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Die Naturwissenschaften

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889831/an-ecophysiological-background-for-biogeographic-patterns-of-two-island-lizards
#1
Miguel A Carretero, Evandro P Lopes, Raquel Vasconcelos
Distributions of sedentary ectotherms are dependent on temperature and humidity due to their low homeostatic and dispersal abilities. Lizards are strongly conditioned by temperature, but hydric environment may be also important, at least in arid environments. Biotic interactions may also play a role in range patterns, but they are of minor importance in islands where native species monopolize well-delimited niche spaces. On the arid island of São Vicente (Cabo Verde), two endemic lizards display different spatial patterns...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866229/vascular-epiphytes-and-host-trees-of-ant-gardens-in-an-anthropic-landscape-in-southeastern-mexico
#2
Jonas Morales-Linares, José G García-Franco, Alejandro Flores-Palacios, Jorge E Valenzuela-González, Martín Mata-Rosas, Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo
Ant-gardens (AGs) are considered one of the most complex mutualist systems between ants and plants, since interactions involving dispersal, protection, and nutrition occur simultaneously in them; however, little is known about the effects of the transformation of ecosystems on their diversity and interactions. In five environments with different land use within an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico, we investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytes and host trees of AGs built by Azteca gnava...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830290/a-new-armored-archosauriform-diapsida-archosauromorpha-from-the-marine-middle-triassic-of-china-with-implications-for-the-diverse-life-styles-of-archosauriforms-prior-to-the-diversification-of-archosauria
#3
Chun Li, Xiao-Chun Wu, Li-Jun Zhao, Sterling J Nesbitt, Michelle R Stocker, Li-Ting Wang
Reptiles have a long history of transitioning from terrestrial to semi-aquatic or aquatic environments that stretches back at least 250 million years. Within Archosauria, both living crocodylians and birds have semi-aquatic members. Closer to the root of Archosauria and within the closest relatives of the clade, there is a growing body of evidence that early members of those clades had a semi-aquatic lifestyle. However, the morphological adaptations to a semi-aquatic environment remain equivocal in most cases...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796428/a-first-possible-chameleon-from-the-late-miocene-of-india-the-hominoid-site-of-haritalyangar-a-tentative-evidence-for-an-asian-dispersal-of-chameleons
#4
Anek R Sankhyan, Andrej Čerňanský
Miocene rare fossils from India, tentatively attributed to chameleons, are described for the first time. The material consists of a fragment of the left squamosal and an element interpreted as a posterodorsal process of the parietal. The specimens come from a late Miocene site of the Nagri Formation (Middle Siwaliks, ~ 9 Mya) at Haritalyangar, North India. This material presents a possible evidence for a chameleon dispersal to Asia. Based on molecular data, the dispersion of an Asian chamaeleonid lineage from Africa to Arabia/Asia is dated at approximately 13 Mya and its diversification in situ at around 6-8 Mya...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787598/signal-polymorphism-under-a-constant-environment-the-odd-cross-in-a-web-decorating-spider
#5
André Walter, Mark A Elgar
The quality of many animal signals varies, perhaps through their use in different contexts or by representing an adaptive response to reduce the risk of exploitation. Spiders of the orb weaver genus Argiope add linear, cruciate or circular silk structures to their orb webs, creating inter- and intra-specific polymorphic visual signals. Different decoration patterns are frequently attributed to different signal effects, but this view is contradicted by commonly observed intraspecific variation in decorating behaviour...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730266/changes-in-behaviour-and-faecal-glucocorticoid-levels-in-response-to-increased-human-activities-during-weekends-in-the-pin-tailed-sandgrouse
#6
Fabián Casas, Ana Benítez-López, Rocío Tarjuelo, Isabel Barja, Javier Viñuela, Jesús T García, Manuel B Morales, Francois Mougeot
Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata)...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730265/retreat-and-extinction-of-the-late-pleistocene-cave-bear-ursus-spelaeus-sensu-lato
#7
Mateusz Baca, Danijela Popović, Krzysztof Stefaniak, Adrian Marciszak, Mikołaj Urbanowski, Adam Nadachowski, Paweł Mackiewicz
