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Perceptual and Motor Skills

Pedro M D Agrícola, Daniel G da Silva Machado, Luiz F de Farias Junior, Luiz I do Nascimento Neto, André I Fonteles, Samara K A da Silva, Cheng H N Chao, Eduardo B Fontes, Hassan M Elsangedy, Alexandre H Okano
Pleasure plays a key role in exercise behavior. However, the influence of cycling cadence needs to be elucidated. Here, we verified the effects of cycling cadence on affect, perceived exertion (ratings of perceived exertion), and physiological responses. In three sessions, 15 men performed a maximal cycling incremental test followed by two 30-min constant workload (50% of peak power) bouts at 60 and 100 r/min. The pleasure was higher when participants cycled at 60 r/min, whereas ratings of perceived exertion, heart rate, and oxygen uptake were lower (p < ...
October 17, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Brad Fenter, Thomas S Marzilli, Yong T Wang, Xuanliang N Dong
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a three-set tennis match on knee kinematics and leg muscle activation during the tennis serve in a real-time environment. Motion capture data and wireless electromyography of hamstrings and quadriceps muscles were collected from the back leg during the serve. A reduction of maximum knee flexion angle and a decrease of electromyography amplitudes in leg muscles were observed during the match. However, the knee angular velocity and the electromyography frequency of leg muscles remain unchanged throughout the match...
October 12, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Dariusz Gierczuk, Vladimir Lyakh, Jerzy Sadowski, Zbigniew Bujak
The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in simple reaction time and to define correlations between simple reaction time and technical and tactical actions performed by elite Greco-Roman wrestlers during a match. Twenty Greco-Roman wrestlers (M age = 19.5 years, SD = 1.8) from the Wrestling Sports Centre in Radom participated in the study. Simple reaction time (including reaction time and movement time) before a match and after the first, the second, and the third round was analyzed. The wrestlers' reaction time and movement time changed in the course of performance...
October 4, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Ryan Burns, Tim Brusseau, James Hannon
Motor skills are needed for physical development and may be linked to health-related fitness and physical activity levels. No studies have examined the relationships among these constructs in large samples of disadvantaged children from low-income families using the Test for Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). The purpose of this study was to examine the multivariate associations among health-related fitness, physical activity, and motor skills assessed using the TGMD-3. Participants included 1460 school-aged children (730 boys, 730 girls; M age = 8...
October 4, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Zvonimir Tomac, Zeljko Hraski
The study was conducted with the aim to research the influence of familiarization on test results for the assessment of motor skills in preschool children. In sum, 165 children (84 boys and 81 girls; mean age = 5.2 years, SD = 0.91) participated in the study. The measurement protocol consisted of six series of measurements in three different motor tests. Results showed a significant improvement of 11.51% in the standing long jump test, 13.02% in the polygon backwards test, and 26.29% in the hand taping test...
September 19, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Andrew L Schmitt, Ronald B Livingston, William F Goette, Jeanine M Galusha-Glasscock
The current study examined the relationship between the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a large, heterogeneous sample of patients referred for dementia assessment (N = 495; 37% males, 63% females; M age = 76.8 years, SD = 7.0). The MMSE showed a significant moderate correlation with the RBANS Total Scale score (r = .65). Moderate significant correlations were found between the MMSE and the RBANS indexes (r = ...
September 16, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Samantha Gombart, Séverine Fay, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini
While executive control (processes that facilitate the adaptation to new and/or complex situations) show an age-related decline, behavioral studies have observed stronger correlations between control and certain cognitive functions in older compared to young adults, which are often interpreted as an increase in the reliance on controlled processes with aging. Fifty-seven young adults (Mage=27.4 year, SD = 4.1) and 79 older adults (Mage=69.9 year, SD = 6.8) were administered several Fluid Reasoning, Control, and Representation measures...
September 12, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Henrik Gustafsson, Erik Lundkvist, Leslie Podlog, Carolina Lundqvist
More than 30 years of research on athlete burnout has yielded important insights and questions regarding the onset, nature, and consequences of this detrimental syndrome. Not surprisingly, burnout is considered an important matter, both from a research and practical standpoint. We comment on the work of Ryu, Ali, Kim, Choi, and Radlo, who examined the impact of burnout on cognitive performance among athletes.
September 12, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Francesco Sgrò, Fabio Aiello, Alessandro Casella, Mario Lipoma
The aim of this study was to identify the independent and interactive effects of possession strategy, pitch location, and game period on the offensive actions performed by the winning teams in the 2012 European Football Championship. The non-clinical magnitude-based inferences method was used to interpret the true effect of the performance indicators on the response variable. The offensive team possessions were grouped into winning (n = 2035) and losing (n = 2071). The winning teams performed offensive processes mainly using the possession play strategy (OR: 0...
