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Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747240/signatures-of-mito-nuclear-discordance-in-schistosoma-turkestanicum-indicate-a-complex-evolutionary-history-of-emergence-in-europe
#1
Scott P Lawton, Lauren I Bowen, Aidan M Emery, Gábor Majoros
High levels of molecular diversity were identified in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) gene sequences of Schistosoma turkestanicum from Hungary. These cox1 sequences were all specific to Hungary which contrasted with the low levels of diversity seen in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequences, the majority of which were shared between China and Iran isolates. Measures of within and between host molecular variation within S. turkestanicum showed there to be substantial differences in molecular diversity, with cox1 being significantly more diverse than the ITS...
July 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747239/palaeoparasitology-and-palaeogenetics-review-and-perspectives-for-the-study-of-ancient-human-parasites
#2
Nathalie M-L Côté, Matthieu LE Bailly
While some species of parasites can be identified to species level from archaeological remains using microscopy (i.e. Enterobius vermicularis, Clonorchis sinensis), others can only be identified to family or genus level as different species produce eggs with similar morphology (i.e. Tænia sp. and Echinococcus sp.). Molecular and immunological approaches offer the possibility to provide more precise determination at the species level. They can also identify taxa when classic parasite markers such as eggs or cysts have been destroyed over time...
July 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737116/apoptotic-induction-induces-leishmania-aethiopica-and-l-mexicana-spreading-in-terminally-differentiated-thp-1-cells
#3
Rajeev Rai, Paul Dyer, Simon Richardson, Laurence Harbige, Giulia Getti
Leishmaniasis develops after parasites establish themselves as amastigotes inside mammalian cells and start replicating. As relatively few parasites survive the innate immune defence, intracellular amastigotes spreading towards uninfected cells is instrumental to disease progression. Nevertheless the mechanism of Leishmania dissemination remains unclear, mostly due to the lack of a reliable model of infection spreading. Here, an in vitro model representing the dissemination of Leishmania amastigotes between human macrophages has been developed...
July 24, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735574/multicentre-evaluation-of-a-direct-agglutination-test-prototype-kit-dat-lpc-for-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#4
E Oliveira, D Oliveira, F A Cardoso, J R Barbosa, A P Marcelino, T Dutra, T Araujo, L Fernandes, D Duque, A Rabello
In this study, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of a previously developed direct agglutination test (DAT) using a freeze-dried antigen derived from Leishmania infantum promastigotes and composed in a prototype kit for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) diagnosis, named DAT-LPC. To evaluate DAT-LPC reproducibility, the kit was used to analyse 207 serum samples from VL patients and 80 serum samples from patients with other parasitic infections or healthy subjects in four laboratories from different public health institutions in Brazil...
July 24, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721835/parasites-as-prey-the-effect-of-cercarial-density-and-alternative-prey-on-consumption-of-cercariae-by-four-non-host-species
#5
Jennifer E Welsh, Caroline Liddell, Jaap VAN DER Meer, David W Thieltges
In parasites with complex life cycles the transmission of free-living infective stages can be influenced by ambient community diversity, in particular via predation. Here, we experimentally investigated whether parasite density and the presence of alternative prey can alter predation rates on free-living cercarial stages of a marine trematode by several non-host predators. All four predator species consumed increasing numbers of cercariae with an increase in cercarial density, indicating that the removal of cercariae by predators is effective over a range of natural densities as well as in the presence of alternative prey for a number of predators typical of marine ecosystems...
July 19, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720171/pacbio-assembly-of-a-plasmodium-knowlesi-genome-sequence-with-hi-c-correction-and-manual-annotation-of-the-sicavar-gene-family
#6
S A Lapp, J A Geraldo, J-T Chien, F Ay, S B Pakala, G Batugedara, J Humphrey, J D DeBARRY, K G Le Roch, M R Galinski, J C Kissinger
Plasmodium knowlesi has risen in importance as a zoonotic parasite that has been causing regular episodes of malaria throughout South East Asia. The P. knowlesi genome sequence generated in 2008 highlighted and confirmed many similarities and differences in Plasmodium species, including a global view of several multigene families, such as the large SICAvar multigene family encoding the variant antigens known as the schizont-infected cell agglutination proteins. However, repetitive DNA sequences are the bane of any genome project, and this and other Plasmodium genome projects have not been immune to the gaps, rearrangements and other pitfalls created by these genomic features...
July 19, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716157/advances-and-challenges-in-barcoding-pathogenic-and-environmental-leptospira
#7
Vanina Guernier, Kathryn J Allan, Cyrille Goarant
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease of global importance. A large spectrum of asymptomatic animal hosts can carry the infection and contribute to the burden of human disease. Environmental sources of human contamination also point to the importance of a hydrotelluric reservoir. Leptospirosis can be caused by as many as 15 different pathogenic or intermediate Leptospira species. However, classification of these bacteria remains complicated through the use of both serological and genetic classification systems that show poor correlation...
