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Perspectives in Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176089/the-body-politic-in-pain
#1
Beth Linker
In his 2015 book Pain: A Political History, Keith Wailoo demonstrates how a medicalized condition became central to defining party politics in the United States from World War II down to the present. Drawing on sources ranging from postwar Congressional hearings concerning the veteran welfare state to debates surrounding Rush Limbaugh's OxyContin addiction, Wailoo offers a fresh analysis of both U.S. political history and medical history, showing how today's highly polarized party system emerged in part from debates surrounding the existence and worth of pain, as well as its management...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176088/hope-and-resentment
#2
Jamie Lindemann Nelson
A common challenge for both health-care providers and policymakers is to deal with people as people, rather than merely as biological or social problems to be managed. In terms introduced in P. F. Strawson's much-discussed essay "Freedom and Resentment" (1962), the difficulty is to maintain a reactive "participant stance," rather than a solely objective perspective, toward those with whom they have difficulties. Vaccine resistance and refusal provides a particularly pointed instance of this challenge: there is evidence that suggests standard methods of rational persuasion tend to be ineffective, even counter-productive, in easing skepticism about the safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness of vaccines and vaccine regimens...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176087/in-pursuit-of-educational-integrity-professional-identity-formation-in-the-harvard-medical-school-cambridge-integrated-clerkship
#3
Elizabeth Gaufberg, David Bor, Perry Dinardo, Edward Krupat, Elizabeth Pine, Barbara Ogur, David A Hirsh
Graduates of Harvard Medical School's Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (CIC) describe several core processes that may underlie professional identity formation (PIF): encouragement to integrate pre-professional and professional identities; support for learner autonomy in discovering meaningful roles and responsibilities; learning through caring relationships; and a curriculum and an institutional culture that make values explicit. The authors suggest that the benefits of educational integrity accrue when idealistic learners inhabit an educational model that aligns with their own core values, and when professional development occurs in the context of an institutional home that upholds these values...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176086/choosing-to-care-for-children-who-might-die-conversations-with-pediatric-residents
#4
Amy E Brown
This essay evolved from observations that pediatric resident physicians' experiences with patient deaths might influence their career paths after completing residency training. The author's journey as a physician led her to wonder whether young pediatricians who gravitated toward careers in primary care had qualitatively different experiences with death and dying during their medical training compared to those who chose fields in which they were more likely to confront death and dying on a regular basis, such as pediatric critical care, neonatology, or pediatric oncology...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176085/maintaining-compassion-for-the-suffering-terminal-patient-while-preserving-life-an-orthodox-jewish-approach
#5
Daniel Eisenberg
Regardless of one's religious beliefs, the process of making end-of-life decisions is inherently difficult and emotionally trying. The caregiver, family member, or friend is faced with making heart-wrenching decisions for loved ones where the line between support and cruelty may feel blurred. By evaluating the process by which traditional Judaism harmonizes the apparently conflicting obligations of the caregiver in end-of-life scenarios through three practical cases, all people can gain insight into managing this delicate balancing act and may develop generalizable approaches that recognize and appreciate the particularities of each patient's needs...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176084/a-child-s-right-to-be-well-born-venereal-disease-and-the-eugenic-marriage-laws-1913-1935
#6
Paul A Lombardo
An extensive literature describes the legal impact of America's eugenics movement, and the laws mandating sterilization, restriction of marriage by race, and ethnic bans on immigration. But little scholarship focuses on the laws adopted in more than 40 states that were commonly referred to as "eugenic marriage laws." Those laws conditioned marriage licenses on medical examinations and were designed to save innocent women from lives of misery, prevent stillbirth or premature death in children, and save future generations from the myriad afflictions that accompanied "venereal infection...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176083/marston-bates-visionary-environmentalist
#7
Socrates Litsios
Marston Bates (1906-1974) raised questions concerning man's relationship to nature, questions that are of much greater importance today than they were during his lifetime. He began his career with the Rockefeller Foundation as a mosquito expert, and by 1955 he had established himself as one of the key players in the field of human ecology through a series of publications that brought together in a clear and readable style the complexities involved in understanding human ecology. This article traces Bates's development and discusses how the Foundation failed to engage the subject of human ecology, even at a time when it recognized its critical importance to humankind...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176082/the-best-interest-standard-same-name-but-different-roles-in-pediatric-bioethics-and-child-rights-frameworks
#8
Lainie Friedman Ross, Alissa Hurwitz Swota
This article explores the intersection of pediatric bioethics and child rights by examining the best interest standard as it operates within the pediatric bioethics framework in the United States and the child rights framework based on the UN 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). While the "best interest of the child" standard is central to both pediatric bioethics and the child rights community, it operates only as a guidance principle, and not as an intervention principle, in decision-making within U...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176081/biocontaining-purification-restoration-and-meaning-making
#9
Helen Chapple, David Schenck
Biocontaining during the recent Ebola outbreak served to affirm the social significance of biomedicine, even though it had little measurable effect on the pandemic itself. Taking up key insights of Mary Douglas and Victor Turner concerning the essential meaning-making tasks of culture, this article discusses how biocontaining as an activity contributed to the work of social reassurance and meaning-making in U.S. and global society during the crisis. The analysis is based in significant part on fieldwork done at the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU), study of NBU educational materials, and follow-up conversations with personnel staffing that unit...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176080/the-etiological-stance-explaining-illness-occurrence
#10
