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Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397519/emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-dromedaries-in-tunisia-west-nile-bluetongue-epizootic-haemorrhagic-disease-and-rift-valley-fever
#1
Thameur B Hassine, Jihane Amdouni, Federica Monaco, Giovanni Savini, Soufien Sghaier, Imed B Selimen, Walid Chandoul, Khaled B Hamida, Salah Hammami
A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4...
March 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397517/lumpy-skin-disease-in-cattle-frequency-of-occurrence-in-a-dairy-farm-and-a-preliminary-assessment-of-its-possible-impact-on-egyptian-buffaloes
#2
Mahmoud M Elhaig, Abdelfattah Selim, Mohamed Mahmoud
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an endemic infectious disease of cattle in Egypt. This survey aimed to define the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical LSD virus (LSDV) infection among cattle and investigate their contact with water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in order to improve the understanding of LSD epidemiology. Cattle and buffalo were examined owing to the appearance of skin lesions. Because clinical signs were consistent with LSDV infection, samples from cattle in a non-grazing dairy farm (n = 450) were submitted for LSDV testing together with those from the in-contact buffaloes (n = 100)...
March 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397518/identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-contagious-ecthyma-virus-from-camels-i-camelus-dromedarius-i-in-iran
#3
Ahmad Oryan, Mahboobe Mosadeghhesari, Saeed Zibaee, Ali Mohammadi
Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats and camels. The identification and characterisation of a parapoxvirus (PPV) infecting camels is described here. The virus was detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Kerman and Shiraz in Iran. PPV-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) further confirmed that the disease was associated with PPV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF011 (B2L) gene sequences showed 99...
March 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397516/somatic-cell-count-thresholds-in-composite-and-quarter-milk-samples-as-indicator-of-bovine-intramammary-infection-status
#4
Inge-Marié Petzer, Joanne Karzis, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb, Eric M C Etter
The objective of the study was to establish an operational somatic cell count (SCC) threshold to predict the presence of intramammary infection (IMI) in composite milk samples and compare findings with those in quarter milk samples. South African dairy producers now preferred composite milk samples for herd udder health analysis because of increasing cow numbers, convenience of sampling and lower cost. A retrospective study was conducted on 345 461 composite and 89 638 quarter milk samples from South African herds...
March 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397515/prevalence-and-renal-pathology-of-pathogenic-i-leptospira-i-spp-in-wildlife-in-abeokuta-ogun-state-nigeria
#5
Olusola L Ajayi, Richard E Antia, Olufemi E Ojo, Olajoju J Awoyomi, Latifa A Oyinlola, Oluwabusola G Ojebiyi
There is paucity of information on the prevalence of leptospirosis in wildlife in Nigeria. This study investigated the prevalence and renal pathology of leptospirosis in wild animals in Southwest Nigeria. One hundred and five kidney samples were examined from 10 different wildlife species (antelope) greater cane rat (GCR), hare, African giant rat (AGR), tree hyrax, civet cat, monitor lizard, python, bushbuck and partridge) using a combination of Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH) medium, microscopic agglutination test (MAT), Warthin- Starry silver stain (WSss) and immunohistochemistry...
March 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281776/parasites-of-domestic-and-wild-animals-in-south-africa-li-ticks-infesting-leopard-tortoises-i-stigmochelys-pardalis-i-hingeback-tortoises-i-kinixys-zombensis-i-and-angulate-tortoises-i-chersina-angulata-i
#6
Ivan G Horak, Ashley Pearcy, Kyle J Lloyd
The objective of the study was to record the tick species collected from three species of tortoise, each in a different province of South Africa. Ticks were collected from leopard tortoises, Stigmochyles pardalis, in the southern region of the Kruger National Park, Mpumalanga province; from hingeback tortoises, Kinixys zombensis, in the Enseleni Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province and from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata, in the West Coast National Park, Western Cape province. Of the 63 leopard tortoises examined, 58 were infested with Amblyomma marmoreum and 49 with Amblyomma hebraeum, and all stages of development of both species were recovered...
February 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281775/epidemiology-and-effect-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes-on-dairy-goats-in-argentina
#7
Victor H Suarez, Gabriela M Martínez, Alberto E Viñabal, José R Alfaro
The aim of this work was to study the epidemiology and harmful effects of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) on dairy goats maintained in an intensive system. Two groups of goats were studied: untreated group (UG) (subdivided into UGjun goats that kidded in June, and UGjul goats that kidded in July) and treated group (TG) (with no subgroups, treated with monepantel: 3.75 mg/kg, orally, monthly). Eggs per gram (epg) in faeces were counted, faecal culture was performed to differentiate nematode genera and milk production was measured...
