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Perceptual and Motor Skills

Erhan Selcuk Haciomeroglu, Mark LaVenia
The present study investigated object-spatial imagery and verbal cognitive styles in high school students. We analyzed the relationships between cognitive styles, object imagery ability, spatial visualization ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and preferred modes of processing math information. Data were collected from 348 students at six high schools in two school districts. Spatial imagery style was not correlated with object imagery style and was negatively correlated with verbal style. Object imagery style did not correlate significantly with any cognitive ability measure, whereas spatial imagery style significantly correlated with object imagery ability, spatial visualization ability, and verbal-logical reasoning ability...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Riller S Reverdito, Humberto M Carvalho, Larissa R Galatti, Alcides J Scaglia, Carlos E Gonçalves, Roberto R Paes
The present study examined extracurricular sport participation variables and developmental context in relationship to perceived self-efficacy among underserved adolescents. Participants ( n = 821, 13.6 ± 1.5 years) completed the Youth Experience in Sport questionnaire and General Self-Efficacy Scale. We used the Human Development Index (HDI) to characterize developmental contexts. Multilevel regression models were used to explore the relative contributions of age, sex, years of participation in extracurricular sport, HDI, and perceived positive experience in sport...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Cristoforo Filetti, Bruno Ruscello, Stefano D'Ottavio, Vito Fanelli
The performance of a soccer team depends on many factors such as decision-making, cognitive and physical skills, and dynamic ever-changing space-time interactions between teammate and opponents in relation to the ball. Seventy ( n = 70) matches of the Italian SERIE A season 2013-2014 were investigated to analyze the mean performance of 360 players in terms of physical (physical efficiency index; PEI) and technical-tactical (technical efficiency index; TEI) standpoints. Using a semiautomatic video analysis system that has incorporated new parameters able to measure technical-tactical and physical efficiency (Patent IB2010/002593, 2011-ISA), the correlation between these new variables and how much it relates to the likelihood of winning were verified...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Gustavo C Costa, Henrique O Castro, Breno F Evangelista, Laura M Malheiros, Pablo J Greco, Herbert Ugrinowitsch
This study examined 142 volleyball games of the Men's Super League 2014/2015 seasons in Brazil from which we analyzed 24-26 games of each participating team, identifying 5,267 Zone 4 attacks for further analysis. Within these Zone 4 attacks, we analyzed the association between the effect of the attack carried out and the separate effects of serve reception, tempo and type of attack. We found that the reception, tempo of attack, second tempo of attack, and power of diagonal attack were predictors of the attack effect in Zone 4...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Davoud Fazeli, HamidReza Taheri, Alireza Saberi Kakhki
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in mental representation from either random or blocked practice when engaged in golf putting. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to random practice, blocked practice, and no-practice groups. First, we measured novice golfers' initial mental representation levels and required them to perform 18 putting trials as a pre-test. We then asked random and blocked groups to practice in accordance with their group assignment for six consecutive days (10 blocks each day, 18 trials each)...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Sina Wu, Yingli Li, Ming Kong
To explore brain activation differences between the sexes and between high and low performers on spatial perception performance, 43 college students (20 males and 23 females) performed the Piaget's Water Level Test (WLT) while their electroencephalogram signals were recorded. A 2 (Sex) × 2 (Group: high performing vs. low performing) × 2 (Hemisphere: left vs. right) × 3 (Region: frontal, parietal, and temporal) mixed analysis of variance on beta power data showed that females more significantly activated the left hemisphere when performing the WLT, suggesting their application of an analytic strategy...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Saeed Ghorbani, Andreas Bund
Traditionally, motor learning scientists have evaluated the process of learning a new motor skill by considering the skill as a whole. Yet, motor skills comprise various phases, and in the motor learning literature, it is not clear whether new learners show similar or different learning across various phases. We provide exploratory data on learning movement phases by novices, using baseball pitching as the learning task. Eight participants (four male, four female, M age = 23.7 years, SD = 2.4) performed five trials each in the pretest followed by three blocks of 10 trials each in the acquisition phase...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Elif Akben-Selcuk
Using the Turkish portion of the Programme for International Student Assessment dataset ( N = 4,848; 51% boys, 49% girls; age, M = 15.81 years, SD = 0.28), this study investigated factors associated with mathematics achievement among Turkish students. Three different models were estimated using the method of balanced repeated replication with Fay's method and taking into account the presence of five plausible values of the dependent variable. Results showed that male students and older students had better mathematics proficiency...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Sumi Shigeno
This study examined the effects of preceding contextual stimuli, either auditory or visual, on the identification of spoken target words. Fifty-one participants (29% males, 71% females; mean age = 24.5 years, SD = 8.5) were divided into three groups: no context, auditory context, and visual context. All target stimuli were spoken words masked with white noise. The relationships between the context and target stimuli were as follows: identical word, similar word, and unrelated word. Participants presented with context experienced a sequence of six context stimuli in the form of either spoken words or photographs...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Guo-Dong Ma, Wan-Chin Chen, Shu-Min Tsai, Nai-Wen Kan, Li-Ling Chiu, Kuei-Yu Chien
