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Acidália Carine Vieira Santos, Francianne Oliveira Santos, Hélimar Gonçalves Lima, Gisele Dias Da Silva, Rosangela Soares Uzêda, Êuder Reis Dias, Alexsandro Branco, Klauber Viana Cardoso, Jorge Mauricio David, Mariana Borges Botura, Silvia Lima Costa, Maria José Moreira Batatinha
This study assessed the anthelmintic activity of plant-derived compounds against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats using the egg hatch and larval motility assays. The compounds tested were saponins (digitonin and aescin) and their respective sapogenins (aglycones), hecogenin acetate and flavonoids (catechin, hesperidin, isocordoin and a mixture of isocordoin and cordoin). Additionally, cytotoxicity of active substances was analysed on Vero cell through 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl,2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) tests...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
Alicia Rojas, Gloria Sanchis-Monsonís, Amer Alić, Adnan Hodžić, Domenico Otranto, Daniel Yasur-Landau, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco, Gad Baneth
Previous studies have reported nematodes of the Spirocercidae family in the stomach nodules of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) described as Spirocerca sp. or Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1819). We characterized spirurid worms collected from red foxes and compared them to S. lupi from domestic dogs by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Nematodes from red foxes differed from S. lupi by the presence of six triangular teeth-like buccal capsule structures, which are absent in the latter. Additionally, in female worms from red foxes, the distance of the vulva opening to the anterior end and the ratio of the glandular-to-muscular oesophagus lengths were larger than those of S...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
Teivi Laurimäe, Liina Kinkar, Epp Moks, Thomas Romig, Rihab A Omer, Adriano Casulli, Gérald Umhang, Guna Bagrade, Malik Irshadullah, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Hossein Mirhendi, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Silvia V Soriano, Antonio Varcasia, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Vanessa Andresiuk, Urmas Saarma
Tapeworms of the species complex of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) are the cause of a severe zoonotic disease - cystic echinococcosis, which is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases in humans and is prioritized by the World Health Organization. A stable taxonomy of E. granulosus s. l. is essential to the medical and veterinary communities for accurate and effective communication of the role of different species in this complex on human and animal health. E. granulosus s. l. displays high genetic diversity and has been divided into different species and genotypes...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
Barbora Červená, Kristýna Hrazdilová, Peter Vallo, Jennifer Ketzis, Pompei Bolfa, Edgar Tudor, Estevam G Lux-Hoppe, Caroline Blanvillain, David Modrý
Five of the 13 known species of Mammomonogamus have been described in members of the family Felidae, including domestic cats, making felids the most frequent hosts of Mammomonogamus. The occurrence of Mammomonogamus in felids is geographically scattered and information on the life cycle and other aspects of infections is lacking. The paucity of data opens the questions on possible conspecificity of some of the described species of Mammomonogamus and on the existence of possible reservoirs for infections in domestic cats in geographically isolated endemic foci of infection...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
Jacqueline Hernández-Martínez, Juan B Morales-Malacara, Mariana Yolotl Alvarez-Añorve, Sergio Amador-Hernández, Ken Oyama, Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla
The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat-parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
M Buysse, O Duron
Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii is a maternally inherited bacterium of ticks with a unique intra-mitochondrial lifestyle. Here, we investigate on the evolutionary history of these associations and the degree of Midichloria-tick specificity. While previous surveys used the 16S rRNA gene as an exclusive molecular marker, we rather developed a multi-locus typing method based on four more variable housekeeping genes (groEL, rpoB, dnaK and ftsZ) and on one flagellum gene (fliC) present in Midichloria genomes...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
Sharon M Jones, Graeme S Cumming, Jeffrey L Peters
Similar patterns of parasite prevalence in animal communities may be driven by a range of different mechanisms. The influences of host heterogeneity and host-parasite interactions in host community assemblages are poorly understood. We sampled birds at 27 wetlands in South Africa to compare four hypotheses explaining how host community heterogeneity influences host specificity in avian haemosporidia communities: the host-neutral hypothesis, the super-spreader hypothesis, the host specialist hypothesis and the heterogeneity hypothesis...