February 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281774/parasites-of-domestic-and-wild-animals-in-south-africa-l-ixodid-ticks-infesting-horses-and-donkeys
#8
Ivan G Horak, Heloise Heyne, Ali Halajian, Shalaine Booysen, Willem J Smit
The aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in South Africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. Ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. Ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in Limpopo Province, 2 in Gauteng Province and 1 in North West province...
February 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281777/history-of-newcastle-disease-in-south-africa
#9
Celia Abolnik
Poultry production in South Africa, a so-called developing country, may be seen as a gradient between two extremes with highly integrated commercial enterprises with world-class facilities on one hand and unimproved rural chickens kept by households and subsistence farmers on the other. Although vaccination against Newcastle disease is widely applied to control this devastating infection, epizootics continue to occur. Since the first official diagnosis in 1945, through the sporadic outbreaks of the 1950s and early 1960s, to serious epizootics caused by genotype VIII (late 1960s-2000), genotype VIIb (1993-1999), genotype VIId (2003-2012) and most recently genotype VIIh (2013 to present), South Africa's encounters with exotic Newcastle disease follow global trends...
February 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281773/b-cell-epitopes-of-african-horse-sickness-virus-serotype-4-recognised-by-immune-horse-sera
#10
Evans M Mathebula, Frederika E Faber, Wouter Van Wyngaardt, Antoinette Van Schalkwyk, Alri Pretorius, Jeanni Fehrsen
Identifying antigenic proteins and mapping their epitopes is important for the development of diagnostic reagents and recombinant vaccines. B-cell epitopes of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) have previously been mapped on VP2, VP5, VP7 and NS1, using mouse, rabbit and chicken monoclonal antibodies. A comprehensive study of the humoral immune response of five vaccinated horses to AHSV-4 antigenic peptides was undertaken. A fragmented-genome phage display library expressing a repertoire of AHSV-4 peptides spanning the entire genome was constructed...
February 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281772/response-of-cattle-with-clinical-osteochondrosis-to-mineral-supplementation
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gerjan Van der Veen, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Frederick K Botha, Heinz H Meissner, Lubbe Jacobs, Leon Prozesky
Since 1982, farmers in the North West province and other parts of South Africa have noticed an increase in the incidence of lameness in cattle. Macro- and microscopical lesions of joints resembled osteochondrosis. Pre-trial data indicated that cattle with osteochondrotic lesions recovered almost completely when fed a supplement containing bio-available micro- and macrominerals of high quality. In the present trial, 43 clinically affected cattle of varying ages (1-5 years) and sexes were randomly divided into three groups...
February 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155285/parasites-of-domestic-and-wild-animals-in-south-africa-xlix-ticks-acari-ixodidae-infesting-white-and-black-rhinoceroses-in-southern-africa
#12
Ivan G Horak, Christiaan R Boshoff, David V Cooper, Christoper M Foggin, Danny Govender, Alan Harrison, Guy Hausler, Markus Hofmeyr, J Werner Kilian, Duncan N MacFadyen, Pierre J Nel, Dean Peinke, David Squarre, David Zimmermann
The objectives of the study were to determine the species composition of ticks infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern Africa as well as the conservation status of those tick species that prefer rhinos as hosts. Ticks were collected opportunistically from rhinos that had been immobilised for management purposes, and 447 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) and 164 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) were sampled in South Africa, 61 black rhinos in Namibia, 18 white and 12 black rhinos in Zimbabwe, and 24 black rhinos in Zambia...
January 30, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155284/molecular-surveillance-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsioses-in-wildlife-and-detection-of-i-rickettsia-sibirica-i-in-a-topi-i-damaliscus-lunatus-i-ssp-i-jimela-i-in-kenya
#13
David Ndeereh, Andrew Thaiyah, Gerald Muchemi, Antoinette A Miyunga
Spotted fever group rickettsioses are a group of tick-borne zoonotic diseases caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. The diseases are widely reported amongst international travellers returning from most sub-Saharan Africa with fever, yet their importance in local populations largely remains unknown. Although this has started to change and recently there have been increasing reports of the diseases in livestock, ticks and humans in Kenya, they have not been investigated in wildlife. We examined the presence, prevalence and species of Rickettsia present in wildlife in two regions of Kenya with a unique human-wildlife-livestock interface...
