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Vincenzo A Ellis, Eloisa H R Sari, Dustin R Rubenstein, Rebecca C Dickerson, Staffan Bensch, Robert E Ricklefs
The biogeographic histories of parasites and pathogens are infrequently compared with those of free-living species, including their hosts. Documenting the frequency with which parasites and pathogens disperse across geographic regions contributes to understanding not only their evolution, but also the likelihood that they may become emerging infectious diseases. Haemosporidian parasites of birds (parasite genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) are globally distributed, dipteran-vectored parasites...
July 16, 2018: Parasitology
Divya Beri, Balu Balan, Utpal Tatu
Malaria is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in tropical countries. The causative agent, Plasmodium sp., has a complex life cycle and is armed with various mechanisms which ensure its continuous transmission. Gametocytes represent the sexual stage of the parasite and are indispensable for the transmission of the parasite from the human host to the mosquito. Despite its vital role in the parasite's success, it is the least understood stage in the parasite's life cycle. The presence of gametocytes in asymptomatic populations and induction of gametocytogenesis by most antimalarial drugs warrants further investigation into its biology...
July 16, 2018: Parasitology
S Mas-Coma, M D Bargues, M A Valero
Human fascioliasis infection sources are analysed for the first time in front of the new worldwide scenario of this disease. These infection sources include foods, water and combinations of both. Ingestion of freshwater wild plants is the main source, with watercress and secondarily other vegetables involved. The problem of vegetables sold in uncontrolled urban markets is discussed. Distinction between infection sources by freshwater cultivated plants, terrestrial wild plants, and terrestrial cultivated plants is made...
July 11, 2018: Parasitology
Bruno Gavinho, Izadora Volpato Rossi, Ingrid Evans-Osses, Jameel Inal, Marcel I Ramirez
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by a wide number of cells including blood cells, immune system cells, tumour cells, adult and embryonic stem cells. EVs are a heterogeneous group of vesicles (~30-1000 nm) including microvesicles and exosomes. The physiological release of EVs represents a normal state of the cell, raising a metabolic equilibrium between catabolic and anabolic processes. Moreover, when the cells are submitted to stress with different inducers or in pathological situations (malignancies, chronic diseases, infectious diseases...
July 10, 2018: Parasitology
Nan Liang, Yayun Wu, Mingfei Sun, Yankai Chang, Xuhui Lin, Linzeng Yu, Suhui Hu, Xiangqian Zhang, Shuangjian Zheng, Zhaohui Cui, Longxian Zhang
To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in Guangdong Province, South China, 1440 fecal samples were collected from 10 farms and screened for Cryptosporidium with PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 4.38% (63/1440), and the infection rates in preweaned calves, postweaned calves, heifers and adults were 6.4% (19/297), 6.19% (33/533), 1.48% (4/271) and 2.06% (7/339), respectively. Three Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 33), Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 22) and Cryptosporidium ryanae (n = 8) were detected by DNA sequence analysis of the 63 positive samples, and C...
July 10, 2018: Parasitology
Gürbüz Daş, Pål O Westermark, Matthias Gauly
Periodicity in nematode egg excretion may be of evolutionary origin as it can favour dispersal of the eggs in the environment. We investigated whether egg excretion by Heterakis gallinarum shows a repeatable pattern of periodicity. The faecal egg concentration and total number of eggs excreted within 4-h intervals were significantly affected by the sampling time within 1 day, but remained unaffected by the sampling day or interaction effects. By contrast, the total number of eggs excreted within 24 h did not differ among the 4 days of the study, collectively indicating repeatable egg excretion patterns...
July 6, 2018: Parasitology
Paul M Bartley, Beeke K Roehe, Sarah Thomson, Hannah J Shaw, Frederieke Peto, Elisabeth A Innes, Frank Katzer
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia duodenalis present in Scottish beef and dairy cattle at different ages, to try to ascertain if cattle could play a role in the spread of zoonotic assemblages of Giardia. A total of 388 fecal samples (128 beef and 253 dairy, seven of unknown breed) were collected from 19 farms in Scotland. Samples were sub-divided by host age, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, 7-24 and ⩾25 weeks. DNA was extracted and tested by PCR to detect G. duodenalis DNA. Of the 388 samples, 126 tested positive, giving an overall prevalence of 32...
