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Jean de Oliveira Santos, Aline Araujo Zuma, Francisca Nathalia de Luna Vitorino, Julia Pinheiro Chagas da Cunha, Wanderley de Souza, Maria Cristina M Motta
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a public health concern in Latin America. Epigenetic events, such as histone acetylation, affect DNA topology, replication and gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in chromatin compaction and post-translational modifications of cytoplasmic proteins, such as tubulin. HDAC inhibitors, like trichostatin A (TSA), inhibit tumour cell proliferation and promotes ultrastructural modifications. In the present study, TSA effects on cell proliferation, viability, cell cycle and ultrastructure were evaluated, as well as on histone acetylation and tubulin expression of the T...
November 13, 2018: Parasitology
Alberto Guevara, Cristina Lugo, Alejandro J Montilla, Nelson A Araujo, Maritza Calabokis, José Bubis
Kemptide (sequence: LRRASLG) is a synthetic peptide holding the consensus recognition site for the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). cAMP-independent protein kinases that phosphorylate kemptide were stimulated in Trypanosoma equiperdum following glucose deprivation. An enriched kemptide kinase-containing fraction was isolated from glucose-starved parasites using sedimentation throughout a sucrose gradient, followed by sequential chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-300...
November 13, 2018: Parasitology
Sima Rostami, Reza Salavati, Robin N Beech, Zahra Babaei, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Saeedeh Shamsaddini, Saeid Nasibi, Majid Fasihi Harandi
Little is known about the genetic and morphological characters of Taenia ovis. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sheep isolates of T. ovis using rostellar hook morphometry as well as mitochondrial genes sequence analysis. Ninety sheep specimens of Cysticercus ovis were collected from 18 slaughterhouses in Iran. The mean ± s.d. for total length of large and small hooks were 174.1 ± 6.4 and 116.7 ± 5.4 µm, respectively. CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence analysis showed 11 and nine haplotypes, respectively...
November 13, 2018: Parasitology
Eva Wattrang, Per Thebo, Osama Ibrahim, Tina Sørensen Dalgaard, Anna Lundén
This study aimed to set up methodology to monitor parasite-specific T-cell activation in vitro using Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A sonicated E. tenella sporozoite protein preparation was used for the activation of chicken spleen cell cultures. Proliferation assessed by 3H-thymidin incorporation or blast transformation of T-cells assessed by immunofluorescence labelling and flow cytometry were used as read-outs for activation. Results showed that E. tenella-specific proliferation was detected in cultures of spleen cells collected in a 'window' between 8 and 14 days after primary infection...
November 9, 2018: Parasitology
Francisco Posada-Florez, Daniel E Sonenshine, Noble I Egekwu, Clifford Rice, Robert Lupitskyy, Steven C Cook
Varroa destructor mites (Acari: Varroidae) are harmful ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees. Female foundresses of wax-capped pupal host cells and their daughters feed on host fluids from open wounds on the host's integument. Details of V. destructor mite nutrition are forthcoming, and little is known about the potential physical effects on hosts from mite feeding. Chemical analysis of waste excretions can infer details of animals' nutrition. Here, chemical analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) of mite excretions showed that the purine content of V...
November 9, 2018: Parasitology
Rafaela A Caprioli, Caroline P de Andrade, Fernando F Argenta, Luiza P Ehlers, João Fábio Soares, Saulo P Pavarini, David Driemeier, Luciana Sonne
The objective of this study was to identify species of Angiostrongylus spp. infecting wild carnivores in Southern Brazil, as well as to describe gross and histopathological findings associated with the infection. Necropsy was conducted in 16 wild carnivores parasitized by Angiostrongylus spp. Analysed lungs revealed multifocal dark-red areas of consolidation; in one case, multifocal firm white nodules spread in all pulmonary lobes were observed. In one animal, a focally extensive area of malacia associated with haemorrhage was noted in the encephalon...
