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Tom Pennance, Shaali M Ame, Amour Khamis Amour, Khamis Rashid Suleiman, Fiona Allan, David Rollinson, Bonnie L Webster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Parasitology
Neil Cumberlidge, David Rollinson, Jozef Vercruysse, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, Bonnie Webster, Paul F Clark
Paragonimiasis, human lung fluke disease, is a foodborne anthropozoonosis caused by the trematodes assigned to Paragonimus and is regarded by the World Health Organization as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). The life cycle of this medically important parasite centres on a complex freshwater biological community that includes two intermediate hosts: a mollusc and a decapod, usually a brachyuran. Although there is a perception that the biology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Paragonimus is well understood, in reality, this is not the case, especially in Africa...
September 13, 2018: Parasitology
Paula Jiménez, Jesús Jaimes, Cristina Poveda, Juan David Ramírez
Chagas disease is a complex tropical pathology caused by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite displays massive genetic diversity and has been classified by international consensus in at least six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) that are broadly distributed in the American continent. The main clinical manifestation of the disease is the chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) that is lethal in the infected individuals. However, one intriguing feature is that only 30-40% of the infected individuals will develop CCC...
September 13, 2018: Parasitology
Graziela Vargas Rigo, Brenda Petro-Silveira, Michael Devereux, Malachy McCann, André Luis Souza Dos Santos, Tiana Tasca
Trichomonas vaginalis is responsible for the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted infection, human trichomoniasis, and is associated with an increased susceptibility to HIV. An escalation in resistance (2.5-10%) to the clinical drug, metronidazole (MTZ), has been detected and this compound also has adverse side-effects. Therefore, new treatment options are urgently required. Herein, we investigate the possible anti-T. vaginalis activity of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione) and its metal complexes, [Ag(phendione)2]ClO4 and [Cu(phendione)3](ClO4)2·4H2O...
September 12, 2018: Parasitology
Gerusa B Carvalho, Lourena E Costa, Daniela P Lage, Fernanda F Ramos, Thaís T O Santos, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Daniel S Dias, Beatriz C S Salles, Mariana P Lima, Lívia M Carvalho, Ana C S Dias, Patrícia T Alves, Michelle L Franklin, Renata A M Silva, Mariana C Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Bruno M Roatt, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Antonio L Teixeira, Eduardo A F Coelho
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments...
September 10, 2018: Parasitology
Noriko Tamari, Noboru Minakawa, George O Sonye, Beatrice Awuor, James O Kongere, Stephen Munga, Peter S Larson
A sizeable proportion of households is forced to share single long-lasting insecticide treated net (LLIN). However, the relationship between increasing numbers of people sharing a net and the risk for Plasmodium infection is unclear. This study revealed whether risk for Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with the number of people sharing a LLIN in a holoendemic area of Kenya. Children ⩽5 years of age were tested for P. falciparum infection using polymerase chain reaction. Of 558 children surveyed, 293 (52...
September 10, 2018: Parasitology
Mariama Sene-Wade, Bernard Marchand, David Rollinson, Bonnie L Webster
Since the construction of the Diama Dam (1985), the epidemiology of schistosomiasis along the Senegal River Basin (SRB) has been extremely dynamic with outbreaks of both intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis. In the early 2000s, technicians reported cases of suspected urogenital schistosomiasis in adults from the local hospital in Richard-Toll, Lower SRB. The genetic analysis of schistosome miracidia isolated from 11 patients in 2012 from two neighbourhoods (Campement and Gaya) of Richard-Toll confirmed infection with Schistosoma haematobium but also S...
September 6, 2018: Parasitology
J R Stothard, D T J Littlewood, R B Gasser, B L Webster
The study of parasites typically crosses into other research disciplines and spans across diverse scales, from molecular- to populational-levels, notwithstanding promoting an understanding of parasites set within evolutionary time. Today, the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) help frame much of contemporary parasitological research, since parasites can be found in all ecosystems, blighting human, animal and plant health. In recognition of the multi-disciplinary nature of parasitological research, the 2017 Autumn Symposium of the British Society for Parasitology was held in London to provide a forum for novel exchange across medical, veterinary and wildlife fields of study...
September 6, 2018: Parasitology
Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Tatjana A Iezhova, Mikas Ilgūnas, Gediminas Valkiūnas
Haemosporidian parasites belonging to Haemoproteus cause avian diseases, however, vectors remain unidentified for the majority of described species. We used the laboratory-reared biting midges Culicoides nubeculosus to determine if the sporogonic development of three widespread Haemoproteus parasites completes in this insect. The midges were reared and fed on one common blackbird, white wagtail and thrush nightingale naturally infected with Haemoproteus minutus, Haemoproteus motacillae and Haemoproteus attenuatus, respectively...
September 4, 2018: Parasitology
Rosanne Sfe van Gestel, Johannes G Kusters, Jan F Monkelbaan
Dientamoeba fragilis (D. fragilis) is an intestinal parasite frequently detected in humans with abdominal pain and diarrhoea, but it is also commonly found in asymptomatic subjects. Hence its clinical relevance is often disputed. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a versatile and sensitive diagnostic technique for the detection of intestinal parasites, and in some Western world countries PCR has almost completely replaced microscopic diagnostics. PCR has however resulted in an increase in the number of D...
