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Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica

Munetaka Naitoh, Hirofumi Watanabe, Ryosuke Kuwana, Toshimitsu Hishikawa, Hisashi Hayashi, Shin Miyamae, Akio Mitani, Eiichiro Ariji
Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) has been applied as a method for the nondestructive and detailed assessment of trabecular bone patterns and tooth structure. Voxel values obtained from micro-CT are not absolute values. Therefore, voxel values were assessed using hydroxyapatite (HA) blocks with a different vesicle rate to quantify voxel values of micro-CT images in the present investigation.HA blocks with 4 levels of porosity and a block with a soft tissue-equivalent density were used, and the voxel values of each block were measured...
2018: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Shoichi Emura
We microscopically examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult Asian golden cat (Catopuma temminckii). The papillae on the margin of the lingual apex were horny-shaped and fungiform. The filiform papillae on the anterior part of the lingual body were large and cylindrical; the connective tissue core of each of these comprised a large conical papilla. The filiform papillae on the central part of the lingual body were large and conical-shaped on the medial side and dome-shaped on the lateral side. The connective tissue core of each medial filiform papilla comprised a large main process and some secondary processes, while processes were absent on the lateral side...
2018: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Shoichi Emura
We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult Chapman's zebra by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae of the lingual apex consisted of a main papilla and smaller secondary papillae. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The filiform papillae of central region of the lingual body were needle-like in shape. The filiform papillae of posterior region of the lingual body were hair-like in shape. Many grooves were observed on posterolateral regions and the fungiform papillae were observed on the inside of some grooves...
2018: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Rieko Asaumi, Taisuke Kawai, Yoko Miwa, Masataka Sunohara, Iwao Sato
There is an important bone matrix with remodelling between dentate and edentulous samples of the human maxilla for bone metabolism. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is useful for structural analysis of bone. The objective of this study was to investigate morphological data of donor cadavers in detail using CBCT imaging and principal component analysis (PCA). We analysed 38 donor cadavers using a CBCT apparatus. The analytical results defined differences in skull measurement parameters and dentate and edentulous levels using PCA...
2018: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Tetsu Hayakawa, Masaki Hata, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Hideshi Yagi, Haruki Okamura
Interleukin-18 (IL-18), which is involved in the inflammatory response, is also found in the cerebral cortex. IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive (IL-18R-ir) neurons are present in layer V of the retrosplenial cortex (RSC). In the adult IL-18 knock out (KO) mice, no IL-18R-ir neurons but many degenerated neurons are present in layer V of the RSC, suggesting that any changes in the neurons of layer V have occurred during postnatal development. We examined changes of IL-18R expression during postnatal development. In the wild-type mice, many IL-18R-ir neurons were present in layers II, III and VI of the RSC in 2-week-old mice, whereas they were sparsely observed in only layer III in 3-week-old mice...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Hiroaki Abe, Masahito Yamamoto, Nobuaki Yanagisawa, Ryoichi Morimoto, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Shinichi Abe
The superior mesenteric vein was considered to develop in situ in the midgut mesentery secondary to regression of the left vitelline vein. We revisited the morphology using serial sections of 20 embryos at 5-6 weeks (CRL 9-15 mm). The regressing vitelline vein provided a long peritoneal fold in the immediately superior side of the midgut mesentery containing the thick superior mesenteric artery. Notably, in a half of specimens, there were tissue clefts along the superior mesenteric artery in the mesentery and they were communicated with the left vitelline vein at the superior end of the peritoneal fold...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Koichiro Sakanaka, Masahito Yamamoto, Takanori Ishibashi, Nobuaki Yanagisawa, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe
The teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles (TM, LD) are considered to be the so-called brother muscles. Actually, being similar to the TM, an uppermost part of the LD usually arises from the scapular plate. In embryos of 11 mm CRL, anlagen of the TM and LD appeared to be fused to provide a single mass at an angle between the axillary and radial nerves. However, splitting had already finished in not only the TM and LD but also the other muscles at and around the shoulder in specimens of 14 mm CRL. Thus, muscle splitting at the region appeared to occur simultaneously at a short stage of 12-13 mm CRL...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Akira Iimura, Takeshi Oguchi, Masahiro Tou, Masato Matsuo
In a student course of gross anatomy dissection at Kanagawa Dental University in 2011, we encountered anomalous case of the right subclavian artery arising from the aortic arch as the last branch in an 84-year-old Japanese male cadaver. The anomalous artery ran obliquely upward, passed behind the esophagus and trachea, and ultimately ran toward right scalene gap. The area of distribution of the anomalous artery was normal. We report a case of retroesophageal right subclavian artery, and discuss its development, or relation with the thoracic duct, and its clinical importance...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Ming Zhou, Ryoji Suzuki, Hideo Akashi, Akimitsu Ishizawa, Yoshinori Kanatsu, Kodai Funakoshi, Hiroshi Abe
In the case of anatomical dissection as part of medical education, it is difficult for medical students to find the ciliary ganglion (CG) since it is small and located deeply in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle and embedded in the orbital fat. Here, we would like to introduce simple ways to find the CG by 1): tracing the sensory and parasympathetic roots to find the CG from the superior direction above the orbit, 2): transecting and retracting the lateral rectus muscle to visualize the CG from the lateral direction of the orbit, and 3): taking out whole orbital structures first and dissecting to observe the CG...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Shoichi Emura
We microscopically examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The tongue of the chimpanzee was about 13 cm long. Filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the lingual body. There were many fungiform papillae scattered among the filiform papillae. At the posterior end of the lingual body, a triangular arrangement of the vallate papillae, with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly, was observed. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Mamoru Uemura, Takamitsu Arakawa, Rieko Kominami, Satoru Honma, Akimichi Takemura
The superficial morphology of the acinus of the mandibular gland in rats, which corresponds to the submandibular gland in humans, is very difficult to observe under scanning electron microscope due to a closely adherent capsule. Therefore, we evaluated the most effective protocol for removing this capsule from the acinus using various solutions, at different temperatures and for different durations of soaking. Based on the data for 50 male Wistar rats, the most effective method was soaking in an 8 N hydrochloric acid solution at 60°C for 70 min, in a water bath, followed by soaking in a 0...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Yohei Honkura, Yoshitaka Takanashi, Ai Kawamoto-Hirano, Hiroshi Abe, Hajime Osanai, Gen Murakami, Yukio Katori
The purpose of this study is to describe the Hasner's membrane which is the main factor of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Hasner's membrane at the nasal end of the fetal nasolacrimal duct (NLD) is considered to rupture at and after birth. However, topographical anatomy around the membrane as well as a mechanism of rupture seems to be still obscure. We observed frontal or sagittal sections of 20 late-stage fetuses (28-33 weeks) and found the on-going rupture in 2 specimens. The present sections demonstrated that 1) the nasal dilation was not a simple ball-like structure but extended posteriorly and laterally; 2) dilation of the NLD consistently involved the lacrimal sac; 3) Hasner's membrane and ductal mucosal layer contained no macrophages and no or few arteries and nerves...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Ji Hyun Kim, Masahito Yamamoto, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, Shunichi Shibata, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Shin-Ichi Abe
In human fetuses, the palatine process of the maxilla is attached to the inferior aspect of the horizontal plate of the palatine bone (HPPB). The fetal palatomaxillary suture is so long that it extends along the anteroposterior axis rather than along the transverse axis. The double layered bony palate disappears in childhood and the transverse suture is formed. To better understand the development of the double layered bone palate, we examined histological sections obtained from 25 fetuses of gestational age 9-11, 16-18 and 30 weeks...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Munetaka Naitoh, Hirofumi Watanabe, Kazuhito Yoshida, Hisashi Hayashi, Kenichi Gotoh, Eiichiro Ariji