July 6, 2018: Parasitology
X H Sun, N Xu, Y Xu, D Zhou, Y Sun, W J Wang, L Ma, C L Zhu, B Shen
Extensive insecticide use has led to the resistance of mosquitoes to these insecticides, posing a major barrier to mosquito control. Previous Solexa high-throughput sequencing of Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory has revealed that the abundance of a novel microRNA (miRNA), miR-13664, was higher in a deltamethrin-sensitive (DS) strain than a deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the miR-13664 transcript level was lower in the DR strain than in the DS strain. MiR-13664 oversupply in the DR strain increased the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to deltamethrin, whereas inhibition of miR-13664 made the DS strain more resistant to deltamethrin...
July 3, 2018: Parasitology
Jaynee R Kim, Tamara M Wong, Patrick A Curry, Norine W Yeung, Kenneth A Hayes, Robert H Cowie
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a parasitic nematode, is expanding its distribution. Human infection, known as angiostrongyliasis, may manifest as eosinophilic meningitis, an emerging infectious disease. The range and incidence of this disease are expanding throughout the tropics and subtropics. Recently, the Hawaiian Islands have experienced an increase in reported cases. This study addresses factors affecting the parasite's distribution and projects its potential future distribution, using Hawaii as a model for its global expansion...
June 21, 2018: Parasitology
Joachim Müller, Vera Manser, Andrew Hemphill
We here assessed the in vitro efficacy of the naptho-quinone buparvaquone (BPQ) against Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites in vitro. BPQ is currently licensed for the treatment of theileriosis in cattle in many countries, but not in the EU. In 4-day treatment assays, BPQ massively impaired tachyzoite proliferation with an IC50 of 10 ± 3 nm, and virtually complete inhibition was obtained in the presence of nm BPQ. Exposure to 1 µm BPQ leads to ultrastructural changes affecting initially the mitochondrial matrix and the cristae...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology
Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels, Heather Proctor, Albert Snyman, Renata Hurtado, Katrin Ludynia, Nola J Parsons, Pierre A Pistorius
Rhinonyssids are obligate haematophagous mites that parasitize the nasal cavity of vertebrates, and occur in a wide range of birds worldwide. Two species of nasal mites are known to occur in penguins: Rhinonyssus sphenisci, which has been recorded from Humboldt and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and S. magellanicus, respectively), and Rhinonyssus schelli, which has been recorded in Adélie and Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae and P. papua, respectively). We examined the nasal cavity of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) that died while under care at a rehabilitation centre (N = 40) or that were found dead at breeding colonies (N = 67)...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology
Erich Loza Telleria, Andrea Martins-da-Silva, Antonio Jorge Tempone, Yara Maria Traub-Csekö
In this review, we explore the state-of-the-art of sand fly relationships with microbiota, viruses and Leishmania, with particular emphasis on the vector immune responses. Insect-borne diseases are a major public health problem in the world. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven vectors of several aetiological agents including viruses, bacteria and the trypanosomatid Leishmania, which are responsible for diseases such as viral encephalitis, bartonellosis and leishmaniasis, respectively. All metazoans in nature coexist intimately with a community of commensal microorganisms known as microbiota...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology
Jerzy M Behnke, Anna Bajer, Jolanta Behnke-Borowczyk, Natalie Clisham, Francis Gilbert, Aimee Glover, Laura Jeffery, Jonathan Kirk, Ewa J Mierzejewska, Simon C Mills, Eman M E Mohallal, Oliver Padget, Ralph Wainer, Samy Zalat
The importance of parasites as a selective force in host evolution is a topic of current interest. However, short-term ecological studies of host-parasite systems, on which such studies are usually based, provide only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We report here on four surveys, carried out over a period of 12 years, of helminths of spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus), the numerically dominant rodents inhabiting dry montane wadis in the Sinai Peninsula. With host age (age-dependent effects on prevalence and abundance were prominent) and sex (female bias in abundance in helminth diversity and in several taxa including Cestoda) taken into consideration, we focus on the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology
David C Heins, Kristine N Moody, Sophia Miller
We performed a long-term natural experiment investigating the impact of the diphyllobotriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus on the body condition and clutch size (CS) of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, its second intermediate host, and the growth of larval parasites in host fish. We tested the hypothesis that single S. solidus infections were more virulent than multiple infections. We also asked whether the metrics of mean and total parasite mass (proxies for individual and total volume, respectively) were consistent with predictions of the resource constraints or the life history strategy (LHS) hypothesis for the growth of, hence exploitation by, larval helminths in intermediate hosts...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology
Kateřina Jirků Pomajbíková, Milan Jirků, Jana Levá, Kateřina Sobotková, Evan Morien, Laura Wegener Parfrey
The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is a model for the impact of helminth colonization on the mammalian immune system and a candidate therapeutic agent for immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). In mice, H. diminuta protects against models of inflammatory colitis by inducing a strong type 2 immune response that is activated to expel the immature worm. Rats are the definitive host of H. diminuta, and are colonized stably and over long time periods without harming the host. Rats mount a mild type 2 immune response to H...
