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Simona Varriale, Jos Houbraken, Zoraide Granchi, Olimpia Pepe, Gabriella Cerullo, Valeria Ventorino, Thomas Chin-A-Woeng, Martin Meijer, Robert Riley, Igor V Grigoriev, Bernard Henrissat, Ronald P de Vries, Vincenza Faraco
A novel fungal species able to synthesize enzymes with potential synergistic actions in lignocellulose conversion was isolated from the biomass of Arundo donax during biodegradation under natural conditions in the Gussone Park of the Royal Palace of Portici (Naples, Italy). In this work, this species was subjected to morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Sequencing of its genome was performed, resulting in 28 scaffolds that were assembled into 27.05 Mb containing 9744 predicted genes, among which 396 belong to carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme)-encoding genes...
April 23, 2018: Mycologia
Ihan L du Plessis, Irina S Druzhinina, Lea Atanasova, Oded Yarden, Karin Jacobs
Fourteen Trichoderma (Hypocreales) species were identified during a survey of the genus in South Africa. These include T. afroharzianum, T. asperelloides, T. asperellum, T. atrobrunneum, T. atroviride, T. camerunense, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. koningii, T. koningiopsis, T. saturnisporum, T. spirale, T. virens, and T. viride. Ten of these species were not known to occur in South Africa prior to this investigation. Five additional species were novel and are described here as T. beinartii, T. caeruleimontis, T...
April 16, 2018: Mycologia
Christine Strullu-Derrien, Paul Kenrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Mycologia
Jiao Qin, Egon Horak, Flavius Popa, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Gerhard Kost, Fang Li, Zhu L Yang
The fungal genus Strobilurus belongs to Physalacriaceae and contains approximately 11 species worldwide. Species of this genus grow and reproduce on cones of various conifers, seed pods or fruits of Magnolia and Liquidambar, and branches and wood of conifers. Previous studies focused mainly on samples from Europe and North America. And no genus-specific phylogenetic analysis has been carried out to date. The monophyly, degree of species diversity and substrate specificity, and overall distribution patterns are addressed here using morphological and molecular evidence...
April 13, 2018: Mycologia
Dillon R Husbands, Hector Urbina, Susy M Lewis, M Catherine Aime
In 2010-2011, a Xylaria sp. was documented growing from seeds of both Chlorocardium rodiei and Chlorocardium venenosum, a commercially valuable timber in Guyana. We conducted extensive surveys in 2015-2016, where this Xylaria sp. was observed fruiting from ca. 80% of dispersed seeds in both natural and logged forests in the Upper Demerara-Berbice, Potaro-Siparuni, and the Cuyuni-Mazaruni districts of central Guyana. Species of Xylaria are ascomycetous fungi generally characterized by black, carbonaceous, multiperitheciate ascoma commonly found growing on dead wood...
April 2, 2018: Mycologia
Zhi Li, Xiao-Lin You, Lin-Ling Wang, Zhen-Tian Yan, Ze-Yang Zhou
Ascosphaera apis is an intestinally infective, spore-forming, filamentous fungus that infects honeybees and causes deadly chalkbrood disease. Although A. apis has been known for 60 y, little is known about the ultrastructure of the spores. In this study, the fine morphology and ultrastructure of an isolate, A. apis CQ1 from southwest China, was comprehensively identified by transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The high sequence similarity and phylogenetic data based on nuc rDNA ITS1-5...
March 26, 2018: Mycologia
María L Hernández Caffot, Kentaro Hosaka, Laura S Domínguez, Carlos Urcelay
On the basis of morphological and molecular analysis of several specimens of Lysurus periphragmoides collected in Argentina, the examination of materials collected in the type locality of Simblum sphaerocephalum (nowadays known as L. periphragmoides), also collected in Argentina (Córdoba), and the examination of specimens of L. periphragmoides from the old world, we conclude that Argentinean and South American material identified and synonymized to L. periphragmoides by Dring in 1980 should be emended as L...
