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Perceptual and Motor Skills

Takayoshi Fujiwara
The theoretical five-factor model for the 35-item Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) has rarely been examined empirically, despite its wide use to investigate language learning beliefs. This study examined the BALLI's dimensional structure with a sample of undergraduate students at a Thai university ( N = 537; male 43.4%, female 56.4%; age mean = 19.12 years), taking an elementary-level Japanese language course. Confirmatory factor analysis by M plus did not support Horwitz's theoretical model...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Selina Khoo, Chunxiao Li, Payam Ansari
Despite increasing publications in disability sport, no bibliometric analysis has been conducted to evaluate the impact of these publications. We conducted a systematic search of the Web of Science Core Collection citation index on June 26, 2017 for publications published since 1980 to identify the top 50 most cited publications in disability sport. The top 50 cited publications were mainly articles and reviews published in the English language between 1993 and 2014. Most of the 148 authors who contributed to these publications were based in Europe and North America...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Marcela R de Castro, Fabiane F R Morgado, Ismael F Freitas
As a follow-up to an earlier study from this research group involving women, this study examined the reliability and validity of the Brazilian Photographic Figure Rating Scale for Men (BPFRS-M) for evaluating men's body perception and dissatisfaction. In both versions of the Brazilian Photographic Figure Rating Scale (BPFRS), respondents viewed eight photographic images (seven distorted and one accurate) of themselves in standard poses and then offered self-ratings. In both versions, 10 experts assessed content validity and demonstrated high agreement (defined by ratings of 4-5 on a 5-point scale) that BPFRS items measured underlying constructs, and experts showed high (>70%) interrater agreement...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
F Arbinaga
This study examined relationships between self-perceived sleep quality and resilience among 116 dance students (Mean age = 21.6 years; SD = 4.348). who self-reported sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and personal resilience with the Resilience Scale (RS). Most participants (59.5%) reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI, with 62.9% of the women and 42.1% of the men ( p = .092) scoring higher than five points on this instrument. On the RS, a large majority of the participants (75%) obtained scores less than 147, indicating low resilience, with no significant gender differences observed...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
John S Y Chan, Jin H Yan
Human aging is a dynamic life-long process and an inevitable experience. As the average age of the world's population rises, demands for effective geriatric rehabilitation dramatically increase. An important consideration for enhancing geriatric behavioral interventions is to better understand aging characteristics in perceptual, cognitive, and motor performances. A general shift in cognitive style from field independence to field dependence has been consistently observed during human aging, as older adults show a greater tendency to rely on environmental information, presumably reflecting a neuro-compensatory mechanism of reducing top-down control and relying instead on bottom-up processing...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Lucio Follador, Ragami C Alves, Sandro Dos S Ferreira, Cosme F Buzzachera, Vinicius F Dos S Andrade, Erick D S de A Garcia, Raul Osiecki, Sara C Barbosa, Letícia M de Oliveira, Sergio G da Silva
This study examined the extent to which different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) protocols could influence psychophysiological responses in moderately active young men. Fourteen participants completed, in a randomized order, three cycling protocols (SIT: 4 × 30-second all-out sprints; Tabata: 7 × 20 seconds at 170% ⋮O2max; and HIIT: 10 × 60 seconds at 90% HRmax) and three running HIIT protocols (4 × 4 minutes at 90%-95% HRmax, 5 × at v⋮O2max, and 4 × 1,000 meters at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 8, from the OMNI-Walk/Run scale)...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Hideyuki Tanaka, Masato Iwami
In putting, golfers require an internal forward sense of the causal relationship between putting actions and outcomes-a sense of distance-to decide appropriate impact intensity. As no previous work has shown such a cognitive ability in skilled golfers, we sought to quantify sense-of-distance skill differences between experts and novice golfers in both putting-swing consistency and accuracy of outcome estimation. We compared nine expert and nine novice golfers on putting-outcome estimation by having them putt a golf ball to a target located at three distances (1...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
L S Figueiredo, H Ugrinowitsch, A B Freire, J B Shea, R N Benda
Providing the learner control over aspects of practice has improved the process of motor skill acquisition, and self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) schedules have shown specific advantages over externally controlled ones. A possible explanation is that self-controlled KR schedules lead learners to more active task involvement, permitting deeper information processing. This study tested this explanatory hypothesis. Thirty undergraduate volunteers of both sexes, aged 18 to 35, all novices in the task, practiced transporting a tennis ball in a specified sequence within a time goal...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Beth Hands, Fleur McIntyre, Helen Parker
While specific motor abilities have become a popular explanation for motor performance, the older, alternate notion of a general motor ability should be revisited. Current theories lack consensus, and most motor assessment tools continue to derive a single composite score to represent motor capacity. In addition, results from elegant statistical procedures such as higher order factor analyses, cluster analyses, and Item Response Theory support a more global motor ability. We propose a contemporary model of general motor ability as a unidimensional construct that is emergent and fluid over an individual's lifespan, influenced by both biological and environmental factors...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Michael J Duncan, Victoria Jones, Wesley O'Brien, Lisa M Barnett, Emma L J Eyre
Children's perception of their own motor competence is an important correlate of their actual motor competence. The current study is the first to examine this association in British children and the first to use both product and process measures of actual motor competence. A total of 258 children (139 boys and 119 girls; aged 4 to 7 years, Mean = 5.6, SD = .96) completed measures of self-perceived motor competence using the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Competence in Young Children. Children were classified as "Low," "Medium," or "High" perceived competence based on tertile analysis...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Louis Koolidge, Robyn M Holmes
