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Die Naturwissenschaften

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689350/repeated-exposure-to-cat-urine-induces-complex-behavioral-hormonal-and-c-fos-mrna-responses-in-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#1
Baofa Yin, Chen Gu, Yi Lu, Ibrahim M Hegab, Shengmei Yang, Aiqin Wang, Wanhong Wei
Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689349/extreme-longevity-in-a-deep-sea-vestimentiferan-tubeworm-and-its-implications-for-the-evolution-of-life-history-strategies
#2
Alanna Durkin, Charles R Fisher, Erik E Cordes
The deep sea is home to many species that have longer life spans than their shallow-water counterparts. This trend is primarily related to the decline in metabolic rates with temperature as depth increases. However, at bathyal depths, the cold-seep vestimentiferan tubeworm species Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi reach extremely old ages beyond what is predicted by the simple scaling of life span with body size and temperature. Here, we use individual-based models based on in situ growth rates to show that another species of cold-seep tubeworm found in the Gulf of Mexico, Escarpia laminata, also has an extraordinarily long life span, regularly achieving ages of 100-200 years with some individuals older than 300 years...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681090/the-arnold-berliner-award-2017
#3
EDITORIAL
Sven Thatje
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681089/a-novel-test-for-evaluating-horses-spontaneous-visual-attention-is-predictive-of-attention-in-operant-learning-tasks
#4
C Rochais, M Sébilleau, M Houdebine, P Bec, M Hausberger, S Henry
Attention is described as the ability to process selectively one aspect of the environment over others. In this study, we characterized horses' spontaneous attention by designing a novel visual attention test (VAT) that is easy to apply in the animal's home environment. The test was repeated over three consecutive days and repeated again 6 months later in order to assess inter-individual variations and intra-individual stability. Different patterns of attention have been revealed: 'overall' attention when the horse merely gazed at the stimulus and 'fixed' attention characterized by fixity and orientation of at least the visual and auditory organs towards the stimulus...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676938/the-first-report-of-gynandromorphy-in-termites-isoptera-kalotermitidae-neotermes-koshunensis
#5
Yasushi Miyaguni, Tomonari Nozaki, Toshihisa Yashiro
This is the first report of gynandromorphy in Isoptera. An Asian dry-wood termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Shiraki) [Kalotermitidae], possessing both male and female phenotypic characteristics, was found on Okinawa Island, Japan. This deformed individual showed morphological and anatomical hermaphroditism in the abdomen. The right side of the seventh sternite was the female form and contained an ovary, while the left side was the male form and contained a testis. Genotypic analysis revealed that this individual was a genotypic bilateral chimera...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667473/differences-in-functional-traits-between-invasive-and-native-amaranthus-species-under-different-forms-of-n-deposition
#6
Congyan Wang, Jiawei Zhou, Jun Liu, Kun Jiang
Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH4-N, NO3-N, and CO(NH2)2-N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664419/females-sampling-strategy-to-comparatively-evaluate-prospective-mates-in-the-peacock-blenny-salaria-pavo
#7
Lisa Locatello, Maria B Rasotto
Emerging evidence suggests the occurrence of comparative decision-making processes in mate choice, questioning the traditional idea of female choice based on rules of absolute preference. In such a scenario, females are expected to use a typical best-of-n sampling strategy, being able to recall previous sampled males based on memory of their quality and location. Accordingly, the quality of preferred mate is expected to be unrelated to both the number and the sequence of female visits. We found support for these predictions in the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, a fish where females have the opportunity to evaluate the attractiveness of many males in a short time period and in a restricted spatial range...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664418/diet-dependent-heat-emission-reveals-costs-of-post-diapause-recovery-from-different-nutritional-sources-in-a-carnivorous-beetle
#8
Søren Toft, Søren Achim Nielsen
Restoration of fat stores is metabolic first priority for many insects that emerge from hibernation with depleted fat bodies. To some extent, the animals must be flexible and use whatever foods available irrespective of their nutrient composition. Previously, the carabid beetles Anchomenus dorsalis have been found to refill their fat stores to the same extent over 9 days irrespective of the nutrient composition of their food. However, a higher cost of fat deposition when the food was rich in sugar or protein rather than lipid was indicated by higher total energy consumption...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656350/frequency-of-decompression-illness-among-recent-and-extinct-mammals-and-reptiles-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Agnete Weinreich Carlsen
The frequency of decompression illness was high among the extinct marine "reptiles" and very low among the marine mammals. Signs of decompression illness are still found among turtles but whales and seals are unaffected. In humans, the risk of decompression illness is five times increased in individuals with Patent Foramen Ovale; this condition allows blood shunting from the venous circuit to the systemic circuit. This right-left shunt is characteristic of the "reptile" heart, and it is suggested that this could contribute to the high frequency of decompression illness in the extinct reptiles...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#10
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642972/does-contrast-between-eggshell-ground-and-spot-coloration-affect-egg-rejection
#11
Miri Dainson, Mark E Hauber, Analía V López, Tomáš Grim, Daniel Hanley
Obligate avian brood parasitic species impose the costs of incubating foreign eggs and raising young upon their unrelated hosts. The most common host defence is the rejection of parasitic eggs from the nest. Both egg colours and spot patterns influence egg rejection decisions in many host species, yet no studies have explicitly examined the role of variation in spot coloration. We studied the American robin Turdus migratorius, a blue-green unspotted egg-laying host of the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, a brood parasite that lays non-mimetic spotted eggs...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620738/variation-in-sex-pheromone-emission-does-not-reflect-immunocompetence-but-affects-attractiveness-of-male-burying-beetles-a-combination-of-laboratory-and-field-experiments
