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B Tarbiat, D S Jansson, E Tydén, J Höglund
Susceptability of Ascaridia galli to benzimidazole (BZ) was investigated using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), in ovo larval development test (LDT) and genetic markers (mutations at codons 167, 198 and 200 of β-tubulin gene). Six flocks (F1-F6) of a commercial laying hen farm with different number of exposure to BZ were recruited. The FECR was calculated by analyzing individual faeces (F1, F2, F4 and F5) before and 10 days after treatment. The LDT was performed on parasite eggs from pooled samples from F1 to F6 and LC50 and LC99 were calculated...
May 18, 2017: Parasitology
Moeti O Taioe, Makhosazana Y Motloang, Boniface Namangala, Amos Chota, Nthatisi I Molefe, Simon P Musinguzi, Keisuke Suganuma, Polly Hayes, Toi J Tsilo, John Chainey, Noboru Inoue, Oriel M M Thekisoe
Tabanids are haematophagous flies feeding on livestock and wildlife. In the absence of information on the relationship of tabanid flies and protozoan parasites in South Africa and Zambia, the current study was aimed at characterizing tabanid flies collected in these two countries as well as detecting protozoan parasites they are harbouring. A total of 527 tabanid flies were collected whereby 70·2% were from South Africa and 29·8% were from Zambia. Morphological analysis revealed a total of five different genera collected from the sampled areas namely: Ancala, Atylotus, Haematopota, Philoliche and Tabanus...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology
Benjamin J Z Quigley, Sam P Brown, Helen C Leggett, Pauline D Scanlan, Angus Buckling
Competition between parasite species or genotypes can play an important role in the establishment of parasites in new host populations. Here, we investigate a mechanism by which a rare parasite is unable to establish itself in a host population if a common resident parasite is already present (a 'priority effect'). We develop a simple epidemiological model and show that a rare parasite genotype is unable to invade if coinfecting parasite genotypes inhibit each other's transmission more than expected from simple resource partitioning...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology
Anssi Karvonen, Anna Faltýnková, Jocelyn Mah Choo, E Tellervo Valtonen
Factors that drive parasite specificity and differences in infection dynamics among alternative host species are important for ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions, but still often poorly known in natural systems. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal dynamics of infection, host susceptibility and parasite-induced changes in host phenotype in a rarely explored host-parasite system, the Australapatemon sp. trematode infecting two sympatric species of freshwater leeches, Erpobdella octoculata and Helobdella stagnalis...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology
Shun Zhou, Hong Zou, Shan G Wu, Gui T Wang, David J Marcogliese, Wen X Li
Field surveys indicate that host population size, rather than density, is the most important determinant of monogenean infection dynamics. To verify this prediction, epidemic parameters were monitored for 70 days at five host population sizes held at constant density using a goldfish - Gyrodactylus kobayashii laboratory model. During the first 20 days, the rate of increase of prevalence and mean abundance was faster in small host populations. Total mean prevalence and total mean abundance throughout the experiment were not significantly affected by host population sizes...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology
Lynn Chalmers, John F Taylor, William Roy, Andrew C Preston, Herve Migaud, Alexandra Adams
Few studies have focussed on the health and immunity of triploid Atlantic salmon and therefore much is still unknown about their response to commercially significant pathogens. This is important if triploid stocks are to be considered for full-scale commercial production. This study aimed to investigate and compare the response of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon to an experimental challenge with Neoparamoeba perurans, causative agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD). This disease is economically significant for the aquaculture industry...
May 11, 2017: Parasitology
Luther VAN DER Mescht, Irina S Khokhlova, Elizabeth M Warburton, Boris R Krasnov
We revisited the role of dissimilarity of host assemblages in shaping dissimilarity of flea assemblages using a non-linear approach. Generalized dissimilarity models (GDMs) were applied using data from regional surveys of fleas parasitic on small mammals in four biogeographical realms. We compared (1) model fit, (2) the relative effects of host compositional and phylogenetic turnover and geographic distance on flea compositional and phylogenetic turnover, and (3) the rate of flea turnover along gradients of host turnover and geographic distance with those from earlier application of a linear approach...
