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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352826/the-in-vitro-antileishmanial-activity-of-essential-oil-from-aloysia-gratissima-and-guaiol-its-major-sesquiterpene-against-leishmania-amazonensis
#1
Maria Carolina Freitas Garcia, Deivid Costa Soares, Raissa Couto Santana, Elvira Maria Saraiva, Antonio Carlos Siani, Mônica Freiman S Ramos, Maria das Graças Miranda Danelli, Thaïs Cristina Souto-Padron, Lucia H Pinto-da-Silva
Leishmaniases is a tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania for which the current treatment is expensive, besides increasing reports of parasite resistance. This study investigated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the essential oil from Aloysia gratissima (AgEO) and guaiol, the major sesquiterpene constituent in the oil. Our results showed that AgEO killed promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes at an IC50 of 25 and 0·16 µg mL-1, respectively, while guaiol killed amastigotes at an IC50 of 0·01 µg mL-1...
January 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338808/ceratomyxa-gracillima-n-sp-cnidaria-myxosporea-provides-evidence-of-panmixia-and-ceratomyxid-radiation-in-the-amazon-basin
#2
Suellen A Zatti, Stephen D Atkinson, Antônio A M Maia, Jerri L Bartholomew, Edson A Adriano
We describe a new freshwater myxosporean species Ceratomyxa gracillima n. sp. from the gall bladder of the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii; the first myxozoan recorded in this host. The new Ceratomyxa was described on the basis of its host, myxospore morphometry, ssrDNA and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) sequences. Infected fish were sampled from geographically distant localities: the Tapajós River, Pará State, the Amazon River, Amapá State and the Solimões River, Amazonas State...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338807/genetic-diversity-of-blastocystis-in-non-primate-animals
#3
Emma L Betts, Eleni Gentekaki, Adele Thomasz, Vicki Breakell, Angus I Carpenter, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Blastocystis is an anaerobic protist, commonly inhabiting the intestinal tract of both humans and other animals. Blastocystis is extremely diverse comprising 17 genetically distinct subtypes in mammals and birds. Pathogenicity of this enteric microbe is currently disputed and knowledge regarding its distribution, diversity and zoonotic potential is fragmentary. Most research has focused on Blastocystis from primates, while sampling from other animals remains limited. Herein, we investigated the prevalence and distribution of Blastocystis in animals held within a conservation park in South East England...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338798/high-diversity-and-low-genetic-structure-of-feather-mites-associated-with-a-phenotypically-variable-bird-host
#4
Sofía Fernández-González, Antón Pérez-Rodríguez, Heather C Proctor, Iván De la Hera, Javier Pérez-Tris
Obligate symbionts may be genetically structured among host individuals and among phenotypically distinct host populations. Such processes may in turn determine within-host genetic diversity of symbionts, which is relevant for understanding symbiont population dynamics. We analysed the population genetic structure of two species of feather mites (Proctophyllodes sylviae and Trouessartia bifurcata) in migratory and resident blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla that winter sympatrically. Resident and migratory hosts may provide mites with habitats of different qualities, what might promote specialization of mite populations...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295718/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-in-brazil
#5
Maria Teresinha Gomes Casavechia, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo, Andrea Claudia Bekner Da Silva Fernandes, Karin Reinhold De Castro, Raissa Bocchi Pedroso, Thaís Da Silva Santos, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and factors associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science and Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information (LILACS) databases, scientific publications articles, according to The PRISMA Statement, from 2000 to 2016. A total of 27 studies were included according to the established criteria. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection varied widely, from 0·1 to 73·1%, based on Kato-Katz technique...
January 3, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262879/the-role-of-the-mussel-mytilus-spp-in-the-transmission-of-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-microvar
#6
A J O' Reilly, C Laide, A Maloy, S Hutton, B Bookelaar, K O' Sullivan, S A Lynch, S C Culloty
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas contributes significantly to global aquaculture; however, C. gigas culture has been affected by ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) and variants. The dynamics of how the virus maintains itself at culture sites is unclear and the role of carriers, reservoirs or hosts is unknown. Both wild and cultured mussels Mytilus spp. (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis and hybrids) are commonly found at C. gigas culture sites. The objective of this study was to investigate if Mytilus spp...
December 21, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249204/evidence-for-trophic-transfer-of-inodosporus-octospora-and-ovipleistophora-arlo-n-sp-microsporidia-between-crustacean-and-fish-hosts
#7
G D Stentiford, S Ross, D Minardi, S W Feist, K S Bateman, P A Gainey, C Troman, D Bass
Within aquatic habitats, the hyper-abundant Order Crustacea appear to be the predominant host group for members of the Phylum Microsporidia. The musculature, a common site of infection, provides access to biochemical (carbohydrate-rich) and physiological (mitochondria-rich) conditions conducive to prolific parasite replication and maturation. The significant proportion of body plan devoted to skeletal musculature in Crustacea provides the location for a highly efficient intracellular parasite factory. In this study, we utilize histological, ultrastructural and phylogenetic evidence to describe a previously known (Inodosporus octospora) and novel (Ovipleistophora arlo n...
