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Mónica A G Otálora, Reinhard Berndt
We present a taxonomic and phylogenetic study of Puccinia species (rust fungi) infecting tribe Lycieae (Solanaceae), with focus on the New World taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear (nuc) rDNA 5.8S-ITS2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome oxidase subunit 3 (CO3) show that Puccinia species occurring on Lyciae are grouped in two major lineages, one New World and one Old World. We assessed the value of morphological traits and geographic range as important features for discriminating lineages. The morphology of teliospore pedicels and rust geographic ranges explained the relationships within this Puccinia species group...
August 1, 2018: Mycologia
Carina Félix, Maria M Salvatore, Marina DellaGreca, Rodrigo Meneses, Ana S Duarte, Francesco Salvatore, Daniele Naviglio, Monica Gallo, Jesús V Jorrín-Novo, Artur Alves, Anna Andolfi, Ana C Esteves
Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes diseases not only in a broad number of plant hosts but also occasionally in humans. The capacity of L. theobromae to produce bioactive metabolites at 25 C (environmental mean temperature) and at 37 C (body mean temperature) was investigated. Two strains, CAA019 and CBS339.90, isolated respectively from a coconut tree and a human patient were characterized. The phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity (on mammalian cells) of the secretomes of both strains of L...
July 31, 2018: Mycologia
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: Mycologia
William E Brandenburg, Karlee J Ward
Ingestion of wild and potentially toxic mushrooms is common in the United States and many other parts of the world. US poison centers have been logging cases of mushroom exposure in The National Poison Data System (NPDS) annual publications for over 30 years. This study compiles and analyzes US mushroom exposures as reported by the NPDS from 1999 to 2016. Over the last 18 years, 133 700 cases (7428/year) of mushroom exposure, mostly by ingestion, have been reported. Cases are most frequently unintentional (83%, P < 0...
July 31, 2018: Mycologia
Xu Lu, Kari Steffen, Hai-Sheng Yuan
Three new species of Tomentella (Thelephorales) from Finland, T. globosa, T. lammiensis, and T. longisterigmata, are described and illustrated with morphological characteristics and nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. T. globosa is characterized by mucedinoid, pale to dark brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, globose basidiospores (echinuli up to 1.5 μm long). T. lammiensis is characterized by mucedinoid, oxide yellow to golden brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, ellipsoid, triangular, or lobbed basidiospores (echinuli up to 2 μm long)...
May 22, 2018: Mycologia
Yu-Ming Ju, Jack D Rogers, Huei-Mei Hsieh
Twenty-five fructicolous and seminicolous species of Xylaria are classified into three groups by stromatal morphology: (i) the X. ianthinovelutina group; (ii) the X. carpophila group; and (iii) the X. heloidea group. Xylaria reevesiae, X. rossmanae, and X. vivantii are described as new species. Xylaria reevesiae belongs to the X. carpophila group, resembling X. euphorbiicola but differing from it mainly by having conspicuous perithecial mounds and growing on fallen fruits of a different host plant. Xylaria rossmanae and X...
May 3, 2018: Mycologia
Debora Cervieri Guterres, Samuel Galvão-Elias, Bruno Cézar Pereira de Souza, Danilo Batista Pinho, Maria do Desterro Mendes Dos Santos, Robert Neil Gerard Miller, José Carmine Dianese
Apiosphaeria guaranitica, the causal agent of brown crust disease of several bignoniaceous hosts, among them Handroanthus and Tabebuia species, has been traditionally placed in Phyllachoraceae, based exclusively on morphological studies, without supporting molecular evidence. Here, we provide molecular data for the link between sexual and asexual states of the fungus and elucidate the phylogeny of A. guaranitica. The multilocus phylogenetic analyses employed sequences from the 18S subunit (18S), 28S subunit (28S), and nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5...
May 2018: Mycologia
Matthew E Smith, Michael A Castellano, Jonathan L Frank
Hymenogaster is an ectomycorrhizal genus of brown-spored sequestrate fungi that is related to the mushroom-forming genera Hebeloma and Alnicola (Agaricales). However, because of difficulties in morphological taxonomy of sequestrate fungi, Hymenogaster has become a polyphyletic repository for a variety of unrelated brown-spored sequestrate species. During studies of ectomycorrhizal ecology and sequestrate fungal evolution in the western USA, we encountered specimens of a morphologically unique species. It was originally described as Hymenogaster macmurphyi, but our morphological and molecular analyses indicate that it is not closely related to Hymenogaster...
May 2018: Mycologia
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Mycologia
P Brandon Matheny, Rachel A Swenie
The Inocybe geophylla group is circumscribed based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences largely sampled from North America and Europe. Twenty-nine phylogenetic species are uncovered after analysis of combined nuc 28S rDNA (28S) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) DNA sequence data. Species in the I. geophylla group share the presence of a cortina, silky-fibrillose pileus and stipe, pruinose stipe apex, spermatic odor, thick-walled hymenial cystidia, and smooth amygdaliform or elliptical basidiospores...
April 30, 2018: Mycologia
Guohua Yin, Sui Sheng T Hua, Kayla K Pennerman, Jiujiang Yu, Lijing Bu, Richard T Sayre, Joan W Bennett
Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and a few other closely related species of Aspergillus. These highly toxigenic and carcinogenic mycotoxins contaminate global food and feed supplies, posing widespread health risks to humans and domestic animals. Field application of nonaflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus to compete against aflatoxigenic strains has emerged as one of the best management practices for reducing aflatoxins contamination, yielding successful commercial products for corn, cotton seed, and peanuts...