Olaf Dammann
Kelly, Kelly, and Russo (2014) recently proposed to integrate biological, behavioral, and social mechanisms into "mixed mechanisms" situated in the individual's "lifeworld" when considering illness causation. This article suggests considering terminological discrepancies, replacing the pathogenetic with an etiological perspective (that includes, but is not limited to pathogenesis), and rethinking whether the lifeworld concept adds to what we consider an individual's "environment." It also proposes replacing the notion of "mixed mechanisms" with the concept of "combined contributions" of factors in etiological explanations of illness...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176079/if-the-framingham-heart-study-did-not-invent-the-risk-factor-who-did
#11
David Shumway Jones, Gerald M Oppenheimer
Most historians, epidemiologists, and physicians credit the Framing-ham Heart Study for introducing the term "risk factor" to public health and medicine. Many add that the term came from life insurance companies. This familiar history is incorrect. Taking advantage of the expanding availability of digitized and full-text searchable journals, textbooks, newspapers, and other sources, we have uncovered a deeper and broader history. Antecedent concepts (such as risk, factor, predisposition) have ancient roots...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890453/risk-communication-in-epa-s-controlled-inhalation-exposure-studies-and-in-support
#12
David Resnik
On March 28, 2017, the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) released a much-anticipated report on the Environmental Protection Agency's controlled human inhalation exposure studies. This essay reviews the ethical controversies that led to the genesis of the report, summarizes its key findings, and comments on its approach to informing human subjects about the risks of inhalation exposure studies. NASEM's report makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the scientific and ethical issues involved in conducting human inhalation exposure studies...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890452/a-journey-in-public-health-ethics
#13
Nancy E Kass
While medical ethics has a long history, and research ethics guidance emerged more formally in the 1960s and 1970s, frameworks for public health ethics began to appear in the 1990s. The author's thinking about public health ethics evolved from consideration of some of the ethics and policy questions surfacing regularly in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This essay discusses some of the shared commitments of public health and ethics, as well as how one might apply an ethics lens to public health programs, both generally and in the contexts of public health preparedness and obesity prevention...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890451/in-the-matter-of-stories
#14
Hilde Lindemann
This essay lays out some of the many resources that a background in literary studies has to offer bioethics. After identifying four useful characteristics of stories, it briefly discusses some kinds of moral work that stories can be put to, including countering ethically undesirable stories and modeling ethically troubling situations. Stories can be invoked in our moral reasoning, compared and parsed, and used to teach moral lessons. They can help us discern which moral concepts are operative in a specific instance...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890450/regarding-bioethics-i-a-sociology-of-morality-i
#15
Raymond De Vries
C. Wright Mills said that when done well, sociology illuminates the intersection of biography and history. This essay examines how the author's vocational choices and career path were shaped by historical circumstance, leading him to a degree in sociology and to participation in the odd and interesting interdiscipline of bioethics. Drawing on a distinction between sociology in bioethics and sociology of bioethics, the essay considers the value of sociology to the bioethical project.
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890449/history-morals-and-medicine
#16
Jonathan D Moreno
This essay provides a rational reconstruction of the author's genetically inscribed inclination to do normative ethics with an historical bent and offers some reflections on the value of historical thinking for bioethics.
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890448/a-tale-of-two-disciplines-i-law-and-bioethics-i
#17
Rebecca Dresser
Fascination with In re Quinlan, the first high-profile right-to-die case in the United States, led the author to law school. By the time she received her law degree, bioethics was emerging as a field of study, and law and bioethics became her field. The mission of legal education is to teach students to "think like a lawyer," which can be a productive way to approach issues in many fields, including bioethics. Legal education can also teach individuals to respect people whose views on bioethics issues differ from their own...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890447/what-nurse-bioethicists-bring-to-bioethics-i-the-journey-of-a-nurse-bioethicist-i
#18
Connie M Ulrich
Nurses, one of the most trusted professional groups in our society, work with patients and their families at all stages of the illness trajectory. Nurse bioethicists are a small but special subset of the nursing profession and bioethics community, focusing on the moral complexities that arise in clinical care, research, and health policy. This article examines the career trajectory of a nurse bioethicist and the clinical, educational, and research experiences that shaped her career goals. It also addresses the uniqueness of nursing and the ethical challenges that nurse's encounter in their day-today interactions with diverse patient populations and calls for distinct conceptual and empirical bioethics inquiry...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890446/my-time-in-medicine
#19
Joseph J Fins
Through this autobiographical reflection on a life in medicine and bioethics, the author discovers that time is a unifying theme in his work. From his early writing on the regulation of house staff work hours and his abandonment of essentialism and the development of clinical pragmatism as a method of moral problem-solving to his scholarship on end-of-life care and disorders of consciousness, time has been a central heuristic in an effort to bridge ethical theory and clinical practice.
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890445/challenging-the-conventional-wisdom-i-from-philosophy-to-bioethics-i
#20
Franklin G Miller
Philosophy is a core discipline that has contributed importantly to bioethics. In this essay, the author traces his trajectory from philosophy to bioethics, oriented around the theme of challenging the conventional wisdom. Three topics are discussed to illustrate this theme: the ethics of randomized trials, determination of death and organ transplantation, and pragmatism as a method of bioethics. In addition, the author offers some general reflections on the relationship between philosophy and bioethics. Philosophy recovers itself when it ceases to be a device for dealing with the problems of philosophers and becomes a method, cultivated by philosophers, for dealing with the problems of men...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
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