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Die Naturwissenschaften

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#1
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642972/does-contrast-between-eggshell-ground-and-spot-coloration-affect-egg-rejection
#2
Miri Dainson, Mark E Hauber, Analía V López, Tomáš Grim, Daniel Hanley
Obligate avian brood parasitic species impose the costs of incubating foreign eggs and raising young upon their unrelated hosts. The most common host defence is the rejection of parasitic eggs from the nest. Both egg colours and spot patterns influence egg rejection decisions in many host species, yet no studies have explicitly examined the role of variation in spot coloration. We studied the American robin Turdus migratorius, a blue-green unspotted egg-laying host of the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, a brood parasite that lays non-mimetic spotted eggs...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620738/variation-in-sex-pheromone-emission-does-not-reflect-immunocompetence-but-affects-attractiveness-of-male-burying-beetles-a-combination-of-laboratory-and-field-experiments
#3
Johanna Chemnitz, Nadiia Bagrii, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584964/antifungal-activity-of-the-pygidial-gland-secretion-of-laemostenus-punctatus-coleoptera-carabidae-against-cave-dwelling-micromycetes
#4
Marija Nenadić, Milica Ljaljević-Grbić, Miloš Stupar, Jelena Vukojević, Ana Ćirić, Vele Tešević, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Marina Todosijević, Nikola Vesović, Nemanja Živković, Srećko Ćurčić
The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578533/unusually-high-pitched-neonate-distress-calls-of-the-open-habitat-mongolian-gazelle-procapra-gutturosa-and-their-anatomical-and-hormonal-predictors
#5
Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Volodina, Roland Frey, Vadim E Kirilyuk, Sergey V Naidenko
In neonate ruminants, the acoustic structure of vocalizations may depend on sex, vocal anatomy, hormonal profiles and body mass and on environmental factors. In neonate wild-living Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa, hand-captured during biomedical monitoring in the Daurian steppes at the Russian-Mongolian border, we spectrographically analysed distress calls and measured body mass of 22 individuals (6 males, 16 females). For 20 (5 male, 15 female) of these individuals, serum testosterone levels were also analysed...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578532/new-insights-on-the-systematics-palaeoecology-and-palaeobiology-of-a-plesiosaurian-with-soft-tissue-preservation-from-the-toarcian-of-holzmaden-germany
#6
Peggy Vincent, Rémi Allemand, Paul D Taylor, Guillaume Suan, Erin E Maxwell
The Posidonienschiefer Formation (Toarcian) of Holzmaden, Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany has yielded several excellently preserved plesiosaurian specimens and received considerable research attention. The plesiosaurians found within these deposits are always significantly outnumbered by ichthyosaurs, and close examination of these rare specimens is crucial to a better understanding of the diversity and palaeoecology of Plesiosauria in this very peculiar ecosystem. The plesiosaurian specimen SMNS 51945 found in this area is a juvenile individual consisting of a partial, crushed skull and an exquisitely preserved post-cranial skeleton...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540596/the-effect-of-growth-rate-and-ageing-on-colour-variation-of-european-pond-turtles
#7
Alejandro Ibáñez, José Martín, Alfonso Marzal, Albert Bertolero
Many chelonians have colourful dots, patches and stripes throughout their body that are made up, at least in part, of carotenoids. Therefore, turtles are very suitable models to study the evolution and functionality of carotenoid-based colouration. Recent studies suggested a close link between colouration and immune system in these taxa. However, more research is needed to understand the role of these colourful stripes and patches in turtle visual signalling. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between growth rate and colouration in European pond turtles...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540595/social-media-and-scientific-research-are-complementary-youtube-and-shrikes-as-a-case-study
#8
Łukasz Dylewski, Peter Mikula, Piotr Tryjanowski, Federico Morelli, Reuven Yosef
Fascination with animals and their behaviour is one the most prominent patterns persisting in all human cultures. During the last decades, however, technological development and public access to the Internet have increased the speed and the extent of information sharing at an unprecedented rate, in some cases even challenging the traditional methods used in science. In order to understand the extent of this influence, we focused on the behaviour of shrikes. Shrikes are an enigmatic group of songbirds with a unique behaviour of impaling prey...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534252/oxygen-isotope-fractionation-between-bird-bone-phosphate-and-drinking-water
#9
Romain Amiot, Delphine Angst, Serge Legendre, Eric Buffetaut, François Fourel, Jan Adolfssen, Aurore André, Ana Voica Bojar, Aurore Canoville, Abel Barral, Jean Goedert, Stanislaw Halas, Nao Kusuhashi, Ekaterina Pestchevitskaya, Kevin Rey, Aurélien Royer, Antônio Álamo Feitosa Saraiva, Bérengère Savary-Sismondini, Jean-Luc Siméon, Alexandra Touzeau, Zhonghe Zhou, Christophe Lécuyer
Oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ(18)Op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. These sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. This sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ(18)Op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ V-SMOW) and the local rainfall δ(18)Ow values estimated from nearby IAEA/WMO stations (from -16...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497195/olfaction-in-a-viscous-environment-the-color-of-sexual-smells-in-temora-longicornis
#10
Peter Hinow, J Rudi Strickler, Jeannette Yen
We investigate chemical aspects of mating in the marine copepod Temora longicornis (Copepoda, Calanoidea). Our emphasis is the female pheromone signaling in form of well-defined trails for males to follow, observed in Doall et al. (Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 353:681-689, 1998). The viscous environment and the properties of the odorants play important roles as the spread of the pheromone trail limits the time during which it is useful for tracing. A key observation from our earlier work is the ability of a searching male to detect the direction of the female and to correct its swimming direction if necessary...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477271/great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo-can-detect-auditory-cues-while-diving
