanut cultivars as a feed ingredient for laying hens and determined the impact of feeding HO peanuts on performance and egg nutritive qualities. This project aimed to examine the use of HO peanuts as a feed ingredient for layer hens to determine the effect on performance, egg lipid chemistry, and quality of the eggs produced. Forty-eight 40-wk-old layer hens were fed a conventional soybean meal + corn control diet or a HO peanut + corn diet for 10 wk in conventional battery cages...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
P von Schaumburg, P Utterback, C M Parsons
Three slope-ratio precision-fed rooster assays were conducted wherein roosters were precision-fed 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% (levels varied among experiments) refined soy oil, refined corn oil (RCO), poultry fat, crude soy oil, crude corn oil, palm oil, vegetable blend acid oil 1 and 2, soy acid oil, tallow, or choice white grease as part of a ground corn diet. Multiple regression slope-ratio analysis of nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy regressed on dietary fat level was used to estimate relative metabolizable energy (RME) values...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Richard K Gast, Prafulla Regmi, Rupa Guraya, Deana R Jones, Kenneth E Anderson, Darrin M Karcher
The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial egg-laying flocks is a prominent public health concern because contaminated eggs cause human illness. Deposition of this pathogen inside eggs results from bacterial colonization of reproductive tissues in infected hens. Environmental conditions can influence avian Salmonella infections, but the food safety consequences of different poultry housing systems remain uncertain. The present study assessed the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in groups of experimentally infected laying hens of four commercial genetic lines (designated as white egg lines W1 and W2 and brown egg lines B1 and B2)...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Kristen J Navara, Elizabeth R Wrobel
Laying hens have been selected over generations for maximal reproductive efficiency. As a result, the incidences of abnormal eggs and abnormal laying patterns are relatively low for these strains. While double ovulations, resulting in the production of double-yolked eggs, does occur on occasion in young birds just entering reproductive maturity, these double ovulations almost never result in 2 fully formed eggs, and are rare in hens that have reached peak reproductive productivity. However, there appears to be an increasing number of anecdotal accounts of backyard hens that lay more than 1 egg per day (hereafter called double oviposition)...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Jofran L Oliveira, Hongwei Xin, Lilong Chai, Suzanne T Millman
With different cage-free (CF) housing styles and management schemes, retailers have developed their own CF criteria. One highly debated aspect is if hens may be kept inside the system for part of the day-during the first few hours after lights-on. Research is lacking regarding the impacts of such a practice on hen welfare, incidence of eggs laid on the litter floor, litter condition, and air quality. This 14-mo field study was conducted to help assess such impacts. Hens (Dekalb White) in an aviary house (50,000-hen nominal capacity) were allowed to have full litter access (FLA) vs...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Leon J Broom, Michael H Kogut
Coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis (NE) are among the most significant diseases affecting the poultry industry. These diseases have become more prominent in the wake of policies to reduce the use of antibiotics in animal production. This has led to more research focused on better understanding the immune system and its responses to pathogen challenge, and thus developing informed strategies to exploit immune responses that can support enhanced disease resistance and growth performance. Some chicken breeds and lines show greater resistance or susceptibility to various diseases, and thus these birds maybe able to shed light on immune processes or pathways that contribute to the more resistant/susceptible state...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
S C Lindblom, N K Gabler, E A Bobeck, B J Kerr
The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of oil source and peroxidation status on broiler performance and oxidative stress. Broilers (initial BW 85.1 ± 7.8 g) were allotted to 40 cages with 5 birds per cage in a completely randomized design. The 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments consisted of oil source (palm oil, soybean oil, flaxseed oil, and fish oil) and peroxidation status (fresh or peroxidized). Broilers were fed experimental diets for 20 d to measure growth performance; on day 21 of the experiment, plasma and liver samples were harvested for analysis of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8- OH-2dG), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx) and superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT)...
December 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Hye Young Jeon, Kwang Won Seo, Yeong Bin Kim, Dong Kyu Kim, Shin Woo Kim, Young Ju Lee
Integrated broiler operations, which control and operate vertically through all phases of the chicken industry, have applied biosecurity and sanitation practices, housing technologies, feeding regimens, and antibiotic applications in different ways to improve food safety. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates recovered from 6 different integrated broiler operations and to analyze the characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC)-producing Salmonella isolates...
