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Perceptual and Motor Skills

Mateusz Witkowski, Maciej Tomczak, Michał Bronikowski, Ewa Tomczak, Michał Marciniak, Zbigniew Borysiuk
This study sought to determine differences in fencers' visual perceptions during duels (preparatory actions) with right- versus left-handed opponents. Participants were 12 top-ranking right-handed female foil fencers (aged 16-30 years, M = 20.86, SD = 4.76) taking part in a training camp. Testing employed SensoMotoric Instruments Eye Tracking Glasses (SMI ETG 2.0) with eye-tracking analyses covering the visual attention time devoted to various areas of the opposing fencer's body (areas of interest), average fixation, number of glances, and number of fixations during preparatory actions in duels...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Denholm J Aspy, Natasha A Madden, Paul Delfabbro
Anecdotal evidence indicates that supplementation with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) before bed can enhance dream vividness and recall. In a single pilot study, Ebben, Lequerica, and Spielman (2002) found that vitamin B6 had a dose-dependent effect of increasing scores on a composite measure of dream vividness, bizarreness, emotionality, and color. The present research replicated this study using a larger and more diverse sample of 100 participants from across Australia. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects on dreaming and sleep of ingesting 240 mg vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride) before bed for five consecutive days...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Ovande Furtado, Jere D Gallagher
Fundamental movement skills (FMS) play a crucial role in a child's motor skill development, as their mastery is related to the acquisition and mastery of specialized sport skills and to a child's general health through the prevention of weight gain and increased level of physical activity. Thus, the accurate and reliable measurement of FMS is of related importance. This article presents the results of two studies intended to assess expert-rater agreement and inter-/intrarater scoring reliability in the administration of a new observational FMS instrument, the Furtado-Gallagher Computerized Observational Movement Pattern Assessment System (FG-COMPASS)...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Melissa L M Alves, Beatriz S Mesquita, Wenderson S Morais, Josevan C Leal, Corina E Satler, Felipe A Dos Santos Mendes
This study investigated changes in motor and cognitive skills, anxiety levels, and quality of life perception among patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) following training with different commercial gaming devices-Nintendo Wii™ and Xbox Kinect™. We used a quasi-experimental, simple blinded clinical trial, dividing 27 patients with PD into three equal groups of nine members: (a) Nintendo Wii™, (b) Xbox Kinect™, and (c) control group. After pretests, experimental group participants spent 10 sessions playing four games of the selected gaming device, while control group participants received no intervention...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Miloš Stanković, Milkica Nešić
While previous studies have shown that left- (vs. right-) hand contractions can improve the performance of global (vs. local) attention, these results were inconsistent in certain behavioral studies in which the left cerebral hemisphere was found to be specialized for local attention, while the right hemisphere was not specialized for global attention. Thus, we reexamined whether different global (vs. local) attention performances follow left- (vs. right-) hand contractions due to right (vs. left) hemisphere activation...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Lucilene Ferreira, Alinne G M Meregui, Miriam R M Mainenti, Patrícia S Vigário, Angela N Neves
Body image adjustments after a limb loss are essential to rehabilitation. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Amputee Body Image Scale (ABIS). We analyzed data from a nonprobability sample of 100 participants (71% men, mean age 48.26 ± 18.35 years) by using a confirmatory factor analysis with partial least square path modeling. We evaluated the structural model by using Pearson's coefficient of determination, path coefficients, indicator of Stone-Geisser, and Cohen's indicator...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Katrina D DuBose, Amy Gross McMillan, Aaron P Wood, Susan B Sisson
While the relationships between physical activity (PA), obesity, and motor skills have been independently examined by previous research, this study explored both independent and combined relationships between children's PA, weight status, and motor skills within a multiple regression analysis. We measured height and weight and calculated body mass index (BMI) z scores for 96 children (3-10 years of age). We measured motor skills using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2), and we measured PA levels through accelerometry...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Panagiota Chatzihidiroglou, Dimitris Chatzopoulos, Georgios Lykesas, Georgios Doganis
In the present study, we compared an experimental group of preschool children ( n = 22; mean age = 5 years, 8 months) who followed an 8-week dance program with a control group ( n = 20; mean age = 5 years, 5 months) on pre-post measures of sensorimotor synchronization (K-Rhythm Test), balancing on one leg and movement reaction time. Compared with the control participants, the dance group demonstrated significantly better pretest to posttest improvements on sensorimotor synchronization and balance (but not movement reaction time)...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Kristi Vink, Lennart Raudsepp
The present study sought to extend existing literature by examining the longitudinal relationships between perfectionistic strivings, autonomous motivation, and engagement in sport-specific activities among youth athletes in three team sports. Participants were 172 team sports athletes (mean age = 15.2 years, SD = 0.5; males = 94, females = 78) who completed measures of perfectionistic strivings and autonomous motivation at the start and end of a competitive season. Players also completed a training diary during the season...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Edit Nagy, Gabriella Posa, Regina Finta, Levente Szilagyi, Edit Sziver
As proprioceptive training is popular for injury prevention and rehabilitation, we evaluated its effect on balance parameters and assessed the frequency spectra of postural sway linked with the various sensory channels. We recorded the Center of Mass displacement of 30 healthy student research participants (mean age = 21.63; SD = 1.29 years) with a single force plate under eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) positions while standing on either a firm or foam surface, both before and after an 8-week balance training intervention on a foam surface with EC...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
João B Ferreira-Júnior, Ana P M Guttierres, Irismar G A Encarnação, Jorge R P Lima, Diego A Borba, Eduardo D S Freitas, Michael G Bemben, Carlos A Vieira, Martim Bottaro
