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Physical Review Letters

Thomas E Collett, David Bacon
Probing the relative speeds of gravitational waves and light acts as an important test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. Measuring the arrival time of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) counterparts can be used to measure the relative speeds, but only if the intrinsic time lag between emission of the photons and gravitational waves is well understood. Here we suggest a method that does not make such an assumption, using future strongly lensed GW events and EM counterparts; Biesiada et al...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yang Liu, Manish Vashishta, Pavle Djuricanin, Sida Zhou, Wei Zhong, Tony Mittertreiner, David Carty, Takamasa Momose
We have demonstrated that a supersonic beam of methyl radicals (CH_{3}) in the ground rotational state of both para and ortho species has been slowed down to standstill with a magnetic molecular decelerator, and successfully captured spatially in an anti-Helmholtz magnetic trap for >1  s. The trapped CH_{3} radicals have a mean translational temperature of about 200 mK with an estimated density of >5.0×10^{7}  cm^{-3}. The methyl radical is an ideal system for the study of cold molecules not only because of its high reactivities at low temperatures, but also because further cooling below 1 mK is plausible via sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
M Katoh, M Fujimoto, H Kawaguchi, K Tsuchiya, K Ohmi, T Kaneyasu, Y Taira, M Hosaka, A Mochihashi, Y Takashima
We theoretically demonstrate for the first time that a single free electron in circular or spiral motion emits twisted photons carrying well-defined orbital angular momentum along the axis of the electron circulation, in adding to spin angular momentum. We show that, when the electron velocity is relativistic, the radiation field contains harmonic components and the photons of lth harmonic carry lℏ total angular momentum for each. This work indicates that twisted photons are naturally emitted by free electrons and are more ubiquitous in laboratories and in nature than ever thought...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
C J Forrest, P B Radha, J P Knauer, V Yu Glebov, V N Goncharov, S P Regan, M J Rosenberg, T C Sangster, W T Shmayda, C Stoeckl, M Gatu Johnson
The deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium neutron yield ratio in cryogenic inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is used to examine multifluid effects, traditionally not included in ICF modeling. This ratio has been measured for ignition-scalable direct-drive cryogenic DT implosions at the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)OPCOB80030-401810.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2] using a high-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The experimentally inferred yield ratio is consistent with both the calculated values of the nuclear reaction rates and the measured preshot target-fuel composition...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
B S Henderson, L D Ice, D Khaneft, C O'Connor, R Russell, A Schmidt, J C Bernauer, M Kohl, N Akopov, R Alarcon, O Ates, A Avetisyan, R Beck, S Belostotski, J Bessuille, F Brinker, J R Calarco, V Carassiti, E Cisbani, G Ciullo, M Contalbrigo, R De Leo, J Diefenbach, T W Donnelly, K Dow, G Elbakian, P D Eversheim, S Frullani, Ch Funke, G Gavrilov, B Gläser, N Görrissen, D K Hasell, J Hauschildt, Ph Hoffmeister, Y Holler, E Ihloff, A Izotov, R Kaiser, G Karyan, J Kelsey, A Kiselev, P Klassen, A Krivshich, I Lehmann, P Lenisa, D Lenz, S Lumsden, Y Ma, F Maas, H Marukyan, O Miklukho, R G Milner, A Movsisyan, M Murray, Y Naryshkin, R Perez Benito, R Perrino, R P Redwine, D Rodríguez Piñeiro, G Rosner, U Schneekloth, B Seitz, M Statera, A Thiel, H Vardanyan, D Veretennikov, C Vidal, A Winnebeck, V Yeganov
