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Poultry Science

J S Garcia, J A Byrd, E A Wong
Campylobacter is a bacterium that colonizes the lower gastrointestinal tract of poultry and may influence the intestinal environment to promote its survival. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of Campylobacter challenge on the mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters and host defense peptides (HDP), such as the avian β-defensins (AvBD) and liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2). On the day of hatch, broiler chicks were challenged with one of three (106, 107, 108 colony-forming units, cfu) levels of Campylobacter jejuni...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Gavin Boerboom, Theo van Kempen, Alberto Navarro-Villa, Adriano Pérez-Bonilla
White striping (WS) is a major problem affecting the broiler industry. Fillets affected by this myopathy present pathologies that compromise the quality of the meat, and most importantly, make the fillets more prone to rejection by the consumer. The exact etiology is still unknown, which is why a metabolomics analysis was performed on breast samples of broilers. The overall objective was to identify biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of WS. The analysis was performed on a total of 51 muscle samples and distinction was made between normal (n = 19), moderately affected (n = 24) and severely affected (n = 8) breast fillets...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
C Xu, H Ye, W Qiu, H Lin, Y Chen, H Zhang, M Liao
H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) was the highly contagious pathogen which has caused severe losses in the poultry industry throughout China in recent years. Using current epidemic viruses as vaccine was an effective way to prevent infection of H9N2 subtype AIV. In this study, a total of 23 H9N2 subtype AIV strains were isolated in 200 samples from 13 provinces of China during 2012-2016. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene sequence of the isolation strains showed that 22 isolation strains were clustered to h9...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Z Yang, H M Yang, D Q Gong, S P Rose, V Pirgozliev, X S Chen, Z Y Wang
Dietary methionine (Met) restriction produces a coordinated series of transcriptional responses in the liver that limits growth performance and amino acid metabolism. Methyl donor supplementation with betaine (Bet) may protect against this disturbance and affect the molecular basis of gene regulation. However, a lack of genetic information remains an obstacle to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between Met and Bet supplementation and its effects on genetic mechanisms. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of dietary supplementation of Met and Bet on growth performance, transcriptomic gene expression, and epigenetic mechanisms in geese on a Met-deficient diet...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
K Damaziak, A Marzec, J Riedel, J Szeliga, E Koczywas, F Cisneros, M Michalczuk, M Lukasiewicz, D Gozdowski, A Siennicka, H Kowalska, J Niemiec, A Lenart
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of canthaxanthin (CX) and iodine (I) on the production of laying hens, on counteracting debilitation of the vitelline membrane, and on inhibiting Salmonella growth in eggs stored at 30°C. Three hundred hens were reared in cages. Birds were divided into six feeding groups (10 hens × 5 repetitions) that were administered 0, 3 or 6 ppm of CX and 1 or 10 ppm of I with their diets. Laying rate, egg weights, and feed conversion ratios were controlled. The quality of fresh eggs was assessed in wks 25-26, 48-50 and 62-63 of hens lives...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Yongjie Xu, Xiaodan Lai, Zhipeng Li, Xiquan Zhang, Qingbin Luo
The differences in physiological and immunological parameters and pathological damage to organ tissues exposed to chronic heat stress provide the basis for evaluating heat resistance of different chicken breeds (white recessive rock [WRR] and The Lingshan [LS]). Ninety broilers of each breed were divided equally into a chronic heat stress group and a no heat stress group. The effects of chronic heat stress on the physiological and immunological parameters of broilers were analyzed using flow cytometry, ELISA, RT-qPCR, etc...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Jianliang Li, Fanfeng Meng, Weihua Li, Yixin Wang, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao, Zhizhong Cui
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has successively infected white feather chickens, layer hens, cultivated yellow chickens, and indigenous chickens; infection rates and tumorigenicity have attracted increasingly extensive attention in China. To clarify the correlation of the epidemiological phenomenon of ALV-J with the evolution of envelope protein gp85, 140 strains of ALV-J isolated from chickens with different genetic backgrounds from 1999 to 2013 were compared. The homology of the gp85 protein and genetic genealogical relationships between 140 strains of ALV-J and the prototype strain HPRS-103, as well as between the same ALV-J strains and 8 American isolates, were analyzed and compared...
