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Perceptual and Motor Skills

Raphael G de Oliveira, Dartagnan P Guedes
We tested health criteria cutoff points from physical fitness variables proposed by the Fitnessgram program for detecting metabolic syndrome ( MetS) in a representative sample of 1,035 Brazilian adolescents (565 girls and 470 boys) aged 12-20 years. We studied five fitness tests: (a) back-saver sit and reach, (b) trunk lift, (c) curl-up, (d) push-up, and (e) progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run ( PACER), and we defined MetS through the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. We described the predictive performance of each fitness test in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve ( AUC) estimates of the receiver operating characteristic method...
September 14, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Jeff E Goodwin, Noreen L Goggin
This investigation manipulated concurrent visual feedback for older adults learning to perform a continuous balance task. We randomly assigned 21 older adults to one of three knowledge of results (KR) groups with varying concurrent but always 100% terminal feedback percentages during acquisition: 100% Concurrent and Terminal (100% C&T), 50% Concurrent and 100% Terminal (50% C & 100% T), and 0% Concurrent and 100% Terminal (0% C & 100% T). The continuous balance task involved learning to maintain balance on a circular platform that moved simultaneously on both anterior/posterior and medial/lateral axes...
September 7, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Danny M Pincivero, Staci M Thomas
This study examined knee joint angle and knee muscle contraction intensity effects on perceived exertion during isometric contractions. Fourteen healthy young adults participated in five experimental exercise sessions in which knee angles varied randomly (10°, 30°, 50°, 70°, and 90°), each separated by one week. During each session, subjects performed five isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of knee extension, followed by nine, randomly ordered submaximal contractions (10%-90% MVC, 10% increments)...
September 7, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Jill Horbacewicz
This study examined (a) the effect of practice organization on learning to modulate manual force, and (b) the effect of force magnitude on ability to accurately reproduce force. I randomly assigned 52 novice physical therapy students to either blocked or random practice schedules as they learned to apply different manual forces. I tested students immediately after training and one week later, using a three-way mixed design analysis of variance to assess the effects of practice organization (random vs. blocked), test (immediate posttest vs...
September 5, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Kittipun Arunphalungsanti, Chailerd Pichitpornchai
This study investigated the effect of the stressed word in Thai language on auditory event-related potential (aERP) in unattended conditions. We presented 30 healthy participants with monosyllabic Thai words consisting of either stressed or unstressed words. We instructed them not to attend to the sound stimuli, but rather to watch and memorize the contents of a silent natural documentary without subtitles. The two listening conditions consisted of 20% deviant stimuli (70 stressed and 70 unstressed words, respectively) and 80% standard stimuli (other 280 unstressed words) presented pseudorandomly and binaurally via a pair of earphones...
August 16, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Gustavo C Costa, Henrique O Castro, Isabel R Mesquita, José Afonso, Guilherme M Lage, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Gibson M Praça, Pablo J Greco
This study compared decision-making (DM) of experienced and novice volleyball coaches while measuring blood flow brain activation with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We sampled 34 coaches (mean [ M] age of 32.5, standard deviation [ SD] = 9.4 years) divided into two experience groups: (a) novice ( M = 2.8, SD = 1.9 years) and (b) experienced (M = 19, SD = 7.2 years). We evaluated coaches' DM through their responses to video-based scenarios of attacks performed in the extremities of the net within the Declarative Tactical Knowledge Test in Volleyball...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
S Higueras-Fresnillo, M A de la Cámara, I Esteban-Cornejo, F Rodríguez-Artalejo, D Martinez-Gomez
Usual gait speed has been shown to have very good reliability and convincing predictive validity for evaluating older adults' gait skills, but its criterion validity is unknown. We examined the criterion validity of the 8-feet (i.e., 2.44 meters) test in a laboratory environment to assess usual gait speed by comparing its results with the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) monitor. Participants were 200 well-functioning community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older (113 women; 87 men; mean [M] age = 71...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Shaziela Ishak, Julie Haymaker
This study examined a specific type of spatial perception, functional spatial perception, in 10-year-old children and adults. Functional spatial perception involves anticipating actions made with objects to fulfill a function, or, in this case, fitting objects through openings. We examined accuracy, sensitivity, and consistency in participants' abilities to adjust a window to the smallest opening through which a small wooden cube would fit. Success at this task requires accounting for the dimensions of both the object and the opening...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Elna de Waal, Anita E Pienaar, Dané Coetzee
Visual perception plays an important and integrating role in the development of cognitive abilities and perceptual-motor skills. Visual perception comprises different independent constructs that may function in an integrative manner. This study aimed to determine whether (and the extent to which) various visual-perceptual constructs influence the academic achievement of 12-year-old school children. In a cross-sectional analysis, we extracted only 2016 data from 581 learners (mean age = 12.92 years, SD = 0...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Pedro Ángel Latorre-Roman, Alejandro Robles-Fuentes, Felipe García-Pinillos, Jesús Salas-Sánchez
Reaction time (RT) tasks assess several brain functions, and a slow RT can be due to various brain diseases, disorders, and acquired conditions. This study examined age and gender differences in RTs of Spanish preschool children on the ruler drop test (RDT) and presents norm-referenced results. Participants were 3,741 children (1,845 girls and 1,896 boys; mean [M] age = 55.93, standard deviation [ SD] = 11.14 months; M body mass index = 15.94, SD = 1.91 kg/m2 ), selected from 51 schools in southern Spain...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Javier Sevil, Pedro A Sánchez-Miguel, Juan J Pulido, Alba Práxedes, David Sánchez-Oliva
