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Xiaola Guo, Yadong Zheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs, involved in the regulation of parasite diseases. However, a role of miRNAs in Echinococcus multilocularis infection remains largely unknown. In this study, we first found the expression levels of key genes involved in miRNA biogenesis and function, including Ago2, Xpo5, Tarbp2 and DgcR8, were obviously altered in the macrophage RAW264·7 cells exposed to E. multilocularis metacestodes. Compared with the control, 18 and 32 known miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (P 2) in the macrophages exposed to E...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
James Pickup, Joseph Edward Ironside
Within populations of the amphipod crustaceans Orchestia gammarellus and Orchestia aestuarensis, a proportion of females produce thelygenic (female-only) broods, which often contain intersexual individuals. This phenomenon is associated with the presence of two putative feminizing parasites, the paramyxid Paramarteilia orchestiae and the microsporidian Dictyocoela cavimanum, which frequently co-infect the same host. In order to determine which of the parasites causes feminization, Orchestia were resampled from the type locality of P...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
L R Smales, R D Adlard, A Elliot, E Kelly, A J Lymbery, T L Miller, S Shamsi
The acanthocephalan fauna of Australian freshwater fishes was documented from field surveys, a literature survey and examination of specimens registered in Australian museums. From the 4030 fishes, representing 78 of the 354 Australian freshwater fish species (22%), examined for infection seven species of acanthocephalan were recovered. These species comprised five endemic species, three in endemic genera, two species in cosmopolitan genera, one species not fully identified and 1 putative exotic species recovered from eight species of fish...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
Julia Holzhausen, Claas Haake, Sabine Schicht, Petra Hinse, Daniela Jordan, Elisabeth Kremmer, Christina Strube
The present study characterized the biological function of the asparaginyl peptidase legumain-1 (LEG-1) of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus and its suitability as a recombinant vaccine against dictyocaulosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis revealed LEG-1 to be almost exclusively transcribed and expressed in parasitic lungworm stages. Immunohistochemistry localized the enzyme in the parasite's gut, which was confirmed by immunoblots detecting LEG-1 in the gut as well as male testes...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
Margot Camoin, Arthur Kocher, Piangjai Chalermwong, Sarawut Yangtarra, Nikorn Thongtip, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Marc Desquesnes
Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, is widespread in domestic livestock and wildlife in South East Asia. Surra can affect cattle, buffaloes, horses and also Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Despite the 'threatened to extinction' CITES status of elephant, surra's impact has not been thoroughly assessed yet in this species. This work offers to adapt an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, to detect Trypanosoma evansi antibodies in elephant serum. The test was validated with 365 negative-reference samples, which allowed the determination of a 16% positive threshold...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Vaidas Palinauskas, Rasa Bernotienė, Tatjana A Iezhova
Species of Plasmodium (Plasmodiidae, Haemosporida) are widespread and cause malaria, which can be severe in avian hosts. Molecular markers are essential to detect and identify parasites, but still absent for many avian malaria and related haemosporidian species. Here, we provide first molecular characterization of Plasmodium matutinum, a common agent of avian malaria. This parasite was isolated from a naturally infected thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia (Muscicapidae). Fragments of mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear genomes were obtained...
September 21, 2017: Parasitology
A Dubois, G Castel, S Murri, C Pulido, J-B Pons, L Benoit, A Loiseau, L Lakhdar, M Galan, P Marianneau, N Charbonnel
Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region...
September 21, 2017: Parasitology
Ahmed Thabet, Johannes Schmidt, Sven Baumann, Walther Honscha, Martin VON Bergen, Arwid Daugschies, Berit Bangoura
Monensin (Mon) is an anticoccidial polyether ionophore widely used to control coccidiosis. The extensive use of polyether ionophores on poultry farms resulted in widespread resistance, but the underlying resistance mechanisms are unknown in detail. For analysing the mode of action by which resistance against polyether ionophores is obtained, we induced in vitro Mon resistance in Toxoplasma gondii-RH strain (MonR-RH) and compared it with the sensitive parental strain (Sen-RH). The proteome assessment of MonR-RH and Sen-RH strains was obtained after isotopic labelling using stable isotope labelling by amino acid in cell culture...
