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Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796116/health-evaluation-of-african-penguins-i-spheniscus-demersus-i-in-southern-africa
#1
Nola J Parsons, Tertius A Gous, Adam M Schaefer, Ralph E T Vanstreels
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of Namibia and South Africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. Aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 African penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabilitation centre...
September 20, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796115/-i-salmonella-i-contamination-serovars-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-cattle-slaughtered-in-south-africa
#2
Evelyn Madoroba, Daniel Kapeta, Awoke K Gelaw
Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne infections. Our aim was to determine Salmonella contamination during cattle slaughter in South African rural abattoirs (n = 23) and environmental samples. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined. Samples of cattle faeces (n = 400), carcass sponges (n = 100), intestinal contents (n = 62), hides (n = 67), and water from the abattoirs (n = 75) were investigated for Salmonella species using microbiological techniques and species-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene...
May 26, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796114/prevalence-of-virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-i-salmonella-i-spp-isolated-from-commercial-chickens-and-human-clinical-isolates-from-south-africa-and-brazil
#3
Oliver T Zishiri, Nelisiwe Mkhize, Samson Mukaratirwa
Salmonellosis is a significant public health concern around the world. The injudicious use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production for treatment, growth promotion and prophylaxis has resulted in the emergence of drug resistant strains of Salmonella. The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes from Salmonella isolated from South African and Brazilian broiler chickens as well as human clinical isolates. Out of a total of 200 chicken samples that were collected from South Africa 102 (51%) tested positive for Salmonella using the InvA gene...
May 26, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796113/an-acetone-extract-of-i-clausena-i-i-anisata-i-may-be-a-potential-control-agent-for-flies-encountered-in-cutaneous-myiasis
#4
Lillian Mukandiwa, Jacobus N Eloff, Donald R Sibanda, Vinny Naidoo
Clausena anisata is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat myiasis and as an insect repellent by various communities. We have previously demonstrated the effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly feeding and development in our laboratory. The impact of C. anisata leaf extracts on populations of different fly species on farms in Mpumalanga, South Africa was investigated in this study under field conditions. Flies were exposed to liver baits treated with acetone leaf extracts of C. anisata (150 mg/mL)...
May 24, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796112/prevalence-of-i-theileria-i-and-i-babesia-i-species-in-tunisian-sheep
#5
Mohamed R Rjeibi, Mohamed A Darghouth, Mohamed Gharbi
In this study, the prevalence of Theileria and Babesia species in sheep was assessed with Giemsastained blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction to identify the different piroplasms in 270 sheep from three Tunisian bioclimatic zones (north, centre, and south). The overall infection prevalence by Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in Giemsa-stained blood smears was 2.9% (8/270) and 4.8% (13/270) respectively. The molecular results showed that sheep were more often infected by Theileria ovis than Babesia ovis with an overall prevalence of 16...
May 24, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796111/-i-cryptosporidium-i-genotypes-in-children-and-calves-living-at-the-wildlife-or-livestock-interface-of-the-kruger%C3%A2-national-park-south-africa
#6
Nada Abu Samra, Ferran Jori, Simone M Cacciò, John Frean, Bhavani Poonsamy, Peter N Thompson
Cryptosporidium infection is one of the most common causes of parasitic diarrhoea worldwide in cattle and humans. In developing countries, human cryptosporidiosis is most prevalent during early childhood and links between zoonotic infection and animal related activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the prevalence and species/genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium among children (< 5 years) and calves (< 6 months) living in a rural farming area adjacent to the Kruger National Park in South Africa, where interactions between humans and wild and domestic animals are known to occur...
