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Die Naturwissenschaften

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083632/do-horses-with-poor-welfare-show-pessimistic-cognitive-biases
#1
S Henry, C Fureix, R Rowberry, M Bateson, M Hausberger
This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9)...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035457/ant-lepidopteran-associations-along-african-forest-edges
#2
Alain Dejean, Frédéric Azémar, Michel Libert, Arthur Compin, Bruno Hérault, Jérôme Orivel, Thierry Bouyer, Bruno Corbara
Working along forest edges, we aimed to determine how some caterpillars can co-exist with territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs) in tropical Africa. We recorded caterpillars from 22 lepidopteran species living in the presence of five TDAA species. Among the defoliator and/or nectarivorous caterpillars that live on tree foliage, the Pyralidae and Nymphalidae use their silk to protect themselves from ant attacks. The Notodontidae and lycaenid Polyommatinae and Theclinae live in direct contact with ants; the Theclinae even reward ants with abundant secretions from their Newcomer gland...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028580/arthropods-associated-with-fungal-galls-do-large-galls-support-more-abundant-and-diverse-inhabitants
#3
Daichi Funamoto, Shinji Sugiura
Fungus-induced galls can attract spore-feeding arthropods as well as gall-feeding ones, resulting in diverse communities. Do large fungal galls support more abundant and diverse arthropod communities than small fungal galls? To address this question, we investigated the structure of the arthropod community associated with bud galls induced by the fungus Melanopsichium onumae on the tree species Cinnamomum yabunikkei (Lauraceae) in central Japan. Thirteen species of arthropods were associated with M. onumae galls...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005148/microanatomy-and-life-history-in-palaeopleurosaurus-rhynchocephalia-pleurosauridae-from-the-early-jurassic-of-germany
#4
Nicole Klein, Torsten M Scheyer
The tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) from New Zealand is often-erroneously-identified as a 'living fossil', although it is the lone survivor of a large, successful radiation of Rhynchocephalia, sister taxon to squamates (lizards and snakes), that thrived through the Mesozoic and Cenozoic and experienced an intricate evolution of life histories and feeding habits. Within Rhynchocephalia, only Pleurosauridae are thought to be marine and piscivorous. Here, we present bone histological data of the Jurassic pleurosaurid Palaeopleurosaurus, showing osteosclerosis (i...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005147/erratum-to-an-ecophysiological-background-for-biogeographic-patterns-of-two-island-lizards
#5
Miguel A Carretero, Evandro P Lopes, Raquel Vasconcelos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004133/tail-autotomy-affects-bipedalism-but-not-sprint-performance-in-a-cursorial-mediterranean-lizard
#6
Pantelis Savvides, Maria Stavrou, Panayiotis Pafilis, Spyros Sfenthourakis
Running is essential in all terrestrial animals mainly for finding food and mates and escaping from predators. Lizards employ running in all their everyday functions, among which defense stands out. Besides flight, tail autotomy is another very common antipredatory strategy within most lizard families. The impact of tail loss to sprint performance seems to be species dependent. In some lizard species, tail shedding reduces sprint speed, in other species, increases it, and, in a few species, speed is not affected at all...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981368/diet-and-environment-1-2-million-years-ago-revealed-through-analysis-of-dental-calculus-from-europe-s-oldest-hominin-at-sima-del-elefante-spain
#7
Karen Hardy, Anita Radini, Stephen Buckley, Ruth Blasco, Les Copeland, Francesc Burjachs, Josep Girbal, Riker Yll, Eudald Carbonell, Jose María Bermúdez de Castro
Sima del Elefante, Atapuerca, Spain contains one of the earliest hominin fragments yet known in Europe, dating to 1.2 Ma. Dental calculus from a hominin molar was removed, degraded and analysed to recover entrapped remains. Evidence for plant use at this time is very limited and this study has revealed the earliest direct evidence for foods consumed in the genus Homo. This comprises starchy carbohydrates from two plants, including a species of grass from the Triticeae or Bromideae tribe, meat and plant fibres...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942797/bone-histology-sheds-light-on-the-nature-of-the-dermal-armor-of-the-enigmatic-sauropod-dinosaur-agustinia-ligabuei-bonaparte-1999
