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May 12, 2017: Mycologia
Elena Fernández-Miranda, Juan Majada, Abelardo Casares
The use of spores in applications of ectomycorrhizal fungi requires information regarding spore viability and germination, especially in genera such as Rhizopogon with high rates of spore dormancy. The authors developed a protocol to assess spore viability of Rhizopogon roseolus using four vital stains to quantify spore viability and germination and to optimize storage procedures. They showed that propidium iodide is an excellent stain for quantifying nonviable spores. Observing red fluorescent intravacuolar structures following staining with 2-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene)-1-phenylquinolinium iodide (FUN-1) can help identify viable spores that are activated...
May 2, 2017: Mycologia
Miroslav Kolařík, Jiri Hulcr, Ned Tisserat, Wilhelm De Beer, Martin Kostovčík, Zuzana Kolaříková, Steven J Seybold, David M Rizzo
Fungi in the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are frequent associates of bark beetles and woodborers that colonize hardwood and coniferous trees. One species, Geosmithia morbida, is an economically damaging invasive species. The authors surveyed the Geosmithia species of California and Colorado, USA, to (i) provide baseline data on taxonomy of Geosmithia and beetle vector specificity across the western USA; (ii) investigate the subcortical beetle fauna for alternative vectors of the invasive G. morbida; and (iii) interpret the community composition of this region within the emerging global biogeography of Geosmithia...
April 24, 2017: Mycologia
Rui Zhang, Gregory M Mueller, Xiao-Fei Shi, Pei-Gui Liu
Suillus spraguei, synonym S. pictus, has been reported from eastern North America and eastern Asia associated with Pinus subgenus Strobus. Published phylogenetic analyses of rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and population genetic studies indicated that S. spraguei as currently circumscribed might contain several geographically distinct species. This study examined this possibility through a multigene analysis of S. spraguei specimens from eastern North America and eastern Asia. These specimens were associated with Pinus strobus, P...
April 19, 2017: Mycologia
Radwa A Hanafy, Mostafa S Elshahed, Audra S Liggenstoffer, Gareth W Griffith, Noha H Youssef
The anaerobic gut fungi (AGF) inhabit the rumen and alimentary tracts of multiple ruminant and nonruminant herbivores, belong to a distinct phylum-level lineage (Neocallimastigomycota), and play an important role in plant biomass degradation in many herbivores. As part of a wider effort to obtain AGF with high lignocellulolytic capacities, we isolated and characterized four different AGF strains from the feces of cattle and sheep. Microscopically, isolates produced monocentric thalli and monoflagellated zoospores...
April 18, 2017: Mycologia
Natalia Vargas, Carlos José Pardo-de La Hoz, Giovanna Danies, Ana Esperanza Franco-Molano, Pedro Jiménez, Silvia Restrepo, Alejandro Grajales
Amanita is a worldwide-distributed fungal genus, with approximately 600 known species. Most species within the genus are ectomycorrhizal (ECM), with some saprotrophic representatives. In this study, we constructed the first comprehensive phylogeny including ECM species from Colombia collected in native Quercus humboldtii forests and in introduced Pinus patula plantations. We included 8 species (A. brunneolocularis, A. colombiana, A. flavoconia, A. fuligineodisca, A. muscaria, A. rubescens, A. sororcula, and A...
April 12, 2017: Mycologia
Paola C Faustinelli, Edwin R Palencia, Victor S Sobolev, Bruce W Horn, Hank T Sheppard, Marshall C Lamb, Xinye M Wang, Brian E Scheffler, Jaime Martinez Castillo, Renée S Arias
Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. The major aflatoxin-producing fungi are Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Numerous crops, including peanut, are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination by these fungi. There has been an increased use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology to control phytopathogenic fungi in recent years. In order to develop molecular tools targeting specific genes of these fungi for the control of aflatoxins, it is necessary to obtain their genome sequences. Although high-throughput sequencing is readily available, it is still impractical to sequence the genome of every isolate...
