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Perceptual and Motor Skills

I-Hsuan Shen, Shih-Chi Lin, Yu-Yu Wu, Chia-Ling Chen
The study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) showed atypical patterns of brain specialization for face processing, whether the response to familiar and unfamiliar faces, facial features, and objects were different from typically developing children. Event-related potentials were recorded in 5- to 8-year-old children (12 children with ASD, 12 typically developing children) using passive viewing paradigm. The fastest P1 latencies to faces and the largest P1 amplitudes to objects were observed in both participant groups...
December 7, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Rafael Gauche, João B Ferreira-Júnior, André B Gadelha, Silvia G R Neri, Martim Bottaro, Lauro C Vianna, Ricardo M Lima
This study compared session ratings of perceived exertion (SRPE) between traditional multiple-set (TR) and circuit (CI) resistance exercise methods in treated hypertensive women. Fourteen volunteers (69.9 ± 5.6 years) performed two training sessions (TR and CI) in a random order, with the same number of sets, exercises, and loads. SRPE was obtained 30 minutes following each session using Foster's scale. OMNI-resistance exercise scale (OMNI-RES) measures were subsequently taken. Foster's SRPE was not significantly different between sessions (3...
December 7, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Wei-Ying Chen, Sheng K Wu, Tai-Fen Song, Kuei-Ming Chou, Kuei-Yuan Wang, Yao-Ching Chang, Patrick T Goodbourn
The specific demands of a combat-sport discipline may be reflected in the perceptual-motor performance of its athletes. Taekwondo, which emphasizes kicking, might require faster perceptual processing to compensate for longer latencies to initiate lower-limb movements and to give rapid visual feedback for dynamic postural control, while Karate, which emphasizes both striking with the hands and kicking, might require exceptional eye-hand coordination and fast perceptual processing. In samples of 38 Taekwondo athletes (16 females, 22 males; mean age = 19...
December 7, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
João Paulo de Aguiar Greca, Diego Augusto Santos Silva
The aim of this study was to assess sedentary behavior during school recess in Brazilian boys and girls. The study included 455 students (233 boys and 222 girls), aged 8 to 17 years, enrolled in a public school in the city of Londrina, Brazil. All data was collected using questionnaires. Logistic regression with odds ratio and confidence interval (95%) was used to measure the relationship between sedentary behavior and sex, age, weight, screen time, and economic status. There was a high prevalence (40.7%) of sedentary behavior in this sample, with girls (aged 8 to 17 years) more likely than boys (54...
December 5, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Zvonimir Tomac, Zeljko Hraski
The study was conducted with the aim to research the influence of familiarization on test results for the assessment of motor skills in preschool children. In sum, 165 children (84 boys and 81 girls; mean age = 5.2 years, SD = 0.91) participated in the study. The measurement protocol consisted of six series of measurements in three different motor tests. Results showed a significant improvement of 11.51% in the standing long jump test, 13.02% in the polygon backwards test, and 26.29% in the hand taping test...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Andrew L Schmitt, Ronald B Livingston, William F Goette, Jeanine M Galusha-Glasscock
The current study examined the relationship between the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a large, heterogeneous sample of patients referred for dementia assessment (N = 495; 37% males, 63% females; M age = 76.8 years, SD = 7.0). The MMSE showed a significant moderate correlation with the RBANS Total Scale score (r = .65). Moderate significant correlations were found between the MMSE and the RBANS indexes (r = ...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Samantha Gombart, Séverine Fay, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini
While executive control (processes that facilitate the adaptation to new and/or complex situations) show an age-related decline, behavioral studies have observed stronger correlations between control and certain cognitive functions in older compared to young adults, which are often interpreted as an increase in the reliance on controlled processes with aging. Fifty-seven young adults (Mage=27.4 year, SD = 4.1) and 79 older adults (Mage=69.9 year, SD = 6.8) were administered several Fluid Reasoning, Control, and Representation measures...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Henrik Gustafsson, Erik Lundkvist, Leslie Podlog, Carolina Lundqvist
More than 30 years of research on athlete burnout has yielded important insights and questions regarding the onset, nature, and consequences of this detrimental syndrome. Not surprisingly, burnout is considered an important matter, both from a research and practical standpoint. We comment on the work of Ryu, Ali, Kim, Choi, and Radlo, who examined the impact of burnout on cognitive performance among athletes.