The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus sensu lato) is a typical representative of Pleistocene megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Last Glacial. Detailed knowledge of cave bear extinction could explain this spectacular ecological transformation. The paper provides a report on the youngest remains of the cave bear dated to 20,930 ± 140 (14)C years before present (BP). Ancient DNA analyses proved its affiliation to the Ursus ingressus haplotype. Using this record and 205 other dates, we determined, following eight approaches, the extinction time of this mammal at 26,100-24,300 cal...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722878/the-role-of-ultraviolet-colour-in-the-assessment-of-mimetic-accuracy-between-batesian-mimics-and-their-models-a-case-study-using-ant-mimicking-spiders
#8
Guadalupe Corcobado, Marie E Herberstein, Stano Pekár
The use of ultraviolet (UV) cues for intra- and inter-specific communication is common in many animal species. Still, the role of UV signals under some predator-prey contexts, such as Batesian mimicry, is not clear. Batesian mimicry is a defensive strategy by which a palatable species (the mimic) resembles an unpalatable or noxious species (the model) to avoid predation. This strategy has evolved independently in many different taxa that are predated by species capable of UV perception. Moreover, there is considerable variation in how accurately Batesian mimics resemble their models across species...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717969/multiple-origins-of-gigantism-in-stem-baleen-whales
#9
Cheng-Hsiu Tsai, Naoki Kohno
Living baleen whales (Mysticeti) include the world's largest animals to have ever lived-blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) can reach more than 30 m. However, the gigantism in baleen whales remains little explored. Here, we compiled all published stem mysticetes from the Eocene and Oligocene and then mapped the estimated body size onto different phylogenies that suggest distinct evolutionary histories of baleen whales. By assembling all known stem baleen whales, we present three novel findings in early mysticete evolution...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714412/ecology-and-sampling-techniques-of-an-understudied-subterranean-habitat-the-milieu-souterrain-superficiel-mss
#10
Stefano Mammola, Pier Mauro Giachino, Elena Piano, Alexandra Jones, Marcel Barberis, Giovanni Badino, Marco Isaia
The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain-caves and deep rock cracks-and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695903/variation-in-nesting-behavior-of-eight-species-of-spider-mites-stigmaeopsis-having-sociality
#11
Yutaka Saito, Yan-Xuan Zhang, Kotaro Mori, Katsura Ito, Yukie Sato, Anthony R Chittenden, Jian-Zhen Lin, Younghae Chae, Takane Sakagami, Ken Sahara
Nesting behavior is considered to be an important element of social living in animals. The spider mites belonging to the genus Stigmaeopsis spend their lives within nests produced from silk threads. Several of these species show cooperative sociality, while the others are subsocial. In order to identify the origins of this social behavior, comparisons of nest sizes, nesting behaviors (making nests continuously or separately), and their associated traits (fecal deposition patterns) were made for eight cogeneric Stigmaeopsis species showing various levels of social development...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695902/caterpillar-hairs-as-an-anti-parasitoid-defence
#12
Azusa Kageyama, Shinji Sugiura
Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689232/scale-insect-larvae-preserved-in-vertebrate-coprolites-le-quesnoy-france-lower-eocene-paleoecological-insights
#13
Ninon Robin, Imre Foldi, Marc Godinot, Gilles Petit
Coprolites of terrestrial vertebrates from the Sparnacian Le Quesnoy locality (Ypresian, Eocene, MP7, 53 Ma; Oise, France) were examined for possible parasitic helminth eggs. The extraction of the coprolite components was performed by a weak acetolyse and a slide mounting in glycerin. This long examination did not reveal paleoparasite remains, which may be explained through several arguments. However, some pollen grains, some enigmatic components, and two well-preserved first-instar cochineal nymphs (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) were evidenced in coprolites...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679457/eavesdropping-on-cooperative-communication-within-an-ant-butterfly-mutualism
#14
Mark A Elgar, David R Nash, Naomi E Pierce
Signalling is necessary for the maintenance of interspecific mutualisms but is vulnerable to exploitation by eavesdropping. While eavesdropping of intraspecific signals has been studied extensively, such exploitation of interspecific signals has not been widely documented. The juvenile stages of the Australian lycaenid butterfly, Jalmenus evagoras, form an obligate association with several species of attendant ants, including Iridomyrmex mayri. Ants protect the caterpillars and pupae, and in return are rewarded with nutritious secretions...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659499/the-effect-of-previous-experience-on-trap-construction-and-movement-distance-in-a-pit-building-predator
