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Die Naturwissenschaften

Fakhar Ul Islam, Samina Jalali, Mustafa Nawaz Shafqat, Syed Tahir Abbas Shah
Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide that is toxic to aquatic life. Endosulfan might hamper the reproductive health of indigenous fish in agricultural areas of Pakistan where this pesticide is sprayed widely. The aim of the current study is to investigate the toxic effects of endosulfan on selected reproductive parameters of male freshwater fish, Cyprinion watsoni. Two concentrations of endosulfan (0.5 and 1 ppb for 30 days exposure) were tested for their effects on body weight, body length, and testicular weight, length, and width...
November 20, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Cristina Nava, Verónica C Neves, Malvina Andris, Marie-Pierre Dubois, Philippe Jarne, Mark Bolton, Joël Bried
Bottleneck episodes may occur in small and isolated animal populations, which may result in decreased genetic diversity and increased inbreeding, but also in mating strategy adjustment. This was evaluated in the vulnerable and socially monogamous Monteiro's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monteiroi, a seabird endemic to the Azores archipelago which has suffered a dramatic population decline since the XVth century. To do this, we conducted a genetic study (18 microsatellite markers) in the population from Praia islet, which has been monitored over 16 years...
November 15, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
José C Noguera, Neil B Metcalfe, Pat Monaghan
Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of male zebra finches, we show for the first time (1) that males reared on a poor (low) micronutrient diet had less complex songs as adults; (2) that these males, in contrast to the high micronutrient diet group, were more selective in their mating strategies, discriminating against those females most likely to reduce their clutch size when paired with males having less complex songs; and (3) that by following different mating strategies, males reared on the contrasting diets obtained similar reproductive benefits...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Małgorzata E Chrostek, Frédéric Jiguet, Carlos Zumalacárregui Martínez, David Miguélez, Júlio M Neto
Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Dina Cīrule, Tatjana Krama, Ronalds Krams, Didzis Elferts, Ants Kaasik, Markus J Rantala, Pranas Mierauskas, Severi Luoto, Indrikis A Krams
Animals normally respond to stressful environmental stimuli by releasing glucocorticoid hormones. We investigated whether baseline corticosterone (CORT), handling-induced corticosterone concentration(s), and body condition indices of members of willow tit (Poecile montanus) groups differed while wintering in old growth forests and managed young forests in mild weather conditions and during cold spells. Willow tits spend the winter season in non-kin groups in which dominant individuals typically claim their priority to access resources, while subordinate individuals may experience greater levels of stress and higher mortality, especially during cold spells...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Masayuki K Sakata, Nobutaka Maki, Hideki Sugiyama, Toshifumi Minamoto
Freshwater biodiversity has been severely threatened in recent years, and to conserve endangered species, their distribution and breeding habitats need to be clarified. However, identifying breeding sites in a large area is generally difficult. Here, by combining the emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis with subsequent traditional collection surveys, we successfully identified a breeding habitat for the critically endangered freshwater fish Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, which is one of the original habitats of this species...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Stijn Goolaerts, Julien Denayer, Bernard Mottequin
The taxonomic affinities of fossils from the Frasnian succession of Belgium previously described as phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields are discussed. The rediscovery of the holotype of Ellipsocaris dewalquei, the type species of the genus Ellipsocaris Woodward in Dewalque, 1882, allows to end the discussion on the taxonomic assignation of the genus Ellipsocaris. It is removed from the phyllopod crustaceans as interpreted originally and considered here as an ammonoid anaptychus. Furthermore, it is considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Sidetes Giebel, 1847...
November 3, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Wenjie Jin, Yishu Jia, E Tan, Gengsi Xi
Estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR) and ecdysone receptor gene (EcR) belong to the nuclear receptor gene superfamily, both of which are associated with the regulation of insect reproductive development. However, the relationship between ERR and EcR and whether ERR participates in the 20E signal pathway during male reproduction are unclear. In this paper, adult male crickets Teleogryllus emma Ohmschi & Matsumura were divided into the experimental group, negative group, and control group. Crickets of the experimental group were injected with TeERR or TeEcR-dsRNA, and those in the negative group received EGFP-dsRNA...
October 30, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Christina Madonia, Pierce Hutton, Mathieu Giraudeau, Tuul Sepp
Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation...
October 28, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Piotr Wegierek, Dagmara Żyła, Agnieszka Homan, Chenyang Cai, Diying Huang
Recently, we are witnessing an increased appreciation for the importance of the fossil record in phylogenetics and testing various evolutionary hypotheses. However, this approach brings many challenges, especially for such a complex group as aphids and requires a thorough morphological analysis of the extinct groups. The extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae is supposed to be one of the oviparous lineages in aphid evolution. New material from the rock fossil deposits of Shar Teg (Upper Jurassic of Mongolia), Baissa (Lower Cretaceous of Siberia-Russia), and Burmese amber (Upper Cretaceous of Myanmar) allowed us to undertake a more detailed examination of the morphological features and carry out an analysis of the taxonomical composition and evolution of the family...
