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Perceptual and Motor Skills

Bárbara P Ferreira, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz, Juliana O Parma, Nathálya G H M Nogueira, Tércio Apolinário-Souza, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Guilherme M Lage
Many studies have attributed self-controlled feedback benefits associated with motor learning to learners' greater information processing during practice. However, individual learner characteristics like their impulsivity can also influence how people engage cognitively during learning. We investigated possible dissociations between the types of interaction in self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) and learner impulsivity levels in learning a sequential motor task. Ninety volunteers responded to the self-restraint section of the Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale, and those 60 participants with the highest ( n = 30) and lowest ( n = 30) impulsivity scores practiced a motor task involving sequential pressing of four keys in predetermined absolute and relative times...
November 6, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Hiroshi Sekiya, Yoshifumi Tanaka
Although many studies on choking under pressure used closed skills, such as golf putting, we examined the influence of pressure on movement during a dynamic skill by studying participants' kinematic and kinetic changes during a table tennis forehand task under pressure. Thirty novice table tennis players hit forehand shots toward a target for 135 practice trials and then performed 10 no-pressure and 10 pressure trials. We added psychological pressure by instructing participants they could earn monetary rewards for successful performance and by cancelling accumulated scores for a poor performance...
November 2, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Jeffrey D Eggleston, Merrill R Landers, Barry T Bates, Ed Nagelhout, Janet S Dufek
There is sparse quantitative research regarding gait coordination patterns of children on the autism spectrum, though previous studies, relying only upon observational data, have alluded to characteristically poor movement coordination. This study compared walking with a weighted vest, a backpack carriage, and an unloaded walking condition on lower extremity coordination among 10 male children (aged 8-17 years) on the autism spectrum. All participants completed 15 gait trials in the following three conditions: (a) unloaded, (b) wearing a backpack weighted with 15% body mass, and (c) wearing a vest weighted with 15% body mass...
October 14, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Raphael G de Oliveira, Dartagnan P Guedes
We tested health criteria cutoff points from physical fitness variables proposed by the Fitnessgram program for detecting metabolic syndrome ( MetS) in a representative sample of 1,035 Brazilian adolescents (565 girls and 470 boys) aged 12-20 years. We studied five fitness tests: (a) back-saver sit and reach, (b) trunk lift, (c) curl-up, (d) push-up, and (e) progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run ( PACER), and we defined MetS through the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. We described the predictive performance of each fitness test in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve ( AUC) estimates of the receiver operating characteristic method...
September 14, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Jeff E Goodwin, Noreen L Goggin
This investigation manipulated concurrent visual feedback for older adults learning to perform a continuous balance task. We randomly assigned 21 older adults to one of three knowledge of results (KR) groups with varying concurrent but always 100% terminal feedback percentages during acquisition: 100% Concurrent and Terminal (100% C&T), 50% Concurrent and 100% Terminal (50% C & 100% T), and 0% Concurrent and 100% Terminal (0% C & 100% T). The continuous balance task involved learning to maintain balance on a circular platform that moved simultaneously on both anterior/posterior and medial/lateral axes...
September 7, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Danny M Pincivero, Staci M Thomas
This study examined knee joint angle and knee muscle contraction intensity effects on perceived exertion during isometric contractions. Fourteen healthy young adults participated in five experimental exercise sessions in which knee angles varied randomly (10°, 30°, 50°, 70°, and 90°), each separated by one week. During each session, subjects performed five isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of knee extension, followed by nine, randomly ordered submaximal contractions (10%-90% MVC, 10% increments)...
September 7, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Jill Horbacewicz
This study examined (a) the effect of practice organization on learning to modulate manual force, and (b) the effect of force magnitude on ability to accurately reproduce force. I randomly assigned 52 novice physical therapy students to either blocked or random practice schedules as they learned to apply different manual forces. I tested students immediately after training and one week later, using a three-way mixed design analysis of variance to assess the effects of practice organization (random vs. blocked), test (immediate posttest vs...
September 5, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Hideaki Tanaka
This study investigated the relationship between length of hair in facial stimuli and latency and amplitude of the P1 and N170 components of event-related potentials during facial perception. Electroencephalography was recorded from 21 Japanese participants (four men, 17 women) who were shown pictures of faces with one of three lengths of hair: long, medium length, or short. In addition, we used both fixed-size and variable-size blocks. In fixed-size blocks, the three types of stimuli were matched to have the same overall size; in variable-size blocks, long hair stimuli were the biggest, medium length hair stimuli were medium sized, and short hair stimuli were the smallest...
December 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Sonia J Romero Martínez, Xavier G Ordóñez Camacho, Pedro Gil Madrona
The present research aimed to develop the Checklist of Psychomotor Activities (CPA) to measure psychomotor development in 5-6 year old children. We recruited 694 preschool children in the province of Albacete; their teachers were trained to use and complete this instrument to gather data for testing its psychometric properties (reliability, and content, construct, and discriminant validity). The CPA is composed of three subtests measuring children's performance in motor, perceptual, and emotional-social aspects of psychomotor functioning...
December 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Ana Quitério, João Martins, Marcos Onofre, João Costa, João Mota Rodrigues, Erin Gerlach, Claude Scheur, Christian Herrmann
Children's motor competence is known to have a determinant role in learning and engaging later in complex motor skills and, thus, in physical activity. The development of adequate motor competence is a central aim of physical education, and assuring that pupils are learning and developing motor competence depends on accurate assessment protocols. The MOBAK 1 test battery is a recent instrument developed to assess motor competence in primary physical education. This study used the MOBAK 1 to explore motor competence levels and gender differences among 249 ( Mage  = 6...
