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Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093481/phylogenetic-and-pathogenic-analysis-of-mycoplasma-synoviae-isolated-from-native-chicken-breeds-in-china
#1
Shikai Sun, Xin Lin, Junmei Liu, Zhongqiang Tian, Feng Chen, Yongchang Cao, Jianping Qin, Tingrong Luo
Mycoplasma synoviae (M. synoviae) infection leads to serious economic losses in the world every year. Between 2013 and 2014, the infectious synovitis, caused by M. synoviae infection, occurred in native chickens in China and resulted in the loss of millions of chickens in Chinese poultry farms. However, there has been no data about phylogenetic and pathogenic analysis of Chinese M. synoviae isolates. In this study, a total of 110 M. synoviae strains were isolated from M. synoviae infected chickens. The isolates identified in the present study were classified into a new distinct subgroup based on analysis of the 5'-end vlhA sequences, tentatively termed the K group...
January 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053196/goose-embryonic-development-from-oviposition-through-16-hours-of-incubation
#2
E Łukaszewicz, M Lasoń, J Rosenberger, A Kowalczyk, M Bakst
Normal tables provide an objective step-wise description of the morphological development of an embryo. Such tables have been described for the chicken, turkey, quail, and duck embryos, but there is no such staging table for goose embryos. As the goose has one of the longest incubation periods of all the poultry species and embryo mortality during incubation is relatively high, a normal table of goose embryo development would be useful in assessing the morpho-genetic status of the goose embryo before and during incubation...
January 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008131/increased-copy-number-of-socs2-gene-in-chinese-gamecocks
#3
H Bi, G Yi, N Yang
As a member of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, the SOCS2 gene has been associated with negative regulation of the inflammatory immune response and a positive effect on growth when it is overexpressed. In our previous study, using next-generation sequencing, it was found that the Luxi Game (LX, a Chinese indigenous gamecock) had an increased copy number (CN) of the SOCS2 gene. To verify the copy number increase of the SOCS2 gene in gamecocks, we quantified the copy number value in 8 chicken breeds by quantitative PCR...
December 22, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008130/effects-of-dietary-methionine-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-oxidative-status-of-breast-muscle-in-fast-and-slow-growing-broilers
#4
C Wen, X Y Jiang, L R Ding, T Wang, Y M Zhou
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary methionine (Met) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and oxidative status of breast muscle in fast- (Arbor Acres, AA) and slow- (Partridge Shank, PS) growing broilers from 1 to 42 d of age. The broilers were divided into a 2 × 3 factorial design with 6 replicates per treatment. Diets were formulated to contain low (LM, 0.35 and 0.31% during 1 to 21 and 22 to 42 d), adequate (AM, 0.50 and 0.44%) and high (HM, 0.65 and 0.57%) Met, respectively...
December 22, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008129/nesting-behavior-of-hy-line-hens-in-modified-enriched-colony-cages
#5
Michelle E Hunniford, Caitlin Woolcott, Janice Siegford, Tina M Widowski
Hens are motivated to seek out an enclosed nest site, but it is unclear whether the single communal nest in enriched colony cages (EC) adequately supports nesting. One method to investigate this is to provide an "alternative nest site" and determine the effects on laying location, timing of oviposition, and pre-laying behavior. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether increasing the degree of enclosure in the scratch area would influence egg laying location, time of oviposition, and pre-laying behavior...