June 19, 2018: Poultry Science
D A Guzmán, A Lèche, C B Contarde, F N Nazar, R H Marin
The density-related permanence test (DRP) is used to classify young birds (while in groups) according to their individual permanence in proximity to either a high or low density of conspecifics (HD or LD, respectively). The birds' performance in DRP was associated with underlying differences in the social responses of their individuals. Quails in homogeneous groups of LD residents responded with less compact groups and higher levels of agonistic interactions to the presence of an intruder, and showed higher levels of agonistic interactions among cagemates than the homogeneous groups of HD birds...
June 19, 2018: Poultry Science
X Averós, I Estevez
To better understand how relevant intensive systems' characteristics simultaneously affect the performance and welfare of broiler chickens, a meta-analysis of recent literature was carried out. The study determined the effects of gender, genetics, experimental initial age (EIA, d), stocking density (SD; kg/m2), group size (GS; n), bedding material (yes/no), duration of photoperiod (DP; h), divided scotoperiod (yes/no), feeding phases (1/2/3/>3), environmental control (EC; yes/no), environmental enrichment (yes/no), use of vaccines and other medications (yes/no), experimental duration (d), and relevant 2-way interactions on average daily gain (g/d), average daily feed intake (g/d), FCR (g: g), mortality (%), behavior (%), and gait score (mean value)...
June 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Xiuling Zhang, Han Wang, Lechao Zhang, Qi Wang, Xiaolong Du, Linhan Ge, Rongyan Zhou, Lanhui Li, Xianglong Li
In the current study, we sought to determine whether or not the endogenous retroviral ev21 influences feathering type of chickens, and if one mutation locus in the unoccupied repeat (UR) region can be used to predict the corresponding feathering type and genotype. The distribution of ev21 as well as the mutation locus in UR and occupied site (OR) regions was detected in HY-line gray progenitor (HYGP) 4 lines, HY-line brown (HYB) and Taihang chickens (TH). Furthermore, a detection method for the genotype resulting in late feathering (LF) phenotype was developed by double PCR using C line of HYGP, C line of Dawu progenitor, commercial line of HY-line gray (HYG) males, LF males of TH and Bashang long-tail chickens (BS)...
June 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Anna Wolc, Janet E Fulton, Tomasz Jankowski, Jesus Arango, Neil P O'Sullivan, Jack C M Dekkers
An outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in 2015, resulting in mandatory euthanization of millions of chickens, was one of the most fatal in the US history. The aim of this study was to detect genes associated with survival following natural infection with HPAI during this outbreak. Blood samples were collected from 274 individuals from 3 commercial varieties of White Leghorn. Survivors and age and genetics matched non-affected controls from each variety were included in the comparison. All individuals were genotyped on the 600k SNP array...
June 19, 2018: Poultry Science
S Özlü, O Elibol, J Brake
The effects of temperature fluctuation during 7 d of storage on stage of blastoderm development, embryonic mortality, and hatchability of broiler hatching eggs were studied. Hatching eggs from 2 commercial flocks of Ross 308 broiler breeders at 27 and 50 wk of age, respectively, were randomly assigned to replicate chambers with either a constant temperature (Constant) of 18°C or a temperature that fluctuated (Fluctuated) over a 40 min period 3 times daily (0900 h, 1300 h, and 1700 h) between 18°C and 21°C...
June 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Zhongwen Zhou, Ning Cui, Shuai Su, Shuhong Sun, Zhizhong Cui
Integration of retro-viral long terminal repeat (LTR) into the Marek's disease virus (MDV) genome can occur both in co-cultivation cell cultures and naturally in dual infected chickens. It is clear that the LTR insert is associated with the pathogenicity of MDV. The objective of this study was to compare the host responses to MDV with a different retro-viral LTR insert. Gene-chip containing chicken genome was employed to investigate the gene transcription profile of chicken embryo fibroblasts cells, and 795 genes were differentially expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with GX0101 with a reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR insert as compared to GX0101-ALV-LTR significantly...