December 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Kazufumi Omura, Shinya Matsuta
Many previous studies have investigated developmental differences in numerical processing by manipulating numerical distance and physical size in a number sequence. While it has been theorized that children's maturity level in executive functioning affects their numerical processing, the interaction between numerical processing and executive functioning through development remains unclear. We divided 60 Japanese school children, aged 8-12 years, into three age-related groups (second graders, fourth graders, and sixth graders) and had them perform physical and numerical comparison Stroop tasks...
December 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Cheryl Coker
Studies examining attentional focus in the motor performance of children and young adolescents have produced mixed results. We studied 26 seventh-grade physical education student volunteers ( Mage  = 12.7 years; SD = 0.56) who performed two standing long jumps for maximum displacement in four counterbalanced instructional conditions: (a) no cues provided, (b) focus on rapid knee extension, (c) focus on rapid forward arm swing, and (d) focus to jump as close as possible to a cone placed at 3 meters...
December 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Gustavo C Costa, Henrique O Castro, Isabel R Mesquita, José Afonso, Guilherme M Lage, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Gibson M Praça, Pablo J Greco
This study compared decision-making (DM) of experienced and novice volleyball coaches while measuring blood flow brain activation with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We sampled 34 coaches (mean [ M] age of 32.5, standard deviation [ SD] = 9.4 years) divided into two experience groups: (a) novice ( M = 2.8, SD = 1.9 years) and (b) experienced (M = 19, SD = 7.2 years). We evaluated coaches' DM through their responses to video-based scenarios of attacks performed in the extremities of the net within the Declarative Tactical Knowledge Test in Volleyball...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
S Higueras-Fresnillo, M A de la Cámara, I Esteban-Cornejo, F Rodríguez-Artalejo, D Martinez-Gomez
Usual gait speed has been shown to have very good reliability and convincing predictive validity for evaluating older adults' gait skills, but its criterion validity is unknown. We examined the criterion validity of the 8-feet (i.e., 2.44 meters) test in a laboratory environment to assess usual gait speed by comparing its results with the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) monitor. Participants were 200 well-functioning community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older (113 women; 87 men; mean [M] age = 71...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Shaziela Ishak, Julie Haymaker
This study examined a specific type of spatial perception, functional spatial perception, in 10-year-old children and adults. Functional spatial perception involves anticipating actions made with objects to fulfill a function, or, in this case, fitting objects through openings. We examined accuracy, sensitivity, and consistency in participants' abilities to adjust a window to the smallest opening through which a small wooden cube would fit. Success at this task requires accounting for the dimensions of both the object and the opening...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Elna de Waal, Anita E Pienaar, Dané Coetzee
Visual perception plays an important and integrating role in the development of cognitive abilities and perceptual-motor skills. Visual perception comprises different independent constructs that may function in an integrative manner. This study aimed to determine whether (and the extent to which) various visual-perceptual constructs influence the academic achievement of 12-year-old school children. In a cross-sectional analysis, we extracted only 2016 data from 581 learners (mean age = 12.92 years, SD = 0...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Pedro Ángel Latorre-Roman, Alejandro Robles-Fuentes, Felipe García-Pinillos, Jesús Salas-Sánchez
Reaction time (RT) tasks assess several brain functions, and a slow RT can be due to various brain diseases, disorders, and acquired conditions. This study examined age and gender differences in RTs of Spanish preschool children on the ruler drop test (RDT) and presents norm-referenced results. Participants were 3,741 children (1,845 girls and 1,896 boys; mean [M] age = 55.93, standard deviation [ SD] = 11.14 months; M body mass index = 15.94, SD = 1.91 kg/m2 ), selected from 51 schools in southern Spain...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Javier Sevil, Pedro A Sánchez-Miguel, Juan J Pulido, Alba Práxedes, David Sánchez-Oliva
Grounded in self-determination theory, this study aimed first to examine differences in motivation for physical activity (PA) and habitual PA levels between adolescents and university students in Spain. The second aim was to examine differences in the degree of association between their intrinsic motivation and amotivation for PA and habitual PA levels in both samples. We studied 2,699 students (1,833 high school and 866 university; mean age = 18.83, standard deviation = 4.12 years) who completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form and two dimensions of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Alberto B Kruschewsky, Rodolfo A Dellagrana, Mateus Rossato, Luiz Fernando P Ribeiro, Caetano D Lazzari, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Saddle height influences cycling performance and would be expected to influence cyclists physically, perceptually, and emotionally. We investigated how different saddle positions and cadences might affect cyclists' torque, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective responses (Feeling scale). Nine male recreational cyclists underwent cycling sessions on different days under different conditions with a constant load. On Day 1, the saddle was at the reference position (109% of the distance from the pubic symphysis to the ground), and on Days 2 and 3, the saddle was in the "upward position" (reference + 2...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Chris Lange-Küttner
Typically, infants younger than four months fail to attend to the left side of their spatial field, most likely due to an innate asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR). In a critical transition, by four months of age, infants begin to reach and develop depth perception; and, by five months, they tend to monitor the entire spatial field. However, this developmental transition can be delayed. Moreover, there is always a residual right-sided spatial bias under cognitive load, a phenomenon that may also occur among adult stroke patients...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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