March 26, 2018: Mycologia
Pablo Alvarado, Rosanne Healy, Gabriel Moreno, Julio Cabero, Markus Scholler, Anja Schneider, Alfredo Vizzini, Vasileios Kaounas, Josep Maria Vidal, Gunnar Hensel, Enrique Rubio, Alija Mujic, Matthew E Smith
A multigene phylogenetic analysis of Genabea, Myrmecocystis, and related genera in Pyronemataceae was conducted to establish genetically supported generic limits. The nuc rDNA 28S gene, translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1), and RNA polymerase II second-largest subunit gene (RPB2) significantly supported the monophyly of several distinct genera of hypogeous Pyronemataceae. The genetic identity of Genabea fragilis is established, and the new species Genabea hyalospora, G. urbana, Myrmecocystis mediterranea, and M...
March 26, 2018: Mycologia
Samad Ashrafi, Dániel G Knapp, Damien Blaudez, Michel Chalot, Jose G Maciá-Vicente, Imre Zagyva, Abdelfattah A Dababat, Wolfgang Maier, Gábor M Kovács
Fungal root endophytes, including the common group of dark septate endophytes (DSEs), represent different taxonomic groups and potentially diverse life strategies. In this study, we investigated two unidentified helotialean lineages found previously in a study of DSE fungi of semiarid grasslands, from several other sites, and collected recently from a pezizalean truffle ascoma and eggs of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi. The taxonomic positions and phylogenetic relationships of 21 isolates with different hosts and geographic origins were studied in detail...
March 26, 2018: Mycologia
Rebekka Ziegler, Matthias Lutz, Jolanta Piątek, Marcin Piątek
The anther smuts of the genus Microbotryum are known from host plant species belonging to the Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Montiaceae, and Primulaceae. Of these, the anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae, in particular on Silene spp., are best known because they include model organisms studied in many disciplines of fungal biology. For Microbotryum species parasitic on Caryophyllaceae, a high degree of host specificity was revealed and several cryptic species were described. In contrast, the host specificity within Microbotryum pinguiculae occurring in anthers of different Pinguicula species (Lentibulariaceae) has not been investigated in detail until now...
March 15, 2018: Mycologia
Monica L Elliott, Elizabeth A Des Jardin, Johana V Ortiz, Tommy Macias
Ganoderma zonatum is a lethal pathogen of palms (Arecaceae) in Florida (USA) because it degrades the wood of the lowest section of the palm trunk. This fungus is widespread throughout Florida, where it has been observed on over 60 species of palms. The authors examined the genetic variability of 25 isolates of G. zonatum obtained in Florida from 12 different palm species and representing 17 unique property locations in eight counties to determine if G. zonatum represents a species complex. The three genomic regions examined were the nuc rDNA ITS1-5...
March 2, 2018: Mycologia
Michael E Donaldson, Christina M Davy, Karen J Vanderwolf, Craig K R Willis, Barry J Saville, Christopher J Kyle
Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), which is devastating some North American bat populations. Previous transcriptome studies provided insight regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in WNS; however, it is unclear how different environmental parameters could influence pathogenicity. This information could be useful in developing management strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of P. destructans on bats. We cultured three P. destructans isolates from Atlantic Canada on two growth media (potato dextrose agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar) that differ in their nitrogen source, and at two separate incubation temperatures (4 C and 15 C) that approximate the temperature range of bat hibernacula during the winter and a temperature within its optimal mycelial growth range...
February 23, 2018: Mycologia
Lei Su, Yong-Chun Niu
During a survey of endophytic fungi from cucurbit plants in China, 21 Talaromyces strains were isolated from ten symptomless plants. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial RNA polymerase II largest subunit gene (RPB2) showed that the strains belong to Talaromyces sections Talaromyces and Islandici. Based on morphological characters and multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS), calmodulin (CaM), and β-tubulin (TUB) genes, the strains were identified as four known species, T...
February 23, 2018: Mycologia
Shah Hussain, Sana Jabeen, Abdul N Khalid, Habib Ahmad, Najam-Ul-Sahar Afshan, Hassan Sher, Donald H Pfister
The large genus Leucoagaricus (Basidiomycota) is poorly studied in Pakistan, where the northern parts of the country are considered hot spots for biodiversity. Based on morphological and molecular data, five new species are described: Leucoagaricus badius, L. lahorensiformis, L. pakistaniensis, L. sultanii, and L. umbonatus. Descriptions and illustrations are given for the new taxa. A phylogeny based on morphology and four DNA regions, including the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and D1-D2 domains of the 28S gene of the nuc rDNA, the gene for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), and the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1-α), shows that the new taxa are clustered in a clade representing Leucoagaricus section Rubrotincti subgenus Sericeomyces...
