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Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183369/identification-of-potential-protein-partners-that-bind-to-the-variant-surface-glycoprotein-in-trypanosoma-equiperdum
#1
Liomary M Carrasquel, José L Escalona, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Yurong Guo, José Bubis
Trypanosoma equiperdum possesses a dense coat of a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) that is used to evade the host immune response by a process known as antigenic variation. Soluble and membrane forms of the predominant VSG from the Venezuelan T. equiperdum TeAp-N/D1 strain (sVSG and mVSG, respectively) were purified to homogeneity; and antibodies against sVSG and mVSG were raised, isolated, and employed to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies that structurally mimic the VSG surface. Prospective VSG-binding partners were initially detected by far-Western blots, and then by immunoblots using the generated anti-idiotypic antibodies...
February 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179034/hosts-and-vectors-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-discrete-typing-units-in-the-chagas-disease-endemic-region-of-the-paraguayan-chaco
#2
Nidia Acosta, Elsa López, Michael D Lewis, Martin S Llewellyn, Ana Gómez, Fabiola Román, Michael A Miles, Matthew Yeo
Active Trypanosoma cruzi transmission persists in the Gran Chaco region, which is considered hyperendemic for Chagas disease. Understanding domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles and therefore the relationship between vectors and mammalian hosts is crucial to designing and implementing improved effective control strategies. Here we describe the species of triatomine vectors and the sylvatic mammal reservoirs of T. cruzi, in different localities of the Paraguayan and Bolivian Chaco. We identify the T. cruzi genotypes discrete typing units (DTUs) and provide a map of their geographical distribution...
February 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166845/let-s-get-fissical-fast-in-silico-synchronization-as-a-new-tool-for-cell-division-cycle-analysis
#3
Brooke Morriswood, Markus Engstler
Cell cycle progression is a question of fundamental biological interest. The coordinated duplication and segregation of all cellular structures and organelles is however an extremely complex process, and one which remains only partially understood even in the most intensively researched model organisms. Trypanosomes are in an unusual position in this respect - they are both outstanding model systems for fundamental questions in eukaryotic cell biology, and pathogens that are the causative agents of three of the neglected tropical diseases...
February 7, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134069/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-is-more-effective-than-anti-oxidant-therapy-in-counteracting-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-and-heart-disease-in-t-cruzi-infected-mice
#4
Rômulo D Novaes, Eliziária C Santos, Maria DO Carmo Q Fialho, Wagner G Gonçalves, Priscila L Sequetto, André Talvani, Reggiani V Gonçalves
We compared the relevance of ibuprofen, vitamins C and E to control oxidative/nitrosative stress and heart disease in mice infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Swiss mice were randomized into five groups: control, uninfected; infected without treatment; and infected treated with vitamins C, E or ibuprofen. Animals were inoculated with 2000 trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. After 20 days, infected mice presented reduced vitamin C and E tissue levels, high cytokines (interferon gamma, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin 10 and chemokine ligand 2), prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ) and nitric oxide (NO) cardiac production, intense myocarditis and reactive tissue damage, which was directly correlated with the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate and the degree of pathological cardiac remodelling...
January 30, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134067/ultrastructural-features-of-the-tomont-of-cryptocaryon-irritans-ciliophora-prostomatea-a-parasitic-ciliate-of-marine-fishes
#5
Rui Ma, Xinpeng Fan, Fei Yin, Bing Ni, Fukang Gu
Numerous studies have been conducted on the cellular morphology of Cryptocaryon irritans. However, details regarding the tomont stage of its life cycle remain lacking. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the tomont stage throughout encystment and cell division using light and electron microscopy. Results showed that there was no secretion of encystation-specific secretory vesicles or extrusomes during formation of the cyst wall. Instead, the synthesis and construction of the C. irritans cyst wall materials may involve molecular events at the pellicle...
January 30, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134065/effect-of-host-diversity-and-species-assemblage-composition-on-bovine-tuberculosis-btb-risk-in-ethiopian-cattle
#6
Dejene W Sintayehu, Ignas M A Heitkönig, Herbert H T Prins, Zewdu K Tessema, Willem F DE Boer
Current theories on diversity-disease relationships describe host species diversity and species identity as important factors influencing disease risk, either diluting or amplifying disease prevalence in a community. Whereas the simple term 'diversity' embodies a set of animal community characteristics, it is not clear how different measures of species diversity are correlated with disease risk. We therefore tested the effects of species richness, Pielou's evenness and Shannon's diversity on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) risk in cattle in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015...