The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R_{2γ}, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ≈20° to 80°...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Sergei Fedotov, Helena Stage
We model transport of individuals across a heterogeneous scale-free network where a few weakly connected nodes exhibit heavy-tailed residence times. Using the empirical law of the axiom of cumulative inertia and fractional analysis, we show that "anomalous cumulative inertia" overpowers highly connected nodes in attracting network individuals. This fundamentally challenges the classical result that individuals tend to accumulate in high-order nodes. The derived residence time distribution has a nontrivial U shape which we encounter empirically across human residence and employment times...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Joonhee Choi, Soonwon Choi, Georg Kucsko, Peter C Maurer, Brendan J Shields, Hitoshi Sumiya, Shinobu Onoda, Junichi Isoya, Eugene Demler, Fedor Jelezko, Norman Y Yao, Mikhail D Lukin
We study the depolarization dynamics of a dense ensemble of dipolar interacting spins, associated with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We observe anomalously fast, density-dependent, and nonexponential spin relaxation. To explain these observations, we propose a microscopic model where an interplay of long-range interactions, disorder, and dissipation leads to predictions that are in quantitative agreement with both current and prior experimental results. Our results pave the way for controlled many-body experiments with long-lived and strongly interacting ensembles of solid-state spins...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Baojie Feng, Osamu Sugino, Ro-Ya Liu, Jin Zhang, Ryu Yukawa, Mitsuaki Kawamura, Takushi Iimori, Howon Kim, Yukio Hasegawa, Hui Li, Lan Chen, Kehui Wu, Hiroshi Kumigashira, Fumio Komori, Tai-Chang Chiang, Sheng Meng, Iwao Matsuda
Honeycomb structures of group IV elements can host massless Dirac fermions with nontrivial Berry phases. Their potential for electronic applications has attracted great interest and spurred a broad search for new Dirac materials especially in monolayer structures. We present a detailed investigation of the β_{12} sheet, which is a borophene structure that can form spontaneously on a Ag(111) surface. Our tight-binding analysis revealed that the lattice of the β_{12} sheet could be decomposed into two triangular sublattices in a way similar to that for a honeycomb lattice, thereby hosting Dirac cones...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Xiangyu Cao, Alberto Rosso, Raoul Santachiara, Pierre Le Doussal
An exact mapping is established between the c≥25 Liouville field theory (LFT) and the Gibbs measure statistics of a thermal particle in a 2D Gaussian free field plus a logarithmic confining potential. The probability distribution of the position of the minimum of the energy landscape is obtained exactly by combining the conformal bootstrap and one-step replica symmetry-breaking methods. Operator product expansions in the LFT allow us to unveil novel universal behaviors of the log-correlated random energy class...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Lorenzo Bartolini, Francesco Bigazzi, Stefano Bolognesi, Aldo L Cotrone, Andrea Manenti
We compute the electric dipole moment of nucleons in the large N_{c} QCD model by Witten, Sakai, and Sugimoto with N_{f}=2 degenerate massive flavors. Baryons in the model are instantonic solitons of an effective five-dimensional action describing the whole tower of mesonic fields. We find that the dipole electromagnetic form factor of the nucleons, induced by a finite topological θ angle, exhibits complete vector meson dominance. We are able to evaluate the contribution of each vector meson to the final result-a small number of modes are relevant to obtain an accurate estimate...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Qingteng Zhang, Eric M Dufresne, Pice Chen, Joonkyu Park, Margaret P Cosgriff, Mohammed Yusuf, Yongqi Dong, Dillon D Fong, Hua Zhou, Zhonghou Cai, Ross J Harder, Sara J Callori, Matthew Dawber, Paul G Evans, Alec R Sandy
Ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices consisting of alternating layers of ferroelectric PbTiO_{3} and dielectric SrTiO_{3} exhibit a disordered striped nanodomain pattern, with characteristic length scales of 6 nm for the domain periodicity and 30 nm for the in-plane coherence of the domain pattern. Spatial disorder in the domain pattern gives rise to coherent hard x-ray scattering patterns exhibiting intensity speckles. We show here using variable-temperature Bragg-geometry x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy that x-ray scattering patterns from the disordered domains exhibit a continuous temporal decorrelation due to spontaneous domain fluctuations...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Mark Howard, Earl Campbell
Motivated by their necessity for most fault-tolerant quantum computation schemes, we formulate a resource theory for magic states. First, we show that robustness of magic is a well-behaved magic monotone that operationally quantifies the classical simulation overhead for a Gottesman-Knill-type scheme using ancillary magic states. Our framework subsequently finds immediate application in the task of synthesizing non-Clifford gates using magic states. When magic states are interspersed with Clifford gates, Pauli measurements, and stabilizer ancillas-the most general synthesis scenario-then the class of synthesizable unitaries is hard to characterize...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Zhaojun Li, Qiuxian Cai, Xuanqi Zhang, Guangwei Si, Qi Ouyang, Chunxiong Luo, Yuhai Tu
We study cell navigation in spatiotemporally complex environments by developing a microfluidic racetrack device that creates a traveling wave with multiple peaks and a tunable wave speed. We find that while the population-averaged chemotaxis drift speed increases with wave speed for low wave speed, it decreases sharply for high wave speed. This reversed dependence of population-averaged chemotaxis drift speed on wave speed is caused by a "barrier-crossing" phenomenon, where a cell hops backwards from one peak attractant location to the peak behind by crossing an unfavorable (barrier) region with low attractant concentrations...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Lucile Mangin-Thro, Yuan Li, Yvan Sidis, Philippe Bourges
Within the complex phase diagram of the hole-doped cuprates, seizing the nature of the mysterious pseudogap phase is essential for unraveling the microscopic origin of high-temperature superconductivity. Below the pseudogap temperature T^{⋆}, evidence for intra-unit-cell orders breaking the fourfold rotation symmetry have been provided by neutron diffraction and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Using polarized neutron diffraction on a detwinned YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{6.6} sample, we here report a distinct a-b anisotropy of the intra-unit-cell magnetic structure factor below T^{⋆}, highlighting that intra-unit-cell order in this material breaks the mirror symmetry of the CuO_{2} bilayers...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Xiaoling Zhou, Nobumichi Tamura, Zhongying Mi, Jialin Lei, Jinyuan Yan, Lingkong Zhang, Wen Deng, Feng Ke, Binbin Yue, Bin Chen