April 24, 2018: Mycologia
Megan E Miller, Nina Shishkoff, Marc A Cubeta
Knowledge of the thermal sensitivity of conidia and microsclerotia is useful for developing plant disease management approaches that deploy heat to inactivate infectious vegetative propagules of fungal pathogens. For boxwood blight disease, heat treatment of cuttings that harbor conidia and microsclerotia would provide a useful management tool for suppressing the pathogenic activity of Calonectria pseudonaviculata (present in the United States) and C. henricotiae (a quarantine pathogen not present in the United States)...
April 20, 2018: Mycologia
Radwa A Hanafy, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
Anaerobic gut fungi are common inhabitants of the alimentary tracts of herbivorous animals. Nine different Neocallimastigomycota genera have been described so far. However, culture-independent diversity surveys suggest the presence of numerous, yet-uncultured Neocallimastigomycota genera. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of the first cultured representatives of Neocallimastigomycota clade AL6, originally identified in culture-independent surveys of fecal samples from captive wild animals...
April 20, 2018: Mycologia
Radwa A Hanafy, Britny Johnson, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
Ten different anaerobic gut fungal strains were isolated from fecal samples of cow and goat in Oklahoma, USA. The isolates displayed polycentric thalli, uniflagellated zoospores, and sausage-shaped hyphal constrictions, all characteristic of the genus Anaeromyces, and lobed or appressorium-like structures on the hyphae, previously reported in Anaeromyces elegans but not in A. mucronatus or A. robustus. Further, the strains exhibited highly coiled and entangled hyphae previously unreported in the Neocallimastigomycota, but resembling fungal traps previously observed in multiple nematophagous fungi...
April 19, 2018: Mycologia
Jun F Liang, Fei Yu, Jun K Lu, Sheng K Wang, Jie Song
Two new species in Lepiota sect. Ovisporae are described from tropical China. Lepiota angusticystidiata has a pileus with brownish yellow squamules covering a trichodermial palisade, ellipsoidal basidiospores, and narrowly clavate cheilocystidia; L. brunneosquamulosa has a tomentose, squamulose pileus with brownish yellow to yellowish brown concentric zones covering a trichodermial palisade, rarely with short elements, ellipsoidal or subcylindrical basidiospores with straight adaxial side, and no cheilocystidia...
April 18, 2018: Mycologia
Mihwa Yi, Will Q Hendricks, Joshua Kaste, Nikki D Charlton, Padmaja Nagabhyru, Daniel G Panaccione, Carolyn A Young
Epichloë species (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) are endophytic symbionts of many cool-season grasses. Many interactions between Epichloë and their host grasses contribute to plant growth promotion, protection from many pathogens and insect pests, and tolerance to drought stress. Resistance to insect herbivores by endophytes associated with Hordeum species has been previously shown to vary depending on the endophyte-grass-insect combination. We explored the genetic and chemotypic diversity of endophytes present in wild Hordeum species...
April 18, 2018: Mycologia
Keisuke Obase, Greg W Douhan, Yosuke Matsuda, Matthew E Smith
Cenococcum geophilum forms sclerotia and ectomycorrhizas with host plants in forest soils. We demonstrated the differences in genetic diversity of C. geophilum between cultured isolates from sclerotia and those from ectomycorrhizal roots in the same 73 soil samples based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene sequences and newly developed microsatellite markers. Based on GAPDH sequences, 759 cultured isolates (553 from sclerotia and 206 from ectomycorrhizas) were classified into 107 "genotypes" with sequence variation of up to 8...
April 18, 2018: Mycologia
Ihan L du Plessis, Irina S Druzhinina, Lea Atanasova, Oded Yarden, Karin Jacobs
Fourteen Trichoderma (Hypocreales) species were identified during a survey of the genus in South Africa. These include T. afroharzianum, T. asperelloides, T. asperellum, T. atrobrunneum, T. atroviride, T. camerunense, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. koningii, T. koningiopsis, T. saturnisporum, T. spirale, T. virens, and T. viride. Ten of these species were not known to occur in South Africa prior to this investigation. Five additional species were novel and are described here as T. beinartii, T. caeruleimontis, T...
April 16, 2018: Mycologia
Jiao Qin, Egon Horak, Flavius Popa, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Gerhard Kost, Fang Li, Zhu L Yang
The fungal genus Strobilurus belongs to Physalacriaceae and contains approximately 11 species worldwide. Species of this genus grow and reproduce on cones of various conifers, seed pods or fruits of Magnolia and Liquidambar, and branches and wood of conifers. Previous studies focused mainly on samples from Europe and North America. And no genus-specific phylogenetic analysis has been carried out to date. The monophyly, degree of species diversity and substrate specificity, and overall distribution patterns are addressed here using morphological and molecular evidence...
April 13, 2018: Mycologia
Zhi Li, Xiao-Lin You, Lin-Ling Wang, Zhen-Tian Yan, Ze-Yang Zhou
Ascosphaera apis is an intestinally infective, spore-forming, filamentous fungus that infects honeybees and causes deadly chalkbrood disease. Although A. apis has been known for 60 y, little is known about the ultrastructure of the spores. In this study, the fine morphology and ultrastructure of an isolate, A. apis CQ1 from southwest China, was comprehensively identified by transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The high sequence similarity and phylogenetic data based on nuc rDNA ITS1-5...
March 2018: Mycologia
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