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Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326714/peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-infection-of-black-bengal-goats-showed-altered-haematological-and-serum-biochemical-profiles
#1
Shahana Begum, Mohammed Nooruzzaman, Murshida Parvin, Nijaya Mohanto, Rokshana Parvin, Mohammad R Islam, Emdadul H Chowdhury
In Bangladesh, veterinarians often claim to reduce the mortality of natural peste des petits ruminants (PPR) outbreaks with the help of supportive fluid and electrolyte therapy. Information on haematological and biochemical parameters of PPR-infected goats, which is often altered because of associated tissue damages, is necessary to formulate the appropriate supportive therapy. This study determined the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Black Bengal goats naturally infected with PPR virus...
October 15, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326715/prevalence-of-canine-babesia-and-ehrlichia-co-infection-and-the-predictive-value-of-haematology
#2
Yolandi Rautenbach, Johan Schoeman, Amelia Goddard
Canine babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are important tick-borne infections in South Africa. Many South African general veterinary practitioners perceive co-infection with Ehrlichia spp. as a common occurrence in dogs with babesiosis. Studies about the prevalence of co-infection in South African dogs are lacking. This retrospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia co-infection in dogs with babesiosis. Additionally, the predicative value of specific haematological variables for co-infection was evaluated...
October 9, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326716/detection-of-virulence-factors-of-south-african-lactococcus-garvieae-isolated-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum
#3
Cornelia M Meyburgh, Robert R Bragg, Charlotte E Boucher
Lactococcus garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes mortalities in freshwater and marine fish worldwide and therefore results in severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry. Apart from the apparent integral role of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) capsule in pathogenesis, factors associated with virulence of this bacterium are poorly understood. However, recent studies have indicated that the ability of L. garvieae to cause disease does not depend on the presence of the EPS capsule. Lack of knowledge of virulence factors, pathogenesis and serology of L...
October 4, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326717/comparative-evaluation-of-dry-and-liquid-rime-lamp-in-detecting-trypanosomes-in-dead-tsetse-flies
#4
Peter Nambala, Janelisa Musaya, Kyoko Hayashida, Emmanuel Maganga, Edward Senga, Kelita Kamoto, John Chisi, Chihiro Sugimoto
Xenomonitoring is an important approach in assessing the progress of trypanosomiasis control as well as in estimating the endemicity of trypanosomes in affected areas. One of the major challenges in this approach is the unavailability of sensitive and easy to use xenomonitoring tools that can be used in the remote areas where the disease occurs. One tool that has been used successfully in detecting the parasites in tsetse flies is the repetitive insertion mobile element loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RIME LAMP)...
October 3, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326718/prevalence-and-aetiology-of-coccidiosis-in-broiler-chickens-in-bejaia-province-algeria
#5
Nedjima Debbou-Iouknane, Hama Benbarek, Abdelhanine Ayad
The prevalence of coccidiosis was determined and Eimeria species were identified in farms at different locations in the Bejaia region, Algeria. The study was conducted from February to December 2016. Unvaccinated birds were selected randomly. Samples from litter and faeces were collected randomly (147 and 109, respectively). Necropsy and parasitological examinations were carried out using standard methods. Of the samples examined, 93 out of the 147 litter samples and 78 out of the 109 intestinal content samples were infected with Eimeria oocysts (63...
September 18, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198282/first-record-of-the-marine-turtle-leech-ozobranchus-margoi-on-hawksbill-turtles-eretmochelys-imbricata-in-the-inner-granitic-seychelles
#6
Byron M Göpper, Nina M Voogt, Andre Ganswindt
Ozobranchus spp. are leeches that feed solely on turtle blood. They are common ectoparasites found on a range of marine turtle species, with some species of the leech being implicated as vectors of fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV). Green (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) turtles are the two commonly occurring species in the inner granitic islands of the Seychelles. Routine monitoring of nesting turtles on Cousine Island, Seychelles, allowed for opportunistic sightings of leeches on two hawksbill females...
August 30, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198281/lay-perceptions-beliefs-and-practices-linked-to-the-persistence-of-anthrax-outbreaks-in-cattle-in-the-western-province-of-zambia
#7
Doreen C Sitali, Mwamba C Twambo, Mumba Chisoni, Muma J Bwalya, Musso Munyeme
Anthrax, a neglected zoonotic disease that is transmitted by a spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, has reached endemic proportions in the Western Province of Zambia. Transmission of anthrax from the environment as well as between cattle has been observed to be partly because of entrenched beliefs, perceptions and traditional practices among cattle farmers in the known outbreak areas. This study was aimed at exploring lay perceptions, beliefs and practices that influence anthrax transmission in cattle of the Western Province...