This study compared the effects of different conditioning activities on the 100-m dash performance of 11 male, high school track and field athletes (mean age = 16.3; SD = 1.2 years). Participants performed a 100-m dash seven minutes after each of four randomized conditioning protocols, with each condition and 100-m dash separated by 3-10 days. The conditioning protocols were (a) control, no conditioning activity; (b) weighted plyometric, three sets of 10 repetitions of alternate leg bounding with additional load of 10% of the body mass; (c) free sprint, two 20-m sprints; and (d) resisted sprint (RS), two 20-m resisted sprints using an elastic tubing tool...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Takayoshi Fujiwara
The theoretical five-factor model for the 35-item Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) has rarely been examined empirically, despite its wide use to investigate language learning beliefs. This study examined the BALLI's dimensional structure with a sample of undergraduate students at a Thai university ( N = 537; male 43.4%, female 56.4%; age mean = 19.12 years), taking an elementary-level Japanese language course. Confirmatory factor analysis by M plus did not support Horwitz's theoretical model...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Selina Khoo, Chunxiao Li, Payam Ansari
Despite increasing publications in disability sport, no bibliometric analysis has been conducted to evaluate their impact.We conducted a systematic search of theWeb of Science Core Collection citation index on June 26, 2017 for publications published since 1980 to identify the top 50 most cited publications in disability sport. The top 50 cited publications were mainly articles and reviews published in the English language between 1993 and 2014. Most of the 148 authors who contributed to these publications were based in Europe and North America...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Marcela R de Castro, Fabiane F R Morgado, Ismael F Freitas
As a follow-up to an earlier study from this research group involving women, this study examined the reliability and validity of the Brazilian Photographic Figure Rating Scale for Men (BPFRS-M) for evaluating men's body perception and dissatisfaction. In both versions of the Brazilian Photographic Figure Rating Scale (BPFRS), respondents viewed eight photographic images (seven distorted and one accurate) of themselves in standard poses and then offered self-ratings. In both versions, 10 experts assessed content validity and demonstrated high agreement (defined by ratings of 4-5 on a 5-point scale) that BPFRS items measured underlying constructs: and experts showed high (>70%) interrater agreement...
June 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
F Arbinaga
This study examined relationships between self-perceived sleep quality and resilience among 116 dance students (Mean age = 21.6 years; SD = 4.348). who self-reported sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and personal resilience with the Resilience Scale (RS). Most participants (59.5%) reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI, with 62.9% of the women and 42.1% of the men ( p = .092) scoring higher than five points on this instrument. On the RS, a large majority of the participants (75%) obtained scores less than 147, indicating low resilience, with no significant gender differences observed...
April 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
John S Y Chan, Jin H Yan
Human aging is a dynamic life-long process and an inevitable experience. As the average age of the world's population rises, demands for effective geriatric rehabilitation dramatically increase. An important consideration for enhancing geriatric behavioral interventions is to better understand aging characteristics in perceptual, cognitive, and motor performances. A general shift in cognitive style from field independence to field dependence has been consistently observed during human aging, as older adults show a greater tendency to rely on environmental information, presumably reflecting a neuro-compensatory mechanism of reducing top-down control and relying instead on bottom-up processing...
April 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Hideyuki Tanaka, Masato Iwami
In putting, golfers require an internal forward sense of the causal relationship between putting actions and outcomes-a sense of distance-to decide appropriate impact intensity. As no previous work has shown such a cognitive ability in skilled golfers, we sought to quantify sense-of-distance skill differences between experts and novice golfers in both putting-swing consistency and accuracy of outcome estimation. We compared nine expert and nine novice golfers on putting-outcome estimation by having them putt a golf ball to a target located at three distances (1...
April 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
L S Figueiredo, H Ugrinowitsch, A B Freire, J B Shea, R N Benda
Providing the learner control over aspects of practice has improved the process of motor skill acquisition, and self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) schedules have shown specific advantages over externally controlled ones. A possible explanation is that self-controlled KR schedules lead learners to more active task involvement, permitting deeper information processing. This study tested this explanatory hypothesis. Thirty undergraduate volunteers of both sexes, aged 18 to 35, all novices in the task, practiced transporting a tennis ball in a specified sequence within a time goal...
April 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Beth Hands, Fleur McIntyre, Helen Parker
While specific motor abilities have become a popular explanation for motor performance, the older, alternate notion of a general motor ability should be revisited. Current theories lack consensus, and most motor assessment tools continue to derive a single composite score to represent motor capacity. In addition, results from elegant statistical procedures such as higher order factor analyses, cluster analyses, and Item Response Theory support a more global motor ability. We propose a contemporary model of general motor ability as a unidimensional construct that is emergent and fluid over an individual's lifespan, influenced by both biological and environmental factors...
April 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Michael J Duncan, Victoria Jones, Wesley O'Brien, Lisa M Barnett, Emma L J Eyre
Children's perception of their own motor competence is an important correlate of their actual motor competence. The current study is the first to examine this association in British children and the first to use both product and process measures of actual motor competence. A total of 258 children (139 boys and 119 girls; aged 4 to 7 years, Mean = 5.6, SD = .96) completed measures of self-perceived motor competence using the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Competence in Young Children. Children were classified as "Low," "Medium," or "High" perceived competence based on tertile analysis...
April 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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