September 5, 2017: Parasitology
Brianna L S Stenger, Michaela Horčičková, Mark E Clark, Martin Kváč, Šárka Čondlová, Eakalak Khan, Giovanni Widmer, Lihua Xiao, Catherine W Giddings, Christopher Pennil, Michal Stanko, Bohumil Sak, John M McEvoy
We undertook a study on Cryptosporidium spp. in wild cricetid rodents. Fecal samples were collected from meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), southern red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi), woodland voles (Microtus pinetorum), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and Peromyscus spp. mice in North America, and from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and common voles (Microtus arvalis) in Europe. Isolates were characterized by sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU) and actin genes. Overall, 33·2% (362/1089) of cricetids tested positive for Cryptosporidium, with a greater prevalence in cricetids from North America (50·7%; 302/596) than Europe (12·1%; 60/493)...
September 5, 2017: Parasitology
Michelle Krebs, Jarkko Routtu, Dieter Ebert
Knowing the determinants of the geographic ranges of parasites is important for understanding their evolutionary ecology, epidemiology and their potential to expand their range. Here we explore the determinants of geographic range in the peculiar case of a parasite species - the microsporidian Hamiltosporidium tvaerminnensis - that has a limited geographic distribution in a wide-spread host - Daphnia magna. We conducted a quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis with monoclonal F2 D. magna populations originating from a cross between a susceptible northern European genotype and a resistant central European genotype...
August 24, 2017: Parasitology
Adnan Hodžić, Naike Mrowietz, Rita Cézanne, Pia Bruckschwaiger, Sylvia Punz, Verena Elisabeth Habler, Valentina Tomsik, Judit Lazar, Georg G Duscher, Walter Glawischnig, Hans-Peter Fuehrer
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf...
August 24, 2017: Parasitology
Alex Stewart, Ann Lowe, Lesley Smales, Anna Bajer, Jan Bradley, Dorota Dwużnik, Frits Franssen, Jack Griffith, Peter Stuart, Cyan Turner, Grzegorz Zaleśny, Jerzy M Behnke
Syphacia stroma (von Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932 and Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945 are oxyurid nematodes that parasitize two murid rodents, Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis, on the European mainland. Only S. stroma has been recorded previously in Apodemus spp. from the British Isles. Despite the paucity of earlier reports, we identified S. frederici in four disparate British sites, two in Nottinghamshire, one each in Berkshire and Anglesey, Wales. Identification was based on their site in the host (caecum and not small intestine), on key morphological criteria that differentiate this species from S...
August 23, 2017: Parasitology
Yann Bailly, Frank Cézilly, Thierry Rigaud
Multidimensionality in parasite-induced phenotypic alterations (PIPA) has been observed in a large number of host-parasite associations, particularly in parasites with complex life cycles. However, it is still unclear whether such a syndrome is due to the successive activation of independent PIPAs, or results from the synchronous disruption of a single mechanism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the onset and progression of two PIPAs (a behavioural alteration: reversion of geotaxis, and castration) occurring in the crustacean amphipod Gammarus pulex infected with the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus, at different parasite developmental stages...
August 23, 2017: Parasitology
Genesis Palacios, Adriana Parodi, Yulieth A Upegui, Andres Montoya, Sergio Pulido, Iván D Vélez, Sara M Robledo
Current chemotherapeutic agents for leishmaniasis have several disadvantages interfering with the effective treatment and therefore more and better antileishmanial drugs are needed. Discovery of candidates for leishmaniasis treatment requires not only accurate and precise methodologies but also well-known biological system to measure infectivity of parasites and antileishmanial activity of the new compounds. Significant variation in the in vitro and in vivo infectivity and sensitivity to established and experimental drugs in Leishmania strains are reported...