May 11, 2017: Parasitology
Jordanna Luíza DE Lima Celeste, Ana Paula Venuto Moura, João Carlos França-Silva, Gabriela Matos DE Sousa, Soraia Oliveira Silva, Maria Norma Melo, Wagner Luiz Tafuri, Carolina Carvalho Souza, Hélida Monteiro DE Andrade
In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is frequently caused by Leishmania infantum and, at an unknown frequency, by Leishmania amazonensis. Therefore, mixed infections with these organisms are possible. Mixed infections might affect the clinical course, immune response, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of the disease. Here we describe the clinical course of mixed infections with L. amazonensis and L. infantum in a hamster model. We show that mixed infections are associated with more severe clinical disease than infection with L...
May 10, 2017: Parasitology
A Q I Alqaisi, A J Mbekeani, M Bassas Llorens, A P Elhammer, P W Denny
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, and toxoplasmosis is an important disease of both humans and economically important animals. With a limited array of drugs available there is a need to identify new therapeutic compounds. Aureobasidin A (AbA) is an antifungal that targets the essential inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC, sphingolipid) synthase in pathogenic fungi. This natural cyclic depsipeptide also inhibits Toxoplasma proliforation, with the protozoan IPC synthase orthologue proposed as the target...
May 10, 2017: Parasitology
Ramnath, Asim Kumar Dutta, Barilin Dkhar, Veena Tandon, Bidyadhar DAS
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is involved in glycolysis in the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida; whereas, it executes a gluconeogenic role in its host, Gallus domesticus. Because of its differing primary function in the cestode parasite and its host, this enzyme is regarded as a plausible anthelmintic target. Hence, the biological significance of PEPCK in the parasite was analysed using siRNA against PEPCK from R. echinobothrida (RePEPCK). In order to find out the functional differences between RePEPCK and GdPEPCK (PEPCK from its host, G...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
Andrea Spickett, Kerstin Junker, Boris R Krasnov, Voitto Haukisalmi, Sonja Matthee
To reveal factors responsible for spatial variation in parasite community composition we studied patterns of similarity in helminth species composition in two closely-related rodents (Rhabdomys pumilio and Rhabdomys dilectus) that differ in their social and spatial behaviour and live under different environmental conditions across 20 localities in South Africa. We asked whether the two hosts harbour similar assemblages, whether these are more dissimilar between than within hosts and if host social structure, behaviour or environment affects similarity patterns in helminth infracommunities within and among localities...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
Sundar Thapa, Stig M Thamsborg, Nicolai V Meyling, Suraj Dhakal, Helena Mejer
Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil. Unembryonated eggs were mixed with soil, placed in sealed nylon bags and buried at 7 cm depth in pasture plots April (spring, n = 72) and December 2014 (winter, n = 72). Eight randomly selected bags per season were used to estimate pre-burial egg recovery [0 week post-burial (wpb)]...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
Alireza Zahedi, Daniel Field, Una Ryan
Little is known about the genetic diversity of the protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis, infecting humans in Queensland, Australia. The present study typed 88 microscopically Giardia-positive isolates using assemblage-specific primers at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene and sequenced a subset of isolates at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene (n = 30) and tpi locus (n = 27). Using the tpi-assemblage specific primers, G. duodenalis assemblage A and assemblage B were detected in 50% (44/88) and 38·6% (34/88) of samples, respectively...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
Ligia Fernanda Ceole, Maria DAS Graças Cardoso, Maurilio José Soares
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a protozoan that causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is an infectious disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatment is limited, has side-effects or is inefficient. In a search for alternative compounds of natural origin, we tested the microbicidal activity of Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) on this parasite. Our data showed that PaEO had an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. braziliensis promastigotes with an IC50/24 h=77·9 µg mL-1...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
Janine Gruber, Petra Ganas, Michael Hess
The majority of research on Histomonas meleagridis was performed in the first half of the last century, especially those on morphological aspects. In the present study identical monoxenic settings for cultures of the same H. meleagridis clonal strain in its virulent low passage and attenuated high passage form enabled a comparative analysis of parasite characteristics. For the first time, it could be shown that long-term in vitro cultivation led to a severe shift in cell morphology, with the occurrence of a very distinct phenotype expressing a flagellated and highly amoebic cell morphology...
