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Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144219/trypanosoma-sp-diversity-in-amazonian-bats-chiroptera-mammalia-from-acre-state-brazil
#1
Francisco C B Dos Santos, Cristiane V Lisboa, Samanta C C Xavier, Maria A Dario, Rair de S Verde, Armando M Calouro, André Luiz R Roque, Ana M Jansen
Bats are ancient hosts of Trypanosoma species and their flying ability, longevity and adaptability to distinct environments indicate that they are efficient dispersers of parasites. Bats from Acre state (Amazon Biome) were collected in four expeditions conducted in an urban forest (Parque Zoobotânico) and one relatively more preserved area (Seringal Cahoeira) in Rio Branco and Xapuri municipalities. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected by hemoculture and fresh blood examination. Isolated parasite species were identified by the similarity of the obtained DNA sequence from 18S rDNA polymerase chain reaction and reference strains...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144218/characterization-of-a-glycine-rich-protein-from-rhipicephalus-microplus-tissue-expression-gene-silencing-and-immune-recognition
#2
B F Leal, M F Alzugaray, A Seixas, I Da Silva Vaz, C A S Ferreira
Salivary molecules, as glycine-rich proteins (GRPs), are essential to tick attachment and feeding on the host and are suggested to be involved in the host's immune system evasion, therefore representing natural candidates in the search for protective vaccine antigens. This work shows the molecular characterization of a GRP from Rhipicephalus microplus (RmGRP). The cDNA and putative amino acid sequences were analysed, as well as the transcription level in tick tissues/developmental stages, showing the highest levels of gene expression in 1-day-old larvae and salivary glands of fully engorged females...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144217/mechanisms-of-naturally-acquired-immunity-to-p-falciparum-and-approaches-to-identify-merozoite-antigen-targets
#3
Julie Healer, Chris Y Chiu, Diana S Hansen
Malaria is one the most serious infectious diseases with over 200 million clinical cases annually. Most cases of the severe disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The blood stage of Plasmodium parasite is entirely responsible for malaria-associated pathology. The population most susceptible to severe malaria are children under the age of 5, with low levels of immunity. It is only after many years of repeated exposure that individuals living in endemic areas develop clinical immunity. This form of protection prevents clinical episodes by substantially reducing parasite burden...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144216/the-truth-about-in-vitro-culture-of-cryptosporidium-species
#4
Panagiotis Karanis
Cryptosporidium research has focused on the development of infection control, and effective therapy that has thus far been hampered by the inability to culture Cryptosporidium in vitro. Other limitations include inadequate animal models, cumbersome screening procedures for chemotherapeutic approaches and a lack of tools for genetic manipulation. These limitations can, however, be eased by the improvement and focused development of in vitro cultivation. The ability to culture relevant Cryptosporidium isolates in vitro and to propagate the life cycle stages that are responsible for causing disease in an infected host is still a critical link...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144214/circadian-rhythms-of-trematode-parasites-applying-mixed-models-to-test-underlying-patterns
#5
Emily R Hannon, Dana M Calhoun, Sindhu Chadalawada, Pieter T J Johnson
Circadian rhythms of parasites and their hosts can influence processes such as transmission, pathology and life cycle evolution. For trematode parasites that depend on free-living infectious stages (i.e. cercariae) to move among host species, the timing of parasite release is hypothesized to increase the likelihood of contacting a host. Yet, a persistent challenge in studying such biorhythms involves selection of appropriate analytical techniques. Here, we extend a generalized linear mixed modelling (GLMM) framework to cosinor analyses, thereby allowing flexibility in the statistical distribution of the response variable, incorporation of multiple covariates and inclusion of hierarchical grouping effects...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144213/timely-trigger-of-caterpillar-zombie-behaviour-temporal-requirements-for-light-in-baculovirus-induced-tree-top-disease
#6
Yue Han, Stineke van Houte, Monique M van Oers, Vera I D Ros
Host behavioural manipulation is a common strategy used by parasites to enhance their survival and/or transmission. Baculoviruses induce hyperactivity and tree-top disease (pre-death climbing behaviour) in their caterpillar hosts. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this behavioural manipulation. A previous study showed that the baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) induced tree-top disease at 3 days post infection in third instar S. exigua larvae and that light plays a key role in triggering this behaviour...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144211/plasmodium-knowlesi-experimental-model-zoonotic-pathogen-and-golden-opportunity
