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Postgraduate Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231065/serum-interleukin-6-levels-as-an-indicator-of-aseptic-meningitis-among-children-with-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#1
Joo Young Lee, Minji Son, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
OBJECTIVES: The enterovirus EV71 is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Aseptic meningitis is the most common neurologic complication of EV71-induced HFMD. Lumbar puncture is a crucial procedure in the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. It is often performed based on physicians' clinical suspicion. A diagnostic method that can aid in deciding whether this procedure should be performed is necessary. Cytokines are speculated to be associated with neurologic complications...
December 14, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224410/reduction-of-opioid-use-and-improvement-in-chronic-pain-in-opioid-experienced-patients-after-topical-analgesic-treatment-an-exploratory-analysis
#2
Jeffrey A Gudin, Michael J Brennan, E Dennis Harris, Peter L Hurwitz, Derek T Dietze, James D Strader
OBJECTIVE: There is a need to identify safe and effective opioid-sparing multimodal alternative treatment strategies and approaches, including topical analgesics, for opioid-experienced chronic pain patients to mitigate the risk of addiction, misuse, and abuse of opioids. METHODS: This subset analysis from a prospective, observational study evaluated changes in opioid use, other concurrent medication use, and pain severity and interference in opioid-experienced patients (OEP) treated with topical analgesics for chronic pain with measures obtained at baseline and 3- and 6- month follow-up...
December 11, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210318/inhalation-device-options-for-the-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Michael DePietro, Ileen Gilbert, Lauren A Millette, Michael Riebe
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, resulting from abnormalities in the airway and/or damage to the alveoli. Primary care physicians manage the healthcare of a large proportion of patients with COPD. In addition to determining the most appropriate medication regimen, which usually includes inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids, physicians are charged with optimizing inhalation device selection to facilitate effective drug delivery and patient adherence...
December 5, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202670/cardiovascular-safety-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-revisited
#4
Chris Walker, Luigi M Biasucci
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used to treat inflammatory pain for decades. More recently, newer NSAIDs were developed to target the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX), COX-2, with the aim of reducing gastrointestinal toxicity. While the COX-2 selective inhibitors were effective in reducing pain and gastrointestinal harm, they soon were associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Initially, the view emerged that selective inhibition of COX-2, and sparing of COX-1, was responsible for the increased cardiovascular harm observed...
December 5, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202631/vaping-medical-marijuana
#5
Devina Singh, Steven Lippmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190175/going-beyond-prescription-pain-relievers-to-understand-the-opioid-epidemic-the-role-of-illicit-fentanyl-new-psychoactive-substances-and-street-heroin
#6
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert Taylor, Robert B Raffa
The opioid epidemic is associated with morbidity and mortality, and it has taken a vast toll on American society. While prescription opioid abuse is part of the opioid problem, it is by no means the entirety of it. Opioid abuse appears to have entered a technology-driven new world of clandestine labs all over the globe and many new synthetic analog, counterfeit, and adulterated drugs that arrive via the internet faster than the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) can catalog and outlaw them. To deal with opioid abuse, it must be recognized that it is more - far more - than a subset of chronic pain patients who become addicted...
November 30, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185828/increased-prevalence-of-depression-and-anxiety-among-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-known-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-population-based-study
#7
Alexander Shinkov, Anna-Maria Borissova, Roussanka Kovatcheva, Jordan Vlahov, Lilia Dakovska, Iliana Atanassova, Paulina Petkova
OBJECTIVES: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The MetS and its elements have been linked to anxiety and depressive disorders. The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety, measured by the Zung Self-Rating Scale in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. METHODS: A total of 2111 adults were included, 1155 female, age 47...
November 29, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185820/delusional-misidentification-in-parkinson-s-disease-report-of-two-cases-and-a-review
#8
Neal Hermanowicz
Syndromes of delusional misidentification consist of disordered familiarity and have been reported in diverse diagnoses, including Parkinson's disease. Although the most common delusional misidentification is Capgras syndrome, in which the sufferer believes a familiar person has been replaced by an identical imposter, other forms have been also described. The pathogenesis of delusions of misidentification appears to require dysfunction of or connection to a left cerebral cortical area involved in recognition of familiarity, and also right frontal cortex serving belief evaluation...
November 29, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164993/comparative-effects-of-meditation-and-exercise-on-physical-and-psychosocial-health-outcomes-a-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
OBJECTIVE: No review papers have examined studies that have directly compared non-active forms of meditation with exercise to evaluate effects on physical or psychosocial outcomes, which was the purpose of this paper. METHODS: Studies were included if they had a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, included a non-active form of meditation and exercise as intervention arms, and evaluated physical or psychosocial outcomes. The quality of included RCTs was rated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials...
November 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164975/digital-clubbing-as-a-first-clinical-presentation-of-pulmonary-metastases-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#10
Faruk Tas, Kayhan Erturk
Digital clubbing is a paraneoplastic phenomenon usually associated with non-small cell lung cancer. We report the development of clubbing in a 49-year old man diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma which had metastasized to the lungs. We also reviewed the literature to understand the association between metastatic melanoma and clubbing. Previous reports of melanoma associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) are extremely rare; only 7 cases. In all these patients digital clubbing was the main component of the HOA...