The conventional belief, based on the Read-Shockley model for the grain rotation mechanism, has been that smaller grains rotate more under stress due to the motion of grain boundary dislocations. However, in our high-pressure synchrotron Laue x-ray microdiffraction experiments, 70 nm nickel particles are found to rotate more than any other grain size. We infer that the reversal in the size dependence of the grain rotation arises from the crossover between the grain boundary dislocation-mediated and grain interior dislocation-mediated deformation mechanisms...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Allen Caldwell, Gia Dvali, Béla Majorovits, Alexander Millar, Georg Raffelt, Javier Redondo, Olaf Reimann, Frank Simon, Frank Steffen
We propose a new strategy to search for dark matter axions in the mass range of 40-400 μeV by introducing dielectric haloscopes, which consist of dielectric disks placed in a magnetic field. The changing dielectric media cause discontinuities in the axion-induced electric field, leading to the generation of propagating electromagnetic waves to satisfy the continuity requirements at the interfaces. Large-area disks with adjustable distances boost the microwave signal (10-100 GHz) to an observable level and allow one to scan over a broad axion mass range...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Johannes Knolle, Nigel R Cooper
Kondo insulating materials lie outside the usual dichotomy of weakly versus correlated-band versus Mott-insulators. They are metallic at high temperatures but resemble band insulators at low temperatures because of the opening of an interaction-induced band gap. The first discovered Kondo insulator (KI) SmB_{6} has been predicted to form a topological KI (TKI). However, since its discovery thermodynamic and transport anomalies have been observed that have defied a theoretical explanation. Enigmatic signatures of collective modes inside the charge gap are seen in specific heat, thermal transport, and quantum oscillation experiments in strong magnetic fields...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
M Ablikim, M N Achasov, S Ahmed, X C Ai, O Albayrak, M Albrecht, D J Ambrose, A Amoroso, F F An, Q An, J Z Bai, O Bakina, R Baldini Ferroli, Y Ban, D W Bennett, J V Bennett, N Berger, M Bertani, D Bettoni, J M Bian, F Bianchi, E Boger, I Boyko, R A Briere, H Cai, X Cai, O Cakir, A Calcaterra, G F Cao, S A Cetin, J Chai, J F Chang, G Chelkov, G Chen, H S Chen, J C Chen, M L Chen, S Chen, S J Chen, X Chen, X R Chen, Y B Chen, X K Chu, G Cibinetto, H L Dai, J P Dai, A Dbeyssi, D Dedovich, Z Y Deng, A Denig, I Denysenko, M Destefanis, F De Mori, Y Ding, C Dong, J Dong, L Y Dong, M Y Dong, Z L Dou, S X Du, P F Duan, J Z Fan, J Fang, S S Fang, X Fang, Y Fang, R Farinelli, L Fava, F Feldbauer, G Felici, C Q Feng, E Fioravanti, M Fritsch, C D Fu, Q Gao, X L Gao, Y Gao, Z Gao, I Garzia, K Goetzen, L Gong, W X Gong, W Gradl, M Greco, M H Gu, Y T Gu, Y H Guan, A Q Guo, L B Guo, R P Guo, Y Guo, Y P Guo, Z Haddadi, A Hafner, S Han, X Q Hao, F A Harris, K L He, F H Heinsius, T Held, Y K Heng, T Holtmann, Z L Hou, C Hu, H M Hu, J F Hu, T Hu, Y Hu, G S Huang, J S Huang, X T Huang, X Z Huang, Z L Huang, T Hussain, W Ikegami Andersson, Q Ji, Q P Ji, X B Ji, X L Ji, L W Jiang, X S Jiang, X Y Jiang, J B Jiao, Z Jiao, D P Jin, S Jin, T Johansson, A Julin, N Kalantar-Nayestanaki, X L Kang, X S Kang, M Kavatsyuk, B C Ke, P Kiese, R Kliemt, B Kloss, O B Kolcu, B Kopf, M Kornicer, A Kupsc, W Kühn, J S Lange, M Lara, P Larin, L Lavezzi, H Leithoff, C Leng, C Li, Cheng Li, D M Li, F Li, F Y Li, G Li, H B Li, H J Li, J C Li, Jin Li, K Li, K Li, Lei Li, P R Li, Q Y Li, T Li, W D Li, W G Li, X L Li, X N Li, X Q Li, Y B Li, Z B Li, H Liang, Y F Liang, Y T Liang, G R Liao, D X Lin, B Liu, B J Liu, C X Liu, D Liu, F H Liu, Fang Liu, Feng Liu, H B Liu, H H Liu, H H Liu, H M Liu, J Liu, J B Liu, J P Liu, J Y Liu, K Liu, K Y Liu, L D Liu, P L Liu, Q Liu, S B Liu, X Liu, Y B Liu, Y Y Liu, Z A Liu, Zhiqing Liu, H Loehner, X C Lou, H J Lu, J G Lu, Y Lu, Y P Lu, C L Luo, M X Luo, T Luo, X L Luo, X R Lyu, F C Ma, H L Ma, L L Ma, M M Ma, Q M Ma, T Ma, X N Ma, X Y Ma, Y M Ma, F E Maas, M Maggiora, Q A Malik, Y J Mao, Z P Mao, S Marcello, J G Messchendorp, G Mezzadri, J