December 7, 2018: Poultry Science
S Allais, C Hennequet-Antier, C Berri, L Salles, O Demeure, E Le Bihan-Duval
Slow-growing chicken lines are valuable genetic resources for the development of well-perceived alternative free-range production. While there is no constraint on increasing growth rate, breeding programs have to evolve in order to include new traits improving the positioning of such lines in the growing market for parts and processed products. In this study, we used dense genotyping to fine map QTL for chicken growth, body composition, and meat quality traits in view of developing new tools for selection of a slow-growing line...
December 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Ariane Gonçalves Gotuzzo, Miriam Piles, Raquel Pillon Della-Flora, Jerusa Martins Germano, Janaina Scaglioni Reis, Darilene Ursula Tyska, Nelson José Laurino Dionello
This study aimed to compare different nonlinear functions to describe the growth curve of European quails and to estimate growth curve parameters, (co)variance components, and genetic and systematic effects that affected the curve using a hierarchical Bayesian model that allows joint estimation. Three different models were fitted in the first stage (Gompertz, Logístic, and von Bertalanffy). The analyzed data set had 45,965 records of 6,838 meat quails selected for higher body weight at 42 d of age for 15 successive generations, weighed at birth, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age...
December 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Shawna L Weimer, Robert F Wideman, Colin G Scanes, Andy Mauromoustakos, Karen D Christensen, Yvonne Vizzier-Thaxton
Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is a leading cause of lameness in broilers. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a noninvasive technique for measuring infrared radiation from an object and can be used to evaluate clinical health. Two replicated studies compared the effect of light intensity on broilers grown on a wire flooring model that experimentally increased their susceptibility to and incidence of BCO lameness. Day-of-hatch male broiler chickens were placed into 6 pens on wood shavings litter, and at 1 wk one of 3 light intensity treatments (2, 5, or 10 lux) was allotted...
December 3, 2018: Poultry Science
H Spangler, P Utterback, C M Parsons, P Tillman
A laying hen trial was conducted from 22 to 47 wk of age to determine the digestible lysine (DLYS) requirement of laying hens by using an increasing CP titration method. A total of 896 Lohmann LSL-Lite caged layers (22 wk of age) were allotted to 8 dietary treatments and each treatment had 8 replications of 14 hens. The first 7 experimental diets initially contained DLYS levels increasing from 0.565 to 0.980% with respective protein levels increasing from 13.8 to 21.7%. Dietary treatment 8 was a control diet which was calculated to contain 18...
December 3, 2018: Poultry Science
Monika Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Lori L Schreier, Katarzyna B Miska, Roselina Angel, Stanislaw Kahl, Beverly Russell
Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are essential minerals involved in many biological processes including bone development and mineralization. Plasma concentration of both minerals is tightly regulated, and Ca and P homeostasis is maintained via intestinal absorption, bone storage and exchange, and renal reabsorption. In the current broiler production systems, chicks are deprived of food and water for up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation time to farms. Post-hatch (PH) feed delay results in lower body and organ weight, higher feed conversion ratio and mortality, and delayed PH growth and GIT development...
December 3, 2018: Poultry Science
Rong Xiang, Anyun Zhang, Changwei Lei, Linghan Kong, Xiaolan Ye, Xiuzhong Zhang, Jinxin Zeng, Hong-Ning Wang
Manure belt poultry houses were widely used for egg production. However, reliable spatial distribution of airborne bacteria data from long-term on-farm monitoring in manure belt houses are scarce. In this study, the airborne bacteria were collected by the Andersen air microorganism sampler in a 4 tiers and an 8 tiers layer house, respectively. Results revealed that the airborne bacteria concentration range from 565 ± 247 CFU/m3 to 12,118 ± 883 CFU/m3 inside the 4 tiers poultry farmhouse and 459 ± 247 to 12,966 ± 884 CFU/m3 inside 8 tiers poultry farmhouse, respectively...
November 30, 2018: Poultry Science
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