#8
Flavio Bellardini, Ignacio A Cerda
Agustinia ligabuei is an Early Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur from the northwest of Patagonia that is currently the topic of debate with respect to its phylogenetic position and atypical dermal armor. The presence of four morphotypes of laminar and transversely elongated putative osteoderms was used to consider Agustinia as an armored sauropod. Regarding the different hypotheses about the identity of the bony structures of Agustinia (e.g., osteoderms, cervical or dorsal ribs, hypertrophied elements), a comparative histological analysis has been carried out...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889831/an-ecophysiological-background-for-biogeographic-patterns-of-two-island-lizards
#9
Miguel A Carretero, Evandro P Lopes, Raquel Vasconcelos
Distributions of sedentary ectotherms are dependent on temperature and humidity due to their low homeostatic and dispersal abilities. Lizards are strongly conditioned by temperature, but hydric environment may be also important, at least in arid environments. Biotic interactions may also play a role in range patterns, but they are of minor importance in islands where native species monopolize well-delimited niche spaces. On the arid island of São Vicente (Cabo Verde), two endemic lizards display different spatial patterns...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866229/vascular-epiphytes-and-host-trees-of-ant-gardens-in-an-anthropic-landscape-in-southeastern-mexico
#10
Jonas Morales-Linares, José G García-Franco, Alejandro Flores-Palacios, Jorge E Valenzuela-González, Martín Mata-Rosas, Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo
Ant-gardens (AGs) are considered one of the most complex mutualist systems between ants and plants, since interactions involving dispersal, protection, and nutrition occur simultaneously in them; however, little is known about the effects of the transformation of ecosystems on their diversity and interactions. In five environments with different land use within an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico, we investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytes and host trees of AGs built by Azteca gnava...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830290/a-new-armored-archosauriform-diapsida-archosauromorpha-from-the-marine-middle-triassic-of-china-with-implications-for-the-diverse-life-styles-of-archosauriforms-prior-to-the-diversification-of-archosauria
#11
Chun Li, Xiao-Chun Wu, Li-Jun Zhao, Sterling J Nesbitt, Michelle R Stocker, Li-Ting Wang
Reptiles have a long history of transitioning from terrestrial to semi-aquatic or aquatic environments that stretches back at least 250 million years. Within Archosauria, both living crocodylians and birds have semi-aquatic members. Closer to the root of Archosauria and within the closest relatives of the clade, there is a growing body of evidence that early members of those clades had a semi-aquatic lifestyle. However, the morphological adaptations to a semi-aquatic environment remain equivocal in most cases...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796428/a-first-possible-chameleon-from-the-late-miocene-of-india-the-hominoid-site-of-haritalyangar-a-tentative-evidence-for-an-asian-dispersal-of-chameleons
#12
Anek R Sankhyan, Andrej Čerňanský
Miocene rare fossils from India, tentatively attributed to chameleons, are described for the first time. The material consists of a fragment of the left squamosal and an element interpreted as a posterodorsal process of the parietal. The specimens come from a late Miocene site of the Nagri Formation (Middle Siwaliks, ~ 9 Mya) at Haritalyangar, North India. This material presents a possible evidence for a chameleon dispersal to Asia. Based on molecular data, the dispersion of an Asian chamaeleonid lineage from Africa to Arabia/Asia is dated at approximately 13 Mya and its diversification in situ at around 6-8 Mya...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787598/signal-polymorphism-under-a-constant-environment-the-odd-cross-in-a-web-decorating-spider
#13
André Walter, Mark A Elgar
