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Physical Review Letters

Z Chen, D J Higley, M Beye, M Hantschmann, V Mehta, O Hellwig, A Mitra, S Bonetti, M Bucher, S Carron, T Chase, E Jal, R Kukreja, T Liu, A H Reid, G L Dakovski, A Föhlisch, W F Schlotter, H A Dürr, J Stöhr
Using ultrafast ≃2.5  fs and ≃25  fs self-amplified spontaneous emission pulses of increasing intensity and a novel experimental scheme, we report the concurrent increase of stimulated emission in the forward direction and loss of out-of-beam diffraction contrast for a Co/Pd multilayer sample. The experimental results are quantitatively accounted for by a statistical description of the pulses in conjunction with the optical Bloch equations. The dependence of the stimulated sample response on the incident intensity, coherence time, and energy jitter of the employed pulses reveals the importance of increased control of x-ray free electron laser radiation...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Bryan C Daniels, Hyunju Kim, Douglas Moore, Siyu Zhou, Harrison B Smith, Bradley Karas, Stuart A Kauffman, Sara I Walker
The hypothesis that many living systems should exhibit near-critical behavior is well motivated theoretically, and an increasing number of cases have been demonstrated empirically. However, a systematic analysis across biological networks, which would enable identification of the network properties that drive criticality, has not yet been realized. Here, we provide a first comprehensive survey of criticality across a diverse sample of biological networks, leveraging a publicly available database of 67 Boolean models of regulatory circuits...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
M Harder, Y Yang, B M Yao, C H Yu, J W Rao, Y S Gui, R L Stamps, C-M Hu
We report dissipative magnon-photon coupling caused by the cavity Lenz effect, where the magnons in a magnet induce a rf current in the cavity, leading to a cavity backaction that impedes the magnetization dynamics. This effect is revealed in our experiment as level attraction with a coalescence of hybridized magnon-photon modes, which is distinctly different from level repulsion with mode anticrossing caused by coherent magnon-photon coupling. We develop a method to control the interpolation of coherent and dissipative magnon-photon coupling, and observe a matching condition where the two effects cancel...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
J Adam, L Adamczyk, J R Adams, J K Adkins, G Agakishiev, M M Aggarwal, Z Ahammed, N N Ajitanand, I Alekseev, D M Anderson, R Aoyama, A Aparin, D Arkhipkin, E C Aschenauer, M U Ashraf, F Atetalla, A Attri, G S Averichev, X Bai, V Bairathi, K Barish, A J Bassill, A Behera, R Bellwied, A Bhasin, A K Bhati, J Bielcik, J Bielcikova, L C Bland, I G Bordyuzhin, J D Brandenburg, A V Brandin, D Brown, J Bryslawskyj, I Bunzarov, J Butterworth, H Caines, M Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, J M Campbell, D Cebra, I Chakaberia, P Chaloupka, F-H Chang, Z Chang, N Chankova-Bunzarova, A Chatterjee, S Chattopadhyay, J H Chen, X Chen, X Chen, J Cheng, M Cherney, W Christie, G Contin, H J Crawford, S Das, T G Dedovich, I M Deppner, A A Derevschikov, L Didenko, C Dilks, X Dong, J L Drachenberg, J C Dunlop, L G Efimov, N Elsey, J Engelage, G Eppley, R Esha, S Esumi, O Evdokimov, J Ewigleben, O Eyser, R Fatemi, S Fazio, P Federic, P Federicova, J Fedorisin, P Filip, E Finch, Y Fisyak, C E Flores, L Fulek, C A Gagliardi, T Galatyuk, F Geurts, A Gibson, D Grosnick, D S Gunarathne, Y Guo, A Gupta, W Guryn, A I Hamad, A Hamed, A Harlenderova, J W Harris, L He, S Heppelmann, S Heppelmann, N Herrmann, A Hirsch, L Holub, S Horvat, X Huang, B Huang, S L Huang, H Z Huang, T Huang, T J Humanic, P Huo, G Igo, W W Jacobs, A Jentsch, J Jia, K Jiang, S Jowzaee, E G Judd, S Kabana, D Kalinkin, K Kang, D Kapukchyan, K Kauder, H W Ke, D Keane, A Kechechyan, D P Kikoła, C Kim, T A Kinghorn, I Kisel, A Kisiel, S R Klein, L Kochenda, L K Kosarzewski, A F Kraishan, L Kramarik, L Krauth, P Kravtsov, K Krueger, N Kulathunga, S Kumar, L Kumar, J Kvapil, J H Kwasizur, R Lacey, J M Landgraf, J Lauret, A Lebedev, R Lednicky, J H Lee, X Li, C Li, W Li, Y Li, Y Liang, J Lidrych, T Lin, A Lipiec, M A Lisa, F Liu, P Liu, H Liu, Y Liu, T Ljubicic, W J Llope, M Lomnitz, R S Longacre, X Luo, S Luo, G L Ma, Y G Ma, L Ma, R Ma, N Magdy, R Majka, D Mallick, S Margetis, C Markert, H S Matis, O Matonoha, D Mayes, J A Mazer, K Meehan, J C Mei, N G Minaev, S Mioduszewski, D Mishra, B Mohanty, M M Mondal, I Mooney, D A Morozov, Md Nasim, J D Negrete, J M Nelson, D B Nemes, M Nie, G Nigmatkulov, T Niida, L V Nogach, T Nonaka, S B Nurushev, G