June 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Ashley E Bigge, Sheila Purdum, Kathryn Hanford
This study was conducted to determine the effect of high- and low-activity xylanase in a corn and soybean diet on the performance of laying hens. There were 2 phases each with 4 treatment diets: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) with lower metabolizable energy (ME) and nutrient density, and 2 different xylanases supplemented to the NC diet. Phase 1 was 23-43 wk of age and phase 2 was 43-58 wk, for a total duration of 35 wk. The NC diet had a lower ME in phase 2 than phase 1. There were 72 cages with 3 Bovan White Leghorns each...
June 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Jung-Jeng Su, Jeng-Fang Huang, Yi-Lei Wang, Yu-Ya Hong
The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
M B Al-Zghoul
This study investigated the effects of thermal manipulation (TM) during embryonic days 12 to 18 on the cloacal temperature (Tc) and the kinetics of muscle mRNA levels of heat shock proteins 70 and 60 (Hsp70 and Hsp60) and heat shock factors 3 and 4 (HSF3 and HSF4) during the first week of life and during thermal stress (TS). One thousand five hundred fertile chicken eggs were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (37.8°C), TM1 (38.5°C for 18 h), TM2 (39°C for 18 h), TM3 (39.5°C for 18 h), and TM4 (40°C for 18 h)...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Yun Chen, Wenjuan Yuan, Yuhui Yang, Fangke Yao, Ke Ming, Jiaguo Liu
Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is a serious infectious virus of ducklings. Recent study showed baicalin (BA) and baicalin phospholipid complex (BAPC) possessed anti-DHAV-1 effect. However, the antiviral mechanism is not clear. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to study influences and mechanisms of BA and BAPC on DHAV-1. The effects of BA and BAPC on DHAV-1 replication were analyzed by CCK-8 and RT-qPCR methods. And the results showed BA inhibited the replication of DHAV-1, and BAPC was more effective...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
K Y Feng, T Chen, X Zhang, G M Shao, Y Cao, D K Chen, W C Lin, F Chen, Q M Xie
A virulent infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), designated as CK/CH/GD/QY16 (referred as QY16), was isolated from a diseased chicken farm in Guangdong province, China, in 2016. The complete genome of the strain was sequenced and analyzed. The results show that the genome of QY16 consists of 27,670 nucleotides, excluding poly (A) tail, and that its genome organization is 5' UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3' UTR-poly (A) tail. Sequence comparison among QY16 and other IBV strains was conducted and its results demonstrate that the S1 gene of QY16 has the highest nucleotide sequence identity with that of 4/91, and the other part of its genome is highly similar to that of YX10...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Narayan C Rath, Rohana Liyanage, Anamika Gupta, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Jackson O Lay
Enterocytes function as both absorptive and protective components of intestine that come in close contact with a variety of enteric factors, such as dietary, microbial, and parasites, that have potential to affect the organismal health. Understanding how enterocytes interact with this complex array of factors may help improve gut health particularly in the context of poultry production where it is also linked to food safety issues. The enterocyte in vitro culture can help screen different factors and their interactions with microbiome, and potentially be utilized in the development of interventions strategies for pathogens such as antibiotic alternatives...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Aleksandra Drazbo, Katarzyna Ognik, Anita Zaworska, Karolina Ferenc, Jan Jankowski
This study evaluated the effects of including 15% of raw or fermented rapeseed cake (RRC and FRC, respectively) in turkey diets on the growth performance, antioxidant and immune status, and intestinal morphology of birds. Rapeseed cake was fermented using the commercial 6-phytase enzyme preparation, and dried. A total of 1,350 day-old female Hybrid Converter turkeys were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments with 9 replicates per treatment and 50 birds per replicate. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and contained various protein sources...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
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