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Physical Review Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437464/deep-ultraviolet-frequency-metrology-of-h_-2-for-tests-of-molecular-quantum-theory
#1
R K Altmann, L S Dreissen, E J Salumbides, W Ubachs, K S E Eikema
Molecular hydrogen and its isotopic and ionic species are benchmark systems for testing quantum chemical theory. Advances in molecular energy structure calculations enable the experimental verification of quantum electrodynamics and potentially a determination of the proton charge radius from H_{2} spectroscopy. We measure the ground state energy in ortho-H_{2} relative to the first electronically excited state by Ramsey-comb laser spectroscopy on the EF^{1}Σ_{g}^{+}-X^{1}Σ_{g}^{+}(0,0) Q1 transition. The resulting transition frequency of 2 971 234 992 965(73) kHz is 2 orders of magnitude more accurate than previous measurements...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437463/soliton-gases-and-generalized-hydrodynamics
#2
Benjamin Doyon, Takato Yoshimura, Jean-Sébastien Caux
We show that the equations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD), a hydrodynamic theory for integrable quantum systems at the Euler scale, emerge in full generality in a family of classical gases, which generalize the gas of hard rods. In this family, the particles, upon colliding, jump forward or backward by a distance that depends on their velocities, reminiscent of classical soliton scattering. This provides a "molecular dynamics" for GHD: a numerical solver which is efficient, flexible, and which applies to the presence of external force fields...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437462/higher-dimensional-caustics-in-nonlinear-compton-scattering
#3
Vasily Yu Kharin, Daniel Seipt, Sergey G Rykovanov
A description of the spectral and angular distributions of Compton scattered light in collisions of intense laser pulses with high-energy electrons is unwieldy and usually requires numerical simulations. However, due to the large number of parameters affecting the spectra such numerical investigations can become computationally expensive. Using methods of catastrophe theory we predict higher-dimensional caustics in the spectra of the Compton scattered light, which are associated with bright narrow-band spectral lines, and in the simplest case can be controlled by the value of the linear chirp of the pulse...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437461/simultaneous-conduction-and-valence-band-quantization-in-ultrashallow-high-density-doping-profiles-in-semiconductors
#4
F Mazzola, J W Wells, A C Pakpour-Tabrizi, R B Jackman, B Thiagarajan, Ph Hofmann, J A Miwa
We demonstrate simultaneous quantization of conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) states in silicon using ultrashallow, high-density, phosphorus doping profiles (so-called Si:P δ layers). We show that, in addition to the well-known quantization of CB states within the dopant plane, the confinement of VB-derived states between the subsurface P dopant layer and the Si surface gives rise to a simultaneous quantization of VB states in this narrow region. We also show that the VB quantization can be explained using a simple particle-in-a-box model, and that the number and energy separation of the quantized VB states depend on the depth of the P dopant layer beneath the Si surface...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437460/accelerating-science-with-generative-adversarial-networks-an-application-to-3d-particle-showers-in-multilayer-calorimeters
#5
Michela Paganini, Luke de Oliveira, Benjamin Nachman
Physicists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) rely on detailed simulations of particle collisions to build expectations of what experimental data may look like under different theoretical modeling assumptions. Petabytes of simulated data are needed to develop analysis techniques, though they are expensive to generate using existing algorithms and computing resources. The modeling of detectors and the precise description of particle cascades as they interact with the material in the calorimeter are the most computationally demanding steps in the simulation pipeline...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437459/spin-and-angular-momentum-in-strong-field-ionization
#6
D Trabert, A Hartung, S Eckart, F Trinter, A Kalinin, M Schöffler, L Ph H Schmidt, T Jahnke, M Kunitski, R Dörner
The spin polarization of electrons from multiphoton ionization of Xe by 395 nm circularly polarized laser pulses at 6×10^{13}  W/cm^{2} has been measured. At this photon energy of 3.14 eV the above-threshold ionization peaks connected to Xe^{+} ions in the ground state (J=3/2, ionization potential I_{p}=12.1  eV) and the first excited state (J=1/2, I_{p}=13.4  eV) are clearly separated in the electron energy distribution. These two combs of above-threshold ionization peaks show opposite spin polarizations...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437458/quantum-fluctuation-theorems-contextuality-and-work-quasiprobabilities