Odyniec, A Ogawa, K Oh, S Oh, V A Okorokov, D Olvitt, B S Page, R Pak, Y Panebratsev, B Pawlik, H Pei, C Perkins, J Pluta, J Porter, M Posik, N K Pruthi, M Przybycien, J Putschke, A Quintero, S K Radhakrishnan, S Ramachandran, R L Ray, R Reed, H G Ritter, J B Roberts, O V Rogachevskiy, J L Romero, L Ruan, J Rusnak, O Rusnakova, N R Sahoo, P K Sahu, S Salur, J Sandweiss, J Schambach, A M Schmah, W B Schmidke, N Schmitz, B R Schweid, F Seck, J Seger, M Sergeeva, R Seto, P Seyboth, N Shah, E Shahaliev, P V Shanmuganathan, M Shao, W Q Shen, F Shen, S S Shi, Q Y Shou, E P Sichtermann, S Siejka, R Sikora, M Simko, S Singha, N Smirnov, D Smirnov, W Solyst, P Sorensen, H M Spinka, B Srivastava, T D S Stanislaus, D J Stewart, M Strikhanov, B Stringfellow, A A P Suaide, T Sugiura, M Sumbera, B Summa, Y Sun, X Sun, X M Sun, B Surrow, D N Svirida, P Szymanski, Z Tang, A H Tang, A Taranenko, T Tarnowsky, J H Thomas, A R Timmins, D Tlusty, T Todoroki, M Tokarev, C A Tomkiel, S Trentalange, R E Tribble, P Tribedy, S K Tripathy, O D Tsai, B Tu, T Ullrich, D G Underwood, I Upsal, G Van Buren, J Vanek, A N Vasiliev, I Vassiliev, F Videbæk, S Vokal, S A Voloshin, A Vossen, G Wang, Y Wang, F Wang, Y Wang, J C Webb, L Wen, G D Westfall, H Wieman, S W Wissink, R Witt, Y Wu, Z G Xiao, G Xie, W Xie, Q H Xu, Z Xu, J Xu, Y F Xu, N Xu, S Yang, C Yang, Q Yang, Y Yang, Z Ye, Z Ye, L Yi, K Yip, I-K Yoo, N Yu, H Zbroszczyk, W Zha, Z Zhang, L Zhang, Y Zhang, X P Zhang, J Zhang, S Zhang, S Zhang, J Zhang, J Zhao, C Zhong, C Zhou, L Zhou, Z Zhu, X Zhu, M Zyzak
We report first measurements of e^{+}e^{-} pair production in the mass region 0.4<M_{ee}<2.6  GeV/c^{2} at low transverse momentum (p_{T}<0.15  GeV/c) in noncentral Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV and U+U collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=193  GeV. Significant enhancement factors, expressed as ratios of data over known hadronic contributions, are observed in the 40%-80% centrality of these collisions. The excess yields peak distinctly at low p_{T} with a width (sqrt[⟨p_{T}^{2}⟩]) between 40 and 60  MeV/c...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
E Walter, T Ö Rosdahl, A R Akhmerov, F Hassler
The law of reflection states that smooth surfaces reflect waves specularly, thereby acting as a mirror. This law is insensitive to disorder as long as its length scale is smaller than the wavelength. Monolayer graphene exhibits a linear dispersion at low energies and consequently a diverging Fermi wavelength. We present proof that for a disordered graphene boundary, resonant scattering off disordered edge modes results in diffusive electron reflection even when the electron wavelength is much longer than the disorder correlation length...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Satoru Hayami, Yukitoshi Motome
We theoretically study noncoplanar spin textures in polar magnetic conductors. Starting from the Kondo lattice model with the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, we derive an effective spin model with generalized Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions including the anisotropic and antisymmetric exchange interactions. By performing simulated annealing for the effective model, we find that a vortex crystal of Néel type is stabilized even in the absence of a magnetic field. Moreover, we demonstrate that a Bloch-type vortex crystal, which is usually associated with the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, can also be realized in our Rashba-based model...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kali E Wilson, Niclas Westerberg, Manuel Valiente, Callum W Duncan, Ewan M Wright, Patrik Öhberg, Daniele Faccio
We present experimental evidence of photon droplets in an attractive (focusing) nonlocal nonlinear medium. Photon droplets are self-bound, finite-sized states of light that are robust to size and shape perturbations due to a balance of competing attractive and repulsive forces. It has recently been shown theoretically, via a multipole expansion of the nonlocal nonlinearity, that the self-bound state arises due to competition between the s-wave and d-wave nonlinear terms, together with diffraction. The theoretical photon droplet framework encompasses both a solitonlike stationary ground state and the nonsolitonlike dynamics that ensue when the system is displaced from equilibrium, i...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