#12
Johanna Chemnitz, Nadiia Bagrii, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584964/antifungal-activity-of-the-pygidial-gland-secretion-of-laemostenus-punctatus-coleoptera-carabidae-against-cave-dwelling-micromycetes
#13
Marija Nenadić, Milica Ljaljević-Grbić, Miloš Stupar, Jelena Vukojević, Ana Ćirić, Vele Tešević, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Marina Todosijević, Nikola Vesović, Nemanja Živković, Srećko Ćurčić
The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578533/unusually-high-pitched-neonate-distress-calls-of-the-open-habitat-mongolian-gazelle-procapra-gutturosa-and-their-anatomical-and-hormonal-predictors
#14
Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Volodina, Roland Frey, Vadim E Kirilyuk, Sergey V Naidenko
In neonate ruminants, the acoustic structure of vocalizations may depend on sex, vocal anatomy, hormonal profiles and body mass and on environmental factors. In neonate wild-living Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa, hand-captured during biomedical monitoring in the Daurian steppes at the Russian-Mongolian border, we spectrographically analysed distress calls and measured body mass of 22 individuals (6 males, 16 females). For 20 (5 male, 15 female) of these individuals, serum testosterone levels were also analysed...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578532/new-insights-on-the-systematics-palaeoecology-and-palaeobiology-of-a-plesiosaurian-with-soft-tissue-preservation-from-the-toarcian-of-holzmaden-germany
#15
Peggy Vincent, Rémi Allemand, Paul D Taylor, Guillaume Suan, Erin E Maxwell
The Posidonienschiefer Formation (Toarcian) of Holzmaden, Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany has yielded several excellently preserved plesiosaurian specimens and received considerable research attention. The plesiosaurians found within these deposits are always significantly outnumbered by ichthyosaurs, and close examination of these rare specimens is crucial to a better understanding of the diversity and palaeoecology of Plesiosauria in this very peculiar ecosystem. The plesiosaurian specimen SMNS 51945 found in this area is a juvenile individual consisting of a partial, crushed skull and an exquisitely preserved post-cranial skeleton...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540596/the-effect-of-growth-rate-and-ageing-on-colour-variation-of-european-pond-turtles
#16
Alejandro Ibáñez, José Martín, Alfonso Marzal, Albert Bertolero
Many chelonians have colourful dots, patches and stripes throughout their body that are made up, at least in part, of carotenoids. Therefore, turtles are very suitable models to study the evolution and functionality of carotenoid-based colouration. Recent studies suggested a close link between colouration and immune system in these taxa. However, more research is needed to understand the role of these colourful stripes and patches in turtle visual signalling. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between growth rate and colouration in European pond turtles...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540595/social-media-and-scientific-research-are-complementary-youtube-and-shrikes-as-a-case-study
#17
Łukasz Dylewski, Peter Mikula, Piotr Tryjanowski, Federico Morelli, Reuven Yosef
Fascination with animals and their behaviour is one the most prominent patterns persisting in all human cultures. During the last decades, however, technological development and public access to the Internet have increased the speed and the extent of information sharing at an unprecedented rate, in some cases even challenging the traditional methods used in science. In order to understand the extent of this influence, we focused on the behaviour of shrikes. Shrikes are an enigmatic group of songbirds with a unique behaviour of impaling prey...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534252/oxygen-isotope-fractionation-between-bird-bone-phosphate-and-drinking-water
#18
Romain Amiot, Delphine Angst, Serge Legendre, Eric Buffetaut, François Fourel, Jan Adolfssen, Aurore André, Ana Voica Bojar, Aurore Canoville, Abel Barral, Jean Goedert, Stanislaw Halas, Nao Kusuhashi, Ekaterina Pestchevitskaya, Kevin Rey, Aurélien Royer, Antônio Álamo Feitosa Saraiva, Bérengère Savary-Sismondini, Jean-Luc Siméon, Alexandra Touzeau, Zhonghe Zhou, Christophe Lécuyer
Oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ(18)Op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. These sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. This sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ(18)Op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ V-SMOW) and the local rainfall δ(18)Ow values estimated from nearby IAEA/WMO stations (from -16...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497195/olfaction-in-a-viscous-environment-the-color-of-sexual-smells-in-temora-longicornis
#19
Peter Hinow, J Rudi Strickler, Jeannette Yen
We investigate chemical aspects of mating in the marine copepod Temora longicornis (Copepoda, Calanoidea). Our emphasis is the female pheromone signaling in form of well-defined trails for males to follow, observed in Doall et al. (Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 353:681-689, 1998). The viscous environment and the properties of the odorants play important roles as the spread of the pheromone trail limits the time during which it is useful for tracing. A key observation from our earlier work is the ability of a searching male to detect the direction of the female and to correct its swimming direction if necessary...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477271/great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo-can-detect-auditory-cues-while-diving
#20
Kirstin Anderson Hansen, Alyssa Maxwell, Ursula Siebert, Ole Næsbye Larsen, Magnus Wahlberg
In-air hearing in birds has been thoroughly investigated. Sound provides birds with auditory information for species and individual recognition from their complex vocalizations, as well as cues while foraging and for avoiding predators. Some 10% of existing species of birds obtain their food under the water surface. Whether some of these birds make use of acoustic cues while underwater is unknown. An interesting species in this respect is the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), being one of the most effective marine predators and relying on the aquatic environment for food year round...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
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