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Martina R Laidemitt, Eva T Zawadzki, Sara V Brant, Martin W Mutuku, Gerald M Mkoji, Eric S Loker
Paramphistomoids are ubiquitous and widespread digeneans that infect a diverse range of definitive hosts, being particularly speciose in ruminants. We collected adult worms from cattle, goats and sheep from slaughterhouses, and cercariae from freshwater snails from ten localities in Central and West Kenya. We sequenced cox1 (690 bp) and internal transcribed region 2 (ITS2) (385 bp) genes from a small piece of 79 different adult worms and stained and mounted the remaining worm bodies for comparisons with available descriptions...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Rebecca E Young, Andrew D C Maccoll
Patterns in parasite community structure are often observed in natural systems and an important question in parasite ecology is whether such patterns are repeatable across time and space. Field studies commonly look at spatial or temporal repeatability of patterns, but they are rarely investigated in conjunction. We use a large dataset on the macroparasites of the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., collected from 14 locations on North Uist, Scotland over an 8-year period to investigate: (1) repeatability of patterns in parasite communities among populations and whether variation is consistent across years, (2) whether variation between years can be explained by climatic variation and progression of the season and (3) whether variation in habitat characteristics explain population differences...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Danieli Urach Monteiro, Maria Isabel Azevedo, Carla Weiblen, Sônia DE Avila Botton, Nadine Lysyk Funk, Cristiane DE Bona DA Silva, Régis Adriel Zanette, Thiago Guilherme Schwanz, Mário Luiz DE LA Rue
Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease of difficult diagnosis and treatment. The use of protoscolicidal agents in procedures is of utmost importance for treatment success. This study was aimed at analysing the in vitro and ex vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil - TTO), its nanoemulsion formulation (NE-TTO) and its major component (terpinen-4-ol) against Echinococcus ortleppi protoscoleces obtained from cattle. Concentrations of 2·5, 5 and 10 mg mL-1 of TTO, 10 mg mL-1 of NE-TTO and 1, 1·5 and 2 mg mL-1 of terpinen-4-ol were evaluated in vitro against protoscoleces at 5, 10, 15 and 30 min...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Tad Dallas, Andrew W Park, John M Drake
Host-parasite associations are complex interactions dependent on aspects of hosts (e.g. traits, phylogeny or coevolutionary history), parasites (e.g. traits and parasite interactions) and geography (e.g. latitude). Predicting the permissive host set or the subset of the host community that a parasite can infect is a central goal of parasite ecology. Here we develop models that accurately predict the permissive host set of 562 helminth parasites in five different parasite taxonomic groups. We developed predictive models using host traits, host taxonomy, geographic covariates, and parasite community composition, finding that models trained on parasite community variables were more accurate than any other covariate group, even though parasite community covariates only captured a quarter of the variance in parasite community composition...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Mark Viney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Parasitology
Qingli Niu, Zhijie Liu, Jifei Yang, Peifa Yu, Yuping Pan, Bintao Zhai, Jianxun Luo, Guiquan Guan, Hong Yin
Ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. The ovine parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China. In this study, recombinant full-length XJrRAP-1aα2 (rhoptry-associated protein 1aα2) and C-terminal XJrRAP-1aα2 CT of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were expressed and used to evaluate their diagnostic potential for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infections by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified XJrRAP-1aα2 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally infected with Babesia sp...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Pedro H O Cavalcante, Maralina T Silva, Everton G N Santos, Vanessa A Chagas-Moutinho, Claudia P Santos
The fish fauna in the State of Acre represents 10·7% of all fish species recorded from Brazil, but, despite this, there are few fish parasite studies in this area. The recent expansion of fish farming in Acre prompted a need for helminthological studies of the most commonly consumed fish species in the area, Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodidae). The aim of this study was to analyse the helminth fauna of P. blochii from the Acre and Xapuri Rivers in Northwestern Brazil. Numerous nematodes were collected from the intestine and two species of the family Atractidae were identified: Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920 and Orientatractis moraveci n...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
G D Stentiford, A Ramilo, E Abollo, R Kerr, K S Bateman, S W Feist, D Bass, A Villalba
The Paramyxida, closely related to haplosporidians, paradinids, and mikrocytids, is an obscure order of parasitic protists within the class Ascetosporea. All characterized ascetosporeans are parasites of invertebrate hosts, including molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes. Representatives of the genus Marteilia are the best studied paramyxids, largely due to their impact on cultured oyster stocks, and their listing in international legislative frameworks. Although several examples of microsporidian hyperparasitism of paramyxids have been reported, phylogenetic data for these taxa are lacking...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Axel Martinelli, Richard Culleton
The study of malaria in the laboratory relies on either the in vitro culture of human parasites, or the use of non-human malaria parasites in laboratory animals. In this review, we address the use of non-human primate malaria parasite species (NHPMPs) in laboratory research. We describe the features of the most commonly used NHPMPs, review their contribution to our understanding of malaria to date, and discuss their potential contribution to future studies.