August 23, 2017: Parasitology
Amanda F Francisco, Shiromani Jayawardhana, Michael D Lewis, Martin C Taylor, John M Kelly
Chagas disease is caused by infection with the insect-transmitted protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and is the most important parasitic infection in Latin America. The current drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox, are characterized by limited efficacy and toxic side-effects, and treatment failures are frequently observed. The urgent need for new therapeutic approaches is being met by a combined effort from the academic and commercial sectors, together with major input from not-for-profit drug development consortia...
August 23, 2017: Parasitology
César Gómez-Hernández, Elaine C Bento, Karine Rezende-Oliveira, Gabriel A N Nascentes, Cecilia G Barbosa, Lara R Batista, Monique G S Tiburcio, André L Pedrosa, Eliane Lages-Silva, Juan D Ramírez, Luis E Ramirez
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, which can develop in domestic as well as wild animals and humans throughout the world. Currently, this disease is spreading in rural and urban areas of non-endemic regions in Brazil. Recently, bats have gained epidemiological significance in leishmaniasis due to its close relationship with human settlements. In this study, we investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in blood samples from 448 bats belonging to four families representing 20 species that were captured in the Triangulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaiba areas of Minas Gerais State (non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis), Brazil...
August 23, 2017: Parasitology
Nicole Strepparava, Helmut Segner, Albert Ros, Hanna Hartikainen, Heike Schmidt-Posthaus, Thomas Wahli
Climate change, in particular rising temperature, is suspected to be a major driver for the emergence of many wildlife diseases. Proliferative kidney disease of salmonids, caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, was used to evaluate how temperature dependence of host-parasite interactions modulates disease emergence. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) kept at 12 and 15 °C, were experimentally infected with T. bryosalmonae. Parasite development in the fish host and release of spores were quantified simultaneously to unravel parasite transmission potential from the vertebrate to the invertebrate host...
August 23, 2017: Parasitology
Bridget S Penman, Sunetra Gupta
Human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) are responsible for the display of peptide fragments for recognition by T-cell receptors. The gene family encoding them is thus integral to human adaptive immunity, and likely to be under strong pathogen selection. Despite this, it has proved difficult to demonstrate specific examples of pathogen-HLA coevolution. Selection from multiple pathogens simultaneously could explain why the evolutionary signatures of particular pathogens on HLAs have proved elusive. Here, we present an individual-based model of HLA evolution in the presence of two mortality-causing pathogens...
August 15, 2017: Parasitology
V Colella, M A Cavalera, G Deak, V D Tarallo, C M Gherman, A D Mihalca, D Otranto
Nematodes of the Angiostrongylidae family, such as Angiostrongylus vasorum and Angiostrongylus cantonensis, may cause potentially life-threatening diseases in several mammal species. Alongside these well-known species, Angiostrongylus chabaudi has been recently found affecting the cardiopulmonary system of domestic and wild cats from Italy, Germany, Greece, Romania and Bulgaria. Nonetheless, significant gaps in the understanding of A. chabaudi epidemiology include the lack of information of species acting as intermediate host and of the morphological description of larval stages...
August 14, 2017: Parasitology
Panat Anuracpreeda, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul, Arin Ngamniyom, Busaba Panyarachun, Panupong Puttarak, Preeyaporn Koedrith, Noppadol Intaratat
At present, there are no medicinal plant extracts currently available for treatment and control of fasciolosis. The present work could provide, for the first study, conclusions on the in vitro fasciolicidal properties of the ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa L. (TcCE) leaves against adult Fasciola gigantica after incubation with RPMI-1640 medium containing the TcCE at various concentrations and times when compared with triclabendazole (TCZ). The relative motility and survival index values of the TcCE-treated flukes decreased at a more rapid rate than the TCZ-treated flukes...
August 14, 2017: Parasitology
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