J Yasuda, M Sasano, R G T Zegers, H Baba, D Bazin, W Chao, M Dozono, N Fukuda, N Inabe, T Isobe, G Jhang, D Kameda, M Kaneko, K Kisamori, M Kobayashi, N Kobayashi, T Kobayashi, S Koyama, Y Kondo, A J Krasznahorkay, T Kubo, Y Kubota, M Kurata-Nishimura, C S Lee, J W Lee, Y Matsuda, E Milman, S Michimasa, T Motobayashi, D Muecher, T Murakami, T Nakamura, N Nakatsuka, S Ota, H Otsu, V Panin, W Powell, S Reichert, S Sakaguchi, H Sakai, M Sako, H Sato, Y Shimizu, M Shikata, S Shimoura, L Stuhl, T Sumikama, H Suzuki, S Tangwancharoen, M Takaki, H Takeda, T Tako, Y Togano, H Tokieda, J Tsubota, T Uesaka, T Wakasa, K Yako, K Yoneda, J Zenihiro
The key parameter to discuss the possibility of the pion condensation in nuclear matter, i.e., the so-called Landau-Migdal parameter g^{'}, was extracted by measuring the double-differential cross sections for the (p,n) reaction at 216  MeV/u on a neutron-rich doubly magic unstable nucleus, ^{132}Sn with the quality comparable to data taken with stable nuclei. The extracted strengths for Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions from ^{132}Sn leading to ^{132}Sb exhibit the GT giant resonance (GTR) at the excitation energy of 16...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
N Agafonova, Anonymous
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.211801.
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
R Rossi, T Ohgoe, E Kozik, N Prokof'ev, B Svistunov, K Van Houcke, F Werner
A key quantity in strongly interacting resonant Fermi gases is the contact C, which characterizes numerous properties such as the momentum distribution at large momenta or the pair correlation function at short distances. The temperature dependence of C was measured at unitarity, where existing theoretical predictions differ substantially even at the qualitative level. We report accurate data for the contact and the momentum distribution of the unitary gas in the normal phase, obtained by bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo and Borel resummation...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Manuel Gessner, Luca Pezzè, Augusto Smerzi
We identify precision limits for the simultaneous estimation of multiple parameters in multimode interferometers. Quantum strategies to enhance the multiparameter sensitivity are based on entanglement among particles, modes, or combining both. The maximum attainable sensitivity of particle-separable states defines the multiparameter shot-noise limit, which can be surpassed without mode entanglement. Further enhancements up to the multiparameter Heisenberg limit are possible by adding mode entanglement. Optimal strategies that saturate the precision bounds are provided...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Zhaoru Sun, Lixin Zheng, Mohan Chen, Michael L Klein, Francesco Paesani, Xifan Wu
Electron-hole excitation theory is used to unveil the role of nuclear quantum effects on the x-ray absorption spectral signatures of water, whose structure is computed via path-integral molecular dynamics with the MB-pol intermolecular potential model. Compared to spectra generated from the classically modeled water, quantum nuclei introduce important effects on the spectra in terms of both the energies and line shapes. Fluctuations due to delocalized protons influence the short-range ordering of the hydrogen bond network via changes in the intramolecular covalence, which broaden the preedge spectra...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Sheroy Tata, Angana Mondal, Soubhik Sarkar, Jagannath Jha, Yash Ved, Amit D Lad, James Colgan, John Pasley, M Krishnamurthy
Short pulse, high contrast, intense laser pulses incident onto a solid target are not known to generate fast neutral atoms. Experiments carried out to study the recombination of accelerated protons show a 200 times higher neutralization than expected. Fast neutral atoms can contribute to 80% of the fast particles at 10 keV, falling rapidly for higher energy. Conventional charge transfer and electron-ion recombination in a high density plasma plume near the target is unable to explain the neutralization. We present a model based on the copropagation of electrons and ions wherein recombination far away from the target surface accounts for the experimental measurements...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Justin E Pye, Clay E Wood, Justin C Burton
Experiments and simulations suggest that simple liquids may experience slip while flowing near a smooth, hydrophobic surface. Here we show how precursors to molecular slip can be observed in the complex response of a liquid to oscillatory shear. We measure both the change in frequency and bandwidth of a quartz crystal microbalance during the growth of a single drop of water immersed in an ambient liquid. By varying the hydrophobicity of the surface using self-assembled monolayers, our results show little or no slip for water on all surfaces...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
