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Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903316/genetic-divergence-of-human-pathogens-nanophyetus-spp-trematoda-troglotrematidae-on-the-opposite-sides-of-the-pacific-rim
#1
A N Voronova, G N Chelomina, V V Besprozvannykh, V V Tkach
Human and animal nanophyetiasis is caused by intestinal flukes belonging to the genus Nanophyetus distributed on both North American and Eurasian coasts of Northern Pacific. In spite of the wide geographical distribution and medical and veterinary importance of these flukes, the intra-generic taxonomy of Nanophyetus spp. remains unresolved. The two most widely distributed nominal species, Nanophyetus salmincola and Nanophyetus schikhobalowi, both parasitizing humans and carnivorous mammals, were described from North America and eastern Eurasia, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903313/robert-leiper-and-the-london-school-of-hygiene-and-tropical-medicine
#2
Francis E G Cox
Robert Leiper is best known for his discoveries in the fields of Guinea worm and schistosomiasis, but he also made major contributions to parasitology during his career as helminthologist and later Professor of Helminthology at the London School of (Hygiene and) Tropical Medicine. He was particularly involved in establishing the London School's Winches Farm Field Station and stimulating the research carried out there, work that has made a number of important contributions to our understanding of parasites. Leiper founded the Commonwealth Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology and was also instrumental in initiating, and editing, the Journal of Helminthology, Helminthological Abstracts and establishing, indirectly, Protozoological Abstracts...
December 1, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894375/plasmodium-knowlesi-and-human-malaria-parasites-in-khan-phu-vietnam-gametocyte-production-in-humans-and-frequent-co-infection-of-mosquitoes
#3
Y Maeno, R Culleton, N T Quang, S Kawai, R P Marchand, S Nakazawa
Four species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi infect humans living in the Khanh Phu commune, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. The latter species also infects wild macaque monkeys in this region. In order to understand the transmission dynamics of the three species, we attempted to detect gametocytes of the three species in the blood of infected individuals, and sporozoites in the salivary glands of mosquitoes from the same region. For the detection of gametocyte-specific mRNA, we targeted region 3 of pfg377, pvs25, pmg and pks25 as indicators of the presence of P...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894367/potential-immunological-markers-for-diagnosis-of-human-strongyloidiasis-using-heterologous-antigens
#4
M A Corral, F M Paula, D M C L Meisel, V L P Castilho, E M N Gonçalves, D Levy, S P Bydlowski, P P Chieffi, W Castro-Borges, R C B Gryschek
Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents that is frequently used to obtain heterologous antigens for immunological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to identify antigens from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis for immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis were obtained in phosphate saline (SS and SM) and in Tris-HCl buffer (TS and TM), and were analysed by Western blotting. Different antigenic components were recognized by IgG antibodies from the sera of strongyloidiasis patients...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894366/evolution-of-host-range-in-the-follicle-mite-demodex-kutzeri
#5
Michael F Palopoli, VAN Tra, Kassey Matoin, Phuong D Mac
The sequences of four mitochondrial genes were determined for Demodex mites isolated from two distantly related species within the family Cervidae, and identified morphologically as belonging to the species Demodex kutzeri. The sequences were used to test the hypothesis that Demodex are strictly host-specific, and hence cospeciate with their hosts: (1) The estimated divergence time between mites found on elk vs humans agreed closely with a previous estimate of the time that these host species last shared a common ancestor, suggesting cospeciation of mites and hosts, at least over long evolutionary timescales...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894365/leishmania-infantum-illness-transmission-profile-and-risk-factors-for-asymptomatic-infection-in-an-endemic-metropolis-in-brazil
#6
Letícia Helena Dos Santos Marques, Iara Caixeta Marques DA Rocha, Ilka Afonso Reis, Gisele Macedo Rodrigues DA Cunha, Edward Oliveira, Thais Ribeiro Pfeilsticker, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda DE Araújo, Maria Helena Franco Morais, Ana Rabello, Mariângela Carneiro
