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Perceptual and Motor Skills

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327979/the-general-motor-ability-hypothesis-an-old-idea-revisited
#1
Beth Hands, Fleur McIntyre, Helen Parker
While specific motor abilities have become a popular explanation for motor performance, the older, alternate notion of a general motor ability should be revisited. Current theories lack consensus, and most motor assessment tools continue to derive a single composite score to represent motor capacity. In addition, results from elegant statistical procedures such as higher order factor analyses, cluster analyses, and Item Response Theory support a more global motor ability. We propose a contemporary model of general motor ability as a unidimensional construct that is emergent and fluid over an individual's lifespan, influenced by both biological and environmental factors...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320925/self-perceived-and-actual-motor-competence-in-young-british-children
#2
Michael J Duncan, Victoria Jones, Wesley O'Brien, Lisa M Barnett, Emma L J Eyre
Children's perception of their own motor competence is an important correlate of their actual motor competence. The current study is the first to examine this association in British children and the first to use both product and process measures of actual motor competence. A total of 258 children (139 boys and 119 girls; aged 4 to 7 years, Mean = 5.6, SD = .96) completed measures of self-perceived motor competence using the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Competence in Young Children. Children were classified as "Low," "Medium," or "High" perceived competence based on tertile analysis...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316872/piecing-it-together-the-effect-of-background-music-on-children-s-puzzle-assembly
#3
Louis Koolidge, Robyn M Holmes
This study explored the effects of background music on cognitive (puzzle assembly) task performance in young children. Participants were 87 primarily European-American children (38 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 4.77 years) enrolled in early childhood classes in the northeastern United States. Children were given one minute to complete a 12-piece puzzle task in one of three background music conditions: music with lyrics, music without lyrics, and no music. The music selection was "You're Welcome" from the Disney movie "Moana...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310525/proactive-and-reactive-motor-inhibition-in-top-athletes-versus-nonathletes
#4
Damien Brevers, Etienne Dubuisson, Fabien Dejonghe, Julien Dutrieux, Mathieu Petieau, Guy Cheron, Paul Verbanck, Jennifer Foucart
We examined proactive (early restraint in preparation for stopping) and reactive (late correction to stop ongoing action) motor response inhibition in two groups of participants: professional athletes ( n = 28) and nonathletes ( n = 25). We recruited the elite athletes from Belgian national taekwondo and fencing teams. We estimated proactive and reactive inhibition with a modified version of the stop-signal task (SST) in which participants inhibited categorizing left/right arrows. The probability of the stop signal was manipulated across blocks of trials by providing probability cues from the background computer screen color (green = 0%, yellow =17%, orange = 25%, red = 33%)...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307254/facial-recall-feature-conjunction-effects-in-source-retrieval-versus-item-recognition
#5
Aiqing Nie
Within memory processing, feature and conjunction effects refer to higher false alarms (incorrectly naming items as previously seen) for stimuli with partial/all features taken from different previously studied versus novel items. In this study, we compared feature-conjunction effects in the memory tasks of both item recognition and source retrieval, using faces as stimuli. We found greater feature-conjunction effects on source retrieval versus item recognition tasks, though participants gave slower responses on source retrieval versus item recognition...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316859/biocultural-predictors-of-motor-coordination-among-prepubertal-boys-and-girls
#6
Leonardo G O Luz, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Tatiana D D Luz, Paulo Sousa-E-Silva, João P Duarte, Aristides Machado-Rodrigues, André Seabra, Rute Santos, Sean P Cumming, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
This study aimed to predict motor coordination from a matrix of biocultural factors for 173 children (89 boys, 84 girls) aged 7-9 years who were assessed with the Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder test battery. Socioeconomic variables included built environment, area of residence, mother's educational level, and mother's physical activity level (using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [short version]). The behavioral domain was marked by participation in organized sports and habitual physical activity measured by accelerometers ( ActiGraph GT1M)...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911264/corrigendum
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741413/modulating-children-s-manual-preference-through-spontaneous-nondominant-hand-use
#8
Juliana Maia Garcia, Luis Augusto Teixeira
We evaluated the effect of repeated use of the nonpreferred hand on young children's manual preference by positioning toys in the left hemifield in egocentric coordinates to induce right-handed 4-5-year-olds to use their left hands spontaneously. We induced motor activities in the laterally biased workspace by presenting tasks in a ludic context over different days, similar to their daily kindergarten experience. Preceding and following these lateralized experiences, the children were tested on a task requiring reaching, grasping, and inserting cards into a slot...
