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Cedar Nelson Hesse, Terry Torres-Cruz, Terri L Billingsley Tobias, Maryam Al-Matruk, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, Cheryl R Kuske
Soil fungal communities are responsible for carbon and nitrogen (N) cycling. The high complexity of the soil fungal community and the high proportion of taxonomically unidentifiable sequences confound ecological interpretations in field studies because physiological information is lacking for many organisms known only by their rRNA sequences. This situation forces experimental comparisons to be made at broader taxonomic racks where functions become difficult to infer. The objective of this study was to determine OTU (operational taxonomic units) level responses of the soil fungal community to N enrichment in a temperate pine forest experiment and to use the sequencing data to guide culture efforts of novel N-responsive fungal taxa...
September 12, 2016: Mycologia
Tom Gräfenhan, Peter Johnston, Martha M Vauthan, Susan P McCormick, Robert Proctor, Mark Busman, Todd Ward, Kerry O'Donnell
We report on the molecular and morphological characterization of a novel type B trichothecene toxin-producing species (i.e. B clade) recovered from litter in a maize field near Wellington, New Zealand, which is described as Fusarium praegraminearum sp. nov. This species was initially identified as F. acuminatum based on morphological characters. However, it differs from this species by producing longer, slightly asymmetrically curved macroconidia in which the apical cell is not as pointed and by its much faster colony growth rate on agar...
September 12, 2016: Mycologia
Ryan Michael Kepler, Yuan Chen, James Kilcrease, Jonathan Shao, Stephen A Rehner
In fungi, stable diploid genome arrangements are rare. Here we present evidence from nuclear intergenic DNA sequencing, microsatellite genotyping, and configuration of the mating-type locus to demonstrate two independent origins of persistent diploid genome organization in the Metarhizium majus species complex. Most taxa in the complex are genotypically haploid, with individual isolates consistently displaying a single allele across all nuclear loci, as well as having a single mating-type locus. In contrast, individuals of M...
September 12, 2016: Mycologia
Zhao-Qing Zeng, Wen-Ying Zhuang
Recent collections and herbarium specimens of Thyronectria from different regions in China were examined. Using combined analyses of morphology and molecular data, we recognized eight species. Among them, Thyronectria atrobrunnea, T. orientalis, and T. sinensis are described and illustrated as new species. Thyronectria atrobrunnea is characterized by blackish brown perithecia that become cupulate when dry, and 8-spored asci containing ellipsoidal to broadly fusiform or subcylindrical ascospores that bud to form bacillar to subellipsoidal ascoconidia within the asci...
September 12, 2016: Mycologia
Dennis E Desjardin, Brian A Perry, Cassius V Stevani
Four species of mycenoid fungi are reported as luminescent (or putatively luminescent) on the basis of specimens collected from São Paulo State, Brazil. Two of them represent new species (Mycena oculisnymphae, Resinomycena petarensis), and two represent new reports of luminescence in previously described species (M. deformis, M. globulispora). Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions were generated for barcoding purposes and for comparisons with similar species...
September 12, 2016: Mycologia
John-Erich Haight, Gary A Laursen, Jessie Glaeser, Lee Taylor
Fungal species with a broad distribution may exhibit considerable genetic variation over their geographic ranges. Variation may develop among populations based on geographic isolation, lack of migration, and genetic drift, though this genetic variation may not always be evident when examining phenotypic characters. Fomitopsis pinicola is an abundant saprotrophic fungus found on decaying logs throughout temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic studies have addressed the relationship of F. pinicola to other wood-rotting fungi, but pan-continental variation within F...
August 22, 2016: Mycologia
Joseph W Spatafora, Ying Chang, Gerald L Benny, Katy Lazarus, Matthew E Smith, Mary L Berbee, Gregory Bonito, Nicolas Corradi, Igor Grigoriev, Andrii Gryganskyi, Timothy Y James, Kerry O'Donnell, Robert W Roberson, Thomas N Taylor, Jessie Uehling, Rytas Vilgalys, Merlin M White, Jason E Stajich
Zygomycete fungi were classified as a single phylum, Zygomycota, based on sexual reproduction by zygospores, frequent asexual reproduction by sporangia, absence of multicellular sporocarps, and production of coenocytic hyphae, all with some exceptions. Molecular phylogenies based on one or a few genes did not support the monophyly of the phylum, however, and the phylum was subsequently abandoned. Here we present phylogenetic analyses of a genome-scale data set for 46 taxa, including 25 zygomycetes and 192 proteins, and we demonstrate that zygomycetes comprise two major clades that form a paraphyletic grade...