December 22, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965410/associations-among-gait-score-production-data-abattoir-registrations-and-postmortem-tibia-measurements-in-broiler-chickens
#6
K E Kittelsen, B David, R O Moe, H D Poulsen, J F Young, E G Granquist
Lameness and impaired walking ability in rapidly growing meat-type broiler chickens are major welfare issues that cause economic losses. This study analyzed the prevalence of impaired walking and its associations with production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements in Norwegian broiler chickens. Gait score (GS) was used to assess walking ability in 59 different commercial broiler flocks (Ross 308) close to the slaughter d, 5,900 broilers in total, in 3 different geographical regions...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965409/variability-in-amino-acid-digestibility-and-metabolizable-energy-of-corn-studied-in-cecectomized-laying-hens
#7
T Zuber, M Rodehutscord
To optimize the use of corn grain in diets for laying hens, differences in amino acid (AA) digestibility and metabolizable energy among different corn samples should be considered in feed formulation. The present study investigated the variability of AA digestibility and AMEn concentration of 20 corn samples in cecectomized laying hens. Corn grains were characterized based on their physical properties (thousand seed weight, test weight, grain density, and extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, AA, minerals, and inositol phosphates), gross energy concentration, and in vitro solubility of nitrogen to study any relationship with AA digestibility or AMEn The animal study comprised 4 Latin squares (6 × 6) distributed between 2 subsequent runs...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965408/prenatal-betaine-exposure-modulates-hypothalamic-expression-of-cholesterol-metabolic-genes-in-cockerels-through-modifications-of-dna-methylation
#8
Abdulrahman A Idriss, Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Longfei Jia, Yimin Jia, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Ruqian Zhao
Cholesterol is essential for neuronal development and brain function. Previously we reported that in ovo administration of betaine modulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in the chicken, yet it remains unknown whether maternal betaine affects the cholesterol content and the expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in chicken hypothalamus. In this study, eggs were injected with saline or betaine at 2.5 mg/egg, and the hatchlings were raised under the same condition until 64 d of age. Maternal betaine significantly (P = 0...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965407/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-dextrin-iodinated-casein-in-broilers-ii-hatch-window-and-growth-performance
#9
S Abousaad, K Lassiter, A Piekarski, P Chary, K Striplin, K Christensen, L R Bielke, B M Hargis, S Dridi, W G Bottje
Studies were conducted using a commercial Inovoject(TM) system to determine effects of in ovo feeding of dextrin and iodinated casein (IC) on hatch and posthatch growth in broilers. At ∼18.5 d embryonic development, eggs were treated with 0, 240, or 480 μg IC/mL in saline (Cont, IC240, and IC480) or dextrin (Dext, DextIC240 and DextIC480). The Dext solution consisted of 18% maltodextrin and 10% potato starch dextrin; saline was the vehicle used by the company for in ovo vaccination. The volume for all in ovo treatments was 50 μL/injection...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965406/effects-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-dextrin-iodinated-casein-in-broilers-i-hatch-weights-and-early-growth-performance
#10
S Abousaad, K Lassiter, A Piekarski, P Chary, K Striplin, K Christensen, L R Bielke, B M Hargis, S Dridi, W G Bottje
This study was conducted to determine the effect of in ovo feeding of dextrin (Dext) and iodinated casein (IC) on hatch and early growth in broilers. Three experiments were conducted at a commercial hatchery using a commercial Inovoject™ system with treatments occurring in conjunction with vaccination at transfer from incubator to hatcher units (18.5 to 19 d embryonic development). In all 3 experiments, approximately 15,000 eggs (2,500 eggs per group) were treated and transferred to a single hatcher unit...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965405/critical-limits-for-the-control-points-for-halal-poultry-slaughter
#11
Intan Azura Shahdan, Joe Mac Regenstein, Mohammad Tariqur Rahman
This study proposes critical limits (CL) for control points for halal slaughter (CPHS). Previously, 6 control points (CP) were determined, and CL for these 6 CPHS are suggested based on: 1) a literature survey for the CL for CP 1 (poultry breeding, rearing, and poultry feed) and CP 2 (welfare of poultry during transportation and lairage); 2) a field survey of slaughter plants in Kuantan (Malaysia) for CP 3 (immobilization), CP 4 (slaughter), CP 5 (time for full bleed-out), and CP 6 (washing and packaging); and 3) controlled experiments to refine the CL for CP 3, 4, and 5...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965404/targeted-genome-editing-in-a-quail-cell-line-using-a-customized-crispr-cas9-system
#12
Jinsoo Ahn, Joonbum Lee, Ju Yeon Park, Keon Bong Oh, Seongsoo Hwang, Chang-Won Lee, Kichoon Lee
Soon after RNA-guided Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) endonuclease opened a new era of targeted genome editing, the CRISPR/Cas9 platform began to be extensively used to modify genes in various types of cells and organisms. However, successful CRISPR/Cas9-mediated insertion/deletion (indel) mutation remains to be demonstrated in avian cell lines. The objective of this study was to design a poultry-specific CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficiently introduce targeted deletion mutation in chromosomes of the quail muscle clone 7 (QM7) cell line using a customized quail CRISPR vector...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920198/effects-of-breeder-age-strain-and-eggshell-temperature-on-nutrient-metabolism-of-broiler-embryos