July 18, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712361/plasmodium-knowlesi-a-superb-in-vivo-nonhuman-primate-model-of-antigenic-variation-in-malaria
#8
M R Galinski, S A Lapp, M S Peterson, F Ay, C J Joyner, K G LE Roch, L L Fonseca, E O Voit
Antigenic variation in malaria was discovered in Plasmodium knowlesi studies involving longitudinal infections of rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). The variant proteins, known as the P. knowlesi Schizont Infected Cell Agglutination (SICA) antigens and the P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens, expressed by the SICAvar and var multigene families, respectively, have been studied for over 30 years. Expression of the SICA antigens in P. knowlesi requires a splenic component, and specific antibodies are necessary for variant antigen switch events in vivo...
July 17, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701240/modelling-the-influence-of-host-community-composition-in-a-sylvatic-trypanosoma-cruzi-system
#9
Diana Erazo, Juan Cordovez, Carolina Cabrera, Jose E Calzada, Azael Saldaña, Nicole L Gottdenker
Species composition of wild reservoir hosts can influence the transmission and maintenance of multi-host vector borne pathogens. The 'pace of life' hypothesis proposes that the life history strategy of reservoir hosts can influence pathogen transmission of vector borne generalist pathogens. We use empirical data to parameterize a mathematical model that investigates the impacts of host life history traits on vector transmission dynamics of the vector-borne multi-host parasite Trypanosoma cruzi in habitats characterized by different degrees of deforestation and varying host community structure...
July 13, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697821/the-first-detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-dna-in-environmental-air-samples-using-gelatine-filters-real-time-pcr-and-loop-mediated-isothermal-lamp-assays-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis
#10
Anna Lass, Beata Szostakowska, Krzysztof Korzeniewski, Panagiotis Karanis
Toxoplasma gondii infections are acquired through the ingestion of oocysts present in the environment. However, there is no data about their occurrence in the air or about airborne transmission of these infections. In the present paper, we report on the identification of T. gondii using rapid molecular detection methods, supported by microscopic analysis, in environmental air samples. A total of 71 samples were collected, using gelatine filters, from kitchen gardens, recreational areas and sandpits located in northern and north-eastern Poland...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697819/functional-characterization-of-single-domain-cystatin-like-cysteine-proteinase-inhibitors-expressed-by-the-trematode-fasciola-hepatica
#11
Martín Cancela, Ileana Corvo, Edileuza DA Silva, Aline Teichmann, Leda Roche, Alvaro Díaz, José Fransisco Tort, Henrique B Ferreira, Arnaldo Zaha
Cystatins are small, phylogenetically conserved proteins that are tight-binding inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica uses a diverse set of cysteine proteinases of the papain superfamily for host invasion, immune evasion and nutrition, but little is known about the regulation of these enzymes. The aim of this work is to characterize the cystatin repertoire of F. hepatica. For this purpose, we first surveyed the available sequence databases, identifying three different F. hepatica single-domain cystatins...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697818/speciation-in-the-genus-cloacina-nematoda-strongylida-species-flocks-and-intra-host-speciation
#12
N B Chilton, M A Shuttleworth, F Huby-Chilton, A V Koehler, A Jabbar, R B Gasser, I Beveridge
Sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 + ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were employed to determine whether the congeneric assemblages of species of the strongyloid nematode genus Cloacina, found in the forestomachs of individual species of kangaroos and wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae), considered to represent species flocks, were monophyletic. Nematode assemblages examined in the black-striped wallaby, Macropus (Notamacropus) dorsalis, the wallaroos, Macropus (Osphranter) antilopinus/robustus, rock wallabies, Petrogale spp...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697815/phylogeny-and-morphology-of-ovipleistophora-diplostomuri-n-sp-microsporidia-with-a-unique-dual-host-tropism-for-bluegill-sunfish-and-the-digenean-parasite-posthodiplostomum-minimum-strigeatida
#13
J Lovy, S E Friend
Microsporidia are diverse opportunistic parasites abundant in aquatic organisms with some species hyperparasitic in digenean parasites. In the current study, we describe a unique microsporidian parasite, Ovipleistophora diplostomuri n. sp. that has a tropism for both the bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus, and its digenean parasite Posthodiplostomum minimum. Though the microsporidium first infects a fish, the subsequent infection causes hypertrophy of the metacercarial wall and degeneration of the P. minimum metacercariae within the fish tissue...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697814/antiprotozoal-effects-of-metal-nanoparticles-against-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis
#14