Min, T J Min, R E Mitchell, X H Mo, Y J Mo, C Morales Morales, N Yu Muchnoi, H Muramatsu, P Musiol, Y Nefedov, F Nerling, I B Nikolaev, Z Ning, S Nisar, S L Niu, X Y Niu, S L Olsen, Q Ouyang, S Pacetti, Y Pan, P Patteri, M Pelizaeus, H P Peng, K Peters, J Pettersson, J L Ping, R G Ping, R Poling, V Prasad, H R Qi, M Qi, S Qian, C F Qiao, L Q Qin, N Qin, X S Qin, Z H Qin, J F Qiu, K H Rashid, C F Redmer, M Ripka, G Rong, Ch Rosner, X D Ruan, A Sarantsev, M Savrié, C Schnier, K Schoenning, W Shan, M Shao, C P Shen, P X Shen, X Y Shen, H Y Sheng, W M Song, X Y Song, S Sosio, S Spataro, G X Sun, J F Sun, S S Sun, X H Sun, Y J Sun, Y Z Sun, Z J Sun, Z T Sun, C J Tang, X Tang, I Tapan, E H Thorndike, M Tiemens, I Uman, G S Varner, B Wang, B L Wang, D Wang, D Y Wang, K Wang, L L Wang, L S Wang, M Wang, P Wang, P L Wang, W Wang, W P Wang, X F Wang, Y Wang, Y D Wang, Y F Wang, Y Q Wang, Z Wang, Z G Wang, Z H Wang, Z Y Wang, Z Y Wang, T Weber, D H Wei, P Weidenkaff, S P Wen, U Wiedner, M Wolke, L H Wu, L J Wu, Z Wu, L Xia, L G Xia, Y Xia, D Xiao, H Xiao, Z J Xiao, Y G Xie, Yuehong Xie, Q L Xiu, G F Xu, J J Xu, L Xu, Q J Xu, Q N Xu, X P Xu, L Yan, W B Yan, W C Yan, Y H Yan, H J Yang, H X Yang, L Yang, Y X Yang, M Ye, M H Ye, J H Yin, Z Y You, B X Yu, C X Yu, J S Yu, C Z Yuan, Y Yuan, A Yuncu, A A Zafar, Y Zeng, Z Zeng, B X Zhang, B Y Zhang, C C Zhang, D H Zhang, H H Zhang, H Y Zhang, J Zhang, J J Zhang, J L Zhang, J Q Zhang, J W Zhang, J Y Zhang, J Z Zhang, K Zhang, L Zhang, S Q Zhang, X Y Zhang, Y Zhang, Y Zhang, Y H Zhang, Y N Zhang, Y T Zhang, Yu Zhang, Z H Zhang, Z P Zhang, Z Y Zhang, G Zhao, J W Zhao, J Y Zhao, J Z Zhao, Lei Zhao, Ling Zhao, M G Zhao, Q Zhao, Q W Zhao, S J Zhao, T C Zhao, Y B Zhao, Z G Zhao, A Zhemchugov, B Zheng, J P Zheng, W J Zheng, Y H Zheng, B Zhong, L Zhou, X Zhou, X K Zhou, X R Zhou, X Y Zhou, K Zhu, K J Zhu, S Zhu, S H Zhu, X L Zhu, Y C Zhu, Y S Zhu, Z A Zhu, J Zhuang, L Zotti, B S Zou, J H Zou
The cross sections of e^{+}e^{-}→π^{+}π^{-}h_{c} at center-of-mass energies from 3.896 to 4.600 GeV are measured using data samples collected with the BESIII detector operating at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider. The cross sections are found to be of the same order of magnitude as those of e^{+}e^{-}→π^{+}π^{-}J/ψ and e^{+}e^{-}→π^{+}π^{-}ψ(2S), but the line shape is inconsistent with the Y states observed in the latter two modes. Two structures are observed in the e^{+}e^{-}→π^{+}π^{-}h_{c} cross sections around 4...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Swomitra Palit, Lilin He, William A Hamilton, Arun Yethiraj, Anand Yethiraj
The effect of particles on the behavior of polymers in solution is important in a number of important phenomena such as the effect of "crowding" proteins in cells, colloid-polymer mixtures, and nanoparticle "fillers" in polymer solutions and melts. In this Letter, we study the effect of spherical inert nanoparticles (which we refer to as "crowders") on the diffusion coefficient and radius of gyration of polymers in solution using pulsed-field-gradient NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), respectively...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Uta Meyer, Géraldine Haack, Christoph Groth, Xavier Waintal
The oscillatory interlayer exchange interaction between two magnetic layers separated by a metallic spacer is one of the few coherent quantum phenomena that persists at room temperature. Here, we show that this interaction can be controlled dynamically by illuminating the sample (e.g., a spin valve) with radiation in the 10-100 THz range. We predict that the exchange interaction can be changed from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic (and vice versa) by tuning the amplitude and/or the frequency of the radiation...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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