#13
A Nangsuay, R Meijerhof, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
Breeder age and broiler strain influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen through yolk size and eggshell conductance, and the effects of these egg characteristics on nutrient metabolism might be influenced by eggshell temperature (EST). This study aims to determine effects of breeder age, strain, and EST on nutrient metabolism of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using four batches of in total 4,464 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920197/supplementation-of-fine-and-coarse-limestone-in-different-ratios-in-a-split-feeding-system-effects-on-performance-egg-quality-and-bone-strength-in-old-laying-hens
#14
A Molnár, L Maertens, B Ampe, J Buyse, J Zoons, E Delezie
Different ratios of fine- (FL) and coarse limestone (CL) were compared (50FL:50CL, 30FL:70CL, 0FL:100CL) in conventional (C) and split feeding (S) for their effects on performance, egg quality traits, and bone quality of old, brown laying hens (72 to 83 wk). Each treatment consisted of 42 hens (7 hens × 6 replicates). In the C system diets supplemented with limestone were provided during the whole day, whereas in the S system a morning diet was fed without added limestone, and only the afternoon diet was supplemented with different limestone ratios...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920196/regulation-of-turkey-myogenic-satellite-cell-migration-by-micrornas-mir-128-and-mir-24
#15
S G Velleman, R L Harding
Myogenic satellite cells are an adult stem cell responsible for all post-hatch muscle growth in poultry. As a stem cell population, satellite cells are highly heterogeneous, but the origin of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Heterogeneity is, in part, regulated by gene expression. One method of endogenous gene regulation that may contribute to heterogeneity is microRNAs (miRNAs). Two miRNAs previously shown to regulate poultry myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, miR-128 and miR-24, were studied to determine if they also affected satellite cell migration...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920195/efficacy-of-1-3-diacylglycerol-as-a-fat-emulsifier-in-low-density-diet-for-broilers
#16
S D Upadhaya, J W Park, J H Park, I H Kim
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of 1,3-diacylglycerol (DAG) as an emulsifier in a low-density diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old male 308 Ross broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 5 treatments: Control, fed a basal diet (CON), basal diet minus 100 kcal ME diet (LE), T1 (LE + 0.075% 1,3-DAG), T2 (LE + 0.10% 1,3-DAG), and T3 (LE + 0.15% 1,3-DAG)...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920194/experimental-validation-of-the-avivet-trap-a-tool-to-quantitatively-monitor-the-dynamics-of-dermanyssus-gallinae-populations-in-laying-hens
#17
G A Lammers, R G G Bronneberg, J C M Vernooij, J A Stegeman
Dermanyssus gallinae (D.gallinae) infestation causes economic losses due to impaired health and production of hens and costs of parasite control across the world. Moreover, infestations are associated with reduced welfare of hens and may cause itching in humans. To effectively implement control methods it is crucially important to have high quality information about the D.gallinae populations in poultry houses in space and time. At present no validated tool is available to quantitatively monitor the dynamics of all four stages of D...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920193/light-intensity-of-5-or-20%C3%A2-lux-on-broiler-behavior-welfare-and-productivity
#18
Jean-Loup Rault, Katie Clark, Peter J Groves, Greg M Cronin
Light intensity can influence broiler behavior, but discrepancies in the scientific literature remain. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the welfare implications induced by varying light intensity. We investigated the effects of providing 5 or 20 lux light intensity on broiler behavior, welfare and productivity. A total of 1,872 Ross 308 broilers of mixed sex were studied across 2 replicates. Treatments began on d 8 with one of 2 light intensity levels: 5 lux or 20 lux, using LED lights on a 16L:8D photoperiod with 30 min sunrise and sunset periods...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920192/results-of-an-international-phosphorus-digestibility-ring-test-with-broiler-chickens
#19
M Rodehutscord, O Adeola, R Angel, P Bikker, E Delezie, W A Dozier, M Umar Faruk, M Francesch, C Kwakernaak, A Narcy, C M Nyachoti, O A Olukosi, A Preynat, B Renouf, A Saiz Del Barrio, K Schedle, W Siegert, S Steenfeldt, M M van Krimpen, S M Waititu, M Witzig
The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different inclusion levels of SBM were mixed in a feed mill specialized in experimental diets and transported to 17 collaborating stations. Broiler chicks were raised on commercial starter diets according to station-specific management routine...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920191/effect-of-in-ovo-injection-of-raffinose-on-growth-performance-and-gut-health-parameters-of-broiler-chicken
#20
J D Berrocoso, R Kida, A K Singh, Y S Kim, R Jha
The effects of in ovo injection of raffinose (RFO) as a prebiotic on growth performance, relative weight of proventriculus, gizzard, drumstick and breast muscles, and ileum mucosa morphology were examined in Cobb 500 broilers. A total of 240 fertilized eggs were divided into 4 groups: a non-injected with intact shell and 3 levels of RFO solution (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mg in 0.2 mL of an aqueous diluents). The RFO solution was injected into the air sac on d 12 of incubation. In total 144 birds were fed a standard diet and management and sacrificed at d 21 post hatch for collection of samples...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
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