January 30, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155286/wildlife-livestock-interactions-and-risk-areas-for-cross-species-spread-of-bovine-tuberculosis
#14
Natascha V Meunier, Peregrine Sebulime, Richard G White, Richard Kock
The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed as present in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) in Uganda since the 1960s. The first aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal spread of cattle illegally grazing within the QENP recorded by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) rangers in a wildlife crime database...
January 23, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155283/comparison-of-three-nucleic-acid-based-tests-for-detecting-i-anaplasma-marginale-i-and-i-anaplasma-centrale-i-in-cattle
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mamohale E Chaisi, Janine R Baxter, Paidashe Hove, Chimvwele N Choopa, Marinda C Oosthuizen, Kelly A Brayton, Zamantungwa T H Khumalo, Awelani M Mutshembele, Moses S Mtshali, Nicola E Collins
Several nucleic acid-based assays have been developed for detecting Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in vectors and hosts, making the choice of method to use in endemic areas difficult. We evaluated the ability of the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridisation assay, two nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays and a duplex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect A. marginale and A. centrale infections in cattle (n = 66) in South Africa. The lowest detection limits for A...
January 23, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796116/health-evaluation-of-african-penguins-i-spheniscus-demersus-i-in-southern-africa
#16
Nola J Parsons, Tertius A Gous, Adam M Schaefer, Ralph E T Vanstreels
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of Namibia and South Africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. Aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 African penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabilitation centre...
September 20, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608505/comparison-of-nucleotide-sequences-of-recent-and-previous-lineages-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-viruses-of-sheep-and-goats-in-nigeria
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Samuel Mantip, Melvyn Quan, David Shamaki, Moritz Van Vuuren
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) is a highly contagious, fatal and economically important viral disease of small ruminants that is still endemic and militates against the production of sheep and goats in endemic areas of the world. The aim of this study was to describe the viral strains within the country. This was carried out by collecting tissue and swab samples from sheep and goats in various agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The phylogeny of archived PPRV strains or isolates and those circulating and causing recent outbreaks was determined by sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N)-gene...
August 31, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608504/effect-of-the-infection-with-the-nematode-i-haemonchus-contortus-i-strongylida-trichostrongylidae-on-the-haematological-biochemical-clinical-and-reproductive-traits-in-rams
#18
Mariem Rouatbi, Mohamed Gharbi, Mohamed R Rjeibi, Imen Ben Salem, Hafidh Akkari, Narjess Lassoued, Mourad Rekik
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Haemonchus contortus infection on rams' haematological, biochemical and clinical parameters and reproductive performances. A total number of 12 Barbarine rams (control and infected) were included in the experiment. The infected group received 30 000 H. contortus third-stage larvae orally. Each ram's ejaculate was immediately evaluated for volume, sperm cell concentration and mortality rate. At the end of the experiment (day 82 post-infection), which lasted 89 days, serial blood samples were collected in order to assess plasma testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH) concentrations...
August 30, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608503/a-pathogen-specific-approach-towards-udder-health-management-in-dairy-herds-using-culture-and-somatic-cell-counts-from-routine-herd-investigations
#19
Inge-Marié Petzer, Joanne Karzis, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb
A dedicated udder health diagnostic programme was developed and used over a 15-year period in South Africa to analyse milk samples based on microbiological and cytological patterns within various groups and for individual cows and udder quarters in dairy herds. These pathogen-specific analyses are utilised for pro-active improvement and management of udder health in South African commercial dairy herds. The programme acts as a monitoring tool and identifies management areas at risk and individual cows with udder disease and uses both quarter and composite milk samples...
August 30, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608502/cellular-immune-responses-induced-i-in-vitro-i-by-i-ehrlichia-ruminantium-i-secreted-proteins-and-identification-of-vaccine-candidate-peptides
#20
Nontobeko Thema, Alri Pretorius, Selaelo I Tshilwane, Junita Liebenberg, Helena Steyn, Mirinda Van Kleef
Secreted proteins are reported to induce cell-mediated immunity characterised by the production of interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ. In this study three open reading frames (ORFs) (Erum8060, Erum7760, Erum5000) encoding secreted proteins were selected from the Ehrlichia ruminantium (Welgevonden) genome sequence using bioinformatics tools to determine whether they induce a cellular immune response in vitro with mononuclear cells from needle and tick infected animals. The whole recombinant protein of the three ORFs as well as four adjacent fragments of the Erum5000 protein (Erum5000A, Erum5000B, Erum5000C, Erum5000D) were successfully expressed in a bacterial expression system which was confirmed by immunoblots using anti-His antibodies and sheep sera...
August 30, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
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