June 18, 2018: Parasitology
Millicent Opoku, Corrado Minetti, Worlasi D Kartey-Attipoe, Sampson Otoo, Joseph Otchere, Bruno Gomes, Dziedzom K de Souza, Lisa J Reimer
Monitoring vectors is relevant to ascertain transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF). This may require the best sampling method that can capture high numbers of specific species to give indication of transmission. Gravid anophelines are good indicators for assessing transmission due to close contact with humans through blood meals. This study compared the efficiency of an Anopheles gravid trap (AGT) with other mosquito collection methods including the box and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention gravid, light, exit and BioGent-sentinel traps, indoor resting collection (IRC) and pyrethrum spray catches across two endemic regions of Ghana...
June 14, 2018: Parasitology
Ekaterina Mironova, Mikhail Gopko, Anna Pasternak, Viktor Mikheev, Jouni Taskinen
Removal of parasite free-living stages by predators has previously been suggested an important factor controlling parasite transmission in aquatic habitats. Experimental studies of zooplankton predation on macroparasite larvae are, however, scarce. We tested whether trematode cercariae, which are often numerous in shallow waters, are suitable prey for syntopic zooplankters. Feeding rates and survival of freshwater cyclopoids (Megacyclops viridis, Macrocyclops distinctus), calanoids (Arctodiaptomus paulseni), cladocerans (Sida crystallina) and rotifers Asplanchna spp...
June 14, 2018: Parasitology
Krishanthi S Subramaniam, Victoria Austin, Nathaniel S Schocker, Alba L Montoya, Matthew S Anderson, Roger A Ashmus, Mina Mesri, Waleed Al-Salem, Igor C Almeida, Katja Michael, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano
Outbreaks of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) have significantly increased due to the conflicts in the Middle East, with most of the cases occurring in resource-limited areas such as refugee settlements. The standard methods of diagnosis include microscopy and parasite culture, which have several limitations. To address the growing need for a CL diagnostic that can be field applicable, we have identified five candidate neoglycoproteins (NGPs): Galα (NGP3B), Galα(1,3)Galα (NGP17B), Galα(1,3)Galβ (NGP9B), Galα(1,6)[Galα(1,2)]Galβ (NGP11B), and Galα(1,3)Galβ(1,4)Glcβ (NGP1B) that are differentially recognized in sera from individuals with Leishmania major infection as compared with sera from heterologous controls...
June 14, 2018: Parasitology
Dmitri A Maslov, Fred R Opperdoes, Alexei Y Kostygov, Hassan Hashimi, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
Unicellular flagellates of the family Trypanosomatidae are obligatory parasites of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants. Dixenous species are aetiological agents of a number of diseases in humans, domestic animals and plants. Their monoxenous relatives are restricted to insects. Because of the high biological diversity, adaptability to dramatically different environmental conditions, and omnipresence, these protists have major impact on all biotic communities that still needs to be fully elucidated. In addition, as these organisms represent a highly divergent evolutionary lineage, they are strikingly different from the common 'model system' eukaryotes, such as some mammals, plants or fungi...
June 14, 2018: Parasitology
Jane Harmer, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Anna Nenarokova, Julius Lukeš, Michael L Ginger
Parasitic trypanosomatids diverged from free-living kinetoplastid ancestors several hundred million years ago. These parasites are relatively well known, due in part to several unusual cell biological and molecular traits and in part to the significance of a few - pathogenic Leishmania and Trypanosoma species - as aetiological agents of serious neglected tropical diseases. However, the majority of trypanosomatid biodiversity is represented by osmotrophic monoxenous parasites of insects. In two lineages, novymonads and strigomonads, osmotrophic lifestyles are supported by cytoplasmic endosymbionts, providing hosts with macromolecular precursors and vitamins...
June 13, 2018: Parasitology
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