August 29, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198280/immunogenicity-of-a-plasmid-dna-vaccine-encoding-g1-epitope-of-bovine-ephemeral-fever-virus-g-glycoprotein-in-mice
#8
Reza Pasandideh, Masoud Reza Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Mohammad Taghi Beigi Nassiri
The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity of a plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine encoding the G1 epitope of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) G glycoprotein in mice. A plasmid DNA carrying the G1 gene was constructed and designated as pcDNA3.1-G1. The expression of the target gene was confirmed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells transfected with pcDNA3.1-G1 by indirect immunofluorescent staining. Immunisation experiments were intramuscularly carried out by vaccinating 6-week-old female mice in four groups, including the pcDNA3...
August 28, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198279/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-four-districts-situated-along-the-uganda-tanzania-border-implications-for-cross-border-efforts-in-disease-control
#9
Susan D Kerfua, Gabriel Shirima, Lughano Kusiluka, Chrisostome Ayebazibwe, Robert Mwebe, Sarah Cleaveland, Daniel Haydon
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the major trans-boundary animal diseases in East Africa causing economic loss to farmers and other stakeholders in the livestock industry. Foot-and-mouth disease occurs widely in both Uganda and Tanzania with annual outbreaks recorded. With the recent introduction of the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD control (PCP-FMD) in eastern Africa, knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of FMD at the border area between Uganda and Tanzania is helpful in framing engagement with the initial stages of the PCP...
August 27, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035594/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-large-commercial-pig-herds-in-south-africa
#10
Shani Van Lochem, Peter N Thompson, Cornelius H Annandale
The prevalence of nasal carrier status of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pigs has been described elsewhere, but is unknown in South Africa. To address concerns that exist regarding the zoonotic risk that carriers pose to workers, the herd-level prevalence of MRSA was determined among 25 large (> 500 sows) commercial pig herds in South Africa, representing 45% of the large commercial herds in the country. From each herd, the nasal contents of 18 finisher pigs were sampled at the abattoir, pooled into three and selectively cultured to determine the presence of MRSA...
July 17, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035595/prevalence-of-virulence-genes-in-enterococcus-species-isolated-from-companion-animals-and-livestock
#11
Shirwin Pillay, Oliver T Zishiri, Matthew A Adeleke
Enterococcus species have developed from being commensal bacteria to leading pathogens that cause infections in humans and animals. The gastrointestinal tract of mammals is the normal habitat of these species. Virulence factors are proteins that are produced by the bacterium which are used to enhance their pathogenicity. The objectives of this study were to isolate Enterococcus spp. from livestock and companion animals, differentiate between the different sub-species and detect the presence of important virulence genes...
June 27, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035596/genetic-characterisation-of-african-swine-fever-virus-from-2017-outbreaks-in-zambia-identification-of-p72-genotype-ii-variants-in-domestic-pigs
#12
Edgar Simulundu, Yona Sinkala, Herman M Chambaro, Andrew Chinyemba, Frank Banda, Lynnfield E Mooya, Joseph Ndebe, Simbarashe Chitanga, Chitwambi Makungu, Gift Munthali, Paul Fandamu, Ayato Takada, Aaron S Mweene
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious haemorrhagic disease associated with causing heavy economic losses to the swine industry in many African countries. In 2017, Zambia experienced ASF outbreaks in Mbala District (Northern province) and for the first time in Isoka and Chinsali districts (Muchinga province). Meanwhile, another outbreak was observed in Chipata District (Eastern province). Genetic analysis of part of the B646L gene, E183L gene, CP204L gene and the central variable region of the B602L gene of ASF virus (ASFV) associated with the outbreaks in Mbala and Chipata districts was conducted...
June 26, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035597/genotypic-characterisation-of-avian-paramyxovirus-type-1-viruses-isolated-from-aquatic-birds-in-uganda
#13
Agnes Wanyana, Kizito K Mugimba, Omony J Bosco, Halid Kirunda, Jessica L Nakavuma, Angélique Teillaud, Mariette F Ducatez, Denis K Byarugaba
Avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1) viruses of the lentogenic pathotypes are often isolated from wild aquatic birds and may mutate to high pathogenicity when they cross into poultry and cause debilitating Newcastle disease. This study characterised AMPV-1 isolated from fresh faecal droppings from wild aquatic birds roosting sites in Uganda. Fresh faecal samples from wild aquatic birds at several waterbodies in Uganda were collected and inoculated into 9-10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. After isolation, the viruses were confirmed as APMV-1 by APMV-1-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 25, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943583/occurrence-of-the-specific-long-spike-burst-pattern-in-the-ovine-proximal-gallbladder-as-an-indication-of-myoelectric-regional-variability
#14
Krzysztof W Romański, Józef Nicpoń
The myoelectrical activity of the ovine gallbladder has not been fully recognised. Five rams were fitted with six small intestinal and three gallbladder electrodes and a strain gauge force transducer was mounted near the gallbladder fundic electrode. In two series of successive experiments, the electromyographical and mechanical recordings were recorded over a period of 5-7 hours. The occurrence of the slow waves in the small bowel was regular, unlike those in the gallbladder. In the gallbladder infundibulum, the specific pattern, called the long spike burst pattern (LSBP), was observed...