September 8, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Tanja H Kakebeeke, Elisa Knaier, Sabrina Köchli, Aziz Chaouch, Valentin Rousson, Susi Kriemler, Oskar G Jenni
An established test instrument for the assessment of motor performance in children between 3 and 16 years is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA) is also widely used for the evaluation of children's motor performance but has not been compared with the M-ABC-2 for children below five years for the purpose of convergent validity. Forty-seven children (26 boys, 21 girls) between three and five years of age were assessed using the M-ABC-2 and the ZNA3-5...
September 1, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Rudolf Psotta, Ondřej Brom
The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition is one of the most frequently used tests for assessment of the fundamental motor skills in children. However, there is the question which sensorimotor functions are really captured by the tasks involved in the test for the preschool (3-6 years) children (age band 1). The aim of the study was to examine the factorial structure of the age band 1 test. Results of the testing by the age band 1 in a sample of three- to- six-year-old children (N = 399; 202 boys, 197 girls) were put to confirmatory factor analysis...
September 1, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Zülfiye Gül Ercan, Şule Yilmaz, Memduha Taş, Neriman Aral
The aim of this study was to investigate visual motor integration skills in children with speech sound disorders compared with age-matched controls. Sixty-five children aged from 5 to 6½ years old (68% males, 32% females; M age = 5.4, SD = 0.5) participated in the study. Thirty-one of them had speech sound problems, and 34 were children without any problem in their speech. The Ankara Articulation Test for evaluating speech sound skills and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration with its supplemental tests of Visual Perception and Motor Coordination were used in the study...
August 29, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Hanne Listou Grimen, Åge Diseth
The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of a Norwegian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) and to investigate how sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is related to personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and to subjective health complaints (SHC) in a sample of 167 undergraduate psychology students. The results showed that the variance in a shortened version of the HSPS was best described by three separate factors: ease of excitation (EOE), aesthetic sensitivity (AES), and low sensory threshold (LST)...
August 25, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Alberto Montare
Extending work by Montare, visual simple reaction time, choice reaction time, discriminative reaction time, and overall reaction time scores obtained from college students by the simplest chronoscope (a falling meterstick) method were significantly faster as well as significantly less variable than scores of the same individuals from electromechanical reaction timers (machine method). Results supported the existence of dual reaction time systems: an ancient primary reaction time system theoretically activating the V5 parietal area of the dorsal visual stream that evolved to process significantly faster sensory-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from environmental objects in motion, and a secondary reaction time system theoretically activating the V4 temporal area of the ventral visual stream that subsequently evolved to process significantly slower sensory-perceptual-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from motionless colored objects...
August 23, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Stanisław H Czyż, Andrzej Szmajke, Ankebé Kruger, Magdalena Kübler
The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2...
August 23, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Justyna Krzepota, Miłosz Stępiński, Teresa Zwierko
Experienced and less experienced soccer players were compared in terms of their gaze behavior (number of fixations, fixation duration, number of fixation regions, and distribution of fixations across specific regions) during frontal 1 vs. 1 defensive situations. Twenty-four men (eight experienced soccer players, eight less experienced players and eight non-players) watched 20 video clips. Gaze behavior was registered with an Eye Tracking System. The video scenes were analyzed frame-by-frame. Significant main effect of the group (experience) was observed for the number of fixation regions...
August 23, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Richard G Cowden
The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships between mental toughness (MT) and two constructs also linked to athletic performance, emotional intelligence (EI) and coping effectiveness. A sample of 151 male adolescent athletes (M age = 15.4 years, SD = 1.3) completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale, and an adapted version of the Coping Effectiveness Scale. The regression and mediation analysis results supported both hypotheses in that (a) EI was a significant predictor of MT and (b) the relationship between EI and coping effectiveness was fully mediated by MT...
August 23, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Morgane Gindt, Lucile Chanquoy, René Garcia
In adults, pathologies of anxiety such as posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) involve deficits in information processing that may reflect hypervigilance and deficient inhibitory control, specifically for negative information. However, little is known about inhibitory processing in children, particularly regarding the inhibition of emotional information. This study investigated whether children with PTSS or anxiety show impairments in executive control in an inhibition task. A total of 45 children (M age = 9...
August 23, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Heloyse E G Nunes, Diego A S Silva
The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%)...
October 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Edison de J Manoel, Pedro Fernando Viana Felicio, Cristiane Makida-Dionísio, Rafael Do Nascimento Soares, Alessandro Freitas, Roberto Gimenez
The present study addressed whether a spatial matching task relying on inter-sensory judgments might be influenced by the transition between egocentric and decentered mode of thinking. Thirty-six children aged 5, 7, or 9 years performed a paramedian correspondence task with conditions requiring inter-sensory integration (visual-proprioceptive) and a problem-solving task. The visual information was given through a mirror that perturbed the sensory judgments in the paramedian correspondence task. The results did not corroborate the hypotheses; nevertheless, the increasing importance of proprioception in the perceptual judgments for older children suggests that although younger children may be body centered (egocentric mode of thinking), older children seemed more able to use body to mediate their perceptual judgments...
October 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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