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Die Naturwissenschaften

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785793/male-scent-marking-pheromone-of-bombus-ardens-ardens-hymenoptera-apidae-attracts-both-conspecific-queens-and-males
#1
Ryohei Kubo, Ken-Ichi Harano, Masato Ono
To explore the role of the volatiles emitted from male labial gland (LG) of the bumblebee Bombus ardens ardens, we investigated the responses of virgin queens and males to volatiles using a gas chromatography-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) system and Y-tube olfactometer. GC-EAD analysis revealed that citronellol, the main compound detected in the male LG, caused clear electrophysiological responses in the antennae of B. a. ardens virgin queens and males although two minor compounds elicited antennal responses when applied in a high concentration...
October 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791459/three-year-lifecycle-large-body-and-very-high-threshold-temperature-in-the-cricket-gryllus-argenteus-for-special-adaptation-to-desiccation-cycle-in-malawi
#2
Takuya Kosumi, Makio Takeda
In temperate climates, the initiation and termination of diapause synchronize the stress-tolerant stage with the stressful season and reproduction with the non-stressful season in many insects. Synchronization is often regulated by photoperiodism.Voltinism and the ultimate size of adults are also important determinants for their lifecycle, and different diapause stages and voltinism patterns are known in crickets.Here, we investigated the life history of the African cricket Gryllus argenteus from Malawi, which is a typical arid tropical highland...
August 8, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761976/physiological-proteins-in-resource-limited-herbivores-experiencing-a-population-die-off
#3
R Garnier, A I Bento, C Hansen, J G Pilkington, J M Pemberton, A L Graham
Nutrient availability is predicted to interact with herbivore population densities. Competition for low quality food at high density may reduce summer food intake, and in turn winter survival. Conversely, low population density may favor physiological recovery through better access to better quality spring forage. Here, we take advantage of the long-term study of the Soay sheep population of St. Kilda (Scotland) to measure plasma protein markers and immunity in two consecutive summers with contrasting population densities...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752413/punctuated-evolution-of-viscid-silk-in-spider-orb-webs-supported-by-mechanical-behavior-of-wet-cribellate-silk
#4
Dakota Piorkowski, Todd A Blackledge
The origin of viscid capture silk in orb webs, from cribellate silk-spinning ancestors, is a key innovation correlated with significant diversification of web-building spiders. Ancestral cribellate silk consists of dry nanofibrils surrounding a stiff, axial fiber that adheres to prey through van der Waals interactions, capillary forces, and physical entanglement. In contrast, viscid silk uses chemically adhesive aqueous glue coated onto a highly compliant and extensible flagelliform core silk. The extensibility of the flagelliform fiber accounts for half of the total work of adhesion for viscid silk and is enabled by water in the aqueous coating...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721557/the-mystery-of-a-missing-bone-revealing-the-orbitosphenoid-in-basal-epicynodontia-cynodontia-therapsida-through-computed-tomography
#5
Julien Benoit, Sandra C Jasinoski, Vincent Fernandez, Fernando Abdala
The basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts from the late Permian (Lopingian) and Early Triassic are a major source of information for the understanding of the evolutionary origin of mammals. Detailed knowledge of their anatomy is critical for understanding the phylogenetic transition toward mammalness and the paleobiological reconstruction of mammalian precursors. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), we describe the internal morphology of the interorbital region that includes the rarely fossilized orbitosphenoid elements in four basal cynodonts...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721556/using-taphonomy-to-infer-differences-in-soft-tissues-between-taxa-an-example-using-basal-and-derived-forms-of-solnhofen-pterosaurs
#6
S R Beardmore, E Lawlor, D W E Hone
In fossilised vertebrates, the presence of soft tissues is the most obvious way to determine aspects of anatomy and functional morphology; however, occurrences are rare and other lines of evidence must be sought to indicate its extent and strength. For example, pterosaurs possessed a large wing membrane that enabled powered flight but other tissues are not widely preserved. A semi-quantitative analysis comparing skeletal articulation and completeness of the pterodactyloid Pterodactylus and non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus from Solnhofen-type deposits implies there were anatomical differences between soft-tissue structure and attachments articulating skeletal joints of each...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689350/repeated-exposure-to-cat-urine-induces-complex-behavioral-hormonal-and-c-fos-mrna-responses-in-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#7
Baofa Yin, Chen Gu, Yi Lu, Ibrahim M Hegab, Shengmei Yang, Aiqin Wang, Wanhong Wei
Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689349/extreme-longevity-in-a-deep-sea-vestimentiferan-tubeworm-and-its-implications-for-the-evolution-of-life-history-strategies
#8
Alanna Durkin, Charles R Fisher, Erik E Cordes
The deep sea is home to many species that have longer life spans than their shallow-water counterparts. This trend is primarily related to the decline in metabolic rates with temperature as depth increases. However, at bathyal depths, the cold-seep vestimentiferan tubeworm species Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi reach extremely old ages beyond what is predicted by the simple scaling of life span with body size and temperature. Here, we use individual-based models based on in situ growth rates to show that another species of cold-seep tubeworm found in the Gulf of Mexico, Escarpia laminata, also has an extraordinarily long life span, regularly achieving ages of 100-200 years with some individuals older than 300 years...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681090/the-arnold-berliner-award-2017
#9
EDITORIAL
Sven Thatje
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681089/a-novel-test-for-evaluating-horses-spontaneous-visual-attention-is-predictive-of-attention-in-operant-learning-tasks
#10
C Rochais, M Sébilleau, M Houdebine, P Bec, M Hausberger, S Henry