September 2016: Mycologia
John-Erich Haight, Gary A Laursen, Jessie A Glaeser, D Lee Taylor
Fungal species with a broad distribution may exhibit considerable genetic variation over their geographic ranges. Variation may develop among populations based on geographic isolation, lack of migration, and genetic drift, though this genetic variation may not always be evident when examining phenotypic characters. Fomitopsis pinicola is an abundant saprotrophic fungus found on decaying logs throughout temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic studies have addressed the relationship of F. pinicola to other wood-rotting fungi, but pan-continental variation within F...
September 2016: Mycologia
Joshua M Birkebak, Slavomír Adamčík, Brian P Looney, P Brandon Matheny
The genus Camarophyllopsis contains species with lamellate (agaricoid) basidiomes in the family Clavariaceae (Agaricales), a group otherwise dominated by club-like (clavarioid) or branched (coralloid) forms. Previous studies have suggested that species classified in Camarophyllopsis occur in two independent lineages. We reconstructed a multilocus phylogeny of the Clavaria-Camarophyllopsis-Clavicorona clade in the Clavariaceae using RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), nuclear ribosomal 28S, and nuclear ribosomal ITS1-5...
September 2016: Mycologia
Tuula Niskanen, Kare Liimatainen, Ilkka Kytövuori, Håkan Lindström, Bryn T M Dentinger, Joseph F Ammirati
Five species of Cortinarius subgenus Callistei, are recognized in Europe and North America. Cortinarius callisteus, C. infucatus, and C. neocallisteus sp. nov. have a broad distribution, extending from western North America to Europe. Cortinarius tofaceus is known from eastern North America and Europe, while C. callistei sp. is known only from one locality in Sweden. All five species are primarily associated with coniferous trees. Previously the species were included either in subgenus Leprocybe or subgenus Cortinarius, but recently they have been separated into subgenus Callistei based on molecular data...
September 2016: Mycologia
Maria Tomaso-Peterson, Young-Ki Jo, Phillip L Vines, Federico G Hoffmann
A novel species of Curvularia was identified as a foliar pathogen of Cynodon dactylon (bermudagrass) and Zoysia matrella (zoysiagrass), two important warm-season turfgrasses in the southeastern United States. Field symptoms were conspicuous chocolate brown to black spots in turf of both species on golf course putting greens and fairways. Leaves of plants within these spots exhibited prominent, black eyespot lesions from which a darkly pigmented fungus was consistently isolated. The fungus produced gray- to black-olivaceous mycelium within 10 d on potato dextrose agar at 25 C but never produced conidia despite numerous attempts to induce them...
September 2016: Mycologia
Victor M Bandala, Leticia Montoya, Antero Ramos
Two species of Lactarius from the subtropical montane cloud forest of central Veracruz are described as new. Both species are placed in subgenus Lactarius based on an accurate study of macro- and micromorphological features and supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses of a single nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), a concatenated ITS, D1, and D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S), and part of the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) (6-7 region) sequence datasets. In the phylogenetic reconstruction presented, the two species appear nested in two clearly distinct, well supported clades that reveal their phylogenetic position among members of subgenus Lactarius (= subg...
September 2016: Mycologia
Marcelo A Sulzbacher, Tine Grebenc, Tiara S Cabral, Admir J Giachini, Bruno T Goto, Matthew E Smith, Iuri G Baseia
Restingomyces reticulatus gen. et sp. nov. is a recently discovered false truffle species from Atlantic "restinga" rainforest in northeastern Brazil. Molecular and morphological characters separate this new sequestrate species from other described taxa in the order Phallales (Phallomycetidae, Basidiomycota). In our phylogenetic analysis based on nuc 28S rDNA and atp6, R. reticulatus forms a sister clade to Trappea darkeri and Phallobata alba, with the three taxa forming the earliest diverging lineage within Phallales...