February 23, 2018: Mycologia
Mary Jane Epps, A Elizabeth Arnold
Beetles (Coleoptera) are often among the most abundant and diverse insects that feed on sporocarps of macrofungi, but little is known regarding their relative specialism or generalism in most communities. We surveyed >9000 sporocarps in montane hardwood forest in the Appalachian Mountains (USA) to characterize associations of mycophagous beetles and macrofungi. We used traditional metrics and network analyses to quantify relationships between sporocarp traits (mass, age, persistence, and toughness) and assemblages of adult beetles, drawing from >50 000 beetles collected over two survey years...
January 29, 2018: Mycologia
Rubén Damián Elías-Román, Rosario Medel-Ortiz, Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales, John W Hanna, Amy L Ross-Davis, Mee-Sook Kim, Ned B Klopfenstein
Armillaria mexicana (Agaricales, Physalacriaceae) is described as a new species based on morphology, DNA sequence data, and phylogenetic analyses. It clearly differs from previously reported Armillaria species in North, Central, and South America. It is characterized by the absence of fibulae in the basidioma, abundant cheilocystidia, and ellipsoidal, hyaline basidiospores that are apparently smooth under light microscope, but slightly to moderately rugulose under scanning electron microscope. It is differentiated from other Armillaria species by macromorphological characters, including annulus structure, pileus and stipe coloration, and other structures...
January 19, 2018: Mycologia
Hector Urbina, M Catherine Aime
Carotenoid-containing yeasts in Sporidiobolales (Microbotryomycetes, Pucciniomycotina, Basidiomycota) have been reported from contrasting ecosystems, including marine, soil, phylloplane, polar ice, and many others. Here, we present several analyses drawing on 583 new isolates collected from various substrates around the globe and publicly available sequences from numerous published environmental studies. We provide a multilocus phylogenetic reconstruction of the order, estimates for total species richness, a snapshot of global distribution patterns, and analysis of niche preferences in Sporidiobolales, emphasizing their occurrence in commercial crops and food products...
January 2018: Mycologia
Junta Sugiyama, Hiromi Nishida, Tsuyoshi Hosoya, Makoto Kakishima
The enigmatic basidiomycete genus Mixia includes intracellular parasites of Osmunda and Osmundastrum ferns. Here, the authors review the systematic and phylogenetic history of M. osmundae, originally known as Taphrina osmundae, and provide new data from investigations of specimens of Osmunda japonica collected in Yunnan Province, China, which we determine to be conspecific with M. osmundae. In addition, Taphrina higginsii, a parasite on fronds of Osmundastrum cinnamomeum described from Georgia, USA, was confirmed to be phenotypically identical with M...
January 2018: Mycologia
Karen E Fisher, Isobel Romberger, David Lowry, Phakade Shange, Robert W Roberson
Characteristics of hyphal structure and growth can provide insights into the mechanisms of polarized growth and support investigations of fungal phylogeny. To assist with the resolution of evolutionary relationships of the zygomycetes, the authors used comparative bioimaging methods (light [LM] and transmission electron [TEM] microscopy) to describe selected subcellular characters of hyphal tips of Conidiobolus coronatus. Growing hyphae of C. coronatus contain Spitzenkörper (Spk). Spk are most commonly present in hyphae of Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and are rarely reported in zygomycete hyphae, which possess an apical vesicle crescent (AVC)...
January 2018: Mycologia
Karen W Hughes, Rodham H Tulloss, Ronald H Petersen
Amanita cf. lavendula collections in eastern North America, Mexico, and Costa Rica were found to consist of four cryptic taxa, one of which exhibited consistently unreadable nuclear rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (fungal barcode) sequences after ITS1 base 130. This taxon is designated here as Amanita cf. lavendula taxon 1. ITS sequences from dikaryotic basidiomata were cloned, but sequences recovered from cloning did not segregate into distinct haplotypes. Rather, there was a mix of haplotypes that varied among themselves predominantly at 28 ITS positions...
January 2018: Mycologia
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