#7
Matteo Lostaglio
We discuss the role of contextuality within quantum fluctuation theorems, in the light of a recent no-go result by Perarnau-Llobet et al. We show that any fluctuation theorem reproducing the two-point-measurement scheme for classical states either admits a notion of work quasiprobability or fails to describe protocols exhibiting contextuality. Conversely, we describe a protocol that smoothly interpolates between the two-point-measurement work distribution for projective measurements and Allahverdyan's work quasiprobability for weak measurements, and show that the negativity of the latter is a direct signature of contextuality...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437457/empirical-determination-of-dark-matter-velocities-using-metal-poor-stars
#8
Jonah Herzog-Arbeitman, Mariangela Lisanti, Piero Madau, Lina Necib
The Milky Way dark matter halo is formed from the accretion of smaller subhalos. These sub-units also harbor stars-typically old and metal-poor-that are deposited in the Galactic inner regions by disruption events. In this Letter, we show that the dark matter and metal-poor stars in the Solar neighborhood share similar kinematics due to their common origin. Using the high-resolution eris simulation, which traces the evolution of both the dark matter and baryons in a realistic Milky Way analog galaxy, we demonstrate that metal-poor stars are indeed effective tracers for the local, virialized dark matter velocity distribution...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437456/exactly-solvable-bcs-hubbard-model-in-arbitrary-dimensions
#9
Zewei Chen, Xiaohui Li, Tai Kai Ng
We introduce in this Letter an exact solvable BCS-Hubbard model in arbitrary dimensions. The model describes a p-wave BCS superconductor with equal spin pairing moving on a bipartite (cubic, square, etc.) lattice with on-site Hubbard interaction U. We show that the model becomes exactly solvable for arbitrary U when the BCS pairing amplitude Δ equals the hopping amplitude t. The nature of the solution is described in detail in this Letter. The construction of the exact solution is parallel to the exactly solvable Kitaev honeycomb model for S=1/2 quantum spins and can be viewed as a generalization of Kitaev's construction to S=1/2 interacting lattice fermions...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437455/realizing-fulde-ferrell-superfluids-via-a-dark-state-control-of-feshbach-resonances
#10
Lianyi He, Hui Hu, Xia-Ji Liu
We propose that the long-sought Fulde-Ferrell superfluidity with nonzero momentum pairing can be realized in ultracold two-component Fermi gases of ^{40}K or ^{6}Li atoms by optically tuning their magnetic Feshbach resonances via the creation of a closed-channel dark state with a Doppler-shifted Stark effect. In this scheme, two counterpropagating optical fields are applied to couple two molecular states in the closed channel to an excited molecular state, leading to a significant violation of Galilean invariance in the dark-state regime and hence to the possibility of Fulde-Ferrell superfluidity...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437454/post%C3%A2-hoc-verification-of-quantum-computation
#11
Joseph F Fitzsimons, Michal Hajdušek, Tomoyuki Morimae
We propose a set of protocols for verifying quantum computing at any time after the computation itself has been performed. We provide two constructions: one requires five entangled provers and a completely classical verifier; the other requires a single prover, a verifier, who is restricted to measuring qubits in the X or Z basis, and one-way quantum communication from the prover to the verifier. These results demonstrate that the verification can be achieved independently from the blindness. We also show that a constant round protocol with a single prover and a completely classical verifier is not possible, unless bounded error quantum polynomial time (BQP) is contained in the third level of the polynomial hierarchy...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437453/evidence-of-an-improper-displacive-phase-transition-in-cd_-2-re_-2-o_-7-via-time-resolved-coherent-phonon-spectroscopy
#12
J W Harter, D M Kennes, H Chu, A de la Torre, Z Y Zhao, J-Q Yan, D G Mandrus, A J Millis, D Hsieh
We have used a combination of ultrafast coherent phonon spectroscopy, ultrafast thermometry, and time-dependent Landau theory to study the inversion symmetry breaking phase transition at T_{c}=200  K in the strongly spin-orbit coupled correlated metal Cd_{2}Re_{2}O_{7}. We establish that the structural distortion at T_{c} is a secondary effect through the absence of any softening of its associated phonon mode, which supports a purely electronically driven mechanism. However, the phonon lifetime exhibits an anomalously strong temperature dependence that decreases linearly to zero near T_{c}...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437452/unidirectional-spin-wave-propagation-induced-seebeck-voltage-in-a-pedot-pss-yig-bilayer