P Hunana, G P Zank, M Laurenza, A Tenerani, G M Webb, M L Goldstein, M Velli, L Adhikari
Incorporation of kinetic effects such as Landau damping into a fluid framework was pioneered by Hammett and Perkins, by obtaining closures of the fluid hierarchy, where the gyrotropic heat flux fluctuations or the deviation of the fourth-order gyrotropic fluid moment are expressed through lower-order fluid moments. To obtain a closure of a fluid model expanded around a bi-Maxwellian distribution function, the usual plasma dispersion function Z(ζ) that appears in kinetic theory or the associated plasma response function R(ζ)=1+ζZ(ζ) has to be approximated with a suitable Padé approximant in such a way that the closure is valid for all ζ values...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jyoti Katoch, Tiancong Zhu, Denis Kochan, Simranjeet Singh, Jaroslav Fabian, Roland K Kawakami
We report the experimental observation of sublattice-resolved resonant scattering in bilayer graphene by performing simultaneous cryogenic atomic hydrogen doping and electron transport measurements in an ultrahigh vacuum. This allows us to monitor the hydrogen adsorption on the different sublattices of bilayer graphene without atomic-scale microscopy. Specifically, we detect two distinct resonant scattering peaks in the gate-dependent resistance, which evolve as a function of the atomic hydrogen dosage. Theoretical calculations show that one of the peaks originates from resonant scattering by hydrogen adatoms on the α sublattice (dimer site) while the other originates from hydrogen adatoms on the β sublattice (nondimer site), thereby enabling a method for characterizing the relative sublattice occupancy via transport measurements...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
William E East
We study the superradiant instability of a massive boson around a spinning black hole in full general relativity without assuming spatial symmetries. We focus on the case of a rapidly spinning black hole in the presence of a vector boson with a Compton wavelength comparable to the black hole radius, which is the regime where relativistic effects are maximized. We follow the growth of the boson cloud through superradiance into the nonlinear regime as it spins down the black hole, reaches a maximum energy, and begins to dissipate through the emission of gravitational waves...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Itamar Kolvin, John M Kolinski, Jian Ping Gong, Jay Fineberg
Fracture of highly stretched materials challenges our view of how things break. We directly visualize rupture of tough double-network gels at >50% strain. During fracture, crack tip shapes obey a x∼y^{1.6} power law, in contrast to the parabolic profile observed in low-strain cracks. A new length scale ℓ emerges from the power law; we show that ℓ scales directly with the stored elastic energy and diverges when the crack velocity approaches the shear wave speed. Our results show that double-network gels undergo brittle fracture and provide a testing ground for large-strain fracture mechanics...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
B Semin, N Garroum, F Pétrélis, S Fauve
The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) is the nearly periodic reversal of the large scale flow generated by internal waves in the equatorial stratosphere. Using a laboratory model experiment, we study the instability that generates the QBO and investigate its nonlinear regime. We report the first quantitative measurements of the nonlinearly saturated velocity of the flow. We show that the QBO is generated by a bifurcation that is either supercritical or subcritical depending on the dominant dissipative process...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ezad Shojaee, Christopher S Jackson, Carlos A Riofrío, Amir Kalev, Ivan H Deutsch
The spin-coherent-state positive-operator-valued-measure (POVM) is a fundamental measurement in quantum science, with applications including tomography, metrology, teleportation, benchmarking, and measurement of Husimi phase space probabilities. We prove that this POVM is achieved by collectively measuring the spin projection of an ensemble of qubits weakly and isotropically. We apply this in the context of optimal tomography of pure qubits. We show numerically that through a sequence of weak measurements of random directions of the collective spin component, sampled discretely or in a continuous measurement with random controls, one can approach the optimal bound...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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