This study explored the effects of background music on cognitive (puzzle assembly) task performance in young children. Participants were 87 primarily European-American children (38 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 4.77 years) enrolled in early childhood classes in the northeastern United States. Children were given one minute to complete a 12-piece puzzle task in one of three background music conditions: music with lyrics, music without lyrics, and no music. The music selection was "You're Welcome" from the Disney movie "Moana...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Damien Brevers, Etienne Dubuisson, Fabien Dejonghe, Julien Dutrieux, Mathieu Petieau, Guy Cheron, Paul Verbanck, Jennifer Foucart
We examined proactive (early restraint in preparation for stopping) and reactive (late correction to stop ongoing action) motor response inhibition in two groups of participants: professional athletes ( n = 28) and nonathletes ( n = 25). We recruited the elite athletes from Belgian national taekwondo and fencing teams. We estimated proactive and reactive inhibition with a modified version of the stop-signal task (SST) in which participants inhibited categorizing left/right arrows. The probability of the stop signal was manipulated across blocks of trials by providing probability cues from the background computer screen color (green = 0%, yellow =17%, orange = 25%, red = 33%)...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Aiqing Nie
Within memory processing, feature and conjunction effects refer to higher false alarms (incorrectly naming items as previously seen) for stimuli with partial/all features taken from different previously studied versus novel items. In this study, we compared feature-conjunction effects in the memory tasks of both item recognition and source retrieval, using faces as stimuli. We found greater feature-conjunction effects on source retrieval versus item recognition tasks, though participants gave slower responses on source retrieval versus item recognition...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Joaquin Calatayud, Jonas Vinstrup, Markus D Jakobsen, Emil Sundstrup, Juan Carlos Colado, Lars L Andersen
This study evaluated the influence of different attentional foci for varied grip widths in the bench press. Eighteen resistance-trained men were familiarized with the procedure and performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test during Session 1. In Session 2, they used three different standardized grip widths (100%, 150%, and 200% of biacromial width distance) in random order at 50% of 1RM while also engaged in three different attention focus conditions (external focus on the bench press, internal focus on pectoralis major muscles, and internal focus on triceps brachii muscles)...
April 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Jun Lin, Kun Wang, Zuosong Chen, Xiang Fan, Liqun Shen, Yazhou Wang, Yanxiang Yang, Tao Huang
Associations between daily physical activity (PA) and executive functioning have rarely been investigated among young adults. This study examined these associations among 162 university students (74 females and 88 males; mean age = 19.0, SD = 1.1 years). We measured PA objectively, using hip-mounted accelerometers, and assessed executive functioning in a task-switching paradigm. Anthropometrics measurements were gathered using standardized procedures. Through linear regression modeling, we found moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β = -0...
April 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Leonardo G O Luz, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Tatiana D D Luz, Paulo Sousa-E-Silva, João P Duarte, Aristides Machado-Rodrigues, André Seabra, Rute Santos, Sean P Cumming, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
This study aimed to predict motor coordination from a matrix of biocultural factors for 173 children (89 boys, 84 girls) aged 7-9 years who were assessed with the Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder test battery. Socioeconomic variables included built environment, area of residence, mother's educational level, and mother's physical activity level (using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [short version]). The behavioral domain was marked by participation in organized sports and habitual physical activity measured by accelerometers ( ActiGraph GT1M)...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Alexander M O'Brien
Biederman's contemporary theory of basic visual object recognition (Recognition-by-Components) is based on structural descriptions of objects and presumes 36 visual primitives (geons) people can discriminate, but there has been no empirical test of the actual use of these 36 geons to visually distinguish objects. In this study, we tested for the actual use of these geons in basic visual discrimination by comparing object discrimination performance patterns (when distinguishing varied stimuli) of an acquired prosopagnosia patient (LB) and healthy control participants...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Chrystiane V A Toscano, Humberto M Carvalho, José P Ferreira
This study examined the effects of a 48-week exercise-based intervention on the metabolic profile, autism traits, and perceived quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We randomly allocated 64 children with ASD (aged 6-12 years) to experimental ( n = 46) and control groups ( n = 18) and used multilevel regression modeling to examine responses to receiving or not receiving the intervention. The experimental group showed beneficial effects on metabolic indicators (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol), autism traits, and parent-perceived quality of life...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Thejaswi Dodderi, Nikita E Philip, Kalpana Mutum
Research evidence has mounted that cognitive distracters can be detrimental to concurrent motor performance. Yet, few investigations have probed how cognitive distracters might impact dysphagia (swallowing impairment) though secondary tasks, like watching television, now compete with swallowing in a 21st-century lifestyle. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether cognitive distracters while swallowing alter swallowing or cognitive performance among healthy young adults. Participants were 30 healthy volunteers 18-24 years of age who underwent a baseline swallow task (BST), a baseline cognitive task (BCT), and a dual task (DT) in randomized order...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Joyce Martini, Fátima Aparecida Caromano, Eduardo Vital Carvalho, Priscila Albuquerque Goya, Rosana Massae Hayasaka, Silvia Nakazune, Francis Meire Fávero, Mariana Callil Voos
We compared the timed performance and compensatory movements of 32 boys (mean age = 10.0 years) with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and 38 healthy boys (mean age = 9.2 years) on 10 -meter walking and four-step stair work (climbing and descending). Dependent measures were digital scores on the Functional Evaluation Scale for DMD obtained by watching the boys on film. Groups were compared initially and after 6 and 12 months, using General Linear Models analysis (for two groups and three assessments)...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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