October 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728460/acute-effects-of-moderate-alcohol-consumption-on-postural-stability-in-older-adults
#9
Helen Z Wu, Lisa C Barry, Yinghui Duan, Richard W Bohannon, Jonathan M Covault, James J Grady
This study involved healthy community-living older adults in an investigation of the association between moderate alcohol consumption (AC) and acute changes in postural stability and whether the association differed according to pre-AC balance skills. Thirty-nine moderate drinkers aged ≥ 65 years (62% women; mean age: 73.9 ± 6.1 years) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (0.4 g/kg; administered as two drinks). Breath alcohol concentration and postural stability were measured at five time points (pre-AC and 40, 80, 120, and 160 minutes post-AC) using unipedal stance time (UPST) and center of pressure (CoP) displacement...
October 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685651/successful-transfer-of-a-motor-learning-strategy-to-a-novel-sport
#10
Philip E Kearney, Phil Judge
This study investigated whether secondary school students who were taught a motor learning strategy could transfer their knowledge of the strategy to learning a novel task. Twenty adolescents were randomly allocated to a strategy or control group. The strategy group was taught Singer's five-step learning strategy, while the control group received information on the evolution and biomechanics of the basketball free throw. Both groups received three 1-hour practice sessions on a modified basketball shooting task...
October 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649923/detecting-abnormal-word-utterances-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-machine-learning-based-voice-analysis-versus-speech-therapists
#11
Yasushi Nakai, Tetsuya Takiguchi, Gakuyo Matsui, Noriko Yamaoka, Satoshi Takada
Abnormal prosody is often evident in the voice intonations of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. We compared a machine-learning-based voice analysis with human hearing judgments made by 10 speech therapists for classifying children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 30) and typical development ( n = 51). Using stimuli limited to single-word utterances, machine-learning-based voice analysis was superior to speech therapist judgments. There was a significantly higher true-positive than false-negative rate for machine-learning-based voice analysis but not for speech therapists...
October 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580876/multiple-sclerosis-associations-between-physical-disability-and-depression-are-not-mediated-by-self-reported-physical-activity
#12
Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Pasquale Calabrese, Helene Merkt, Yvonne Naegelin, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
This study investigated the interrelatedness of physical disability, physical activity, and depression among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that self-reported physical activity would mediate the effect of disability on depressive symptoms. Twenty-seven patients with MS (mean age: 49 years; 44.5% females) completed self-rating scales covering sociodemographic variables, intake of antidepressants, physical activity, and symptoms of depression; disability was measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale...