To evaluate the distribution of asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum in a metropolis in Brazil with different relative risks (RRs) for disease and risk factors associated with the infection, an ecological study was conducted using a Bayesian approach to estimate the RR of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) based on cases between 2008 and 2011. The areas were categorized and selected according to disease incidence: low (area-1), medium (area-2) and high (area-3). Cross-sectional study enrolling 935 children was used to estimate the prevalence of infection by L...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894363/vector-species-richness-increases-haemorrhagic-disease-prevalence-through-functional-diversity-modulating-the-duration-of-seasonal-transmission-erratum
#7
Andrew W Park, Christopher A Cleveland, Tad A Dallas, Joseph L Corn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894362/the-trypanosome-alternative-oxidase-a-potential-drug-target
#8
Stefanie K Menzies, Lindsay B Tulloch, Gordon J Florence, Terry K Smith
New drugs against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of Human African Trypanosomiasis, are urgently needed to replace the highly toxic and largely ineffective therapies currently used. The trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO) is an essential and unique mitochondrial protein in these parasites and is absent from mammalian mitochondria, making it an attractive drug target. The structure and function of the protein are now well characterized, with several inhibitors reported in the literature, which show potential as clinical drug candidates...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894361/non-human-primate-malaria-parasites-out-of-the-forest-and-into-the-laboratory-corrigendum
#9
Axel Martinelli, Richard Culleton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894360/the-relationship-of-endotoxaemia-to-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-responses-in-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#10
Lorna Maclean, Eltayb A Aboubaker, Peter G E Kennedy, Jeremy M Sternberg
Endotoxaemia has been described in cases of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), but it is unclear if this phenomenon influences inflammatory pathology either in the periphery or central nervous system (CNS). We studied endotoxin concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients using the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte lysate assay. The relationship of endotoxin concentration to the presentation of gross signs of inflammation and the inflammatory/counter-inflammatory cytokine profile of the relevant compartments were analysed...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876112/antioxidant-defense-of-nrf2-vs-pro-inflammatory-system-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-during-the-amoebic-liver-infection-in-hamster
#11
Liseth R Aldaba-Muruato, Martin H Muñoz-Ortega, María Del R Campos-Esparza, José R Macías-Pérez, Nayeli A Márquez-Muñoz, Ana G Villalobos-Santos, Javier Ventura-Juárez
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebic liver abscess (ALA), which course with an uncontrolled inflammation and nitro-oxidative stresses, although it is well known that amoeba has an effective defence mechanisms against this toxic environment, the underlying molecular factors responsible for progression of tissue damage remain largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine during the acute stage of ALA in hamsters, the involvement of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which are activated in response to oxidative stress...
November 23, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876111/the-remarkable-dr-robertson
#12
Tansy C Hammarton
Muriel Robertson (1883-1973) was a pioneering protozoologist who made a staggering number of important contributions to the fields of parasitology, bacteriology and immunology during her career, which spanned nearly 60 years. These contributions were all the more remarkable given the scientific and social times in which she worked. While Muriel is perhaps best known for her work on the life cycle and transmission of the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, which she carried out in Uganda at the height of a major Sleeping Sickness epidemic, her work on the Clostridia during the First and Second World Wars made significant contributions to the understanding of anaerobes and to the development of anti-toxoid vaccines, and her work on the immunology of Trichomonas foetus infections in cattle, carried out in collaboration with the veterinarian W...
November 23, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876097/leishmania-donovani-development-in-phlebotomus-argentipes-comparison-of-promastigote-and-amastigote-initiated-infections
#13
Jovana Sadlova, Jitka Myskova, Tereza Lestinova, Jan Votypka, Matthew Yeo, Petr Volf
Leishmania parasites alternate in their life cycle between promastigote stages that develop in the gut of phlebotomine sand flies and amastigotes residing inside phagocytic cells of vertebrate hosts. For experimental infections of sand flies, promastigotes are frequently used as this way of infection is technically easier although ingestion of promastigotes by sand flies is unnatural. Here we aimed to answer a critical question, to what extent do promastigote-initiated experimental infections differ from those initiated with intracellular amastigotes...