May 20, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608505/comparison-of-nucleotide-sequences-of-recent-and-previous-lineages-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-viruses-of-sheep-and-goats-in-nigeria
#7
Samuel Mantip, Melvyn Quan, David Shamaki, Moritz Van Vuuren
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) is a highly contagious, fatal and economically important viral disease of small ruminants that is still endemic and militates against the production of sheep and goats in endemic areas of the world. The aim of this study was to describe the viral strains within the country. This was carried out by collecting tissue and swab samples from sheep and goats in various agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The phylogeny of archived PPRV strains or isolates and those circulating and causing recent outbreaks was determined by sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N)-gene...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608504/effect-of-the-infection-with-the-nematode-i-haemonchus-contortus-i-strongylida-trichostrongylidae-on-the-haematological-biochemical-clinical-and-reproductive-traits-in-rams
#8
Mariem Rouatbi, Mohamed Gharbi, Mohamed R Rjeibi, Imen Ben Salem, Hafidh Akkari, Narjess Lassoued, Mourad Rekik
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Haemonchus contortus infection on rams' haematological, biochemical and clinical parameters and reproductive performances. A total number of 12 Barbarine rams (control and infected) were included in the experiment. The infected group received 30 000 H. contortus third-stage larvae orally. Each ram's ejaculate was immediately evaluated for volume, sperm cell concentration and mortality rate. At the end of the experiment (day 82 post-infection), which lasted 89 days, serial blood samples were collected in order to assess plasma testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH) concentrations...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608503/a-pathogen-specific-approach-towards-udder-health-management-in-dairy-herds-using-culture-and-somatic-cell-counts-from-routine-herd-investigations
#9
Inge-Marié Petzer, Joanne Karzis, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb
A dedicated udder health diagnostic programme was developed and used over a 15-year period in South Africa to analyse milk samples based on microbiological and cytological patterns within various groups and for individual cows and udder quarters in dairy herds. These pathogen-specific analyses are utilised for pro-active improvement and management of udder health in South African commercial dairy herds. The programme acts as a monitoring tool and identifies management areas at risk and individual cows with udder disease and uses both quarter and composite milk samples...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608502/cellular-immune-responses-induced-i-in-vitro-i-by-i-ehrlichia-ruminantium-i-secreted-proteins-and-identification-of-vaccine-candidate-peptides
#10
Nontobeko Thema, Alri Pretorius, Selaelo I Tshilwane, Junita Liebenberg, Helena Steyn, Mirinda Van Kleef
Secreted proteins are reported to induce cell-mediated immunity characterised by the production of interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ. In this study three open reading frames (ORFs) (Erum8060, Erum7760, Erum5000) encoding secreted proteins were selected from the Ehrlichia ruminantium (Welgevonden) genome sequence using bioinformatics tools to determine whether they induce a cellular immune response in vitro with mononuclear cells from needle and tick infected animals. The whole recombinant protein of the three ORFs as well as four adjacent fragments of the Erum5000 protein (Erum5000A, Erum5000B, Erum5000C, Erum5000D) were successfully expressed in a bacterial expression system which was confirmed by immunoblots using anti-His antibodies and sheep sera...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543150/enhanced-expression-of-recombinant-beta-toxin-of-i-clostridium-perfringens-i-type-b-using-a-commercially-available-i-escherichia-coli-i-strain
#11
Fatemah Bakhshi, Reza Pilehchian Langroudi, Bahram Golestani Imani
Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is only produced by types B and C and plays an important role in many human and animal diseases, causing fatal conditions that originate in the intestines. We compared the expression of C. perfringens type B vaccine strain recombinant beta toxin gene in the Escherichia coli strains RosettaTM(DE3) and BL21(DE3). The beta toxin gene was extracted from pJETβ and ligated with pET22b(+). pET22β was transformed into E. coli strains BL21(DE3) and RosettaTM(DE3). Recombinant protein was expressed as a soluble protein after isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction in strain RosettaTM(DE3) but not in BL21(DE3)...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543149/identification-of-latent-neosporosis-in-sheep-in-tehran-iran-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-using-primers-specific-for-the-i-nc-5-i-gene
#12
Mohsen Arbabi, Amir Abdoli, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Majid Pirestani
Little is known about latent infection and molecular characterisation of Neospora caninum in sheep (Ovis aries). In this study, 330 sheep samples (180 hearts and 150 brains) were analysed for N. caninum DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the Nc-5 gene. Neospora caninum DNA was detected in 3.9% (13/330) of sheep samples. The parasite's DNA was detected in 6.7% of heart samples (12/180) and 0.7% (1/150) of brain samples. No clinical signs were recorded from infected or uninfected animals...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543148/anthelmintic-activity-of-acetone-extracts-from-south-african-plants-used-on-egg-hatching-of-i-haemonchus-contortus-i