January 30, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134060/a-novel-assay-for-the-detection-of-anthelmintic-activity-mediated-by-cuticular-damage-to-nematodes-validation-on-caenorhabditis-elegans-exposed-to-cysteine-proteinases
#7
A M Phiri, D I DE Pomerai, D J Buttle, J M Behnke
Plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) from Carica papaya kill parasitic and free-living nematodes in vitro by hydrolysis of the worm cuticle, a mechanism that is different to all commercially available synthetic anthelmintics. We have developed a cheap and effective, rapid-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans-based assay for screening plant CP extracts for anthelmintic activity targeting cuticular integrity. The assay exploits colorimetric methodology for assessment of cuticular damage, and is based on the ability of viable cells to incorporate and bind Neutral red dye within lysosomes and to release the dye when damaged...
January 30, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122651/clinical-features-and-management-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-infections-in-humans
#8
Cyrus Daneshvar, Timothy William, Timothy M E Davis
Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria of primarily the macaque species of South East Asia. While it was known that human infections could be induced during the years of malariotherapy, naturally occurring P. knowlesi human infections were thought to be rare. However, in 2004, knowlesi infections became recognized as an important infection amongst human populations in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Since then, it has become recognized as a disease affecting people living and visiting endemic areas across South East Asia...
January 26, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103966/chemotherapy-of-leishmaniasis-present-challenges
#9
Silvia R B Uliana, Cristiana T Trinconi, Adriano C Coelho
Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are amongst the most devastating infectious diseases of our time, affecting millions of people worldwide. The treatment of these serious diseases rely on a few chemotherapeutic agents, most of which are of parenteral use and induce severe side-effects. Furthermore, rates of treatment failure are high and have been linked to drug resistance in some areas. Here, we reviewed data on current chemotherapy practice in leishmaniasis. Drug resistance and mechanisms of resistance are described as well as the prospects for applying drug combinations for leishmaniasis chemotherapy...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103965/oxidative-stress-and-changes-in-adenosine-deaminase-activity-of-cattle-experimentally-infected-by-fasciola-hepatica
#10
Aleksandro S DA Silva, Matheus D Baldissera, Nathieli B Bottari, Matheus E Gabriel, Leandro A Rhoden, Manoela M Piva, Ricardo Christ, Fernanda A Stedille, Anderson Gris, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa Schetinger, Ricardo E Mendes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in serum and liver and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity of cattle experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. The group A consisted of five healthy animals (uninfected), and the group B was composed of five animals orally infected with 200 metacercariae of F. hepatica. On days 20, 40, 60 and 80 post-infection (PI) serum was collected to measure oxidative stress variables. On day 100 PI, animals were humanely euthanized and liver samples were collected...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103964/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-related-mortality-in-brazil
#11
Francisco R Martins-Melo, Alberto N Ramos, Carlos H Alencar, Mauricélia S Lima, Jorg Heukelbach
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study including all deaths in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which STHs (ascariasis, trichuriasis and/or hookworm infection) were mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated causes of death. Epidemiological characteristics, time trends and spatial analysis of STH-related mortality were analysed. STHs was identified on 853/12 491 280 death certificates: 827 (97·0%) deaths related to ascariasis, 25 (2·9%) to hookworm infections, and 1 (0·1%) to trichuriasis...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077187/lysosome-like-compartments-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-trypomastigotes-may-originate-directly-from-epimastigote-reservosomes
#12
Juliana C Vidal, Carolina DE L Alcantara, Wanderley DE Souza, Narcisa L Cunha-E-Silva
Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote reservosomes store nutrients taken up during the intense endocytic activity exhibited by this developmental form. Reservosomes were classified as pre-lysosomal compartments. In contrast, trypomastigote forms are not able to take up nutrients from the medium. Interestingly, trypomastigotes also have acidic organelles with the same proteases contained in epimastigote reservosomes. Nevertheless, the origin and function of these organelles have not been disclosed so far. Given the similarities between the compartments of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, the present study aimed to investigate the origin of metacyclic trypomastigote protease-containing organelles by tracking fluorospheres or colloidal gold particles previously stored in epimastigotes' reservosomes throughout metacyclogenesis...
January 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077183/the-prevalence-of-aphanomyces-astaci-in-invasive-signal-crayfish-from-the-uk-and-implications-for-native-crayfish-conservation
#13
J James, S Nutbeam-Tuffs, J Cable, A Mrugała, N Viñuela-Rodriguez, A Petrusek, B Oidtmann
The crayfish plague agent, Aphanomyces astaci, has spread throughout Europe, causing a significant decline in native European crayfish. The introduction and dissemination of this pathogen is attributed to the spread of invasive North American crayfish, which can act as carriers for A. astaci. As native European crayfish often succumb to infection with A. astaci, determining the prevalence of this pathogen in non-native crayfish is vital to prioritize native crayfish populations for managed translocation. In the current study, 23 populations of invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from the UK were tested for A...
