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Poultry Science

M Slowinska, A Hejmej, J Bukowska, E Liszewska, B Bilinska, P Hliwa, K Kozlowski, J Jankowski, A Ciereszko
Yellow semen syndrome (YSS) is the most widely recognized problem among male turkeys. Yellow semen is of low quality and, when used for insemination, results in reduction of fertility and hatchability. Elevated level of serum albumin-like protein accession no. XP_003205725 is a characteristic feature of yellow seminal plasma suggesting albumin role in YSS pathology. However, knowledge regarding the expression of albumin in the reproductive tract in relation to YSS is very limited. The aim of this study was to identify albumin secretion and localization sites in the turkey reproductive tract in relation to YSS...
October 10, 2018: Poultry Science
H A Olanrewaju, J L Purswell, S D Collier, S L Branton
Replacing outdated incandescent light sources provides the opportunity to modify lighting systems according to the needs of different species and according to their spectral sensitivity. Providing a lighting environment geared towards poultry vision may improve bird welfare and blood physiological homeostasis. The influence of two LED light sources (red-supplemented vs. un-supplemented) adjusted to either human spectral sensitivity (lux) or poultry spectral sensitivity (CLUX) was investigated on selected blood physiological variables of male broilers...
October 10, 2018: Poultry Science
R Rodriguez-Sanchez, A Tres, R Sala, F Guardiola, A C Barroeta
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the dietary fat saturation degree and age on the lipid class (TAG, DAG, MAG, and FFA) composition and fatty acid digestibility along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and excreta in broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 2 dietary treatments (6 cages/treatment), which resulted from the supplementation of a basal diet with 6% of soybean oil or palm oil. Two digestibility balances were carried out at 14 and 35 d and fatty acid digestibility and lipid class composition were determined in the gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and excreta...
October 10, 2018: Poultry Science
Zafar Iqbal, Florian Metzger, Mini Singh, Natalie Morgan, Robert A Swick, Rider A Perez-Maldonado, Shawkat A M'Sadeq, Jürgen Zentek, Isabelle Ruhnke
Pasture intake can be a major challenge for free-ranging hens. This study was conducted to examine pasture digestion and to manage its negative effects. A total of 300 ISA Brown laying hens were used to investigate the effect of time on range (T) in short-term (6 wk) and long-term (12 wk) of 2 range types (R) (gravel vs. pasture) and dietary supplements (F) (T1 = xylanase; T2 = xylanase/beta-glucanase/pectinase/protease; T3 = xylanase/benzoic acid/essential oils) on crude protein, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), calcium and phosphorus digestibility, pH of the crop, and ileum digesta viscosity and morphology...
October 10, 2018: Poultry Science
L L Li, Y J Gong, H Q Zhan, Y X Zheng, X T Zou
This study was to determine the effects of dietary Zn-methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on the laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant capacity, and serum parameters of laying hens. Jingh ong-1 strain laying hens (n = 720, 49 wk of age) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 6 replications of 20 birds. The control was fed a basal diet supplemented with 80 mg of Zn/kg as Zn sulphate of diet and the 5 groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg of Zn/kg as Zn-Met of diet for 10 wk, respectively...
October 8, 2018: Poultry Science
A E Taha, A S El-Tahawy, M E Abd El-Hack, A A Swelum, I M Saadeldin
The effect of storage period on hatching and post-hatching performance of two quail breeds (brown Japanese quail (BJQ) and French white quail (FWQ)) was investigated using 940 eggs from each breed. Eggs were divided into four equal groups (235 eggs each), in each group. A total number of 210 eggs were used for incubation (with three replicates, 70 eggs each) and additional 25 eggs served as samples for egg quality parameters, each group was kept for special storage period. The first group was incubated on the same day of collection (zero day storage)...
October 8, 2018: Poultry Science
H Fukasawa, H Hashimoto, K Hiramoto, M Sugiyama, K Taniguchi, K Yoshioka
Small hepatocytes have hepatocyte-like characteristics and high proliferation activity. Most small hepatocyte studies report on in vitro rat or human hepatocytes. Only a few studies of small hepatocytes after bile duct ligation have been reported, and none of these have focused on these cells in birds. In this study, small hepatocytes appearing in bile duct ligation chicken liver were examined using the morphological method with histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies. Nine Boris Brown hens (over 744-d old) were used...
