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Physical Review Letters

Raman Ganti, Yawei Liu, Daan Frenkel
Thermo-osmotic slip-the flow induced by a thermal gradient along a surface-is a well-known phenomenon, but curiously there is a lack of robust molecular-simulation techniques to predict its magnitude. Here, we compare three different molecular-simulation techniques to compute the thermo-osmotic slip at a simple solid-fluid interface. Although we do not expect the different approaches to be in perfect agreement, we find that the differences are barely significant for a range of different physical conditions, suggesting that practical molecular simulations of thermo-osmotic slip are feasible...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Benjamin Cruikshank, Kurt Jacobs
von Neumann's classic "multiplexing" method is unique in achieving high-threshold fault-tolerant classical computation (FTCC), but has several significant barriers to implementation: (i) the extremely complex circuits required by randomized connections, (ii) the difficulty of calculating its performance in practical regimes of both code size and logical error rate, and (iii) the (perceived) need for large code sizes. Here we present numerical results indicating that the third assertion is false, and introduce a novel scheme that eliminates the two remaining problems while retaining a threshold very close to von Neumann's ideal of 1/6...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Naoto Shiraishi, Takashi Mori
We propose a general method to embed target states into the middle of the energy spectrum of a many-body Hamiltonian as its energy eigenstates. Employing this method, we construct a translationally invariant local Hamiltonian with no local conserved quantities, which does not satisfy the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. The absence of eigenstate thermalization for target states is analytically proved and numerically demonstrated. In addition, numerical calculations of two concrete models also show that all the energy eigenstates except for the target states have the property of eigenstate thermalization, from which we argue that our models thermalize after a quench even though they do not satisfy the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Georg W Winkler, Dániel Varjas, Rafal Skolasinski, Alexey A Soluyanov, Matthias Troyer, Michael Wimmer
Recent experiments on Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires [S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, and C. M. Marcus, Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature17162] revealed a surprisingly large electronic Landé g factor, several times larger than the bulk value-contrary to the expectation that confinement reduces the g factor. Here we assess the role of orbital contributions to the electron g factor in nanowires and quantum dots...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Volker Becker, Klaus Kassner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Raphael Blumenfeld, Shahar Amitai, Joe F Jordan, Rebecca Hihinashvili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yongquan Liu, Zixian Liang, Fu Liu, Owen Diba, Alistair Lamb, Jensen Li
Inspired by recent demonstrations of metasurfaces in achieving reduced versions of electromagnetic cloaks, we propose and experimentally demonstrate source illusion devices to manipulate flexural waves using metasurfaces. The approach is particularly useful for elastic waves due to the lack of form invariance in usual transformation methods. We demonstrate compact and simple-to-implement metasurfaces for shifting, transforming, and splitting a point source. The effects are measured to be broadband and robust against a change of source positions, with agreement from numerical simulations and the Huygens-Fresnel theory...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Sigurdur I Erlingsson, Andrei Manolescu, George Alexandru Nemnes, Jens H Bardarson, David Sanchez
We calculate the charge current generated by a temperature bias between the two ends of a tubular nanowire. We show that in the presence of a transversal magnetic field the current can change sign; i.e., electrons can either flow from the hot to the cold reservoir, or in the opposite direction, when the temperature bias increases. This behavior occurs when the magnetic field is sufficiently strong, such that Landau and snaking states are created, and the energy dispersion is nonmonotonic with respect to the longitudinal wave vector...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
K A Matveev, M Pustilnik
We develop a theory of viscous dissipation in one-dimensional single-component quantum liquids at low temperatures. Such liquids are characterized by a single viscosity coefficient, the bulk viscosity. We show that for a generic interaction between the constituent particles this viscosity diverges in the zero-temperature limit. In the special case of integrable models, the viscosity is infinite at any temperature, which can be interpreted as a breakdown of the hydrodynamic description. Our consideration is applicable to all single-component Galilean-invariant one-dimensional quantum liquids, regardless of the statistics of the constituent particles and the interaction strength...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Xiangyang Wang, Huanyang Chen, Hui Liu, Lin Xu, Chong Sheng, Shining Zhu
Transformation optics has been used to propose various novel optical devices. With the help of metamaterials, several intriguing designs, such as invisibility cloaks, have been implemented. However, as the basic units should be much smaller than the working wavelengths to achieve the effective material parameters, and the sizes of devices should be much larger than the wavelengths of illumination to work within the light-ray approximation, it is a big challenge to implement an experimental system that works simultaneously for both geometric optics and wave optics...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Rui Yu, Quansheng Wu, Zhong Fang, Hongming Weng