May 8, 2017: Parasitology
N Gillis-Germitsch, C M O Kapel, S M Thamsborg, P Deplazes, M Schnyder
Angiostrongylus vasorum is a cardiovascular nematode increasingly found in dogs and foxes in endemic foci throughout Europe. The present study evaluates ELISAs for detection of circulating antigens and specific antibodies against A. vasorum in foxes. Blood and worm burdens (WBs) from carcasses of 215 Swiss wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and from 75 farmed foxes of different age groups experimentally inoculated once or repeatedly with infective doses of 50, 100 or 200 third-stage larvae were obtained. Antigen detection in the naturally infected Swiss foxes had 91·2% sensitivity and 89·4% specificity, whereas the corresponding figures for antibody detection were 42·2 and 92·0%...
May 8, 2017: Parasitology
Priscila Wolf Nassif, Tatiane França Perles DE Mello, Taísa Rocha Navasconi, Camila Alves Mota, Izabel Galhardo Demarchi, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira
Studies of topical treatments for leishmaniasis were systematically reviewed, to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, safety and any adverse effects of these treatments. The papers identified in the databases PubMed and Web of Knowledge involved eight studies with a total of 1744 patients. The majority of trials was from Iran (4/8), covered a period of 8 years (2003-2011), and included patients 4-85 years of age. The most frequent Leishmania species in the studies were L. tropica (4/8) and L. major (2/8). The treatments administered were thermotherapy, paromomycin and combinations, CO2 laser, 5-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (10%) plus visible red light (633 nm) and cryotherapy...
April 3, 2017: Parasitology
Felipe Reviriego, Francisco Olmo, Pilar Navarro, Clotilde Marín, Inmaculada Ramírez-Macías, Enrique García-España, María Teresa Albelda, Ramón Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Manuel Sánchez-Moreno, Vicente J Arán
The synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of some simple dialkyl pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylates (compounds 2-6) and their sodium salts (pyrazolates) (compounds 7-9) against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis are reported. In most cases the studied compounds showed, especially against the clinically significant amastigote forms, in vitro activities higher than those of the reference drugs (benznidazole for T. cruzi and glucantime for Leishmania spp.); furthermore, the low non-specific cytotoxicities against Vero cells and macrophages shown by these compounds led to good selectivity indexes, which are 8-72 times higher for T...
April 3, 2017: Parasitology
Pedro Luna, Erick J Corro, Diana A Ahuatzin-Flores, Reuber L Antoniazzi, Nathalia Barrozo, Edgar Chávez-González, Juan J Morales-Trejo, Wesley Dáttilo
In the last years, there were a growing number of studies using the metric H 2' to calculate complementary specialization in host-parasite interaction networks. However, only a few studies have explored the sensitivity of H 2' to network dimensions (i.e. species richness and number of interactions), which consequently could generate studies that are not comparable among them or lead to biased conclusions. In this study, we used the recent published study conducted by Rivera-García et al. in 2016 involving host-bat fly networks as an example to call attention to the risk of using H 2' to calculate specialization for small matrices...
March 31, 2017: Parasitology
Laith Yakob, Alun L Lloyd, Rowland R Kao, Heather M Ferguson, Patrick M Brock, Chris Drakeley, Michael B Bonsall
Plasmodium knowlesi is increasingly recognized as a major cause of malaria in Southeast Asia. Anopheles leucosphyrous group mosquitoes transmit the parasite and natural hosts include long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Despite early laboratory experiments demonstrating successful passage of infection between humans, the true role that humans play in P. knowlesi epidemiology remains unclear. The threat posed by its introduction into immunologically naïve populations is unknown despite being a public health priority for this region...
March 27, 2017: Parasitology
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