Mona Saleh, Abdel-Azeem Abdel-Baki, Mohamed A Dkhil, Mansour El-Matbouli, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a widespread, ciliated protozoan ectoparasite of fish. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metal nanoparticles on the reproduction and infectivity of free-living stages of I. multifiliis. We determined that ~50% of theronts could be killed within 30 min of exposure to either 20 ng mL-1 gold, 10 ng mL-1 silver or 5 ng mL-1 zinc oxide nanoparticles. Silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles at concentration of 10 and 5 ng mL-1 killed 100 and 97% of theronts, respectively and inhibited reproduction of tomonts after 2 h exposure...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697813/multilocus-sequence-typing-and-clonal-population-genetic-structure-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-in-humans
#15
Junqiang Li, Yankai Chang, K E Shi, Rongjun Wang, Kanda Fu, Shan Li, Jinling Xu, Liting Jia, Zhenxin Guo, Longxian Zhang
To investigate the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis in a longitudinal study and to conduct a population genetic analysis, fecal specimens from 6579 patients were collected during the cyclosporiasis - prevalent seasons in two urban areas of central China in 2011-2015. The overall incidence of C. cayetanensis infection was 1·2% (76/6579): 1·6% (50/3173) in Zhengzhou and 0·8% (26/3406) in Kaifeng (P 0·05). All the isolates clustered in the C. cayetanensis clade based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693632/longitudinal-study-of-parasite-induced-mortality-of-a-long-lived-host-the-importance-of-exposure-to-non-parasitic-stressors
#16
Hilary M-H Chin, Lien T Luong, Allen W Shostak
Hosts face mortality from parasitic and environmental stressors, but interactions of parasitism with other stressors are not well understood, particularly for long-lived hosts. We monitored survival of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) in a longitudinal design incorporating cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection, starvation and exposure to the pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). We found that cestode cysticercoids exhibit increasing morphological damage and decreasing ability to excyst over time, but were never eliminated from the host...
July 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691653/molecular-biochemical-characterization-and-assessment-of-immunogenic-potential-of-cofactor-independent-phosphoglycerate-mutase-against-leishmania-donovani-a-step-towards-exploring-novel-vaccine-candidate
#17
Rati Tandon, Sharat Chandra, Rajendra Kumar Baharia, Pragya Misra, Sanchita DAS, Keerti Rawat, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Shyam Sundar, Anuradha Dube
Despite immense efforts, vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis has yet not been developed. Earlier our proteomic study revealed a novel protein, cofactor-independent phoshoglycerate mutase (LdiPGAM), an important enzyme in glucose metabolism, in T helper cells type 1 (Th1) stimulatory region of soluble Leishmania donovani antigen. In this study, LdiPGAM was biochemically and molecularly characterized and evaluated for its immunogenicity and prophylactic efficacy against L. donovani. Immunogenicity of recombinant LdiPGAM (rLdiPGAM) was initially assessed in naïve hamsters immunized with it by analysing mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and other Th1/T helper cells type 2 cytokines, which revealed an upregulation of Th1 cytokines along with iNOS...
July 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691652/migration-of-fasciola-hepatica-newly-excysted-juveniles-is-inhibited-by-high-mannose-and-oligomannose-type-n-glycan-binding-lectins
#18
Andres Garcia-Campos, Alan W Baird, Grace Mulcahy
Fasciola hepatica has both zoonotic importance and high economic impact in livestock worldwide. After ingestion by the definitive host, the Newly Excysted Juveniles (NEJ) penetrate the intestine before reaching the peritoneal cavity. The role of some NEJ-derived proteins in invasion has been documented, but the role of NEJ glycans or lectin-binding receptors during initial infection in the gut is still unknown. To address these questions, the migration of NEJ through rat intestine was recorded at 30 min intervals up to 150 min by two ex vivo methods...
July 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691648/use-of-a-real-time-pcr-to-explore-the-intensity-of-plasmodium-spp-infections-in-native-endemic-and-introduced-new-zealand-birds
#19
D C Sijbranda, B D Gartrell, Z L Grange, L Howe
Avian malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., is an emerging disease in New Zealand (NZ). To detect Plasmodium spp. infection and quantify parasite load in NZ birds, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (qPCR) protocol was used and compared with a nested PCR (nPCR) assay. A total of 202 blood samples from 14 bird species with known nPCR results were tested. The qPCR prevalences for introduced, native and endemic species groups were 70, 11 and 21%, respectively, with a sensitivity and specificity of 96·7 and 98%, respectively, for the qPCR, while a sensitivity and specificity of 80·9 and 85·4% were determined for the nPCR...
July 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679457/new-parasitological-findings-for-pre-hispanic-camelids
#20
V Taglioretti, M H Fugassa, D Rindel, N H Sardella
Paleoparasitological examination provides information of parasite-host associations in the past, shedding light on the geographical origin of some parasites, on the possible dispersal routes and on some of the processes that modelled the parasitic communities. The aim of the present study was to examine parasite remains present in camelid coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque, Patagonia and to discuss the paleoparasitological findings in a biogeographical and paleoecological context...
July 6, 2017: Parasitology
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