November 23, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873566/pathological-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-amphibiothecum-sp-infection-in-an-isolated-amphibian-lissotriton-helveticus-population-on-the-island-of-rum-scotland
#14
Caterina Fiegna, Charlotte L Clarke, Darren J Shaw, Johanna L Baily, Frances C Clare, Alexandra Gray, Trenton W J Garner, Anna L Meredith
Outbreaks of cutaneous infectious disease in amphibians are increasingly being attributed to an overlooked group of fungal-like pathogens, the Dermocystids. During the last 10 years on the Isle of Rum, Scotland, palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) have been reportedly afflicted by unusual skin lesions. Here we present pathological and molecular findings confirming that the pathogen associated with these lesions is a novel organism of the order Dermocystida, and represents the first formally reported, and potentially lethal, case of amphibian Dermocystid infection in the UK...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873556/between-individual-variation-in-nematode-burden-among-juveniles-in-a-wild-host
#15
H M V Granroth-Wilding, F Daunt, E J A Cunningham, S J Burthe
Parasite infection in young animals can affect host traits related to demographic processes such as survival and reproduction, and is therefore crucial to population viability. However, variation in infection among juvenile hosts is poorly understood. Experimental studies have indicated that effects of parasitism can vary with host sex, hatching order and hatch date, yet it remains unclear whether this is linked to differences in parasite burdens. We quantified gastrointestinal nematode burdens of wild juvenile European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) using two in situ measures (endoscopy of live birds and necropsy of birds that died naturally) and one non-invasive proxy measure (fecal egg counts (FECs))...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869056/why-calpain-inhibitors-are-interesting-leading-compounds-to-search-for-new-therapeutic-options-to-treat-leishmaniasis
#16
Vitor Ennes-Vidal, Rubem Figueiredo Sadock Menna-Barreto, Marta Helena Branquinha, André Luis Souza Dos Santos, Claudia Masini D'Avila-Levy
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease, which needs improvements in drug development, mainly due to the toxicity, parasite resistance and low compliance of patients to treatment. Therefore, the development of new chemotherapeutic compounds is an urgent need. This opinion article will briefly highlight the feasible use of calpain inhibitors as leading compounds to search for new therapeutic options to treat leishmaniasis. The milestone of this approach is to take advantage on the myriad of inhibitors developed against calpains, some of which are in advanced clinical trials...
November 21, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866478/evaluating-drug-resistance-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-the-challenges
#17
S Hendrickx, P J Guerin, G Caljon, S L Croft, L Maes
For decades antimonials were the drugs of choice for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), but the recent emergence of resistance has made them redundant as first-line therapy in the endemic VL region in the Indian subcontinent. The application of other drugs has been limited due to adverse effects, perceived high cost, need for parenteral administration and increasing rate of treatment failures. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) and miltefosine (MIL) have been positioned as the effective first-line treatments; however, the number of monotherapy MIL-failures has increased after a decade of use...
November 21, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866477/cross-reactivity-of-the-31-kda-antigen-of-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-dealing-with-the-immunodiagnosis-of-meningoencephalitis
#18
Alessandra L Morassutti, Lisa N Rascoe, Sukwan Handali, Alexandre J DA Silva, Patricia P Wilkins, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira
The primary causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EoM) in endemic regions is the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The occurrence of EoM was previously restricted to countries in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands; however, more recently, it has been reported from other regions, including Brazil. The commonly used diagnosis is detection of specific antibody reactivity to the 31 kDa antigen, which is derived from female worm somatic extracts. Here we report the occurrence of cross-reactivity to this antigen in sera from other parasitic infections, especially those that may cause EoM, such as gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, hydatidosis and strongyloidiasis...
November 21, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842616/description-and-experimental-transmission-of-tetracapsuloides-vermiformis-n-sp-cnidaria-myxozoa-and-guidelines-for-describing-malacosporean-species-including-reinstatement-of-buddenbrockia-bryozoides-n-comb-syn-tetracapsula-bryozoides
#19
Sneha Patra, Ashlie Hartigan, David J Morris, Alena Kodádková, Astrid S Holzer
This paper provides the first detailed description of a Tetracapsuloides species, Tetracapsuloides vermiformis n. sp., with vermiform stages in the bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, and its experimental transmission from F. sultana to Cyprinus carpio. The suitability of morphological, biological and 18S rDNA sequence data for discrimination between malacosporean species is reviewed and recommendations are given for future descriptions. Presently, malacosporean species cannot be differentiated morphologically due to their cryptic nature and the lack of differential characters of spores and spore-forming stages in both hosts...
November 15, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831461/central-european-parasitic-flatworms-of-the-cyclocoelidae-stossich-1902-trematoda-plagiorchiida-molecular-and-comparative-morphological-analysis-suggests-the-reclassification-of-cyclocoelum-obscurum-leidy-1887-into-the-harrahium-witenberg-1926
#20
Jiljí Sitko, Jiří Bizos, Petr Heneberg
Cyclocoelidae Stossich, 1902 are medium-sized to large digenean bird parasites. Although these parasites bear few visible autapomorphic signs, and their diagnostic characters are unstable in response to the pressure applied during preparation, the numerous hitherto suggested re-classifications within the family have not been supported by any molecular analysis. We analyse here cyclocoelids found during the extensive examination of central European birds performed from 1962 to 2016, provide comparative measurements, host spectra, prevalence and intensity, and provide and analyse sequences of four DNA loci of five of the cyclocoelid species...
November 10, 2016: Parasitology
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