June 11, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943584/prevalence-of-mastitis-pathogens-in-south-african-pasture-based-and-total-mixed-ration-based-dairies-during-2008-and-2013
#15
David Blignaut, Peter Thompson, Inge-Marié Petzer
Recent years have seen a change in the relative prevalence of environmental and contagious intramammary pathogens, as well as a change in the relative number of total mixed ration (TMR)-based and pasture (PAS)-based dairies in South Africa. The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in TMR and PAS dairies in South Africa during 2008 and 2013; furthermore, the within-herd prevalence of Streptococcus uberis in Str. uberis-positive herds was determined and compared...
May 31, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781670/genetic-characterisation-of-virulence-genes-associated-with-adherence-invasion-and-cytotoxicity-in-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-commercial-chickens-and-human-clinical-cases
#16
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Virulence-associated genes have been recognised and detected in Campylobacter species. The majority of them have been proven to be associated with pathogenicity. This study aimed to detect the presence of virulence genes associated with pathogenicity and responsible for invasion, expression of adherence, colonisation and production of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Commercial chicken faecal samples were randomly sampled from chicken farms within the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
February 15, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227130/investigation-of-the-acaricidal-activity-of-the-acetone-and-ethanol-extracts-of-12-south-african-plants-against-the-adult-ticks-of-i-rhipicephalus-turanicus-i
#17
Gerda Fouche, Bellonah M Sakong, Olubukola T Adenubi, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Vinny Naidoo, Tlabo Leboho, Kevin W Wellington, Jacobus N Eloff
The acaricidal activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 plant species was evaluated using the contact method on Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks at an initial concentration of 20% (200 mg/mL). Eight of the 12 plants had mortality greater than 50% and the acetone extracts had better acaricidal activity than the ethanol extracts. The acetone extract of Calpurnia aurea (leaves and flowers) had the highest corrected mortality (CM) of 92.2% followed by Schkuhria pinnata (whole plant) with a CM of 88...
November 23, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227131/a-serosurvey-of-bluetongue-and-epizootic-haemorrhagic-disease-in-a-convenience-sample-of-sheep-and-cattle-herds-in-zimbabwe
#18
Stuart J G Gordon, Charlotte Bolwell, Chris W Rogers, Godfrey Musuka, Patrick Kelly, Alan Guthrie, Philip S Mellor, Chris Hamblin
A convenience sample of sheep and cattle herds around the cities of Harare, Kwekwe and Bulawayo, located in the Highveld region of Zimbabwe, was used to estimate the seroprevalence and sero-incidence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) antibodies. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify serum antibodies against BTV and EHDV across three rainy seasons. The median sero-prevalence of BTV and EHDV antibodies in cattle was 62% (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-89) and 56% (IQR: 5-77), respectively...
November 14, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227129/assessment-of-a-portable-lactate-meter-for-field-use-in-the-white-rhinoceros-i-ceratotherium-simum-i
#19
Georgina C Cole, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Gerhard Steenkamp
Blood lactate is a predictor of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Handheld lactate meters have the potential to be used in the field to evaluate the condition of severely injured rhinoceroses but have not been compared with laboratory-based methods. Agreement between a handheld lactate meter and a laboratory method was assessed, as was the stability of rhino blood lactate in the anticoagulant sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate (fluoride/oxalate). Blood samples were obtained from 53 white rhinos that had been immobilised for management reasons...
November 10, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113440/geigerin-induced-cytotoxicity-in-a-murine-myoblast-cell-line-c2c12
#20
Christo J Botha, Sarah J Clift, Gezina C H Ferreira, Mxolisi G Masango
Geigeria poisoning in sheep, locally known as 'vermeersiekte', is an economically important plant poisoning in southern Africa. The toxic principles contained by the toxic plants are believed to be several sesquiterpene lactones, such as geigerin, vermeeric acid and vermeerin, which cause striated muscle lesions in small stock. Because of ethical issues surrounding the use of live animals in toxicity studies, there is currently a dire need to establish an in vitro model that can be used to replace traditional animal experimentation...
October 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
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