April 12, 2017: Mycologia
Iqbal Hosen, Tai-Hui Li
Two new species of Phylloporus from Bangladesh forests dominated by Shorea robusta are described and illustrated, based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic evidence. Phylloporus attenuatus is characterized by its wine-red to brownish-red pilei, decurrent lamellae that stain blue, downwards tapering stipe, a trichodermium pileipellis, and ellipsoidal-ovoid to ellipsoidal basidiospores (7-8 × 4-5 µm). Phylloporus catenulatus is characterized by its small-sized basidiomata with reddish-brown pilei, narrowly decurrent with distant lamellae that stain blue, a subepithelium pileipellis, and ellipsoidal to ellipsoidal-ovoid basidiospores (8-9...
April 4, 2017: Mycologia
Katherine L Lazarus, Gerald L Benny, Hsiao-Man Ho, Matthew E Smith
We examined phylogenetic relationships among species of the mycoparasite genus Syncephalis using sequences from three nuclear ribsosomal DNA genes (18S, 5.8S, and 28S nuc rDNA) and a gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1). Our data set included 88 Syncephalis isolates comprising 23 named species and several unnamed taxa. We also revived a culturing technique using beef liver and cellophane to grow several Syncephalis isolates without their host fungi to obtain pure parasite DNA. Most isolates, however, were grown in co-cultures with their host fungi, so we designed Syncephalis-specific primers to obtain sequence data...
March 15, 2017: Mycologia
Xiao-Hong Ji, Josef Vlasák, Li-Wei Zhou, Fang Wu, Yu-Cheng Dai
Fomitiporella accommodates polypores producing annual to perennial basidiocarps with an indistinct subiculum (very thin to almost lacking), mostly a dimitic hyphal structure, lacking any kind of setae, with brownish, thick-walled basidiospores, and causing a white rot. Previously, only a few samples of Fomitiporella were studied on the basis of morphological and nuc 28S rDNA (28S)-based phylogenetic analyses. In this study, we made a comprehensive study on Fomitiporella on the basis of collections from Central America, USA, Europe, and China...
March 15, 2017: Mycologia
Egídia Azevedo, Margarida Barata, Maria Isabel Marques, Maria Filomena Caeiro
This study presents morphological and molecular evidence for the establishment of a new species of Lulworthia based on the evaluation of 11 isolates of Lulworthiales collected in two marinas on the west coast of Portugal initially classified as Lulworthia sp. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were applied to obtain phylogenetic trees for 18S-28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) nuc rDNA. The isolates consistently grouped together in a distinct and highly supported clade; all other Lulworthiales analyzed, including the available sequences of Lulworthia spp...
March 9, 2017: Mycologia
Rui Ma, Qian Chen, Yunliu Fan, Qi Wang, Sanfeng Chen, Xingzhong Liu, Lei Cai, Bin Yao
Cladosporium species are ubiquitous in various environments but are hitherto rarely isolated from soil. In the present study, six new Cladosporium species inhabiting the plateau soils of China are described as C. neopsychrotolerans, C. paralimoniforme, C. prolongatum, C. sinuatum, C. tianshanense, and C. verruculosum. These species are phylogenetically distinct and morphologically different from known species. This study increased the number of species classified in the C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum complexes and revealed Chinese plateau soil as a rich niche of Cladosporium species diversity...
March 8, 2017: Mycologia
Takamichi Orihara, Matthew E Smith
The sequestrate (truffle-like) basidiomycete Octaviania ivoryana was originally described based on collections from Zimbabwe, Kenya, Guinea, and Senegal. This species has basidiomes that stain blue-green and basidiospores with crowded spines that are characteristic of the genus Octaviania. However, O. ivoryana is the only Octaviania species described from sub-Saharan Africa, and the phylogenetic relationship of the species to other species of Octaviania sensu stricto has not been previously investigated. We examined the phylogenetic position of the isotype and paratype specimens of O...
March 7, 2017: Mycologia
Li-Wei Zhou, Jie Song
Phellinopsis (Hymenochaetaceae) was recently segregated from Phellinus. Phellinopsis differs from other genera segregated from Phellinus in a combination of hymenial setae, if present, mostly originating from tramal hyphae and hyaline basidiospores becoming pale yellowish with age. In this study, two new species of Phellinopsis, P. lonicericola and P. tibetica, from Tibet in southwestern China were described and illustrated. Morphological data and sequences of the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] barcode) support the recognition of these taxa as distinct...