Grounded in self-determination theory, this study aimed first to examine differences in motivation for physical activity (PA) and habitual PA levels between adolescents and university students in Spain. The second aim was to examine differences in the degree of association between their intrinsic motivation and amotivation for PA and habitual PA levels in both samples. We studied 2,699 students (1,833 high school and 866 university; mean age = 18.83, standard deviation = 4.12 years) who completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form and two dimensions of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Alberto B Kruschewsky, Rodolfo A Dellagrana, Mateus Rossato, Luiz Fernando P Ribeiro, Caetano D Lazzari, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Saddle height influences cycling performance and would be expected to influence cyclists physically, perceptually, and emotionally. We investigated how different saddle positions and cadences might affect cyclists' torque, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective responses (Feeling scale). Nine male recreational cyclists underwent cycling sessions on different days under different conditions with a constant load. On Day 1, the saddle was at the reference position (109% of the distance from the pubic symphysis to the ground), and on Days 2 and 3, the saddle was in the "upward position" (reference + 2...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Chris Lange-Küttner
Typically, infants younger than four months fail to attend to the left side of their spatial field, most likely due to an innate asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR). In a critical transition, by four months of age, infants begin to reach and develop depth perception; and, by five months, they tend to monitor the entire spatial field. However, this developmental transition can be delayed. Moreover, there is always a residual right-sided spatial bias under cognitive load, a phenomenon that may also occur among adult stroke patients...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Lennart Raudsepp, Kristi Vink
This study tested the reciprocal associations between mental toughness (MT) and sport-specific practice (SSP) among 163 adolescent Estonian volleyball players who completed self-reported measures of MT and SSP within a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal research design. Higher MT was associated with higher SSP hours at baseline, and changes in MT and SSP were also significantly interrelated across data from both males and females. These findings have implications for the importance of SSP to increase MT, though future research should replicate this study with other participant samples...
October 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
James C L Law, Thomson W L Wong, Debbie C L Chan, Wing-Kai Lam
Visual illusions caused by varied orientations of visual patterns may influence the perception of space and size, possibly affecting body stability during locomotion. This study examined the effect of variations in shoe top visual patterns on perception and biomechanical stability while walking and running. Twenty healthy adults performed five walking and running trials along an instrumented walkway when wearing shoes with five different striped patterns (plain, vertical, outward, horizontal, and inward). Before these locomotion trials, participants ranked their perceptions of shoe width...
August 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Rasool Bagheri, Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Rozita Hedayati, Ziaeddin Safavi-Farokhi, Atefeh Aminian-Far, Sadegh Tavakoli, Jafar Bagheri
This study evaluated the relationships between trait stress, Hoffman reflex, and performance among 36 healthy amateur male athletes. We first obtained a trait stress questionnaire from participants and then assigned them to high- and low-stress groups. We next recorded Hoffman reflex data from the soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles and then examined their athletic performance on testing protocols separated by a 72-hour washout period. Performance testing utilized vertical jump height, 20 -m sprint time, and standing stork tests...
August 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Nolwenn Guedin, Joel Fluss, Catherine Thevenot
Both hand and finger sensory perception and motor abilities are essential for the development of skilled gestures and efficient bimanual coordination. While finger dexterity and finger sensory perception can be impaired in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the relationship between these two functions in this population is not clearly established. The common assumption that CP children with better sensory function also demonstrate better motor outcomes has been recently challenged. To study these questions further, we assessed both finger dexterity and finger gnosia, the ability to perceive one's own fingers by touch, in groups of 11 children with unilateral (i...
August 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Masaki Iguchi, Masaki Matsubara, Hideki Kadone, Hiroko Terasawa, Kenji Suzuki
This study examined differences in auditory electromyographic biofeedback (AEB) effects between participants who were sighted and blind. Past research makes clear that AEB is effective for people who are blind, particularly because of their reported superiority in auditory processing, but no study has directly compared AEB efficacy between participants who are sighted and blind. A total of 11 participants who were sighted and 10 who were blind performed a motor task requiring 20 nonfatiguing muscle contractions at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with or without AEB...
August 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Rafael L Kons, Juliano Dal Pupo, Jonathan Ache-Dias, Daniele Detanico
This study analyzed the relationship between generic and judo-specific physical test performances and technical-tactical competition performances among 19 female judo athletes. Participant data were gathered in two stages: (a) physical tests-countermovement jump (CMJ), handgrip strength, Special Judo Fitness Test and Judogi Grip Strength Test; and (b) match performances recorded for technical-tactical analysis. Pearson's linear correlation and multiple linear regression analysis showed no significant correlations between any technical-tactical parameter and judo-specific physical tests...
August 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Manoella O Santos, Diego G Barbosa, Geraldo J F Junior, Raísa C Silva, Andreia Pelegrini, Érico P G Felden
This study analyzed the associations between physical activity (PA) and motor proficiency (MP) to determine what level of moderate PA might help avoid low MP in 8-10-year-old Brazilian children. We assessed MP of 98 children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency, Second Edition Short Form (BOT-2 SF), and we assessed PA using the GT3X + accelerometer. We analyzed data using means, standard deviations, frequency distribution, spearman correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney U test, and the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve...
August 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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