December 18, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239298/optimized-conditions-for-the-in-vitro-excystment-of-calicophoron-daubneyi-metacercariae
#8
Kathryn M Huson, Charlotte Wild, Caroline Fenn, Mark W Robinson
Paramphistomosis, caused by Calicophoron daubneyi, is an emerging infection of ruminants throughout Western Europe. Despite its prevalence, many questions remain regarding the basic biology of this parasite and how it interacts with its host. Consequently, there is a need to develop methods to study C. daubneyi in vitro to improve our understanding of rumen fluke biology. Towards this, we aimed to identify a suitable protocol for in vitro excystment of C. daubneyi metacercariae. Six methods that have been used to excyst metacercariae from a number of trematode species were tested with C...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239290/re-evaluation-of-the-life-cycle-of-eimeria-maxima-tyzzer-1929-in-chickens-gallus-domesticus
#9
J P Dubey, M C Jenkins
A time-course study was conducted to resolve discrepancies in the literature and better define aspects of the Eimeria maxima life cycle such, as sites of development and both morphology and number of asexual stages. Broiler chickens were inoculated orally with five million E. maxima oocysts (APU1), and were necropsied at regular intervals from 12 to 120 h p.i. Small intestine tissue sections and smears were examined for developmental stages. The jejunum contained the highest numbers of developmental stages...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239289/immune-complex-detection-in-saliva-samples-an-innovative-proposal-for-the-diagnosis-of-human-strongyloidiasis
#10
L R Bosqui, A L R Gonçalves, M R F Gonçalves-Pires, W R Pavanelli, I Conchon-Costa, J M Costa-Cruz, I N Costa
Human strongyloidiasis is caused by helminth Strongyloides stercoralis. It has a worldwide distribution, often neglected and cause of severe morbidity. The parasitological diagnosis is hindered by the low and irregular amount of larvae in feces. The goal of the present study was to detect IgG and IgG immune complex using conventional serum samples and saliva as alternative samples. We collected samples from 60 individuals, namely: group I composed of 30 healthy individuals; and group II composed of 30 individuals eliminating S...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231805/understanding-host-parasite-relationship-the-immune-central-nervous-system-microenvironment-and-its-effect-on-brain-infections
#11
Laura Adalid-Peralta, Brenda Sáenz, Gladis Fragoso, Graciela Cárdenas
The central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as an immunologically specialized microenvironment, where immune surveillance takes a distinctive character, and where delicate neuronal networks are sustained by anti-inflammatory factors that maintain local homeostasis. However, when a foreign agent such as a parasite establishes in the CNS, a set of immune defences is mounted and several immune molecules are released to promote an array of responses, which ultimately would control the infection and associated damage...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229008/a-minimalist-macroparasite-diversity-in-the-round-goby-of-the-upper-rhine-reduced-to-an-exotic-acanthocephalan-lineage
#12
Gwendoline M David, Cybill Staentzel, Olivier Schlumberger, Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot, Jean-Nicolas Beisel, Laurent Hardion
The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, is a Ponto-Caspian fish considered as an invasive species in a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. To understand the role that parasites may play in its successful invasion across Western Europe, we investigated the parasitic diversity of the round goby along its invasion corridor, from the Danube to the Upper Rhine rivers, using data from literature and a molecular barcoding approach, respectively. Among 1666 parasites extracted from 179 gobies of the Upper Rhine, all of the 248 parasites barcoded on the c oxidase subunit I gene were identified as Pomphorhynchus laevis...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229007/de-novo-synthesis-of-thiamine-vitamin-b1-is-the-ancestral-state-in-plasmodium-parasites-evidence-from-avian-haemosporidians
#13
Olof Hellgren, Staffan Bensch, Elin Videvall
Parasites often have reduced genomes as their own genes become redundant when utilizing their host as a source of metabolites, thus losing their own de novo production of metabolites. Primate malaria parasites can synthesize vitamin B1 (thiamine) de novo but rodent malaria and other genome-sequenced apicomplexans cannot, as the three essential genes responsible for this pathway are absent in their genomes. The unique presence of functional thiamine synthesis genes in primate malaria parasites and their sequence similarities to bacterial orthologues, have led to speculations that this pathway was horizontally acquired from bacteria...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223181/reduced-cardiotoxicity-and-increased-oral-efficacy-of-artemether-polymeric-nanocapsules-in-plasmodium-berghei-infected-mice
#14
Ana Carolina Moreira Souza, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira, Ana Paula Amariz Silveira, Lidiane Rodrigues Antunes, Sylvain Richard, Homero Nogueira Guimarães, Andrea Grabe-Guimarães
Artemether (ATM) cardiotoxicity, its short half-life and low oral bioavailability are the major limiting factors for its use to treat malaria. The purposes of this work were to study free-ATM and ATM-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapules (ATM-NC) cardiotoxicity and oral efficacy on Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. ATM-NC was obtained by interfacial polymer deposition and ATM was associated with polymeric NC oily core. For cardiotoxicity evaluation, male black C57BL6 uninfected or P. berghei-infected mice received, by oral route twice daily/4 days, vehicle (sorbitol/carboxymethylcellulose), blank-NC, free-ATM or ATM-NC at doses 40, 80 or 120 mg kg-1...