November 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160138/a-case-of-dedifferentiated-chondrosarcoma-arising-in-the-cricoid-cartilage-that-mimicked-an-aneurysmal-bone-cyst
#11
Lixiao Chen, Ziwei Yu, Rui Jiang, Pin Dong, Bin Shen, Yu Li
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the larynx is a rare and highly malignant tumor. We present the report of a 59-year-old man with dedifferentiated laryngeal chondrosarcoma, which was difficult to diagnose even under microscopic examination. The original diagnosis was an aneurysmal bone cyst, and the final diagnosis was established only after careful consideration of the imaging, surgical, and microscopic findings. In clinical practice, there are many similarities between dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma and aneurysmal bone cysts...
November 21, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157058/tramadol-prescription-patterns-in-patients-followed-by-general-practitioners-and-orthopedists-in-germany-in-the-year-2015
#12
Karel Kostev, Christian von Vultée, Dienthard M Usinger, Jens-Peter Reese
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze tramadol prescription patterns in acute pain patients followed by general practitioners and orthopedists in Germany. METHODS: This study included patients ≥18 years diagnosed with acute pain who received at least one tramadol prescription each in one of 1,129 general or 179 orthopedic practices in Germany between January and December 2015 (index date). Patients were excluded if they had received a prescription for another analgesic in the year prior to the index date, had a follow-up of less than 15 months after the index date, or were prescribed tramadol for a period of more than three months...
November 20, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139315/statin-use-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-what-clinicians-should-know
#13
Kevin Maki, Veda Diwadkar-Navsariwala, Melvyn W Kramer
Statins are the first line of pharmacologic treatment for the management of hypercholesterolemia in patients at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease. In recent years, several randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies have reported increased risk for new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) with statin treatment, particularly with use of high-intensity statins that reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 50% or more. This paper summarizes the data from RCTs and observational studies for statin-associated T2D risk, and puts into perspective this evidence, weighed against the established benefits of statin therapy for CV risk reduction...
November 15, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135318/the-effect-and-safety-of-anacetrapib-in-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Junteng Zhou, Qi Zhang, Yushu Wang, Peijuan Gao, Decai Chen
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Anacetrapib may be a new treatment option that has a cardiovascular benefit for the management of dyslipidemia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our current study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect and safety of anacetrapib in the treatment of dyslipidemia. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library database from their inception to 5 October 2017, with the terms: 'anacetrapib' and 'placebo'...
November 14, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130356/authors-reply-the-effect-of-physical-activity-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-on-incident-diabetes
#15
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115878/the-effect-of-physical-activity-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-on-incident-diabetes
#16
Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh, Apichat Sinthubua, Srijit Das
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110567/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-a-new-ibuprofen-200mg-plaster-in-patients-with-acute-sports-related-traumatic-blunt-soft-tissue-injury-contusion
#17
Hans-Georg Predel, Bruno Giannetti, Mark P Connolly, Fraser Lewis, Aomesh Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of non-serious pain. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new ibuprofen plaster for the treatment of pain associated with acute sports impact injuries/contusions. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (n=130; 18-58 years of age) diagnosed with acute sports-related blunt soft tissue injury/contusion were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster or placebo plaster...
November 7, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105546/the-effects-of-adjunctive-intranasal-oxytocin-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Miho Ota, Sumiko Yoshida, Masanori Nakata, Toshihiko Yada, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVES: Both human and animal studies have suggested that oxytocin may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of schizophrenia. We evaluated the effects of intranasal oxytocin on cognition and its predictive factors in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Subjects were 16 chronic schizophrenia patients who underwent intranasal oxytocin treatment for 3 months and were assessed for changes in severity of clinical symptoms and cognitions. Fifteen of the 16 subjects underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging...
November 6, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088976/incidence-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-polymyalgia-rheumatica-in-an-inland-area-of-central-italy-results-of-the-campo-rhe-study
#19
Antonia De Socio, Fabio Massimo Perrotta, Guido Maria Grasso, Ennio Lubrano
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the CAMPO-RHE study was to determine the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) in patients attending a rheumatologic outpatient's clinic of a new institution in Campobasso, Italy. METHODS: Campobasso is a small town of approximately 50,000 inhabitants located in the inland territory of central Italy (Molise), and Public Health is managed from a single health authority. In Italy, all citizens are registered with a National Health System of General Practitioner (GP) Physicians...
November 3, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091518/direct-gram-staining-and-its-various-benefits-in-the-diagnosis-of-bacterial-infections
#20
Lyudmila Boyanova
In the era of rapid development of molecular and other diagnostic methods, direct Gram staining (DGS) tends to remain in the background, although it can provide both microbiologists and clinicians numerous benefits. The aim of this review was to emphasize the importance of DGS for the diagnosis of many clinically important infections. A PubMed search was carried out using relevant keywords for articles published primarily since 2010. The DGS can provide early information for a timely diagnosis of infections, can reveal the causative agents of the infections even under suboptimal conditions of specimen collection, transport or identification methods, can detect the presence of rare/unusual pathogens, moreover, the method shows the specimen quality, by distinguishing between contamination and true infection, it can direct or change initial antibiotic treatment before the availability of culture results, can indicate the need of other methods for pathogen identification and, in some cases, can show the need for emergency attention such as urgent antibiotic therapy and surgical measures...
November 1, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
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