#13
Gerda Fouche, Bellonah M Sakong, Olubukola T Adenubi, Elizabeth Pauw, Tlabo Leboho, Kevin W Wellington, Jacobus N Eloff
The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543147/identification-of-i-echinococcus-granulosus-i-strains-using-polymerase-chain-reaction-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-amongst-livestock-in-moroto-district-uganda
#14
Martin Chamai, Leonard Omadang, Joseph Erume, Michael Ocaido, Peter Oba, Emmanuel Othieno, Straton Bonaventure, Annah Kitibwa
A descriptive study was conducted to identify the different strains of Echinococcus granulosus occurring in livestock in Moroto district, Uganda. Echinococcus cysts from 104 domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, goats and camels, were taken and examined by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism and Sanger DNA sequencing. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes or strains were identified through use of Bioinformatics tools: BioEdit, BLAST and MEGA6. The major finding of this study was the existence of a limited number of E...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543146/preliminary-report-on-osteochondrosis-in-cattle-in-the-north-western-parts-of-south-africa
#15
Leon Prozesky, Johan Neser, Heinz Meissner, Kenneth Botha, Lubbe Jacobs, Craig Shepstone, Hannes Viljoen, Hinner Köster, Chris De Brouwer, Jan Van Zyl, Gerjan Van der Veen
The north-western part of South Africa, in particular, is well known for mineral imbalances. Aphosphorosis, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia, received a lot of attention at the turn of the nineteenth century (1882-1912). This was followed in 1997 by research on Vryburg hepatosis, another area-specific mineral imbalance-related disease in young calves reared on manganese-rich soil derived from the weathering of dolomitic (carbonate) rock formations. In 1982, a totally new syndrome (osteochondrosis) manifested in, amongst others, areas in South Africa where aphosphorosis was rife...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380656/enhanced-expression-of-recombinant-beta-toxin-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-b-using-a-commercially-available-escherichia-coli-strain
#16
Fatemah Bakhshi, Reza Pilehchian Langroudi, Bahram Golestani Eimani
Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is only produced by types B and C and plays an important role in many human and animal diseases, causing fatal conditions that originate in the intestines. We compared the expression of C. perfringens type B vaccine strain recombinant beta toxin gene in the Escherichia coli strains Rosetta(DE3) and BL21(DE3). The beta toxin gene was extracted from pJETβ and ligated with pET22b(+). pET22β was transformed into E. coli strains BL21(DE3) and Rosetta(DE3). Recombinant protein was expressed as a soluble protein after isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction in strain Rosetta(DE3) but not in BL21(DE3)...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380655/a-retrospective-study-of-the-prevalence-of-bovine-fasciolosis-at-major-abattoirs-in-botswana
#17
M Ernest Mochankana, Ian D Robertson
A retrospective study covering a period of ten years (2001-2010) was conducted using postmortem meat inspection records of the Department of Veterinary Services in Gaborone to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Botswana. Meat inspection records of monthly and annual returns from the two main export abattoirs in the country were examined, as well as the data collected on the total number of cattle slaughtered and the number of livers condemned due to Fasciola gigantica infection. Only 1250 of the approximately 1...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380654/comparative-performance-of-traps-in-catching-tsetse-flies-diptera-glossinidae-in-tanzania
#18
Imna I Malele, Johnson O Ouma, Hamisi S Nyingilili, Winston A Kitwika, Deusdedit J Malulu, Henry B Magwisha, Eliningeya J Kweka
This study was conducted to determine the efficiency of different tsetse traps in 28 sites across Tanzania. The traps used were biconical, H, NGU, NZI, pyramidal, S3, mobile, and sticky panels. Stationary traps were deployed at a distance of 200 m apart and examined 72 h after deployment. The results showed that 117 (52.2%) out of the 224 traps deployed captured at least one Glossina species. A total of five Glossina species were captured, namely Glossina brevipalpis, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina swynnertoni, Glossina morsitans, and Glossina fuscipes martinii...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380653/an-update-of-the-tsetse-fly-diptera-glossinidae-distribution-and-african-animal-trypanosomosis-prevalence-in-north-eastern-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#19
Chantel J de Beer, Gert J Venter, Karin Kappmeier Green, Johan Esterhuizen, Daniel G de Klerk, Jerome Ntshangase, Marc J B Vreysen, Ronel Pienaar, Makhosazana Motloang, Lundi Ntantiso, Abdalla A Latif
An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380652/feline-panleukopaenia-virus-in-captive-non-domestic-felids-in-south-africa
#20
Emily P Lane, Helene Brettschneider, Peter Caldwell, Almero Oosthuizen, Desiré L Dalton, Liza du Plessis, Johan Steyl, Antoinette Kotze
An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains...
2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
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