January 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077180/understanding-transmissibility-patterns-of-chagas-disease-through-complex-vector-host-networks
#14
Laura Rengifo-Correa, Christopher R Stephens, Juan J Morrone, Juan Luis Téllez-Rendón, Constantino González-Salazar
Chagas disease is one of the most important vector-borne zoonotic diseases in Latin America. Control strategies could be improved if transmissibility patterns of its aetiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, were better understood. To understand transmissibility patterns of Chagas disease in Mexico, we inferred potential vectors and hosts of T. cruzi from geographic distributions of nine species of Triatominae and 396 wild mammal species, respectively. The most probable vectors and hosts of T. cruzi were represented in a Complex Inference Network, from which we formulated a predictive model and several associated hypotheses about the ecological epidemiology of Chagas disease...
January 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073394/gregarine-infection-accelerates-larval-development-of-the-cat-flea-ctenocephalides-felis-bouch%C3%A3
#15
M E Alarcón, A Jara-F, R C Briones, A K Dubey, C H Slamovits
A high degree of specialization between host and parasite is a well-known outcome of a long history of coevolution, and it is strikingly illustrated in a coordination of their life cycles. In some cases, the arms race ensued at the establishment of a symbiotic relationship results in the adoption of manipulative strategies by the parasite. We have already learned that Steinina ctenocephali, a gregarine living in the alimentary canal of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis follows its phenology and metamorphosis...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073393/study-on-the-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathways-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-h446-cells-induced-by-trichinella-spiralis-muscle-larvae-esps
#16
Jingmei Luo, L I Yu, Guangcheng Xie, Dan Li, Meng Su, Xuerong Zhao, Luanying DU
Trichinella spiralis (T.spiralis) muscle-larva (ML) excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) contain antitumour-active substances. ESPs have been shown to inhibit tumour growth. To explore the effects of these proteins on small cell lung cancer cells and the possible mechanisms of their antineoplastic action, H446 SCLC cells were co-cultured with different concentrations of T. spiralis ML ESPs for 12, 24 and 48 h. Our results showed that T. spiralis ML ESPs significantly inhibited H446 cell proliferation, which was dose-and time-dependent...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073392/does-the-dilution-effect-generally-occur-in-animal-diseases
#17
Zheng Y X Huang, Yang Yu, Frank VAN Langevelde, Willem F DE Boer
The dilution effect (DE) has been reported in many diseases, but its generality is still highly disputed. Most current criticisms of DE are related to animal diseases. Particularly, some critical studies argued that DE is less likely to occur in complex environments. Here our meta-analyses demonstrated that the magnitude of DE did not differ between animal vs plant diseases. Moreover, DE generally occurs in all three subgroups of animal diseases, namely direct-transmitted diseases, vector-borne diseases and diseases caused by parasites with free-living stages...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073389/the-distribution-of-echinostome-parasites-in-ponds-and-implications-for-larval-anuran-survival
#18
John A Marino, Manja P Holland, Earl E Werner
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian - trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host-parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073388/isolation-and-biological-and-molecular-characterization-of-neospora-caninum-nc-sp1-from-a-naturally-infected-adult-asymptomatic-cattle-bos-taurus-in-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#19
Solange Oliveira, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Juliana Aizawa, Herbert Sousa Soares, Daniela Pontes Chiebao, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Natália Quadros Bressa Silva, Solange Maria Gennari, Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena
The biological and genetic diversity of Neospora caninum is very limited because of availability of only a few viable isolates worldwide. This study describes the isolation and biological and molecular characterization of a new viable isolate of N. caninum (NC-SP1), from a cattle in Brazil. Approximately 400 g of brain from a naturally infected adult male cattle from an abattoir was fed to a 2-month-old dog. Neospora-like oocysts were observed on day 7 post-inoculation (PI) and the duration of oocyst shedding was 14 days...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073385/the-cestode-parasite-schistocephalus-pungitii-castrator-or-nutrient-thief-of-ninespine-stickleback-fish
#20
David C Heins
In this investigation, the host-parasite relationship of ninespine stickleback fish Pungitius pungitius and the cestode parasite Schistocephalus pungitii was studied using samples from Dog Bone Lake, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to test the hypothesis that S. pungitii is a castrator of ninespine stickleback. Infected, adult females of all sizes (ages) were capable of producing clutches of eggs. S. pungitii had a negative effect on the ability of host females to produce a clutch, which was related to increasing parasite:host mass ratio (parasite index, PI)...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
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