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Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781670/genetic-characterisation-of-virulence-genes-associated-with-adherence-invasion-and-cytotoxicity-in-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-commercial-chickens-and-human-clinical-cases
#1
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Virulence-associated genes have been recognised and detected in Campylobacter species. The majority of them have been proven to be associated with pathogenicity. This study aimed to detect the presence of virulence genes associated with pathogenicity and responsible for invasion, expression of adherence, colonisation and production of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Commercial chicken faecal samples were randomly sampled from chicken farms within the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
February 15, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227130/investigation-of-the-acaricidal-activity-of-the-acetone-and-ethanol-extracts-of-12-south-african-plants-against-the-adult-ticks-of-i-rhipicephalus-turanicus-i
#2
Gerda Fouche, Bellonah M Sakong, Olubukola T Adenubi, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Vinny Naidoo, Tlabo Leboho, Kevin W Wellington, Jacobus N Eloff
The acaricidal activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 plant species was evaluated using the contact method on Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks at an initial concentration of 20% (200 mg/mL). Eight of the 12 plants had mortality greater than 50% and the acetone extracts had better acaricidal activity than the ethanol extracts. The acetone extract of Calpurnia aurea (leaves and flowers) had the highest corrected mortality (CM) of 92.2% followed by Schkuhria pinnata (whole plant) with a CM of 88...
November 23, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227131/a-serosurvey-of-bluetongue-and-epizootic-haemorrhagic-disease-in-a-convenience-sample-of-sheep-and-cattle-herds-in-zimbabwe
#3
Stuart J G Gordon, Charlotte Bolwell, Chris W Rogers, Godfrey Musuka, Patrick Kelly, Alan Guthrie, Philip S Mellor, Chris Hamblin
A convenience sample of sheep and cattle herds around the cities of Harare, Kwekwe and Bulawayo, located in the Highveld region of Zimbabwe, was used to estimate the seroprevalence and sero-incidence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) antibodies. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify serum antibodies against BTV and EHDV across three rainy seasons. The median sero-prevalence of BTV and EHDV antibodies in cattle was 62% (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-89) and 56% (IQR: 5-77), respectively...
November 14, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227129/assessment-of-a-portable-lactate-meter-for-field-use-in-the-white-rhinoceros-i-ceratotherium-simum-i
#4
Georgina C Cole, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Gerhard Steenkamp
Blood lactate is a predictor of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Handheld lactate meters have the potential to be used in the field to evaluate the condition of severely injured rhinoceroses but have not been compared with laboratory-based methods. Agreement between a handheld lactate meter and a laboratory method was assessed, as was the stability of rhino blood lactate in the anticoagulant sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate (fluoride/oxalate). Blood samples were obtained from 53 white rhinos that had been immobilised for management reasons...
November 10, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113440/geigerin-induced-cytotoxicity-in-a-murine-myoblast-cell-line-c2c12
#5
Christo J Botha, Sarah J Clift, Gezina C H Ferreira, Mxolisi G Masango
Geigeria poisoning in sheep, locally known as 'vermeersiekte', is an economically important plant poisoning in southern Africa. The toxic principles contained by the toxic plants are believed to be several sesquiterpene lactones, such as geigerin, vermeeric acid and vermeerin, which cause striated muscle lesions in small stock. Because of ethical issues surrounding the use of live animals in toxicity studies, there is currently a dire need to establish an in vitro model that can be used to replace traditional animal experimentation...
October 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041790/a-retrospective-study-of-anthrax-on-the-ghaap-plateau-northern-cape-province-of-south-africa-with-special-reference-to-the-2007-2008-outbreaks
#6
MULTICENTER STUDY
Ayesha Hassim, Edgar H Dekker, Charles Byaruhanga, Tommy Reardon, Henriette Van Heerden
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive, endospore-forming and soil-borne bacterium Bacillus anthracis. When in spore form, the organism can survive in dormancy in the environment for decades. It is a controlled disease of livestock and wild ungulates in South Africa. In South Africa, the two enzootic regions are the Kruger National Park and the Ghaap Plateau in the Northern Cape province. Farms on the Plateau span thousands of hectares comprising of wildlife - livestock mixed use farming...
September 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041789/epidemiological-studies-based-on-multi-locus-sequence-typing-genotype-of-methicillin-susceptible-i-staphylococcus-aureus-i-isolated-from-camel-s-milk
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Alsagher O Ali, Hassan Y A H Mahmoud
One hundred milk samples were collected from camel's milk for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty-one isolates were S. aureus, 45 were other forms of staphylococci and 24 represented other bacteria. Five isolates from S. aureus were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 26 samples were methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The whole genome sequence of S. aureus was annotated and visualised by rapid annotation using subsystem technology (RAST) which is a fully-automated service for annotating complete or nearly complete bacterial genomes...