#11
Kirstin Anderson Hansen, Alyssa Maxwell, Ursula Siebert, Ole Næsbye Larsen, Magnus Wahlberg
In-air hearing in birds has been thoroughly investigated. Sound provides birds with auditory information for species and individual recognition from their complex vocalizations, as well as cues while foraging and for avoiding predators. Some 10% of existing species of birds obtain their food under the water surface. Whether some of these birds make use of acoustic cues while underwater is unknown. An interesting species in this respect is the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), being one of the most effective marine predators and relying on the aquatic environment for food year round...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474181/sexual-selection-on-receptor-organ-traits-younger-females-attract-males-with-longer-antennae
#12
Tamara L Johnson, Matthew R E Symonds, Mark A Elgar
Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470450/responses-of-soil-n-fixing-bacteria-communities-to-invasive-plant-species-under-different-types-of-simulated-acid-deposition
#13
Congyan Wang, Jiawei Zhou, Kun Jiang, Jun Liu, Daolin Du
Biological invasions have incurred serious threats to native ecosystems in China, and soil N-fixing bacteria communities (SNB) may play a vital role in the successful plant invasion. Meanwhile, anthropogenic acid deposition is increasing in China, which may modify or upgrade the effects that invasive plant species can cause on SNB. We analyzed the structure and diversity of SNB by means of new generation sequencing technology in soils with different simulated acid deposition (SAD), i.e., different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios, and where the invasive (Amaranthus retroflexus L...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470449/is-phenotypic-plasticity-a-key-mechanism-for-responding-to-thermal-stress-in-ants
#14
Cristela Sánchez Oms, Xim Cerdá, Raphaël Boulay
Unlike natural selection, phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to respond quickly to changing environmental conditions. However, plasticity may not always be adaptive. In insects, body size and other morphological measurements have been shown to decrease as temperature increases. This relationship may lead to a physiological conflict in ants, where larger body size and longer legs often confer better thermal resistance. Here, we tested the effect of developmental temperature (20, 24, 28 or 32 °C) on adult thermal resistance in the thermophilic ant species Aphaenogaster senilis...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444435/genetic-sex-determination-in-astatotilapia-calliptera-a-prototype-species-for-the-lake-malawi-cichlid-radiation
#15
Erin N Peterson, Maggie E Cline, Emily C Moore, Natalie B Roberts, Reade B Roberts
East African cichlids display extensive variation in sex determination systems. The species Astatotilapia calliptera is one of the few cichlids that reside both in Lake Malawi and in surrounding waterways. A. calliptera is of interest in evolutionary studies as a putative immediate outgroup species for the Lake Malawi species flock and possibly as a prototype ancestor-like species for the radiation. Here, we use linkage mapping to test association of sex in A. calliptera with loci that have been previously associated with genetic sex determination in East African cichlid species...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396913/geographical-variation-in-sexual-behavior-and-body-traits-in-a-sex-role-reversed-wolf-spider
#16
Fedra Bollatti, Virginia Garcia Diaz, Alfredo V Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
Mating partners need to recognize, assess each other, and exchange information through behavioral events that occur before, during, and after mating. Sexual signals, as well as life history traits, are influenced by selective pressures and environmental factors that can vary across distant geographical areas. Allocosa senex is a sand-dwelling wolf spider which constructs burrows along the sandy coasts of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Females are the mobile sex that searches for males and initiates courtship...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389678/sexual-differences-in-food-preferences-in-the-white-stork-an-experimental-study
#17
Zbigniew Kwieciński, Zuzanna M Rosin, Łukasz Dylewski, Piotr Skórka
Sex differences in the foraging ecology of monomorphic species are poorly understood, due to problems with gender identification in field studies. In the current study, we used experimental conditions to investigate the food preferences of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, an opportunistic species in terms of food, but characterised by a low level of sexual dimorphism. During a 10-day experiment, 29 individuals (20 females and 9 males) were studied by means of a 'cafeteria test' in which the storks' diet consisted of mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, insects and earthworms...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382476/regulation-of-matrix-stiffness-on-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-breast-cancer-cells-under-hypoxia-environment
#18
Yonggang Lv, Can Chen, Boyuan Zhao, Xiaomei Zhang
Substrate stiffness and hypoxia are associated with tumor development and progression, respectively. However, the synergy of them on the biological behavior of human breast cancer cell is still largely unknown. This study explored how substrate stiffness regulates the cell phenotype, viability, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 under hypoxia (1% O2). TRITC-phalloidin staining showed that MCF-7 cells transformed from round to irregular polygon with stiffness increase either in normoxia or hypoxia...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451735/acknowledgement-to-referees-2016
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361348/controlling-enzymatic-activity-by-immobilization-on-graphene-oxide
#20
Paulina Bolibok, Marek Wiśniewski, Katarzyna Roszek, Artur P Terzyk
In this study, graphene oxide (GO) has been applied as a matrix for enzyme immobilization. The protein adsorption capacity of GO is much higher than of other large surface area carbonaceous materials. Its structure and physicochemical properties are reported beneficial also for enzymatic activity modifications. The experimental proof was done here that GO-based biocatalytic systems with immobilized catalase are modifiable in terms of catalyzed reaction kinetic constants. It was found that activity and stability of catalase, considered here as model enzyme, closely depend on enzyme/GO ratio...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
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