November 5, 2018: Parasitology
Sergey G Sokolov, Dmitry M Atopkin, Misako Urabe, Ilya I Gordeev
In the present paper, the phylogenetic relationships between genera, subfamilies and families of the Hemiuroidea are explored. Twelve new sequences of 28 rDNA and data taken from GenBank (NSBI) on 43 species affiliated to 34 genera were included in the analysis. Most of the hemiuroidean trematodes form two highly supported clades (A and B), which are sister groups to each other. Hemipera manteri joined with Gonocerca spp. with moderate statistical support. This clade is basal relative to the clades A and B...
November 5, 2018: Parasitology
Ki-Back Chu, Dong-Hun Lee, Hae-Ji Kang, Fu-Shi Quan
Human infections with Trichinella spiralis and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common, as T. spiralis infections are re-emerging in various parts of the world and RSV infections remain a threat for infants. Yet, studies investigating the relationship pertaining to the two are severely lacking. In particular, immune response induction via RSV and T. spiralis remain largely elusive. Here, we investigated the resistance against T. spiralis infection induced upon primary infection with RSV. RSV, notorious for causing severe inflammatory reaction in the lungs, were intranasally infected, followed with a T...
November 5, 2018: Parasitology
Emily A Dickie, Simon A Young, Terry K Smith
The kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes African trypanosomiasis in both humans and animals. Infections place a significant health and economic burden on developing nations in sub-Saharan Africa, but few effective anti-parasitic treatments are currently available. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify new leads for drug development. The T. brucei neutral sphingomyelinase (TbnSMase) was previously established as essential to parasite survival, consequently being identified as a potential drug target...
November 5, 2018: Parasitology
Ali Raza, Abdul Ghaffar Qamar, Khizar Hayat, Shoaib Ashraf, Andrew R Williams
Control of equine nematodes has relied on benzimidazoles (BZs), tetrahydropyrimidines and macrocyclic lactones. The intensive use of anthelmintics has led to the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in equine cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum. Field studies indicate that BZ and pyrantel resistance is widespread in cyathostomins and there are also increasing reports of resistance to macrocyclic lactones in cyathostomins and P. equorum. The unavailability of reliable laboratory-based techniques for detecting resistance further augments the problem of nematode control in horses...
November 5, 2018: Parasitology
Sritama De Sarkar, Deblina Sarkar, Avijit Sarkar, Aishwarya Dighal, Sasanka Chakrabarti, Katrin Staniek, Lars Gille, Mitali Chatterjee
Endoperoxides kill malaria parasites via cleavage of their endoperoxide bridge by haem or iron, leading to generation of cytotoxic oxygen-centred radicals. In view of the Leishmania parasites having a relatively compromised anti-oxidant defense and high iron content, this study aims to establish the underlying mechanism(s) accounting for the apoptotic-like death of Leishmania promastigotes by artemisinin, an endoperoxide. The formation of reactive oxygen species was confirmed by flow cytometry and was accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial complexes I-III and II-III...
November 5, 2018: Parasitology
Mai Dang, Linda Basson, Lis Bach, Christian Sonne, Rasmus Nørregaard, Barbara Nowak
Trichodinids are parasites generally found on gills and skin of a broad number of aquatic animals. Only a small number of endozoic species has been reported from the urinary tract, intestine and urogenital system in some fish, amphibians and molluscs. This is the first report on the presence of endozoic trichodinids in the spleen, kidney and liver of shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). In the present study, trichodinids displayed some of the typical morphological characteristics of endozoic trichodinids with narrow blades and straight rays of adhesive disc denticles...
October 25, 2018: Parasitology
O Benedicenti, C J Secombes, C Collins
Population growth, in vitro, of three Paramoeba perurans cultures, one polyclonal (G) and two clonal (B8, CE6, derived from G), previously shown to differ in virulence (B8 > G > CE6), was compared at 10 and 15 °C. B8 showed a significantly higher increase in attached and in suspended amoebae over time at 15 and 10 °C, respectively. CE6 and G also had significantly higher numbers of suspended amoebae at 10 °C compared with 15 °C at experiment termination. However, in contrast to B8, numbers of attached amoebae were significantly higher at 10 °C in CE6 but showed a similar trend in G at the end of the experiment...