October 8, 2018: Poultry Science
M L Livingston, P R Ferket, J Brake, K A Livingston
The occurrence of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) of broiler breast myopathies may be associated with least-cost feed formulations and the inclusion of greater amounts of synthetic amino acids. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental glutamine (Gln-/+, 0 and 1%) and arginine (Arg-/+, 0 and 0.25%) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Experiment 1 consisted of 8 replicates using 32 pens and focused on live performance to 44 d of age, carcass yield, and meat quality evaluations at 45 d of age...
October 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Maurice Pitesky, Alison Thorngren, Deb Niemeier
As commercial free-range and pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a greater need to understand basic husbandry practices including feeding and lighting practices. Because husbandry practices vary greatly between individual commercial pastured poultry and free-range operations, gaining knowledge across a wide cross-section of producers is necessary to better understand current practices. Specifically, because feed is considered the most expensive part of poultry production with respect to operating cost, in collaboration with the American Pastured Poultry Producers Association, an on-line survey of commercial free-range and pastured poultry producers was conducted aimed primarily at evaluating feeding and lighting practices...
October 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Íris B S Araújo, Darlinne A S Lima, Sérgio F Pereira, Marta S Madruga
The present study aimed to replace the fat in cooked chicken sausages with commercial hydrolyzed collagen powder and chicken feet gelatin and to assess the qualities underlying physicochemical and sensory parameters. Three sausages were prepared: SS (15% fat), SC (7.5% fat and 7.5% hydrolyzed collagen powder), and SG (7.5% fat and 7.5% chicken feet collagen). The reduction of fat increased the values of a*, b*, and Hue. With regard to emulsion stability, SG had the closest value (95.86%) to the standard (SS) value and was more stable than the SC sausage (87...
October 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Dazhi Tang, Jianmin Wu, Hongchao Jiao, Xiaojuan Wang, Jingpeng Zhao, Hai Lin
The gastrointestinal tract is the site for the uptake of nutrients from the external environment. We hypothesized that the antioxidant system in the intestinal tract has a vital protective role from the oxidative damage induced by oxidants in foods. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of the antioxidant system in the intestine of chickens. The activity and gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the content of the non-enzymatic substance glutathione (GSH) were measured in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of chickens at 1, 3, 7, 11, 14, 21, 35, and 42 d of age...
October 5, 2018: Poultry Science
A J Cowieson, M Toghyani, S K Kheravii, S-B Wu, L F Romero, M Choct
A total of 90 male Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in a digestibility and performance bioassay to explore the effect of reduction in dietary protein and digestible amino acids and inclusion of an exogenous mono-component protease on amino acid digestibility, net energy, jejunal gene expression, and bird performance. Four dietary treatments were created by the supplementation, or not, of 2 control diets with a mono-component exogenous protease. The control diets were corn/wheat/soybean meal-based and were formulated to be either nutritionally adequate or reduced in protein and amino acids (around 3%)...
October 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Mohamed F A Farghly, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Islam M Saadeldin, Ayman A Swelum
We studied the effect of feed withdrawal and cold water on the growth performance and health status of 180 Muscovy ducklings (28 days old) during the summer season. The experiment used a 3 × 2 factorial design consisting of 3 and 2 feeding and water systems, respectively. The birds were divided into 6 experimental groups of 30 birds each (10/replicate). The 3 feeding systems were ad libitum, full-feeding (AD); afternoon, feed withdrawn from 8 am to 2 pm daily (AF); and diurnal, feed withdrawn from 2 pm to 8 am daily (DI)...
October 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Mohammad Naghizadeh, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Shaban Rahimi, Tina Sørensen Dalgaard
Infections associated with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause severe economic losses to the poultry industry. The study presented herein investigated the in vivo performance of a single phage with prolonged in vivo and in vitro survivability alone or in combination with 3 other selected phages in treating colibacillosis in quails. Japanese quails (N = 360) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups with 4 replicate pens. Birds from the control groups (groups I, II, and III) were treated with 200 μL sterile PBS (pH 7...