October 24, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Wei Xu, Yalin Liao
Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are a family of metabolic enzymes that oxidize aldehydes into carboxylic acids; therefore, they play critical roles in detoxification and degradation of chemicals. By using transcriptomic and genomic approaches, we successfully identified six putative AOX genes (HarmAOX1-6) from cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In silico expression profile, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that HarmAOX1 is highly expressed in adult antennae, tarsi, and larval mouthparts, so they may play an important role in degrading plant-derived compounds...
October 23, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Ivan Maggini, Marc Bulte, Franz Bairlein
The Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) is a small long-distance migratory songbird that breeds throughout the Northern hemisphere and winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The main components of its migratory behaviour, i.e. seasonal migratory restlessness and body mass changes, have been shown to be under endogenous control. However, it is still unknown whether the disposition to accumulate fuel reserves is an inherited trait. We cross-bred Northern wheatears from two populations known to accumulate different amounts of fuel in a common-garden setup, and measured their maximum fuelling as the difference between the lightest and heaviest body mass recorded over each year for 4 years or longer...
October 17, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Wiebke Berg, Ole Theisinger, Kathrin H Dausmann
The physiological compensation of animals in changing environments through acclimatization has long been considered to be of minor importance in tropical ectotherms due to more stable climatic conditions compared to temperate regions. Contrasting this assumption are reports about a range of metabolic adjustments in tropical species, especially during the last two decades from field acclimatized animals. Metabolic rates are strongly linked to temperature in ectotherms but they also reflect energetic requirements and restrictions...
October 13, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Carlos E P Nunes, Marina Wolowski, Emerson Ricardo Pansarin, Günter Gerlach, Izar Aximoff, Nicolas J Vereecken, Marcos José Salvador, Marlies Sazima
Floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-pollinator interactions. We investigated the reproductive ecology and floral VOCs of Zygopetalinae orchids to understand the relationship between floral scents and pollinators. We performed focal observations, phenological censuses and breeding system experiments in eight species in southeast Brazil. Floral scents were collected and analysed using SPME/GC-MS. We performed multivariate analyses to group species according to affinities of their VOCs and define compounds associated to each plant...
October 13, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Jan Werner, Eva Maria Griebeler
Endothermy and its evolution are still an unresolved issue. Here, we present a model which transforms an ectothermic amniote (ancestor) into a derived amniote (descendant) showing many characteristics seen in extant endothermic birds and mammals. Consistent with the fossil record within the ancestral lineages of birds and mammals, the model assumes that mutations in genes which get active during ontogeny and affect body growth resulted in a reduced asymptotic body size and an early growth stop of the descendant...
October 11, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Hao Kou, Gui-Hua Wang, Lin-Guo Pei, Li Zhang, Chai Shi, Yu Guo, Dong-Fang Wu, Hui Wang
Epidemiological evidences show that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The IUGR offspring also present glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus after maturity. We have previously demonstrated that PCE induced IUGR and increased susceptibility to adult metabolic syndrome in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of PCE on glucose homeostasis in adult offspring rats. Pregnant rats were administered caffeine (120 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) from gestational days 11 to 20...
October 9, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Sven Thatje
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Federico L Agnolín, Federico Brissón Egli, Sankar Chatterjee, Jordi Alexis Garcia Marsà, Fernando E Novas
The fossil record of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene modern birds in the Southern Hemisphere includes the Maastrichtian Neogaeornis wetzeli from Chile, Polarornis gregorii and Vegavis iaai from Antarctica, and Australornis lovei from the Paleogene of New Zealand. The recent finding of a new and nearly complete Vegavis skeleton constitutes the most informative source for anatomical comparisons among Australornis, Polarornis, and Vegavis. The present contribution includes, for the first time, Vegavis, Polarornis, and Australornis in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis...
October 7, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Shanshan Wei, Xiangyu Wang, Qicen Zhu, Dong Jiang, Shuting Dong
The inefficient use of resources always poses risks of maize (Zea mays L.) yield reduction in China. We performed this research to monitor the effects of increasing plant density and reducing nitrogen (N) rate on radiation-use efficiency (RUE), N efficiency traits, grain yield (GY) and their inter-relationships. Besides, whether GY and resource-use efficiency can both be maximized was examined. Hence, a 2-year field experiment was conducted using a widely grown variety "Denghai 618" in Shandong, China. Treatments contained two different plant densities [67,500 (D1) and 97,500 (D2) plant ha(-1)] and three N levels [0 (N-2), 180 (N-1), 360 (Nck) kg ha(-1)], set D1Nck as control...
October 5, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Ryohei Kubo, Ken-Ichi Harano, Masato Ono
To explore the role of the volatiles emitted from male labial gland (LG) of the bumblebee Bombus ardens ardens, we investigated the responses of virgin queens and males to volatiles using a gas chromatography-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) system and Y-tube olfactometer. GC-EAD analysis revealed that citronellol, the main compound detected in the male LG, caused clear electrophysiological responses in the antennae of B. a. ardens virgin queens and males although two minor compounds elicited antennal responses when applied in a high concentration...
October 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
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