May 16, 2018: Parasitology
Daniela Boehm, Lydia Healy, Sarah Ring, Angus Bell
It has been estimated that up to a third of global malaria deaths may be attributable to malarial anaemia, with children and pregnant women being those most severely affected. An inefficient erythropoietic response to the destruction of both infected and uninfected erythrocytes in infections with Plasmodium spp. contributes significantly to the development and persistence of such anaemia. The underlying mechanisms, which could involve both direct inhibition of erythropoiesis by parasite-derived factors and indirect inhibition as a result of modulation of the immune response, remain poorly understood...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology
Hiroshi Tachibana, Azumi Kakino, Makoto Kazama, Meng Feng, Satomi Asai, Kazuo Umezawa, Tsukasa Nozaki, Takashi Makiuchi, Takayuki Kamada, Hideki Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiki, Xunjia Cheng, Gohta Masuda
We have previously shown that the C-terminal region of the intermediate subunit of Entamoeba histolytica galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin (C-Igl) is a useful antigen for serodiagnosis of amebiasis. An immunochromatographic kit was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles coated with C-Igl prepared in Escherichia coli. Samples for examination were added to the freeze-dried particles and then applied to the immunochromatographic device, in which a test line on the membrane was also coated with C-Igl...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology
Francisco C Ferreira-Junior, Daniela de Angeli Dutra, Patrícia Silveira, Richard Campos Pacheco, Rute Witter, Dirceu Guilherme de Souza Ramos, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante, Érika M Braga
Habitat modification may facilitate the emergence of novel pathogens, and the expansion of agricultural frontiers make domestic animals important sources of pathogen spillover to wild animals. We demonstrate for the first time that Plasmodium juxtanucleare, a widespread parasite from domestic chickens, naturally infects free-living passerines. We sampled 68 wild birds within and at the border of conservation units in central Brazil composed by Cerrado, a highly threatened biome. Seven out of 10 passerines captured in the limits of a protected area with a small farm were infected by P...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology
Tatjana Sitt, Roger Pelle, Maurine Chepkwony, W Ivan Morrison, Philip Toye
The extent of sequence diversity among the genes encoding 10 antigens (Tp1-10) known to be recognized by CD8+ T lymphocytes from cattle immune to Theileria parva was analysed. The sequences were derived from parasites in 23 buffalo-derived cell lines, three cattle-derived isolates and one cloned cell line obtained from a buffalo-derived stabilate. The results revealed substantial variation among the antigens through sequence diversity. The greatest nucleotide and amino acid diversity were observed in Tp1, Tp2 and Tp9...
May 6, 2018: Parasitology
A Reckendorf, E Ludes-Wehrmeister, P Wohlsein, R Tiedemann, U Siebert, K Lehnert
Orca (Orcinus orca) strandings are rare and post-mortem examinations on fresh individuals are scarce. Thus, little is known about their parasitological fauna, prevalence of infections, associated pathology and the impact on their health. During post-mortem examinations of two male neonatal orcas stranded in Germany and Norway, lungworm infections were found within the bronchi of both individuals. The nematodes were identified as Halocercus sp. (Pseudaliidae), which have been described in the respiratory tract of multiple odontocete species, but not yet in orcas...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology
J P Dubey
Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is important for the economy of Asia, South America and parts of Europe. Coccidiosis is an important cause of neonatal mortality in livestock, including buffalo. Of more than 12 species of Eimeria in buffalo, Eimeria bareillyi is the most pathogenic. There are uncertainties concerning its asexual and sexual development. During a previously reported outbreak of fatal enteritis associated with E. bareillyi in buffaloes in the Netherlands, sections of small intestine were re-evaluated histologically and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to seek details of endogenous development...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology
Chinmaya Panda, Rajani Kanta Mahapatra
Unavailability of vaccines and effective drugs are primarily responsible for the growing menace of cryptosporidiosis. This study has incorporated a bioinformatics-based screening approach to explore potential vaccine candidates and novel drug targets in Cryptosporidium parvum proteome. A systematic strategy was defined for comparative genomics, orthology with related Cryptosporidium species, prioritization parameters and MHC class I and II binding promiscuity. The approach reported cytoplasmic protein cgd7_1830, a signal peptide protein, as a novel drug target...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology
Deshika Kohli, Parameswaran Chidambaranathan, J Prasanth Tej Kumar, Ashish Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar, Anil Sirohi, K Subramaniam, Ramamurthy Srinivasan, Navneeta Bharadvaja, Pradeep K Jain
GLP-1 (abnormal germline proliferation) is a Notch-like receptor protein that plays an essential role in pharyngeal development. In this study, an orthologue of Caenorhabditis elegans glp-1 was identified in Meloidogyne incognita. A computational analysis revealed that the orthologue contained almost all the domains present in the C. elegans gene: specifically, the LIN-12/Notch repeat, the ankyrin repeat, a transmembrane domain and different ligand-binding motifs were present in orthologue, but the epidermal growth factor-like motif was not observed...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology
Hassan Ali Farooq, Hammad Ahmad Khan, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei, Kevin Morris Tyler
Avian trichomonosis is an architypal disease of wild columbids and those birds that predate them. Increasingly though, it has been reported in passerines; a recent and ongoing epidemic in the chaffinches and greenfinches of Europe and outbreaks amongst house finches, American goldfinches and purple finches in North America. The parasite, Trichomonas gallinae, causes lesions in the upper respiratory tract which can cause mortality associated with dehydration and emaciation. This paper reports for the first time, the widespread, endemic and often asymptomatic infection of common mynah (Acridotheres tristis) around the Faisalabad District, Pakistan...
April 23, 2018: Parasitology
Nele A M Boon, Frederik VAN DEN Broeck, Djiby Faye, Filip A M Volckaert, Souleymane Mboup, Katja Polman, Tine Huyse
ABSTRACTHybridization events between Schistosoma species (Digenea, Platyhelminthes) are reported with increasing frequency, largely due to improved access to molecular tools. Nevertheless, little is known about the distribution and frequency of hybrid schistosomes in nature. Screening for hybrids on a large scale is complicated by the need for nuclear and mitochondrial sequence information, precluding a 'simple' barcoding approach. Here we aimed to determine and understand the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium × Schistosoma bovis hybrids in the Senegal River Basin...
April 18, 2018: Parasitology
Nelson Siu Kei Lam, Xin Xin Long, Robert C Griffin, Mu-Kai Chen, James Cg Doery
Australian tea tree oil (TTO) and its extract terpinen-4-ol (T4O) are found to be effective in moderating demodex-related diseases. Their possible effects are lowering the mite counts, relieving the demodex-related symptoms and modulating the immune system especially the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the topical treatments of TTO and T4O in human demodicosis, their possible mechanism of actions, side-effects and potential resistance in treating this condition. Although current treatments other than TTO and T4O are relatively effective in controlling the demodex mite population and the related symptoms, more research on the efficacy and drug delivery technology is needed in order to assess its potential as an alternative treatment with minimal side-effect profile, low toxicity and low risk of demodex resistance...
April 18, 2018: Parasitology
Kenji Nishikori, Davin H E Setiamarga, Takahiro Tanji, Eisuke Kuroda, Hirohisa Shiraishi, Ayako Ohashi-Kobayashi
Here, we describe a new microsporidium Percutemincola moriokae gen. nov., sp. nov., which was discovered in the intestinal and hypodermal cells of a wild strain of the nematode Oscheius tipulae that inhabits in the soil of Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The spores of Pe. moriokae had an average size of 1.0 × 3.8 µm and 1.3 × 3.2 µm in the intestine and hypodermis, respectively, and electron microscopy revealed that they exhibited distinguishing features with morphological diversity in the hypodermis...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
Liina Kinkar, Teivi Laurimäe, Ibrahim Balkaya, Adriano Casulli, Houria Zait, Malik Irshadullah, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Steffen Rehbein, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Sami Simsek, Viliam Šnábel, Gérald Umhang, Antonio Varcasia, Urmas Saarma
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a severe parasitic disease caused by the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Human infections are most commonly associated with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), comprising genotypes G1 and G3. The objective of the current study was to provide first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G3. Despite the epidemiological importance of the genotype, it has remained poorly explored due to the ambiguity in the definition of the genotype. However, it was recently demonstrated that long sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) provide a reliable method to discriminate G1 and G3 from each other...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
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