#7
Janet Cox-Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144208/high-throughput-sequencing-of-kdna-amplicons-for-the-analysis-of-leishmania-minicircles-and-identification-of-neotropical-species
#8
Arthur Kocher, Sophie Valière, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Jérôme Murienne
Leishmania kinetoplast DNA contains thousands of small circular molecules referred to as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicercles. kDNA minicircles are the preferred targets for sensitive Leishmania detection, because they are present in high copy number and contain conserved sequence blocks in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers can be designed. On the other hand, the heterogenic nature of minicircle networks has hampered the use of this peculiar genomic region for strain typing. The characterization of Leishmania minicirculomes used to require isolation and cloning steps prior to sequencing...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143720/epidemiological-investigation-of-a-severe-rumen-fluke-outbreak-on-an-irish-dairy-farm
#9
James O'Shaughnessy, Andres Garcia-Campos, Conor G McAloon, Seamus Fagan, Theo de Waal, Maire McElroy, Micheal Casey, Barbara Good, Grace Mulcahy, John Fagan, Denise Murphy, Annetta Zintl
Although the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi is now very common and widespread throughout Western Europe, reports of clinical cases are still rare. This study explores the epidemiological background to a severe rumen fluke outbreak in 6-month-old heifers on a dairy farm in Ireland. Sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of the rumen fluke metacercariae on pasture failed to identify predominant, possibly pathogenic subtypes. However, estimates of metacercarial load indicated that the animals were exposed to a daily dose of about 5334 C...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143719/microbial-protein-targets-towards-understanding-and-intervention
#10
Paul W Denny
The rise of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with a lack of industrial focus on antimicrobial discovery over preceding decades, has brought the world to a crisis point. With both human and animal health set to decline due to increased disease burdens caused by near untreatable microbial pathogens, there is an urgent need to identify new antimicrobials. Central to this is the elucidation of new, robustly validated, drug targets. Informed by industrial practice and concerns, the use of both biological and chemical tools in validation is key...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140228/co-factor-independent-phosphoglycerate-mutase-of-leishmania-donovani-modulates-macrophage-signalling-and-promotes-t-cell-repertoires-bearing-epitopes-for-both-mhc-i-and-mhc-ii
#11
Manish K Singh, Fauzia Jamal, Amit K Dubey, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Pushpanjali, Ghufran Ahmed, Manas R Dikhit, S Narayan, V N R DAS, Krishna Pandey, K K Sinha, P DAS, Shubhankar K Singh
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β...
November 15, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117879/human-parasitology-worldwide-research
#12
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Concepción Mesa-Valle, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
In this article, the trends in human parasitology have been studied through the analysis of the number of publications in this area. The parameters studied were: number of articles, language, countries and institutions with the highest number of publications, and keywords with greater presence in the articles of human parasitology. The results of the analysis confirm the growing interest in this area, observing an exponential growth in the number of publications in the last decades. We also verified that the main country in terms of scientific production is the USA, although among the most important institutions, we find non-US centres such as the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine...
November 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117878/genetic-diversity-and-evolution-of-pneumocystis-fungi-infecting-wild-southeast-asian-murid-rodents
#13
Alice Latinne, François Bezé, Laurence Delhaes, Muriel Pottier, Nausicaa Gantois, Julien Nguyen, Kim Blasdell, Eduardo Dei-Cas, Serge Morand, Magali Chabé
Pneumocystis organisms are airborne-transmitted fungal parasites that infect the lungs of numerous mammalian species with strong host specificity. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and host specificity of Pneumocystis organisms infecting Southeast Asian murid rodents through PCR amplification of two mitochondrial genes and tested the co-phylogeny hypothesis among these fungi and their rodent hosts. Pneumocystis DNA was detected in 215 of 445 wild rodents belonging to 18 Southeast Asian murid species...