October 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Tae-Kyung Kim, Jae-Yun Shim, Ko-Eun Hwang, Young-Boong Kim, Jung-Min Sung, Hyun-Dong Paik, Yun-Sang Choi
We investigated the quality of duck ham restructured with various hydrocolloids (Alginic acid, Konjac, Carrageenan) on proximate composition, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis (TPA), protein solubility, sensory characteristics, and apparent viscosity. Restructured duck ham was prepared as follows: control with no hydrocolloids, T1 (Alginate 1%), T2 (Alginate 0.5% + Konjac 0.5%), T3 (Alginate 0.7% + Konjac 0.3%), T4 (Alginate 0.5% + Carrageenan 0.5%), and T5 (Alginate 0.7% + Carrageenan 0...
October 5, 2018: Poultry Science
L Zhang, F Zhao, H Zhang, G Z Bian, Y M Wang, X Yang, H Li
Two experiments were conducted to validate a method to prepare simulated small intestinal fluid (SSIF) for in vitro digestion in ducks. Experiment 1 compared the in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) of SSIF to endogenous small intestinal fluid (ESIF) on four feeds. The ESIF 1 or 2 obtained from two groups of jejunal cannulated ducks offered diet 1 (3,050 kcal/kg of ME and 19.95% of CP) or 2 (2,801 kcal/kg of ME and 14.90% of CP) was purified into raw enzyme power (REP) 1 or 2. SSIF 1 to 3 or 4 to 6 were prepared to mimic ESIF 1 or 2, respectively...
October 4, 2018: Poultry Science
E D Peebles, T S Cummings, T M Barbosa, F D Wilson, C J Williams, P D Gerard
Villus to crypt ratio (VCR) is used to quantify the microanatomical response of the intestine to various treatments. In early age chickens, comparative effects of the in ovo (i.o.) and s.c. methods of administration (moa) of the Marek's disease (MD) vaccine on 2 types of measurement of small intestinal VCR at 0 and 4 h post-hatch (poh) were investigated. The effects of moa and 4 and 18 h pre-placement holding times (pht) on the VCR measurements at 168 h (7 d) poh were also investigated. In the jejunum of the small intestine, a standard method for VCR determination, based on 10 villus and crypt length measurements, was utilized for the calculation of villus to crypt length ratio (VCLR)...
October 4, 2018: Poultry Science
B He, C Bortoluzzi, W D King, D Graugnard, K A Dawson, T J Applegate
The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) source on gene expression of Zn transporters (metallothionein [MT], ZIP 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, and 14, and ZnT 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10) in the jejunum and cecal tonsils of broilers challenged with coccidia or coccidia plus Clostridium perfringens. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with 2 Zn sources (90 mg Zn/kg from either ZnSO4 or an organic Zn, Bioplex® Zn) and challenged with approximately 5,000 oocysts of Eimeria maxima at 14 d of age with or without C...
October 4, 2018: Poultry Science
Milad Manafi, Mehdi Hedayati, Nasrollah Pirany, Omede Apeh Akwu
Antibiotic growth promoters have been widely used in poultry to improve overall performance. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in sanctions imposed on the use of antibiotics in poultry diets, and alternatives such as herbal extracts are being considered to improve growth performance. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and feed digestibility of the feed supplement Novacid, which contains organic acids, glucomannan, and phytochemicals, with that of the antibiotic growth promoter bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in commercial broiler chickens...
October 4, 2018: Poultry Science
Itallo C S Araújo, Marcos B Café, Raiana A Noleto, Julyana M S Martins, Cirano J Ulhoa, Gabriela C Guareshi, Matheus M Reis, Nadja S M Leandro
The objective of the present study was to ascertain the effect of in ovo feeding of vitamin E (VE) on the incubation results, quality, and oxidative state of newborn chicks and on the initial performance results. The design consisted of randomized blocks with treatments at different levels of VE (0.0, 27.5, 38.5, 49.5, and 60.4 IU). On 17.5 d of embryonic development, 780 eggs underwent in ovo injection using a manual needle. VE supplementation of 60.4 IU provided the highest hatching rate (P < 0.05) and shortest hatch window (P < 0...
October 4, 2018: Poultry Science
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