#15
Shay Adar, Inon Scharf, Roi Dor
Wormlion larvae are sit-and-wait predators that construct cone-shaped pits in sandy patches to capture prey. Wormlions select microhabitats that feature favorable conditions for pit construction, in a similar way to other trap-building predators, like spiders and antlions. We investigated whether wormlions exhibit an experience-based behavioral plasticity in their pit construction behavior. In a laboratory experiment, pit sizes and relocation distances were compared between larvae that experienced either a period of unfavorable conditions, i...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649703/colour-assortative-pairing-in-a-colour-polymorphic-lizard-is-independent-of-population-morph-diversity
#16
Guillem Pérez I de Lanuza, Enrique Font, Miguel Ángel Carretero
Previous work with a colour polymorphic population of Podarcis muralis (Lacertidae) revealed that lizards pair by ventral colour, favouring the same colour (i.e. homomorphic) pairs. Such assortative pairing, which probably results in colour assortative mating, can have consequences for the genetic structure of the population and potentially promote speciation. The population previously studied, located in the Pyrenees, encompasses white, yellow and orange animals, as well as intermediate white-orange and yellow-orange morphs...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639729/oxygen-isotope-fractionation-between-bird-eggshell-calcite-and-body-water-application-to-fossil-eggs-from-lanzarote-canary-islands
#17
Nicolas Lazzerini, Christophe Lécuyer, Romain Amiot, Delphine Angst, Eric Buffetaut, François Fourel, Valérie Daux, Juan Francisco Betancort, Jean-Pierre Flandrois, Antonio Sánchez Marco, Alejandro Lomoschitz
Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ(18)Ocalc and δ(13)Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ(18)Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639728/facial-patterns-in-a-tropical-social-wasp-correlate-with-colony-membership
#18
David Baracchi, Stefano Turillazzi, Lars Chittka
Social insects excel in discriminating nestmates from intruders, typically relying on colony odours. Remarkably, some wasp species achieve such discrimination using visual information. However, while it is universally accepted that odours mediate a group level recognition, the ability to recognise colony members visually has been considered possible only via individual recognition by which wasps discriminate 'friends' and 'foes'. Using geometric morphometric analysis, which is a technique based on a rigorous statistical theory of shape allowing quantitative multivariate analyses on structure shapes, we first quantified facial marking variation of Liostenogaster flavolineata wasps...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629858/palate-anatomy-and-morphofunctional-aspects-of-interpterygoid-vacuities-in-temnospondyl-cranial-evolution
#19
Stephan Lautenschlager, Florian Witzmann, Ingmar Werneburg
Temnospondyls were the morphologically and taxonomically most diverse group of early tetrapods with a near-global distribution during the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. Members of this group occupied a range of different habitats (aquatic, amphibious, terrestrial), reflected by large morphological disparity of the cranium throughout their evolutionary history. A diagnostic feature of temnospondyls is the presence of an open palate with large interpterygoid vacuities, in contrast to the closed palate of most other early tetrapods and their fish-like relatives...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614456/origin-of-origami-cockroach-reveals-long-lasting-11%C3%A2-ma-phenotype-instability-following-viviparity
#20
Peter V Vršanský, Lucia Šmídová, Daniel Valaška, Peter Barna, Ľubomír Vidlička, Peter Takáč, Lubomir Pavlik, Tatiana Kúdelová, Talia S Karim, David Zelagin, Dena Smith
Viviparity evolved in bacteria, plants, ˃141 vertebrate lineages (ichthyosaurs, lizards, fishes, mammals, and others), and in 11 of 44 insect orders. Live-birth cockroaches preserved with brood sac (3D recovered two times optically) included Diploptera vladimir, Diploptera savba, Diploptera gemini spp.n., D. sp.1-2, and Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni from Green River, Colorado; Quilchena, Republic; McAbee, Canada; and Baltic amber, Russia (49, 54, and 45 Ma). They evolved from rare and newly evolved Blaberidae; they radiated circumtropically, later expanded into SE Asia, and have now spread to Hawaii and the SE USA...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
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