October 25, 2018: Parasitology
Veeren M Chauhan, David I Pritchard
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living nematode that resides in soil and typically feeds on bacteria. We postulate that haematophagic C. elegans could provide a model to evaluate vaccine responses to intestinal proteins from hematophagous nematode parasites, such as Necator americanus. Human erythrocytes, fluorescently labelled with tetramethylrhodamine succinimidyl ester, demonstrated a stable bright emission and facilitated visualization of feeding events with fluorescent microscopy. C. elegans were observed feeding on erythrocytes and were shown to rupture red blood cells upon capture to release and ingest their contents...
October 25, 2018: Parasitology
Brenda Solórzano García, Amanda D Melin, Filippo Aureli, Gerardo Pérez Ponce de León
Patterns of genetic variation among populations can reveal the evolutionary history of species. Pinworm parasites are highly host specific and form strong co-evolutionary associations with their primate hosts. Here, we describe the genetic variation observed in four Trypanoxyuris species infecting different howler and spider monkey subspecies in Central America to determine if historical dispersal processes and speciation in the host could explain the genetic patterns observed in the parasites. Mitochondrial (cox1) and ribosomal (28S) DNA were analysed to assess genetic divergence and phylogenetic history of these parasites...
October 16, 2018: Parasitology
Yuri S Tokarev, Sergei A Timofeev, Julia M Malysh, Alexander A Tsarev, Anastasia N Ignatieva, Oksana G Tomilova, Vyacheslav V Dolgikh
Hexokinase (HK) is a core glycolytic enzyme of Microsporidia which regulates host cell metabolic processes. The goal of the present study was to test for the utility of HK for molecular phylogenetics, species identification and molecular detection of microsporidia in infected insects. HK sequence-based reconstructions were essentially similar to those based upon largest subunit RNA polymerase (RPB1) gene sequences, as well as previously published rRNA gene and genome-based trees. Comparing HK sequences allowed clear differentiation of closely related taxa, such as Nosema bombycis and Nosema pyrausta...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology
Luisa Otero, Jos J Schall, Virnaliz Cruz, Kristen Aaltonen, Miguel A Acevedo
Understanding the consequences of environmental fluctuations for parasite dynamics requires a long-term view stretching over many transmission cycles. Here we studied the dynamics of three malaria parasites (Plasmodium azurophilum, P. leucocytica and P. floridense) infecting the lizard Anolis gundlachi, in the rainforest of Puerto Rico. In this malaria-anole system we evaluated temporal fluctuations in individual probability of infection, the environmental drivers of observed variation and consequences for host body condition and Plasmodium parasites assemblage...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology
Jennifer E Welsh, Anke Hempel, Mirjana Markovic, Jaap van der Meer, David W Thieltges
Parasite transmission can be altered via the removal of parasites by the ambient communities in which parasite-host interactions take place. However, the mechanisms driving parasite removal remain poorly understood. Using marine trematode cercariae as a model system, we investigated the effects of consumer and host body size on parasite removal rates. Laboratory experiments revealed that consumer or host body size significantly affected cercarial removal rates in crabs, oysters and cockles but not in shrimps...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology
B Horton, H Bridle, C L Alexander, F Katzer
Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite known to cause giardiasis throughout the world. Potential transmission vehicles for this zoonotic parasite are both water and food sources. As such consumption of water contaminated by feces, or food sources washed in contaminated water containing parasite cysts, may result in outbreaks. This creates local public health risks which can potentially cause widespread infection and long-term post-infection sequelae. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of G...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology
Linsong Wang, Tingting Zhang, Zhengsong Pan, Lulu Lin, Guoqing Dong, Min Wang, Ronggui Li
Pine wilt disease, which is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has caused huge damage to pine forests around the world. In this study, we analysed the PWN transcriptome to investigate the expression of genes related to the associated bacterial species Pseudomonas fluorescens and found that the gene adh-1 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was upregulated. The open reading frame of adh-1, which encoded a protein of 352 amino acid residues, was cloned from B. xylophilus. Recombinant ADH with a relative molecular weight of 39 kDa, was present mainly in inclusion bodies and was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified after refolding...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology
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