The quality of many animal signals varies, perhaps through their use in different contexts or by representing an adaptive response to reduce the risk of exploitation. Spiders of the orb weaver genus Argiope add linear, cruciate or circular silk structures to their orb webs, creating inter- and intra-specific polymorphic visual signals. Different decoration patterns are frequently attributed to different signal effects, but this view is contradicted by commonly observed intraspecific variation in decorating behaviour...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730266/changes-in-behaviour-and-faecal-glucocorticoid-levels-in-response-to-increased-human-activities-during-weekends-in-the-pin-tailed-sandgrouse
#14
Fabián Casas, Ana Benítez-López, Rocío Tarjuelo, Isabel Barja, Javier Viñuela, Jesús T García, Manuel B Morales, Francois Mougeot
Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata)...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730265/retreat-and-extinction-of-the-late-pleistocene-cave-bear-ursus-spelaeus-sensu-lato
#15
Mateusz Baca, Danijela Popović, Krzysztof Stefaniak, Adrian Marciszak, Mikołaj Urbanowski, Adam Nadachowski, Paweł Mackiewicz
The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus sensu lato) is a typical representative of Pleistocene megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Last Glacial. Detailed knowledge of cave bear extinction could explain this spectacular ecological transformation. The paper provides a report on the youngest remains of the cave bear dated to 20,930 ± 140 (14)C years before present (BP). Ancient DNA analyses proved its affiliation to the Ursus ingressus haplotype. Using this record and 205 other dates, we determined, following eight approaches, the extinction time of this mammal at 26,100-24,300 cal...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722878/the-role-of-ultraviolet-colour-in-the-assessment-of-mimetic-accuracy-between-batesian-mimics-and-their-models-a-case-study-using-ant-mimicking-spiders
#16
Guadalupe Corcobado, Marie E Herberstein, Stano Pekár
The use of ultraviolet (UV) cues for intra- and inter-specific communication is common in many animal species. Still, the role of UV signals under some predator-prey contexts, such as Batesian mimicry, is not clear. Batesian mimicry is a defensive strategy by which a palatable species (the mimic) resembles an unpalatable or noxious species (the model) to avoid predation. This strategy has evolved independently in many different taxa that are predated by species capable of UV perception. Moreover, there is considerable variation in how accurately Batesian mimics resemble their models across species...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717969/multiple-origins-of-gigantism-in-stem-baleen-whales
#17
Cheng-Hsiu Tsai, Naoki Kohno
Living baleen whales (Mysticeti) include the world's largest animals to have ever lived-blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) can reach more than 30 m. However, the gigantism in baleen whales remains little explored. Here, we compiled all published stem mysticetes from the Eocene and Oligocene and then mapped the estimated body size onto different phylogenies that suggest distinct evolutionary histories of baleen whales. By assembling all known stem baleen whales, we present three novel findings in early mysticete evolution...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714412/ecology-and-sampling-techniques-of-an-understudied-subterranean-habitat-the-milieu-souterrain-superficiel-mss
#18
REVIEW
Stefano Mammola, Pier Mauro Giachino, Elena Piano, Alexandra Jones, Marcel Barberis, Giovanni Badino, Marco Isaia
The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain-caves and deep rock cracks-and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695903/variation-in-nesting-behavior-of-eight-species-of-spider-mites-stigmaeopsis-having-sociality
#19
Yutaka Saito, Yan-Xuan Zhang, Kotaro Mori, Katsura Ito, Yukie Sato, Anthony R Chittenden, Jian-Zhen Lin, Younghae Chae, Takane Sakagami, Ken Sahara
Nesting behavior is considered to be an important element of social living in animals. The spider mites belonging to the genus Stigmaeopsis spend their lives within nests produced from silk threads. Several of these species show cooperative sociality, while the others are subsocial. In order to identify the origins of this social behavior, comparisons of nest sizes, nesting behaviors (making nests continuously or separately), and their associated traits (fecal deposition patterns) were made for eight cogeneric Stigmaeopsis species showing various levels of social development...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695902/caterpillar-hairs-as-an-anti-parasitoid-defence
#20
Azusa Kageyama, Shinji Sugiura
Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
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