We compared responses from postmenopausal women living a sedentary lifestyle ( n = 15; Mean age= 59; SD = 4.2) to a single bout of water- or land-based exercise with respect to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), lactate concentration, and muscle oxygen saturation. Each participant was randomly assigned to a single water- or land-based 50-minute bout of combined aerobic and resistance exercise. Blood samples were collected to detect pre- and post-exercise lactate concentration. Total hemoglobin, deoxidized hemoglobin, and the percentage change in the total oxygen saturation index (TSI%) of the rectus femoris were detected by means of near-infrared spectroscopy...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Emine Çağlar, F Hülya Aşçi, Murat Uygurtaş
We investigated the contribution of perceived motivational climates created by coach, peer, and parent on the dispositional flow experience of young athletes. Eighty-six female ( Mage = 14.24, SD = 1.38 years) and 134 male ( Mage = 16.28, SD = 1.17 years) athletes completed questionnaires of perceived motivational climates created by coach, peer, and parent and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived task-involving coach (β = ...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Juliana B Goulardins, Juliana C B Marques, Jorge A De Oliveira
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2)...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Hamidreza Taheri, Davoud Fazeli, Sogand Poureghbali
We investigated the effect of practice variability through execution redundancy in skilled and novice basketball players on free throw skills. Twelve skilled basketball players and 12 novices (mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.3) were divided into four groups (skilled constant, skilled variable, novice constant, and novice variable). After a pretest, participants practiced free throw action. The variable groups threw the ball over an obstacle of varying heights on each trial in random order, whereas the obstacle's height was fixed for the constant groups...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
J D Foulkes, Z Knowles, S J Fairclough, G Stratton, M O'Dwyer, N D Ridgers, L Foweather
This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Mariana C Artilheiro, Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso de Sá, Francis M Fávero, Hanna C Wutzki, Maria Bernadete Dutra de Resende, Fátima A Caromano, Mariana C Voos
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) and Jebsen-Taylor Test (JTT) to assess and monitor upper limb function progression in patients with muscular dystrophy. Thirty patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy Type 1, and fascioscapulohumeral dystrophy were submitted to the shoulder, elbow, and wrist domains of PUL, and to JTT subtests. Spearman tests investigated the relationships between PUL and JTT total scores and domains...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Débora da Rocha Werba, Débora Cantergi, Leandro Tolfo Franzoni, Alex de Oliveira Fagundes, Jefferson Fagundes Loss, Aline Nogueira Haas
We compared the electrical activity of certain powerhouse muscles-External Oblique, Multifidus, Adductor Longus, and Gluteus Medius-during the teaser exercise of the Pilates Method, performed on various types of apparatus-the Mat, Reformer, and Wall Unit. Fifteen female practitioners of the Classic Pilates Method (32.6 ± 7.7 years old; 21.9 ± 1.9 body mass index) performed the teaser in each situation while electromyographic (EMG) and kinematic data were collected. Root mean square values of the flexion phase were compared...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Giovani S Cunha, Sean P Cumming, João Valente-Dos-Santos, João P Duarte, Gustavo Silva, Antonio C Dourado, Gabriela T Leites, Adroaldo C Gaya, Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Manuel Coelho-E-Silva
This study examined power output on jumping and sprinting tests in young soccer players of differing pubertal status, while controlling for body size with allometric scaling exponents. A total of 46 males aged 12-18 years (14.17 years) were divided into three groups: pre-pubescent ( n = 12), pubescent ( n = 22), and post-pubescent ( n = 12). Participants performed a series of tests, including the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 10-meter and 30-meter sprint test protocols. The Post-PUB group was older ( F = 112...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Andrew M Colombo-Dougovito, Ronald E Reeve
Social communicative deficits and stereotyped or repetitive interests or behaviors are the defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A growing body of research suggests that gross motor deficits are also present in most children with ASD. This study sought to understand how pediatric ASD severity is related to motor skills and social skills. A multivariate analysis of variance analysis of 483 children with autism ( N = 444) and ASD ( N = 39) revealed a nonsignificant difference between groups...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Wen-Ta Tseng, Heidi Liu, John-Michael L Nix
Self-regulated learning has been a widely researched subject for decades in educational psychology. Different instruments have been developed to understand learners' self-regulated learning in a specific subject domain. This study developed a measurement scale to assess English-as-a-foreign-language learners' self-regulatory capacity in English language learning and further examined the effects of gender on English-as-a-foreign-language learners' self-regulatory capacity. A series of psychometric analyses including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and full structural equation modeling were undertaken to answer the research questions raised...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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