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Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290270/host-associations-and-turnover-of-haemosporidian-parasites-in-manakins-aves-pipridae
#1
Alan Fecchio, Maria Svensson-Coelho, Jeffrey Bell, Vincenzo A Ellis, Matthew C Medeiros, Christopher H Trisos, John G Blake, Bette A Loiselle, Joseph A Tobias, Rebeka Fanti, Elyse D Coffey, Iubatã P DE Faria, João B Pinho, Gabriel Felix, Erika M Braga, Marina Anciães, Vasyl Tkach, John Bates, Christopher Witt, Jason D Weckstein, Robert E Ricklefs, Izeni P Farias
Parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) are a diverse group of pathogens that infect birds nearly worldwide. Despite their ubiquity, the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape the diversity and distribution of these protozoan parasites among avian communities and geographic regions are poorly understood. Based on a survey throughout the Neotropics of the haemosporidian parasites infecting manakins (Pipridae), a family of Passerine birds endemic to this region, we asked whether host relatedness, ecological similarity and geographic proximity structure parasite turnover between manakin species and local manakin assemblages...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290266/improved-diagnosis-of-trichuris-trichiura-by-using-a-bead-beating-procedure-on-ethanol-preserved-stool-samples-prior-to-dna-isolation-and-the-performance-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-intestinal-parasites
#2
Maria M M Kaisar, Eric A T Brienen, Yenny Djuardi, Erliyani Sartono, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Jaco J Verweij, Taniawati Supali, Lisette VAN Lieshout
For the majority of intestinal parasites, real-time PCR-based diagnosis outperforms microscopy. However, the data for Trichuris trichiura have been less convincing and most comparative studies have been performed in populations with low prevalence. This study aims to improve detection of T. trichuria DNA in human stool by evaluating four sample preparation methods. Faecal samples (n = 60) were collected at Flores island, Indonesia and examined by microscopy. Aliquots were taken and a bead-beating procedure was used both on directly frozen stool and on material preserved with 96% ethanol...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290263/diagnosis-of-toxoplasmosis-in-pregnancy-evaluation-of-latex-protein-complexes-by-immnunoagglutination
#3
Leandro E Peretti, Verónica D G Gonzalez, Iván S Marcipar, Luis M Gugliotta
The aim of this work was to obtain a reagent based on latex particles for ruling out acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women by immunoagglutination (IA). Latex-protein complexes (LPC) were previously synthesized coupling the recombinant protein of Toxoplasma gondii P22Ag and the homogenate of the parasite to latex particles with different size, chemical functionality and charge density. LPC were tested in IA assays against a panel of 72 pregnant women serum samples. Results were analysed through receiver operating characteristic curves, determining area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively)...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290261/conditional-persistence-and-tolerance-characterize-endoparasite-colonial-host-interactions
#4
Inês Fontes, Hanna Hartikainen, Nick G H Taylor, Beth Okamura
Colonial hosts offer unique opportunities for exploitation by endoparasites resulting from extensive clonal propagation, but these interactions are poorly understood. The freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana, and the myxozoan, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, present an appropriate model system for examining such interactions. F. sultana propagates mainly asexually, through colony fragmentation and dormant propagules (statoblasts). Our study examines how T. bryosalmonae exploits the multiple transmission routes offered by the propagation of F...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274296/host-specificity-and-basic-ecology-of-mammomonogamus-nematoda-syngamidae-from-lowland-gorillas-and-forest-elephants-in-central-african-republic
#5
Barbora Červená, Peter Vallo, Barbora Pafčo, Kateřina Jirků, Miloslav Jirků, Klára Judita Petrželková, Angelique Todd, Andrea K Turkalo, David Modrý
Syngamid strongylids of the genus Mammomonogamus undoubtedly belong among the least known nematodes with apparent zoonotic potential and the real diversity of the genus remains hard to evaluate without extensive molecular data. Eggs of Mammomonogamus sp. are frequently found in feces of African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas. Using sedimentation-based coproscopic techniques, we found the eggs of Mammomonogamus in 19·7% elephant and 54·1% gorilla fecal samples with 8-55 and 1-24 eggs per gram of fecal sediment for elephants and gorillas, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274289/transmission-ecology-of-taeniid-larval-cestodes-in-rodents-in-sweden-a-low-endemic-area-for-echinococcus-multilocularis
#6
Andrea L Miller, Gert E Olsson, Sofia Sollenberg, Marion R Walburg, Moa Skarin, Johan Höglund
Although local prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis may be high, this zoonotic parasite has an overall low prevalence in foxes and rodents in Sweden. To better understand opportunities for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment, the aim of this study was to investigate other taeniid cestodes and to relate observed patterns to E. multilocularis. Cestode parasites were examined in fox feces and rodents caught in different habitats from four regions of Sweden. Arvicola amphibius and Microtus agrestis were parasitized with Versteria mustelae, Hydatigera taeniaeformis s...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274286/galectins-expressed-differently-in-genetically-susceptible-c57bl-6-and-resistant-balb-c-mice-during-acute-ocular-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#7