October 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514923/object-spatial-imagery-and-verbal-cognitive-styles-in-high-school-students
#13
Erhan Selcuk Haciomeroglu, Mark LaVenia
The present study investigated object-spatial imagery and verbal cognitive styles in high school students. We analyzed the relationships between cognitive styles, object imagery ability, spatial visualization ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and preferred modes of processing math information. Data were collected from 348 students at six high schools in two school districts. Spatial imagery style was not correlated with object imagery style and was negatively correlated with verbal style. Object imagery style did not correlate significantly with any cognitive ability measure, whereas spatial imagery style significantly correlated with object imagery ability, spatial visualization ability, and verbal-logical reasoning ability...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514922/effects-of-youth-participation-in-extra-curricular-sport-programs-on-perceived-self-efficacy-a-multilevel-analysis
#14
Riller S Reverdito, Humberto M Carvalho, Larissa R Galatti, Alcides J Scaglia, Carlos E Gonçalves, Roberto R Paes
The present study examined extracurricular sport participation variables and developmental context in relationship to perceived self-efficacy among underserved adolescents. Participants ( n = 821, 13.6 ± 1.5 years) completed the Youth Experience in Sport questionnaire and General Self-Efficacy Scale. We used the Human Development Index (HDI) to characterize developmental contexts. Multilevel regression models were used to explore the relative contributions of age, sex, years of participation in extracurricular sport, HDI, and perceived positive experience in sport...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514921/a-study-of-relationships-among-technical-tactical-physical-parameters-and-final-outcomes-in-elite-soccer-matches-as-analyzed-by-a-semiautomatic-video-tracking-system
#15
Cristoforo Filetti, Bruno Ruscello, Stefano D'Ottavio, Vito Fanelli
The performance of a soccer team depends on many factors such as decision-making, cognitive and physical skills, and dynamic ever-changing space-time interactions between teammate and opponents in relation to the ball. Seventy ( n = 70) matches of the Italian SERIE A season 2013-2014 were investigated to analyze the mean performance of 360 players in terms of physical (physical efficiency index; PEI) and technical-tactical (technical efficiency index; TEI) standpoints. Using a semiautomatic video analysis system that has incorporated new parameters able to measure technical-tactical and physical efficiency (Patent IB2010/002593, 2011-ISA), the correlation between these new variables and how much it relates to the likelihood of winning were verified...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514920/predicting-factors-of-zone-4-attack-in-volleyball
#16
Gustavo C Costa, Henrique O Castro, Breno F Evangelista, Laura M Malheiros, Pablo J Greco, Herbert Ugrinowitsch
This study examined 142 volleyball games of the Men's Super League 2014/2015 seasons in Brazil from which we analyzed 24-26 games of each participating team, identifying 5,267 Zone 4 attacks for further analysis. Within these Zone 4 attacks, we analyzed the association between the effect of the attack carried out and the separate effects of serve reception, tempo and type of attack. We found that the reception, tempo of attack, second tempo of attack, and power of diagonal attack were predictors of the attack effect in Zone 4...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449601/random-versus-blocked-practice-to-enhance-mental-representation-in-golf-putting
#17
Davoud Fazeli, HamidReza Taheri, Alireza Saberi Kakhki
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in mental representation from either random or blocked practice when engaged in golf putting. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to random practice, blocked practice, and no-practice groups. First, we measured novice golfers' initial mental representation levels and required them to perform 18 putting trials as a pre-test. We then asked random and blocked groups to practice in accordance with their group assignment for six consecutive days (10 blocks each day, 18 trials each)...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361663/sex-and-ability-differences-in-neural-strategy-for-piaget-s-water-level-test
#18
Sina Wu, Yingli Li, Ming Kong
To explore brain activation differences between the sexes and between high and low performers on spatial perception performance, 43 college students (20 males and 23 females) performed the Piaget's Water Level Test (WLT) while their electroencephalogram signals were recorded. A 2 (Sex) × 2 (Group: high performing vs. low performing) × 2 (Hemisphere: left vs. right) × 3 (Region: frontal, parietal, and temporal) mixed analysis of variance on beta power data showed that females more significantly activated the left hemisphere when performing the WLT, suggesting their application of an analytic strategy...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361662/throwing-skills
#19
Saeed Ghorbani, Andreas Bund
Traditionally, motor learning scientists have evaluated the process of learning a new motor skill by considering the skill as a whole. Yet, motor skills comprise various phases, and in the motor learning literature, it is not clear whether new learners show similar or different learning across various phases. We provide exploratory data on learning movement phases by novices, using baseball pitching as the learning task. Eight participants (four male, four female, M age = 23.7 years, SD = 2.4) performed five trials each in the pretest followed by three blocks of 10 trials each in the acquisition phase...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361661/personality-motivation-and-math-achievement-among-turkish-students
#20
Elif Akben-Selcuk
Using the Turkish portion of the Programme for International Student Assessment dataset ( N = 4,848; 51% boys, 49% girls; age, M = 15.81 years, SD = 0.28), this study investigated factors associated with mathematics achievement among Turkish students. Three different models were estimated using the method of balanced repeated replication with Fay's method and taking into account the presence of five plausible values of the dependent variable. Results showed that male students and older students had better mathematics proficiency...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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