Based on first-principles calculations and effective model analysis, we propose that the WC-type HfC, in the absence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC), can host a three-dimensional nodal chain semimetal state. Distinguished from the previous material IrF_{4} [T. Bzdusek et al., Nature 538, 75 (2016)], the nodal chain here is protected by mirror reflection symmetries of a simple space group, while in IrF_{4} the nonsymmorphic space group with a glide plane is a necessity. Moreover, in the presence of SOC, the nodal chain in WC-type HfC evolves into Weyl points...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Giacomo Torlai, Roger G Melko
We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Aurore Finco, Levente Rózsa, Pin-Jui Hsu, André Kubetzka, Elena Vedmedenko, Kirsten von Bergmann, Roland Wiesendanger
Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy investigations reveal a significant increase of the magnetic period of spin spirals in three-atomic-layer-thick Fe films on Ir(111), from about 4 nm at 8 K to about 65 nm at room temperature. We attribute this considerable influence of temperature on the magnetic length scale of noncollinear spin states to different exchange interaction coefficients in the different Fe layers. We thus propose a classical spin model that reproduces the experimental observations and in which the crucial feature is the presence of magnetically coupled atomic layers with different interaction strengths...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Koen van Kruining, Armen G Hayrapetyan, Jörg B Götte
We present a relativistic description of electron vortex beams in a homogeneous magnetic field. Including spin from the beginning reveals that spin-polarized electron vortex beams have a complicated azimuthal current structure, containing small rings of counterrotating current between rings of stronger corotating current. Contrary to many other problems in relativistic quantum mechanics, there exists a set of vortex beams with exactly zero spin-orbit mixing in the highly relativistic and nonparaxial regime...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Bartomeu Monserrat, Joseph W Bennett, Karin M Rabe, David Vanderbilt
We introduce antiferroelectric topological insulators as a new class of functional materials in which an electric field can be used to control topological order and induce topological phase transitions. Using first principles methods, we predict that several alkali-MgBi orthorhombic members of an ABC family of compounds are antiferroelectric topological insulators. We also show that epitaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure can be used to tune the topological order and the band gap of these ABC compounds. Antiferroelectric topological insulators could enable precise control of topology using electric fields, enhancing the applicability of topological materials in electronics and spintronics...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Quentin Brosseau, Petia M Vlahovska
Tip streaming generates micron- and submicron-sized droplets when a thin thread pulled from the pointy end of a drop disintegrates. Here, we report streaming from the equator of a drop placed in a uniform electric field. The instability generates concentric fluid rings encircling the drop, which break up to form an array of microdroplets in the equatorial plane. We show that the streaming results from an interfacial instability at the stagnation line of the electrohydrodynamic flow, which creates a sharp edge...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Cheng Zeng, Mercedes Hernando-Pérez, Bogdan Dragnea, Xiang Ma, Paul van der Schoot, Roya Zandi
A virus binding to a surface causes stress of the virus cage near the contact area. Here, we investigate the potential role of substrate-induced structural perturbation in the mechanical response of virus particles to adsorption. This is particularly relevant to the broad category of viruses stabilized by weak noncovalent interactions. We utilize atomic force microscopy to measure height distributions of the brome mosaic virus upon adsorption from solution on atomically flat substrates and present a continuum model that captures our observations and provides estimates of elastic properties and of the interfacial energy of the virus, without recourse to indentation...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Paul M Chesler, Abraham Loeb
In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Zhong-Bo Kang, Jian-Wei Qiu, Felix Ringer, Hongxi Xing, Hong Zhang
We study the production and polarization of J/ψ mesons within a jet in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. We define the J/ψ-jet fragmentation function as a ratio of differential jet cross sections with and without the reconstructed J/ψ in the jet. We demonstrate that this is a very useful observable to help explore the J/ψ production mechanism, and to differentiate between different nonrelativistic QCD global fits based on inclusive J/ψ cross sections. Furthermore, we propose to measure the polarization of J/ψ mesons inside the jet, which can provide even more stringent constraints for the heavy quarkonium production mechanism...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
J Javaloyes, M Marconi, M Giudici
Dissipative solitons often behave as quasiparticles, and they may form molecules characterized by well-defined bond distances. We show that pointwise nonlocality may lead to a new kind of molecule where bonds are not rigid. The elements of this molecule can shift mutually one with respect to the others while remaining linked together, in a manner similar to interlaced rings in a chain. We report experimental observations of these chains of nested dissipative solitons in a time-delayed laser system.
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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