September 22, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893076/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-i-coxiella-burnetii-i-the-causative-agent-of-q-fever-in-the-dromedary-camel-i-camelus-dromedarius-i-population-in-algeria
#8
Mohammed H Benaissa, Samir Ansel, Abdallah Mohamed-Cherif, Karima Benfodil, Djamel Khelef, Curtis R Youngs, Rachid Kaidi, Khatima Ait-Oudhia
Query (Q) fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit...
August 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697610/phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-partial-l1-gene-from-bovine-papillomavirus-type-1-isolated-from-naturally-occurring-papilloma-cases-in-the-northwestern-region-of-turkey
#9
M Ozkan Timurkan, M Eray Alcigir
This study was aimed at the molecular characterisation of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) isolated from papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey. BPV-1 is a widely occurring oncogenic virus in cattle and is associated with benign epithelial neoplasia which causes significant economic losses in dairy and beef cattle because of treatment costs. In this study, 29 suspected papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in northwestern Turkey. These samples underwent molecular characterisation via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis as well as macroscopic and histopathological examination...
June 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697609/differential-virulence-and-tsetse-fly-transmissibility-of-i-trypanosoma-congolense-i-and-i-trypanosoma-brucei-i-strains
#10
Purity K Gitonga, Kariuki Ndung'u, Grace A Murilla, Paul C Thande, Florence N Wamwiri, Joanna E Auma, Geoffrey N Ngae, James K Kibugu, Richard Kurgat, John K Thuita
African animal trypanosomiasis causes significant economic losses in sub-Saharan African countries because of livestock mortalities and reduced productivity. Trypanosomes, the causative agents, are transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). In the current study, we compared and contrasted the virulence characteristics of five Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei isolates using groups of Swiss white mice (n = 6). We further determined the vectorial capacity of Glossina pallidipes, for each of the trypanosome isolates...
June 27, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697608/spatiotemporal-patterns-of-clinical-bovine-dermatophilosis-in-zimbabwe-1995-2014
#11
Felistas Ndhlovu, Daud N Ndhlovu, Sylvester M Chikerema, Mhosisi Masocha, Mudavanhu Nyagura, Davies M Pfukenyi
A retrospective study of clinical bovine dermatophilosis outbreaks and cases for the period 1995-2014 was conducted, using data obtained from the Division of Veterinary Services (DVS). A total of 3856 outbreaks and 26 659 cases of dermatophilosis were reported countrywide during this period. The post rainy season accounted for 37.9% of the outbreaks followed by the rainy season (26.7%), cold dry season (22.1%) and the hot dry season (13.2%). A retrospective space-time scan statistic in SaTScanTM was used to detect clusters...
June 27, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582978/detection-and-prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-i-campylobacter-i-spp-isolated-from-chickens-and-humans
#12
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Campylobacter spp. are common pathogenic bacteria in both veterinary and human medicine. Infections caused by Campylobacter spp. are usually treated using antibiotics. However, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been proven to spearhead the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from chickens and human clinical cases in South Africa. One hundred and sixty one isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were collected from chickens and human clinical cases and then screened for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes...
May 29, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582979/the-sero-prevalence-and-sero-incidence-of-african-horse-sickness-and-equine-encephalosis-in-selected-horse-and-donkey-populations-in-zimbabwe
#13
Stuart J G Gordon, Charlotte Bolwell, Chris W Rogers, Godfrey Musuka, Patrick Kelly, Alan Guthrie, Philip S Mellor, Christopher Hamblin
Sentinel herds and samples submitted by private equine practitioners were used to determine the sero-prevalence and sero-incidence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and equine encephalosis virus (EEV) in horse and donkey populations in the Highveld region of Zimbabwe. The sero-prevalence and sero-incidence of antibodies against these viruses were determined using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of serum antibodies. In donkeys, the median sero-prevalence of AHSV antibodies, across the three rainy seasons under study, was 75% (inter quartile range [IQR] 67-83), with a seasonal median sero-incidence of 45% (IQR 40-63)...