The rate of septum presence in the maxillary sinus has been reported to be over 30%. It was considered that a bony bridge might change to a maxillary sinus septum with growth in a previous study using dry child skulls. In the present investigation, maxillary sinus bony bridges and septa were longitudinally observed using computed tomography (CT). Multislice CT was performed in three patients. A bony bridge was defined as a bony structure between the maxillary sinus wall and dental germ. Also, a septum was defined as a pointed bony structure in the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Shoichi Emura, Kazue Sugiyama, Satoshi Kusuda
We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of a newborn and an old polar bears by using scanning electron microscopy. In the newborn polar bear, the filiform papilla on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae was needle-shaped and that of the fungiform papillae was funnel-shaped. The filiform papillae on the lingual body was dome-shaped. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae was U-shaped and that of the fungiform papillae was column-shaped. On the lingual apex and body, there could not distinguish the filiform from fungiform papillae...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Hidaka Anetai, Kounosuke Tokita, Ryuhei Kojima, Yukio Aizawa, Ikuo Kageyama, Katsuji Kumaki
The course of the superior gluteal artery (SGA) as it passes through the lumbosacral plexus is variable. The variations of the arterial course in relation to the lumbosacral plexus have focused on statistical analysis, and it is limited arterial diversity. In this study, we investigated the positional relation between the SGA and the furcal nerve (FN): guide to segmentation of the lumbosacral plexus, arising from the L4, ie, the contribution to the femoral nerve, obturator nerve, and lumbosacral trunk. We could classify the pathway of the SGA into three types based on its positional relation to the FN...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Taiko Kitamura, Hiroko Suzuki, Hidenori Yokota, Eiju Watanabe, Jinzo Yamada
We measured the lengths of some parts of the right and left hemispheres (HEs) in 70 formalin-fixed brains and on 15 computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) images (7 left-handed and 8 right-handed cases) to clarify the morphological changes indicating which HE developed earlier and handedness. In many cases of the fixed brains, 1) the distance from the frontal pole to the occipital pole was longer in the left HE than in the right HE, 2) the distance from the middle plane to the lateral-most portion of the HE was wider in the right HE than in the left HE, 3) the left occipital pole elongated more posteriorly and covered the right occipital pole, and 4) the volume of each HE was nearly the same...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Shinichi Abe, Naomitsu Tomita, Masahito Yamamoto, Minako Sato, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
The median nerve passes through the humeral and ulnar heads of the pronator teres muscle (PT), although variations such as absence of the ulnar head may exist. We observed histological sections of the upper extremity from 24 embryos and fetuses. In the early stage, the PT extended between the radius and the medial epicondyle of the humerus, but no candidate for the ulnar head was found. In mid-term fetuses, the ulnar margin of the PT was attached to the elbow joint capsule. Moreover, in late-stage fetuses, a small deep part of the PT arose from the thick joint capsule of the humero-ulnar joint near the coronoid process of the ulna...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Hiroshi Abe, Masahito Yamamoto, Ryoji Suzuki, Ming Zhou, Gen Murakami, José F Rodríguez-Vázquez
At birth, the ductus arteriosus (DA) merges with the aortic arch in the caudal side of the origin of the left subclavian artery (ltSCA). Since the SCA (seventh segmental arteries) were fixed on the levels of the seventh cervical-first thoracic vertebral bodies, the confluence of the DA should migrate caudally toward the lower level. We aimed to describe the changing topographical anatomy of the DA and SCA using serial sections. First, we examined serial sagittal sections of 11 embryos (Carnegie stage 15-18), but the specimens were clearly divided into 2 groups with and without the lower confluence of the DA...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Shinichi Abe, Toshihito Yoshimoto, Masahito Yamamoto, Minako Sato, Nobuaki Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki Hinata, Hiroshi Abe, Murakami Gen
The origin of the posterior scrotal nerve is considered to be the bilateral pudendal nerves but the course to the midline is still obscure. Using 5 late-stage human male fetuses, we identified the single nerve through the intramuscular midline septum of the bulbospongiosus and the bilateral nerves along the left and right sides of the septum. Thus, the posterior scrotal nerve showed a variation: a single midline trunk or bilateral nerves. Branches of the bilateral pudendal nerves ran medially between the muscle and Cowper's gland and, at the midline area, they joined or associated closely...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
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