September 2016: Mycologia
Jacqueline Edwards, Desmond Auer, Sri-Kanthi de Alwis, Brett Summerell, Takayuki Aoki, Robert H Proctor, Mark Busman, Kerry O'Donnell
This study was conducted to characterize a novel Fusarium species that caused leaf and stem spot on Agapanthus praecox (Agapanthus, African lily) in northern Italy and leaf rot and spot on the same host in Melbourne, Australia. Formally described as Fusarium agapanthi, this pathogen was analyzed using phenotypic, phytopathogenic, secondary metabolite, molecular phylogenetic and genomic data. Five strains were characterized, including one isolated in 1999 from symptomatic A. praecox in Saluzzo, Italy, and four in 2010 from diseased leaf tissue from the same host exhibiting leaf rot and spot symptoms in the Melbourne Gardens, Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, Australia...
September 2016: Mycologia
Marisa de Campos-Santana, Mario Amalfi, Gabriel Castillo, Cony Decock
Species complexes in the poroid Hymenochaetaceae are well documented in the temperate areas. Potential species complexes are less known in tropical areas, however. In the last ten years, four phylogenetically and morphologically closely related species of Phellinus (Hymenochaetaceae) were described from various tropical/subtropical areas viz. P. caribaeo-quercicola, P. gabonensis, P. ellipsoideus, and P. castanopsidis They are characterized by cushion-shaped basidiomata, ventricose, commonly hamate hymenial setae, and broadly ellipsoid, thick-walled, pale yellowish basidiospores...
September 2016: Mycologia
Nor Azizah Kusai, Madihah Mior Zakuan Azmi, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Termizi Yusof, Azmi Abd Razak
Setosphaeria rostrata, a common plant pathogen causing leaf spot disease, affects a wide range of plant species, mainly grasses. Fungi were isolated from brown spots on rice leaves throughout Peninsular Malaysia, and 45 isolates were identified as Setosphaeria rostrata The isolates were then characterized using morphological and molecular approaches. The mating type was determined using PCR amplification of the mating type alleles, and isolates of opposite mating types were crossed to examine sexual reproduction...
September 2016: Mycologia
Hong Chen, Junliang Zhou, Baokai Cui
Two new species of Fomitiporia growing on Hippophae trees, F. norbulingka and F. subhippophaëicola, are described from southwest China based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis. Fomitiporia norbulingka is characterized by pileate basidiomata, mostly angular pores (6-9 per mm), slightly thick-walled generative hyphae, subglobose to globose basidiospores (6.5-7 × 5.5-7 μm), and absence of cystidioles. Fomitiporia subhippophaëicola is diagnostic by effused-reflexed to pileate basidiomata, angular pores (8-10 per mm), thick-walled generative hyphae, subglobose to obovoid basidiospores (6-8 × 5...
September 2016: Mycologia
Qing Cai, Yang-Yang Cui, Zhu L Yang
Lethal amanitas (Amanita sect. Phalloideae) cause many casualties worldwide. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revealed diverse lethal Amanita spp. in China. Here a 5-gene phylogeny (nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 with the 5.8S rDNA, the D1-D3 domains of nuc 28S rDNA, and partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin genes) is used to investigate the phylogenetic lineages and species delimitation in this section...
September 2016: Mycologia
Fang Wu, Li-Wei Zhou, Yu-Cheng Dai
Neomensularia (Hymenochaetaceae) is a new genus introduced for N. duplicata sp. nov. (generic type), N. crocitincta and N. kanehirae combs. nov., based on a combination of distinct morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses inferred from nuc rDNA partial 28S and ITS datasets. The new genus is characterized by annual, pileate, brown to fuscous basidiocarps, duplex context, dimitic hyphal structure, ventricose, and hooked hymenial setae, golden yellow, thick-walled, smooth basidiospores that are negative in both Melzer's reagent and Cotton Blue and a growth habit in tropical forests...
September 2016: Mycologia
William J Davis, Peter M Letcher, Martha J Powell
Zoospore ultrastructural characters combined with molecular phylogenetic hypotheses have been used to revise the taxonomy of zoosporic true fungi. An example is the reclassification of Rhizophlyctis rosea-like fungal strains into four new families and three new genera within the order Rhizophlyctidales. One genus was Borealophlyctis, which included a Canadian isolate, DAOMC 229843. A recent survey of chytrid diversity in Alabama (USA) yielded additional strains (WJD 170, WJD 171) in the Borealophlyctis lineage...
July 2016: Mycologia
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