May 10, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470085/the-involvement-of-the-hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical-axis-in-stress-physiology-and-its-significance-in-the-assessment-of-animal-welfare-in-cattle
#14
Emma J Brown, Andre Vosloo
The intensification of cattle production has raised concern for animal welfare due to the stress that is associated with farming practices. The welfare of an animal is determined by the animal's ability to cope with or adapt to its continuously changing environment and the biological cost that is associated with this adaptation and maintenance. Stressors arise from various psychological, physiological and physical aspects of farming practices due to management and human-cattle interactions. Measuring the activity of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis with plasma cortisol levels is a useful method for determining the effects of stress on animals as it is stimulated at the onset of a perceived stress...
April 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470084/evaluation-of-plant-produced-i-clostridium-perfringens-i-type-d-i-epsilon-i-toxoid-in-a-vaccine-against-enterotoxaemia-in-sheep
#15
Tinyiko Mokoena, Ereck Chakauya, Michael Crampton, Boet Weyers, Malefa Tselanyane, Tsepo Tsekoa, Rachel Chikwamba
Enterotoxaemia (pulpy kidney) is a common bacterial disease of sheep caused by Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin. It has mortality rates of up to 30% in non-vaccinated animals. Current vaccines from whole cell cultures are expensive to manufacture and can induce local inflammatory responses in sheep. They usually have reduced immunogenicity because of the difficulty of standardising the inactivation step in vaccine manufacturing. In the current study, we evaluated the safety and potency of a recombinant plant-made epsilon toxoid protein (r-Etox) as an affordable and safer alternative vaccine for developing countries...
April 25, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470083/the-use-of-i-lespedeza-cuneata-i-for-natural-control-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes-in-merino-sheep
#16
Erika A Van Zyl, Francien S Botha, Kobus J N Eloff, Phumzile P Msuntsha, Peter A Oosthuizen, Cathy Stevens
Lespedeza cuneata (poorman's lucerne; sericea lespedeza), a tannin-rich perennial legume, was offered as hay to dry Merino ewes in a confined feeding experiment to evaluate the effect on the level of gastrointestinal parasite infection in sheep. Medicago sativa (a low tannin containing perennial legume) was used as the control treatment. Parameters faecal egg count (FEC), FAMACHA© scores and rectal temperatures were used. FECs were substantially lower (p = 0.05) in the Lespedeza group after 35 days, together with a trend of higher rectal temperatures, compared with the Medicago group...
April 11, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397519/emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-dromedaries-in-tunisia-west-nile-bluetongue-epizootic-haemorrhagic-disease-and-rift-valley-fever
#17
Thameur B Hassine, Jihane Amdouni, Federica Monaco, Giovanni Savini, Soufien Sghaier, Imed B Selimen, Walid Chandoul, Khaled B Hamida, Salah Hammami
A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4...
March 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397517/lumpy-skin-disease-in-cattle-frequency-of-occurrence-in-a-dairy-farm-and-a-preliminary-assessment-of-its-possible-impact-on-egyptian-buffaloes
#18
Mahmoud M Elhaig, Abdelfattah Selim, Mohamed Mahmoud
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an endemic infectious disease of cattle in Egypt. This survey aimed to define the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical LSD virus (LSDV) infection among cattle and investigate their contact with water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in order to improve the understanding of LSD epidemiology. Cattle and buffalo were examined owing to the appearance of skin lesions. Because clinical signs were consistent with LSDV infection, samples from cattle in a non-grazing dairy farm (n = 450) were submitted for LSDV testing together with those from the in-contact buffaloes (n = 100)...
March 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397518/identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-contagious-ecthyma-virus-from-camels-i-camelus-dromedarius-i-in-iran
#19
Ahmad Oryan, Mahboobe Mosadeghhesari, Saeed Zibaee, Ali Mohammadi
Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats and camels. The identification and characterisation of a parapoxvirus (PPV) infecting camels is described here. The virus was detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Kerman and Shiraz in Iran. PPV-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) further confirmed that the disease was associated with PPV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF011 (B2L) gene sequences showed 99...
March 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397516/somatic-cell-count-thresholds-in-composite-and-quarter-milk-samples-as-indicator-of-bovine-intramammary-infection-status
#20
Inge-Marié Petzer, Joanne Karzis, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb, Eric M C Etter
The objective of the study was to establish an operational somatic cell count (SCC) threshold to predict the presence of intramammary infection (IMI) in composite milk samples and compare findings with those in quarter milk samples. South African dairy producers now preferred composite milk samples for herd udder health analysis because of increasing cow numbers, convenience of sampling and lower cost. A retrospective study was conducted on 345 461 composite and 89 638 quarter milk samples from South African herds...
March 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
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