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Francesco Sgrò, Fabio Aiello, Alessandro Casella, Mario Lipoma
The aim of this study was to identify the independent and interactive effects of possession strategy, pitch location, and game period on the offensive actions performed by the winning teams in the 2012 European Football Championship. The non-clinical magnitude-based inferences method was used to interpret the true effect of the performance indicators on the response variable. The offensive team possessions were grouped into winning (n = 2035) and losing (n = 2071). The winning teams performed offensive processes mainly using the possession play strategy (OR: 0...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Tanja H Kakebeeke, Elisa Knaier, Sabrina Köchli, Aziz Chaouch, Valentin Rousson, Susi Kriemler, Oskar G Jenni
An established test instrument for the assessment of motor performance in children between 3 and 16 years is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA) is also widely used for the evaluation of children's motor performance but has not been compared with the M-ABC-2 for children below five years for the purpose of convergent validity. Forty-seven children (26 boys, 21 girls) between three and five years of age were assessed using the M-ABC-2 and the ZNA3-5...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Rudolf Psotta, Ondřej Brom
The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition is one of the most frequently used tests for assessment of the fundamental motor skills in children. However, there is the question which sensorimotor functions are really captured by the tasks involved in the test for the preschool (3-6 years) children (age band 1). The aim of the study was to examine the factorial structure of the age band 1 test. Results of the testing by the age band 1 in a sample of three- to- six-year-old children (N = 399; 202 boys, 197 girls) were put to confirmatory factor analysis...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Zülfiye Gül Ercan, Şule Yilmaz, Memduha Taş, Neriman Aral
The aim of this study was to investigate visual motor integration skills in children with speech sound disorders compared with age-matched controls. Sixty-five children aged from 5 to 6½ years old (68% males, 32% females; M age = 5.4, SD = 0.5) participated in the study. Thirty-one of them had speech sound problems, and 34 were children without any problem in their speech. The Ankara Articulation Test for evaluating speech sound skills and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration with its supplemental tests of Visual Perception and Motor Coordination were used in the study...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Hanne Listou Grimen, Åge Diseth
The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of a Norwegian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) and to investigate how sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is related to personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and to subjective health complaints (SHC) in a sample of 167 undergraduate psychology students. The results showed that the variance in a shortened version of the HSPS was best described by three separate factors: ease of excitation (EOE), aesthetic sensitivity (AES), and low sensory threshold (LST)...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Alberto Montare
Extending work by Montare, visual simple reaction time, choice reaction time, discriminative reaction time, and overall reaction time scores obtained from college students by the simplest chronoscope (a falling meterstick) method were significantly faster as well as significantly less variable than scores of the same individuals from electromechanical reaction timers (machine method). Results supported the existence of dual reaction time systems: an ancient primary reaction time system theoretically activating the V5 parietal area of the dorsal visual stream that evolved to process significantly faster sensory-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from environmental objects in motion, and a secondary reaction time system theoretically activating the V4 temporal area of the ventral visual stream that subsequently evolved to process significantly slower sensory-perceptual-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from motionless colored objects...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Stanisław H Czyż, Andrzej Szmajke, Ankebé Kruger, Magdalena Kübler
The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Justyna Krzepota, Miłosz Stępiński, Teresa Zwierko
Experienced and less experienced soccer players were compared in terms of their gaze behavior (number of fixations, fixation duration, number of fixation regions, and distribution of fixations across specific regions) during frontal 1 vs. 1 defensive situations. Twenty-four men (eight experienced soccer players, eight less experienced players and eight non-players) watched 20 video clips. Gaze behavior was registered with an Eye Tracking System. The video scenes were analyzed frame-by-frame. Significant main effect of the group (experience) was observed for the number of fixation regions...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Richard G Cowden
The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships between mental toughness (MT) and two constructs also linked to athletic performance, emotional intelligence (EI) and coping effectiveness. A sample of 151 male adolescent athletes (M age = 15.4 years, SD = 1.3) completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale, and an adapted version of the Coping Effectiveness Scale. The regression and mediation analysis results supported both hypotheses in that (a) EI was a significant predictor of MT and (b) the relationship between EI and coping effectiveness was fully mediated by MT...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Morgane Gindt, Lucile Chanquoy, René Garcia
In adults, pathologies of anxiety such as posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) involve deficits in information processing that may reflect hypervigilance and deficient inhibitory control, specifically for negative information. However, little is known about inhibitory processing in children, particularly regarding the inhibition of emotional information. This study investigated whether children with PTSS or anxiety show impairments in executive control in an inhibition task. A total of 45 children (M age = 9...
December 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Christian Herrmann, Harald Seelig
Basic motor competencies are defined as motor performance dispositions that evolve from specific requirements in sports and exercise. After validating the MOBAK-1 instrument for first graders, we developed the MOBAK-3 for the assessment of basic motor competencies in third graders. We investigated the factorial and diagnostic validity of this instrument in a sample of 323 children (age: M = 9.2 years, SD = .39; sex: boys, n = 158, girls, n = 165). A confirmatory factor analysis verified the theoretical structure with the two factors Locomotion and Object Control...
November 21, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Paulo Eduardo Redkva, Sergio Gregorio da Silva, Mauro Ricetti Paes, Julio Wilson Dos-Santos
The training load imposed and perceived by coaches and soccer players, respectively, was compared for three weeks of the basic preparatory period of a professional soccer team through session ratings of perceived exertion (S-RPE). Participants were 24 professional Brazilian soccer players (all males, age: 24.1 ± 3.4 years) and their coaches. Athletes responded to the scale of perceived exertion (scores from 0 to10) after the training, while the coaches completed the scale prior to the training session, based on prior planning...
November 17, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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