August 31, 2018: Parasitology
Jessica R Deere, Michele B Parsons, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Iddi Lipende, Shadrack Kamenya, D Anthony Collins, Dominic A Travis, Thomas R Gillespie
Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric parasite that infects approximately 50 million people worldwide. Although E. histolytica is a zoonotic parasite that has the potential to infect nonhuman primates, such transmission is poorly understood. Consequently, this study examined whether E. histolytica is present among humans, chimpanzees and baboons living in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem (GGE), Tanzania. The primary aims were to determine patterns of E. histolytica infection in a system with human-nonhuman primate overlap and to test associations between infection status and potential risk factors of disease...
August 30, 2018: Parasitology
Stefano Catalano, Khalilou Bâ, Nicolas D Diouf, Elsa Léger, Guilherme G Verocai, Joanne P Webster
Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) is a recently resurrected genus including species seldom investigated in sub-Saharan Africa. We surveyed wild small mammal populations in the areas of Richard Toll and Lake Guiers, Senegal, with the objective to evaluate their potential role as intermediate hosts of larval taeniid stages (i.e. metacestodes). Based on genetic sequences of a segment of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), we identified Hydatigera parva metacestodes in 19 out of 172 (11...
August 28, 2018: Parasitology
Lucas J Cunningham, J Russell Stothard, Mike Osei-Atweneboana, Samuel Armoo, Jaco J Verweij, Emily R Adams
With the push towards control and elimination of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis in low- and middle-income countries, there is a need to develop alternative diagnostic assays that complement the current in-country resources, preferably at a lower cost. Here, we describe a novel high-resolution melt (HRM) curve assay with six PCR primer pairs, designed to sub-regions of the nuclear ribosomal locus. Used within a single reaction and dye detection channel, they are able to discriminate Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiuria and Schistosoma spp...
August 28, 2018: Parasitology
P García-Lunar, G Schares, A Sanz-Fernández, A Jiménez-Meléndez, I García-Soto, J Regidor-Cerrillo, I Pastor-Fernández, A Hemphill, M Fernández-Álvarez, L M Ortega-Mora, G Álvarez-García
This is the first report on the development and characterization of eight monoclonal antibodies (MABs) generated against whole- and membrane-enriched tachyzoite extracts of the apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize respective epitopes in B. besnoiti tachyzoites along the lytic cycle. A pattern compatible with dense granule staining was observed with MABs 2.A.12, 2.F.3 and 2.G.4, which could be confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy for MABs 2...
August 16, 2018: Parasitology
Jesús Veiga, Eulalia Moreno, Jesús Benzal, Francisco Valera
Highlighting the dispersal ecology of parasites is important for understanding epidemiological, demographic and coevolutionary aspects of host-parasite interactions. Yet, critical aspects of the dispersal stage of parasites, such as longevity and the factors influencing it, are poorly known. Here we study the lifespan of the dispersal stage of an ectoparasitic dipteran, Carnus hemapterus, and the impact of gender, body size and food provisioning on longevity. We found that freshly emerged imagoes survive at most less than 4 days...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology
María Ornela Beltrame, Victoria Cañal, Eleonor Tietze, Daniela De Tommaso
The aim of the present study was to examine the parasite fauna present in mountain viscacha Lagidium viscacia (Caviomorpha, Chinchillidae) fecal pellets collected from 'Cueva Peligro', a cave located in Chubut province, Patagonia, Argentina, throughout the last 1200 years. A total of 84 samples were examined for parasites. Each pellet was whole processed: rehydrated, homogenized, sediment and examined using light microscopy. The samples and eggs of parasites present were described, measured and photographed...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology
Azzurra Santoro, Elisabeth Dorbek-Kolin, Julia Jeremejeva, Lea Tummeleht, Toomas Orro, Pikka Jokelainen, Brian Lassen
We investigated the molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in Estonia by testing fecal samples from 486 calves aged <2 months, raised on 53 cattle farms, for the presence of Cryptosporidium DNA. The parasites were identified and characterized by sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Moreover, using a questionnaire, we surveyed factors that could be relevant for animal-to-human and human-to-animal transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. on the farms. Cryptosporidium spp...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology
Tom Pennance, Shaali M Ame, Armour Khamis Amour, Khamis Rashid Suleiman, Fiona Allan, David Rollinson, Bonnie L Webster
The causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium, was thought to be the only schistosome species transmitted through Bulinus snails on Unguja and Pemba Island (Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania). For insights into the environmental risk of S. haematobium transmission on Pemba Island, malacological surveys collecting Bulinus globosus and B. nasutus, two closely related potential intermediate hosts of S. haematobium were conducted across the island in November 2016. Of 1317 B. globosus/B...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology
A S Cooke, K A Watt, E R Morgan, J A J Dungait
Antibodies at gastrointestinal mucosal membranes play a vital role in immunological protection against a range of pathogens, including helminths. Gastrointestinal health is central to efficient livestock production, and such infections cause significant losses. Fecal samples were taken from 114 cattle, across three beef farms, with matched blood samples taken from 22 of those animals. To achieve fecal antibody detection, a novel fecal supernatant was extracted. Fecal supernatant and serum samples were then analysed, using adapted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocols, for levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, IgM, and Teladorsagia circumcincta-specific IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE (in the absence of reagents for cattle-specific nematode species)...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology
Iolanda Graepp Fontoura, David Soeiro Barbosa, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes, Floriacy Stabnow Santos, Marcelino Santos Neto, Volmar Morais Fontoura, Jackson Mauricio Lopes Costa, Ana Lúcia Abreu Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: Parasitology
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