November 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113619/parasite-mediated-host-behavioural-modifications-gyrodactylus-turnbulli-infected-trinidadian-guppies-increase-contact-rates-with-uninfected-conspecifics
#14
Michael Reynolds, Elisavet A Arapi, Jo Cable
While group formation provides antipredatory defences, increases foraging efficiency and mating opportunities, it can be counterintuitive by promoting disease transmission amongst social hosts. Upon introduction of a pathogen, uninfected individuals often modify their social preferences to reduce infection risk. Infected hosts also exhibit behavioural changes, for example, removing themselves from a group to prevent an epidemic. Conversely, here we show how Trinidadian guppies infected with a directly transmitted ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, significantly increase their contact rates with uninfected conspecifics...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113617/molecular-detection-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-in-human-stool-specimens-using-unex-based-dna-extraction-and-real-time-pcr
#15
Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Theresa Benedict, Paula L Marcet, Ryan E Wiegand, Barbara L Herwaldt, Alexandre J da Silva
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with diarrheal illness. In the USA, foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been documented almost every year since the mid-1990s. The typical approach used to identify this parasite in human stools is an examination of acid-fast-stained smears under bright-field microscopy. UV fluorescence microscopy of wet mounts is more sensitive and specific than acid-fast staining but requires a fluorescence microscope with a special filter not commonly available in diagnostic laboratories...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113613/dna-barcoding-of-cryptosporidium
#16
Jan Šlapeta
Cryptosporidium spp. (Apicomplexa) causing cryptosporidiosis are of medical and veterinary significance. The genus Cryptosporidium has benefited from the application of what is considered a DNA-barcoding approach, even before the term 'DNA barcoding' was formally coined. Here, the objective to define the DNA barcode diversity of Cryptosporidium infecting mammals is reviewed and considered to be accomplished. Within the Cryptosporidium literature, the distinction between DNA barcoding and DNA taxonomy is indistinct...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113609/dermotropic-leishmania-donovani-in-sri-lanka-visceralizing-potential-in-clinical-and-preclinical-studies
#17
K K G D U L Kariyawasam, A Selvapandiyan, H V Y D Siriwardana, A Dube, P Karunanayake, S A S C Senanayake, R Dey, S Gannavaram, H L Nakhasi, N D Karunaweera
The visceralizing potential of apparently dermotropic Leishmania donovani in Sri Lanka (L. donovani-SL) was investigated through long-term follow-up of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients and in vivo and in vitro experimental infection models. CL patients (n = 250) treated effectively with intra-lesional antimony therapy were followed-up six monthly for 4 years. There was no clinical evidence of visceralization of infection (VL) during this period. Infection of BALB/c mice with L. donovani-SL (test) through intra-dermal route led to the development of cutaneous lesions at the site of inoculation with no signs of systemic dissemination, in contrast to the observations made in animals similarly infected with a visceralizing strain of L...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113603/identification-of-a-novel-pyp-1-gene-in-sarcoptes-scabiei-and-its-potential-as-a-serodiagnostic-candidate-by-indirect-elisa
#18
Jing Xu, Xing Huang, Manli He, Yongjun Ren, Nengxing Shen, Chunyan Li, Ran He, Yue Xie, Xiaobin Gu, Bo Jing, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies is a parasitic disease caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species, including rabbits, worldwide. In the present study, we cloned and expressed a novel inorganic pyrophosphatase, Ssc-PYP-1, from S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Immunofluorescence staining showed that native Ssc-PYP-1 was localized in the tegument around the mouthparts and the entire legs, as well as in the cuticle of the mites. Interestingly, obvious staining was also observed on the fecal pellets of mites and in the integument of the mites...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113602/cattle-and-rainfall-affect-tick-abundance-in-central-kenya
#19
Felicia Keesing, Richard S Ostfeld, Truman P Young, Brian F Allan
East Africa is a global hot spot for the diversity of ixodid ticks. As ectoparasites and as vectors of pathogens, ticks negatively affect the well-being of humans, livestock and wildlife. To prevent tick infestations, livestock owners and managers typically treat livestock with acaricides that kill ticks when they attempt to feed on livestock hosts. Because of the costs of preventing and mitigating tick parasitism, predicting where and when ticks will be abundant is an important challenge in this region. We used a 7-year monthly record of tick abundance on large experimental plots to assess the effects of rainfall, wildlife and cattle on larvae, nymphs and adults of two common tick species, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Rhipicephalus praetextatus...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113601/incidence-of-paragonimiasis-in-chongqing-china-a-6-year-retrospective-case-review
#20
Xiaohong Peng, Jingru Zhang, Jian Zhang, Ying Wang, Xilin Zhang
Paragonimiasis is an important infectious disease in Chongqing, China. However, no epidemiological surveys of paragonimiasis have been carried out in Chongqing since it became a municipality in 1997. We conducted a retrospective case review of 683 patients who were referred to our laboratory and diagnosed as having paragonimiasis during 2010-2015. Patients were diagnosed with paragonimiasis based on immunodiagnostic tests in addition to clinical and laboratory findings. Patient data extracted from the epidemiologic form were analysed...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
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