#13
P Wang, L F Zhou, S W Jiang, Z Z Luan, D J Shu, H F Ding, D Wu
We clarify the physical origin of the dc voltage generation in a bilayer of a conducting polymer film and a micrometer-thick magnetic insulator Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} (YIG) film under ferromagnetic resonance and/or spin wave excitation conditions. The previous attributed mechanism, the inverse spin Hall effect in the polymer [Nat. Mater. 12, 622 (2013)NMAACR1476-112210.1038/nmat3634], is excluded by two control experiments. We find an in-plane temperature gradient in YIG which has the same angular dependence with the generated voltage...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437451/yielding-and-flow-of-soft-jammed-systems-in-elongation
#14
X Zhang, O Fadoul, E Lorenceau, P Coussot
So far, yielding and flow properties of soft-jammed systems have only been studied from simple shear and then extrapolated to other flow situations. In particular, simple flows such as elongations have barely been investigated experimentally or only in a nonconstant, partial volume of material. We show that using smooth tool surfaces makes it possible to obtain a prolonged elongational flow over a large range of aspect ratios in the whole volume of material. The normal force measured for various soft-jammed systems with different microstructures shows that the ratio of the elongation yield stress to the shear yield stress is larger (by a factor of around 1...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437450/stroboscopic-qubit-measurement-with-squeezed-illumination
#15
A Eddins, S Schreppler, D M Toyli, L S Martin, S Hacohen-Gourgy, L C G Govia, H Ribeiro, A A Clerk, I Siddiqi
Microwave squeezing represents the ultimate sensitivity frontier for superconducting qubit measurement. However, measurement enhancement has remained elusive, in part because integration with standard dispersive readout pollutes the signal channel with antisqueezed noise. Here we induce a stroboscopic light-matter coupling with superior squeezing compatibility, and observe an increase in the final signal-to-noise ratio of 24%. Squeezing the orthogonal phase slows measurement-induced dephasing by a factor of 1...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437449/determination-of-the-spin-rotation-fine-structure-of-he_-2
#16
Paul Jansen, Luca Semeria, Frédéric Merkt
Measuring spin-rotation intervals in molecular cations is challenging, particularly so when the ions do not have electric-dipole-allowed rovibrational transitions. We present a method, based on an angular-momentum basis transformation, to determine the spin-rotational fine structure of molecular ions from the fine structure of high Rydberg states. The method is illustrated by the determination of the so far unknown spin-rotation fine structure of the fundamentally important He_{2}^{+} ion in the X ^{2}Σ_{u}^{+} state...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437448/two-loop-binding-corrections-to-the-electron-gyromagnetic-factor
#17
Andrzej Czarnecki, Matthew Dowling, Jan Piclum, Robert Szafron
We compute corrections to the gyromagnetic factor of an electron bound in a hydrogenlike ion at order α^{2}(Zα)^{5}. This result removes a major uncertainty in predictions for silicon and carbon ions, used to determine the atomic mass of the electron.
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437447/coulomb-driven-relativistic-electron-beam-compression
#18
Chao Lu, Tao Jiang, Shengguang Liu, Rui Wang, Lingrong Zhao, Pengfei Zhu, Dao Xiang, Jie Zhang
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437446/generalized-arcsine-laws-for-fractional-brownian-motion
#19
Tridib Sadhu, Mathieu Delorme, Kay Jörg Wiese
The three arcsine laws for Brownian motion are a cornerstone of extreme-value statistics. For a Brownian B_{t} starting from the origin, and evolving during time T, one considers the following three observables: (i) the duration t_{+} the process is positive, (ii) the time t_{last} the process last visits the origin, and (iii) the time t_{max} when it achieves its maximum (or minimum). All three observables have the same cumulative probability distribution expressed as an arcsine function, thus the name arcsine laws...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437445/erratum-spin-dependent-weakly-interacting-massive-particle-nucleon-cross-section-limits-from-first-data-of-pandax-ii-experiment-phys-rev-lett-118-071301-2017
#20
Changbo Fu, Anonymous
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.071301.
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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