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
D S Nunes, H T Gonzaga, V S Ribeiro, J P Cunha-Júnior, J M Costa-Cruz
There is an increasing interest in improving neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosis through the search of new and alternative antigenic sources, as those obtained from heterologous antigens. The aim of this study was to obtain potential biomarkers for NCC diagnosis after gel filtration chromatography [gel filtration fraction (GFF)] from the total saline extract (SE) from Taenia saginata metacestodes, followed by protein identification and application in immunodiagnostic. SE and GFF proteic profiles were characterized in gel electrophoresis, and diagnostic performance was verified by testing 160 serum samples through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Geisa S Dolci, Luciana F Cossetin, Karen L S Moreira, Marcelo L DA Veiga, Maria Izabel U M DA Rocha, Aline A Boligon, Marli M A DE Campos, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S DA Silva, Silvia G Monteiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nerolidol free (N-F) and nerolidol-loaded in nanospheres (N-NS) on the hepatic antioxidant/oxidant status of mice experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. In the liver it was measured: reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARS) and non-protein thiols (NPSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and performed histopathological examination. In addition, seric levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
H M Vincent
Famous for the discovery of the parasite, Leishmania, named after him, and the invention of Leishman's stain, William Boog Leishman should perhaps be better known for his work in military and public health, particularly the prevention of typhoid. Leishman was a Medical Officer in the British Army from 1887 until his death in 1926. His early research was on diseases affecting troops posted to stations within the British Empire. He saw cases of Leishmaniasis while stationed in India, and was able to identify the causative organism from his detailed records of his observations...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis, commonly known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America. The majority of the cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is a major public health problem impacting on child health and development as well as adult health when infections become chronic. Control of schistosomiasis is by treatment of infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. Current schistosome control programmes advocated by the World Health Assembly in 2001 are aimed at regular school-based integrated deworming strategies in order to reduce development of severe morbidity, promote school health and to improve cognitive potential of children...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
Federica Giordani, Liam J Morrison, Tim G Rowan, Harry P DE Koning, Michael P Barrett
Pathogenic animal trypanosomes affecting livestock have represented a major constraint to agricultural development in Africa for centuries, and their negative economic impact is increasing in South America and Asia. Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis represent the main means of control. However, research into new trypanocides has remained inadequate for decades, leading to a situation where the few compounds available are losing efficacy due to the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current options available for the treatment and prophylaxis of the animal trypanosomiases, with a special focus on the problem of resistance...
October 10, 2016: Parasitology
J Flegr, D Q Escudero
The global seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis is estimated to be higher than 30%. The presence of slowly dividing parasites in tissue cysts located mainly in immunoprivileged organs was long considered asymptomatic. Recently, many studies have shown that latent Toxoplasma infections could have serious impacts on human health. Here we ran a cross-sectional study in a population of 1486 volunteers. The results showed that 333 infected subjects scored worse than 1153 controls in 28 of 29 health-related variables...
October 10, 2016: Parasitology
Sirpa Kaunisto, Ilkka Raunismaa, Raine Kortet, Hannu Ylönen
Predation can regulate populations and strongly affect invasion success of novel prey. The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi; Linnaeus 1758) is an invasive ectoparasite of cervids that spends a long period of its life cycle outside the host. Prior to this study, virtually nothing was known about natural summer time predation on the deer ked. We aimed to evaluate the magnitude of summer time predation on L. cervi pupae in different habitats and to identify potential predators. We conducted a set of field experiments, where we exposed L...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Rodrigo Moreno-Campos, Luis E Florencio-Martínez, Tomás Nepomuceno-Mejía, Saúl Rojas-Sánchez, Daniel E Vélez-Ramírez, Norma E Padilla-Mejía, Elisa Figueroa-Angulo, Rebeca Manning-Cela, Santiago Martínez-Calvillo
Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Betul Sonmez, Ergun Koroglu, Sami Simsek
Taenia multiceps is a cestode (family Taeniidae) that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the central nervous system including brain and spinal card in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease commonly affects young animals...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Fiona M Menzies, David Macphail, Fiona L Henriquez
Protists are a diverse collection of eukaryotic organisms that account for a significant global infection burden. Often, the immune responses mounted against these parasites cause excessive inflammation and therefore pathology in the host. Elucidating the mechanisms of both protective and harmful immune responses is complex, and often relies of the use of animal models. In any immune response, leucocyte trafficking to the site of infection, or inflammation, is paramount, and this involves the production of chemokines, small chemotactic cytokines of approximately 8-10 kDa in size, which bind to specific chemokine receptors to induce leucocyte movement...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Daniel P Benesh
Complex life cycles are common in free-living and parasitic organisms alike. The adaptive decoupling hypothesis postulates that separate life cycle stages have a degree of developmental and genetic autonomy, allowing them to be independently optimized for dissimilar, competing tasks. That is, complex life cycles evolved to facilitate functional specialization. Here, I review the connections between the different stages in parasite life cycles. I first examine evolutionary connections between life stages, such as the genetic coupling of parasite performance in consecutive hosts, the interspecific correlations between traits expressed in different hosts, and the developmental and functional obstacles to stage loss...
September 29, 2016: Parasitology
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