March 3, 2017: Mycologia
Viacheslav Spirin, Josef Vlasák, Otto Miettinen
Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Antrodia serialis group are revised with morphological, ecological, and geographic data, partial translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) gene sequences, and nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S sequences. The group contains 13 species found in boreal and temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The species are limited to certain geographic areas within Eurasia and North America. The traditional morphology-based concept of A. serialis covers at least four closely related species: A...
March 1, 2017: Mycologia
Lu-Sen Bian, Yu-Cheng Dai
Three new species of Coltricia from southern China are described on the basis of morphological characters and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA, and partial sequences of genes for RNA polymerase II subunits 1 and 2 confirmed the generic placement of the three new species. Coltricia lateralis is characterized by small, laterally stipitate basidiocarps, obtuse pileus margin, cinnamon-buff to honey yellow pore surface, and broadly ellipsoid basidiospores that measure 7-8 × 5-6 µm...
2017: Mycologia
Jia-Jia Li, Shuang-Yan Wu, Xiao-Dan Yu, Shao-Bin Zhang, Dong-Xu Cao
Three new species, Calocybe aurantiaca, C. convexa, and C. decolorata, are described based on collections made in Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, China. The main characters of C. aurantiaca are its orange-yellow sporocarps and small and smooth basidiospores. Calocybe convexa is characterized by its orange-buff pileus, very small basidiospores, and tortuous stipe, whereas C. decolorata is mainly characterized by its gills that turn blue when bruised. The sequences of nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) and the 28S D1-D5 region of the Calocybe species were analyzed, and the results indicated that the three new species belonged to the genus Calocybe and differed from other species of Calocybe...
2017: Mycologia
Ned B Klopfenstein, Jane E Stewart, Yuko Ota, John W Hanna, Bryce A Richardson, Amy L Ross-Davis, Rubén D Elías-Román, Kari Korhonen, Nenad Keča, Eugenia Iturritxa, Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales, Halvor Solheim, Nicholas J Brazee, Piotr Łakomy, Michelle R Cleary, Eri Hasegawa, Taisei Kikuchi, Fortunato Garza-Ocañas, Panaghiotis Tsopelas, Daniel Rigling, Simone Prospero, Tetyana Tsykun, Jean A Bérubé, Franck O P Stefani, Saeideh Jafarpour, Vladimír Antonín, Michal Tomšovský, Geral I McDonald, Stephen Woodward, Mee-Sook Kim
Armillaria possesses several intriguing characteristics that have inspired wide interest in understanding phylogenetic relationships within and among species of this genus. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based analyses of Armillaria provide only limited information for phylogenetic studies among widely divergent taxa. More recent studies have shown that translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) sequences are highly informative for phylogenetic analysis of Armillaria species within diverse global regions. This study used Neighbor-net and coalescence-based Bayesian analyses to examine phylogenetic relationships of newly determined and existing tef1 sequences derived from diverse Armillaria species from across the Northern Hemisphere, with Southern Hemisphere Armillaria species included for reference...
2017: Mycologia
Xiao-Hong Ji, Shuang-Hui He, Jia-Jia Chen, Jing Si, Fang Wu, Li-Wei Zhou, Josef Vlasák, Xue-Mei Tian, Yu-Cheng Dai
Onnia includes white rotting polypores with annual basidiocarps, a duplex context, monomitic hyphal structure, hymenial setae, and hyaline, thin-walled, smooth basidiospores. Specimens of Onnia, originating mainly from East Asia, Europe, and North America, were studied using both morphology and phylogenetic analyses. Our concatenated data set was derived from 25 collections and included (i) 25 nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS), 17 generated in this study; and (ii) 14 nuc rDNA 28S rDNA sequences, including the D1-D2 domains, 11 of them generated in this study...
2017: Mycologia
Nicholas J Dowie, Lisa C Grubisha, Brent A Burton, Matthew R Klooster, Steven L Miller
Rhizopogon species are ecologically significant ectomycorrhizal fungi in conifer ecosystems. The importance of this system merits the development and utilization of a more robust set of molecular markers specifically designed to evaluate their evolutionary ecology. Anonymous nuclear loci (ANL) were developed for R. subgenus Amylopogon. Members of this subgenus occur throughout the United States and are exclusive fungal symbionts associated with Pterospora andromedea, a threatened mycoheterotrophic plant endemic to disjunct eastern and western regions of North America...
2017: Mycologia
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