Attention is described as the ability to process selectively one aspect of the environment over others. In this study, we characterized horses' spontaneous attention by designing a novel visual attention test (VAT) that is easy to apply in the animal's home environment. The test was repeated over three consecutive days and repeated again 6 months later in order to assess inter-individual variations and intra-individual stability. Different patterns of attention have been revealed: 'overall' attention when the horse merely gazed at the stimulus and 'fixed' attention characterized by fixity and orientation of at least the visual and auditory organs towards the stimulus...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676938/the-first-report-of-gynandromorphy-in-termites-isoptera-kalotermitidae-neotermes-koshunensis
#11
Yasushi Miyaguni, Tomonari Nozaki, Toshihisa Yashiro
This is the first report of gynandromorphy in Isoptera. An Asian dry-wood termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Shiraki) [Kalotermitidae], possessing both male and female phenotypic characteristics, was found on Okinawa Island, Japan. This deformed individual showed morphological and anatomical hermaphroditism in the abdomen. The right side of the seventh sternite was the female form and contained an ovary, while the left side was the male form and contained a testis. Genotypic analysis revealed that this individual was a genotypic bilateral chimera...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667473/differences-in-functional-traits-between-invasive-and-native-amaranthus-species-under-different-forms-of-n-deposition
#12
Congyan Wang, Jiawei Zhou, Jun Liu, Kun Jiang
Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH4-N, NO3-N, and CO(NH2)2-N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664419/females-sampling-strategy-to-comparatively-evaluate-prospective-mates-in-the-peacock-blenny-salaria-pavo
#13
Lisa Locatello, Maria B Rasotto
Emerging evidence suggests the occurrence of comparative decision-making processes in mate choice, questioning the traditional idea of female choice based on rules of absolute preference. In such a scenario, females are expected to use a typical best-of-n sampling strategy, being able to recall previous sampled males based on memory of their quality and location. Accordingly, the quality of preferred mate is expected to be unrelated to both the number and the sequence of female visits. We found support for these predictions in the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, a fish where females have the opportunity to evaluate the attractiveness of many males in a short time period and in a restricted spatial range...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664418/diet-dependent-heat-emission-reveals-costs-of-post-diapause-recovery-from-different-nutritional-sources-in-a-carnivorous-beetle
#14
Søren Toft, Søren Achim Nielsen
Restoration of fat stores is metabolic first priority for many insects that emerge from hibernation with depleted fat bodies. To some extent, the animals must be flexible and use whatever foods available irrespective of their nutrient composition. Previously, the carabid beetles Anchomenus dorsalis have been found to refill their fat stores to the same extent over 9 days irrespective of the nutrient composition of their food. However, a higher cost of fat deposition when the food was rich in sugar or protein rather than lipid was indicated by higher total energy consumption...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656350/frequency-of-decompression-illness-among-recent-and-extinct-mammals-and-reptiles-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Agnete Weinreich Carlsen
The frequency of decompression illness was high among the extinct marine "reptiles" and very low among the marine mammals. Signs of decompression illness are still found among turtles but whales and seals are unaffected. In humans, the risk of decompression illness is five times increased in individuals with Patent Foramen Ovale; this condition allows blood shunting from the venous circuit to the systemic circuit. This right-left shunt is characteristic of the "reptile" heart, and it is suggested that this could contribute to the high frequency of decompression illness in the extinct reptiles...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#16
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642972/does-contrast-between-eggshell-ground-and-spot-coloration-affect-egg-rejection
#17
Miri Dainson, Mark E Hauber, Analía V López, Tomáš Grim, Daniel Hanley
Obligate avian brood parasitic species impose the costs of incubating foreign eggs and raising young upon their unrelated hosts. The most common host defence is the rejection of parasitic eggs from the nest. Both egg colours and spot patterns influence egg rejection decisions in many host species, yet no studies have explicitly examined the role of variation in spot coloration. We studied the American robin Turdus migratorius, a blue-green unspotted egg-laying host of the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, a brood parasite that lays non-mimetic spotted eggs...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620738/variation-in-sex-pheromone-emission-does-not-reflect-immunocompetence-but-affects-attractiveness-of-male-burying-beetles-a-combination-of-laboratory-and-field-experiments
#18
Johanna Chemnitz, Nadiia Bagrii, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584964/antifungal-activity-of-the-pygidial-gland-secretion-of-laemostenus-punctatus-coleoptera-carabidae-against-cave-dwelling-micromycetes
#19
Marija Nenadić, Milica Ljaljević-Grbić, Miloš Stupar, Jelena Vukojević, Ana Ćirić, Vele Tešević, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Marina Todosijević, Nikola Vesović, Nemanja Živković, Srećko Ćurčić
The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578533/unusually-high-pitched-neonate-distress-calls-of-the-open-habitat-mongolian-gazelle-procapra-gutturosa-and-their-anatomical-and-hormonal-predictors
#20
Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Volodina, Roland Frey, Vadim E Kirilyuk, Sergey V Naidenko
In neonate ruminants, the acoustic structure of vocalizations may depend on sex, vocal anatomy, hormonal profiles and body mass and on environmental factors. In neonate wild-living Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa, hand-captured during biomedical monitoring in the Daurian steppes at the Russian-Mongolian border, we spectrographically analysed distress calls and measured body mass of 22 individuals (6 males, 16 females). For 20 (5 male, 15 female) of these individuals, serum testosterone levels were also analysed...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
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