December 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223169/an-overview-on-leishmania-mundinia-enriettii-biology-immunopathology-lrv-and-extracellular-vesicles-during-the-host-parasite-interaction
#15
Larissa F Paranaiba, Lucélia J Pinheiro, Diego H Macedo, Armando Menezes-Neto, Ana C Torrecilhas, Wagner L Tafuri, Rodrigo P Soares
One of the Leishmania species known to be non-infective to humans is Leishmania (Mundinia) enriettii whose vertebrate host is the guinea pig Cavia porcellus. It is a good model for cutaneous leishmaniasis, chemotherapeutic and molecular studies. In the last years, an increased interest has emerged concerning the L. (Mundinia) subgenus after the finding of Leishmania (M.) macropodum in Australia and with the description of other new/putative species such as L. (M.) martiniquensis and 'L. (M.) siamensis'. This review focused on histopathology, glycoconjugates and innate immunity...
December 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215329/chemotherapeutics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-present-and-future-developments
#16
Shyam Sundar, Anup Singh
Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected tropical disease, is very challenging with few treatment options. Long duration of treatment and drug toxicity further limit the target of achieving VL elimination. Chemotherapy remains the treatment of choice. Single dose of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and multidrug therapy (LAmB + miltefosine, LAmB + paromomycin (PM), or miltefosine + PM) are recommended treatment regimen for treatment of VL in Indian sub-continent. Combination therapy of pentavalent antimonials (Sbv) and PM in East Africa and LAmB in the Mediterranean region/South America remains the treatment of choice...
December 7, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212561/crosstalk-between-entamoeba-histolytica-and-the-human-intestinal-tract-during-amoebiasis
#17
Elisabeth Labruyère, Roman Thibeaux, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Nancy Guillén
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the microbial agent of amoebiasis - an infection that is endemic worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. As the disease develops, virulent E. histolytica deplete the mucus layer, interact with the intestinal epithelium, and then degrade the colonic mucosa and disrupt the extracellular matrix (ECM). Our research demonstrated that virulent parasites with an invasive phenotype display rapid, highly specific changes in their transcriptome (notably for essential factors involved in carbohydrate metabolism and the processing of glycosylated residues)...
December 7, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208061/antichagasic-effect-of-crotalicidin-a-cathelicidin-like-vipericidin-found-in-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-rattlesnake-s-venom-gland
#18
Izabel Cristina Justino Bandeira, Danya Bandeira-Lima, Clarissa Perdigão Mello, Ticiana Praciano Pereira, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra De Menezes, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Cláudio Borges Falcão, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides produced by humans and animals in response to various pathogenic microbes. Crotalicidin (Ctn), a cathelicidin-related vipericidin from the South American Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake's venom gland, and its fragments have demonstrated antimicrobial and antifungal activity, similarly to human cathelicidin LL-37. In order to provide templates for the development of modern trypanocidal agents, the present study evaluated the antichagasic effect of these four peptides (Ctn, Ctn[1-14], Ctn[15-34] and LL-37)...
December 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208057/caenorhabditis-elegans-nature-and-nurture-gift-to-nematode-parasitologists
#19
Gustavo Salinas, Gastón Risi
The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the simplest animal model organism to work with. Substantial knowledge and tools have accumulated over 50 years of C. elegans research. The use of C. elegans relating to parasitic nematodes from a basic biology standpoint or an applied perspective has increased in recent years. The wealth of information gained on the model organism, the use of the powerful approaches and technologies that have advanced C. elegans research to parasitic nematodes and the enormous success of the omics fields have contributed to bridge the divide between C...
December 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198245/monophyly-of-the-species-of-hepatozoon-adeleorina-hepatozoidae-parasitizing-african-anurans-with-the-description-of-three-new-species-from-hyperoliid-frogs-in-south-africa
#20
Edward C Netherlands, Courtney A Cook, Louis H Du Preez, Maarten P M Vanhove, Luc Brendonck, Nico J Smit
Haemogregarines (Apicomplexa: Adeleiorina) are a diverse group of haemoparasites reported from almost all vertebrate classes. The most commonly recorded haemogregarines to parasitize anurans are species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908. To date 16 Hepatozoon species have been described from anurans in Africa, with only a single species, Hepatozoon hyperolli (Hoare, 1932), infecting a member of the Hyperoliidae. Furthermore, only two Hepatozoon species are known from South African anurans, namely Hepatozoon theileri (Laveran, 1905) and Hepatozoon ixoxo Netherlands, Cook and Smit, 2014, from Amietia delalandii (syn...
December 4, 2017: Parasitology
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