S-J Chen, Y-X Zhang, S-G Huang, F-L Lu
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) caused by Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of infectious uveitis, however little is known about its immunopathological mechanism. Susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) and resistant BALB/c mice were intravitreally infected with 500 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. B6 mice showed more severe ocular pathology and higher parasite loads in the eyes. The levels of galectin (Gal)-9 and its receptors (Tim-3 and CD137), interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the eyes of B6 mice than those of BALB/c mice; however, the levels of IFN-α and -β were significantly decreased in the eyes and CLNs of B6 mice but significantly increased in BALB/c mice after infection...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274285/intra-and-interspecific-genetic-diversity-of-new-zealand-hairworms-nematomorpha
#8
Zachary J C Tobias, Arun K Yadav, Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Robert Poulin
Hairworms (Nematomorpha) are a little-known group of parasites, and despite having been represented in the taxonomic literature for over a century, the implementation of molecular genetics in studies of hairworm ecology and evolution lags behind that of other parasitic taxa. In this study, we characterize the genetic diversity of the New Zealand nematomorph fauna and test for genetic structure within the most widespread species found. We provide new mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal sequence data for three previously described species from New Zealand: Gordius paranensis, Parachordodes diblastus and Euchordodes nigromaculatus...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274284/the-antimalarial-action-of-fk506-and-rapamycin-evidence-for-a-direct-effect-on-fk506-binding-protein-pffkbp35
#9
Paul Monaghan, Darren B Leneghan, Wesley Shaw, Angus Bell
FK506 and rapamycin (Rap) are immunosuppressive drugs that act principally on T-lymphocytes. The receptors for both drugs are FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), but the molecular mechanisms of immunosuppression differ. An FK506-FKBP complex inhibits the protein phosphatase calcineurin, blocking a key step in T-cell activation, while the Rap -FKBP complex binds to the protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR), which is involved in a subsequent signalling pathway. Both drugs, and certain non-immunosuppressive compounds related to FK506, have potent antimalarial activity...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274283/topical-tamoxifen-in-the-therapy-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#10
Cristiana T Trinconi, Juliana Q Reimão, Vivian I Bonano, Caroline R Espada, Danilo C Miguel, Jenicer K U Yokoyama-Yasunaka, Silvia R B Uliana
The aims of the present work were to test the effect of tamoxifen administered topically and the therapeutic efficacy of tamoxifen and pentavalent antimonial combinations in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. BALB/c mice infected with a luciferase expressing line of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with topical tamoxifen in two different formulations (ethanol or oil-free cream) as monotherapy or in co-administration with pentavalent antimonial. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by lesion size and parasite burden, quantified through luminescence, at the end of treatment and 4 weeks later...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274280/a-novel-duplex-ddpcr-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-schistosomiasis-japonica-proof-of-concept-in-an-experimental-mouse-model
#11
Kosala G Weerakoon, Catherine A Gordon, Pengfei Cai, Geoffrey N Gobert, Mary Duke, Gail M Williams, Donald P McManus
The current World Health Organization strategic plan targets the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025 and accurate diagnostics will play a pivotal role in achieving this goal. DNA-based detection methods provide a viable alternative to some of the commonly used tests, notably microscopy and serology, for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. The detection of parasite cell-free DNA in different clinical samples is a recent valuable advance, which provides significant benefits for accurate disease diagnosis...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270257/new-developments-in-probing-and-targeting-protein-acylation-in-malaria-leishmaniasis-and-african-sleeping-sickness
#12
Markus Ritzefeld, Megan H Wright, Edward W Tate
Infections by protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum or Leishmania donovani, have a significant health, social and economic impact and threaten billions of people living in tropical and sub-tropical regions of developing countries worldwide. The increasing range of parasite strains resistant to frontline therapeutics makes the identification of novel drug targets and the development of corresponding inhibitors vital. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important modulators of biology and inhibition of protein lipidation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of parasitic diseases...
March 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270254/consistent-patterns-of-trophic-niche-specialization-in-host-populations-infected-with-a-non-native-copepod-parasite
#13
J Pegg, D Andreou, C F Williams, J R Britton
Populations of generalist species often comprise of smaller sub-sets of relatively specialized individuals whose niches comprise small sub-sets of the overall population niche. Here, the role of parasite infections in trophic niche specialization was tested using five wild fish populations infected with the non-native parasite Ergasilus briani, a copepod parasite with a direct lifecycle that infects the gill tissues of fish hosts. Infected and uninfected fishes were sampled from the same habitats during sampling events...
March 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270244/expression-profiling-of-circulating-mirnas-in-mouse-serum-in-response-to-echinococcus-multilocularis-infection
#14
Xiaola Guo, Yadong Zheng
Echinococcus multilocularis is a most pathogenic zoonotic tapeworm that causes devastating echinococcosis in both humans and animals. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are stably existed in the serum/plasma of mammalian hosts during helminthic infection. In this study, we compared the host-circulating miRNA expression in the sera from the E. multilocularis-infected and uninfected mice. A total of 58 host-origin serum miRNAs were differentially expressed (2 ⩾ fold change, P < 0·05), of which 21 were upregulated and 37 were significantly downregulated...
March 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270243/predation-on-transmission-stages-reduces-parasitism-sea-anemones-consume-transmission-stages-of-a-barnacle-parasite
#15
Caitlin R Fong, Armand M Kuris
While parasites serve as prey, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of parasite predators provides transmission control and influences patterns of parasitism. Because many of its organisms are sessile, the rocky intertidal zone is a valuable but little used system to understand spatial patterns of parasitism and elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving these patterns. Sea anemones and barnacles are important space competitors in the rocky intertidal zone along the Pacific coast of North America. Anemones are voracious, indiscriminate predators; thus, they may intercept infectious stages of parasites before they reach a host...
March 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270242/to-see-or-not-to-see-non-invasive-imaging-for-improved-readout-of-drug-treatment-trials-in-the-murine-model-of-secondary-alveolar-echinococcosis
#16
D Gorgas, N Marreros, R Rufener, A Hemphill, B Lundström-Stadelmann
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The secondary infection model of AE is based on intraperitoneal injection of disease-causing metacestodes into the peritoneal cavity of mice, which allows investigations on novel drugs or immunotherapeutical treatment options in vivo. So far, such in vivo studies assessed exclusively the parasite weight at the endpoint of a given treatment period. We here developed an ultrasound (US)-based scoring system that allows to follow-up parasite development in the living animal, and provides insights into parasite growth during the treatment phase...
March 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245890/one-hundred-years-of-neglect-in-paediatric-schistosomiasis
#17
Amaya L Bustinduy, Stephen Wright, Elizabeth C Joekes, Narcis B Kabatereine, Jutta Reinhard-Rupp, Charles H King, J Russell Stothard
Early in the history of schistosomiasis research, children under 5 years of age were known to be infected. Although this problem was recognized over 100 years ago, insufficient action has been taken to address this issue. Under current policy, such infected children only receive their first antiparasitic treatment (praziquantel - PZQ) upon entry into primary school as current mass drug administration programmes typically target school-aged children. For many infected children, they will wait up to 6 years before receiving their first medication and significant schistosomiasis-related morbidity may have already established...
March 1, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241894/importance-of-serological-cross-reactivity-among-toxoplasma-gondii-hammondia-spp-neospora-spp-sarcocystis-spp-and-besnoitia-besnoiti
#18
Luís F P Gondim, José R Mineo, Gereon Schares
Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. and Besnoitia besnoiti are genetically related cyst-forming coccidia. Serology is frequently used for the identification of T. gondii, Neospora spp. and B. besnoiti-exposed individuals. Serologic cross-reactions occur in different tests among animals infected with T. gondii and H. hammondi, as well as among animals infected by T. gondii and N. caninum. Infections caused by N. caninum and N. hughesi are almost indistinguishable by serology. Neospora caninum, B...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241893/parasitism-as-the-main-factor-shaping-peptide-vocabularies-in-current-organisms
#19
Michaela Zemková, Daniel Zahradník, Martin Mokrejš, Jaroslav Flegr
Self/non-self-discrimination by vertebrate immune systems is based on the recognition of the presence of peptides in proteins of a parasite that are not contained in the proteins of a host. Therefore, a reduction of the number of 'words' in its own peptide vocabulary could be an efficient evolutionary strategy of parasites for escaping recognition. Here, we compared peptide vocabularies of 30 endoparasitic and 17 free-living unicellular organisms and also eight multicellular parasitic and 16 multicellular free-living organisms...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219472/immunodiagnosis-of-paramphistomosis-using-monoclonal-antibody-based-sandwich-elisa-for-detection-of-paramphistomum-gracile-circulating-16-kda-antigen
#20
Panat Anuracpreeda, Kullanid Tepsupornkul, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul
In this study, we have produced a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile (16 kDaAgPg), and developed an accurate sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) for the detection of circulating 16 kDaAg in the serum and fecal samples from cattle naturally infected with P. gracile. MoAb 1D10 was immobilized on a microtitre plate, and the antigen in the samples was captured and detected with biotinylated rabbit anti-16 kDaAgPg antibody. The lower detection limit of sandwich ELISA was 3·5 pg mL-1, and no cross-reaction with other parasite antigens was evaluated...
February 21, 2017: Parasitology
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