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Carolina B Pereira, Todd J Ward, Dauri J Tessmann, Emerson M Del Ponte, Imane Laraba, Martha M Vaughan, Susan P McCormick, Mark Busman, Amy Kelly, Robert H Proctor, Kerry O'Donnell
Surveys were conducted in commercial wheat and barley fields in the south central production regions of state of Paraná, Brazil, from 2011 to 2015. Spikes displaying visible Fusarium head blight symptoms were collected and the pathogen isolated from the tissues. The 754 Fusarium isolates recovered were identified by a high-throughput multilocus genotyping assay (MLGT) designed to identify trichothecene toxin-producing fusaria (i.e., formerly B-clade, but referred to here as F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 [FSAMSC-1]) together with sequencing a portion of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) gene...
October 10, 2018: Mycologia
Naveed Davoodian, Sarah E Bergemann, Kentaro Hosaka, Olivier Raspé, Neale L Bougher, Nigel A Fechner, Terry W Henkel, Matteo Gelardi, Kasem Soytong, Arooj Naseer, Beatriz Ortiz-Santana, Timothy J Baroni, Eiji Nagasawa, Matthew E Smith, Roy E Halling
Gyroporus (Gyroporaceae, Boletales) is a highly diverse genus of poroid ectomycorrhizal mushrooms with a nearly worldwide distribution. Previous attempts to unravel the diversity within this genus proved difficult due to the presence of semicryptic species and ambiguous results from analysis of ribosomal RNA markers. In this study, we employ a combined morphotaxonomic and phylogenetic approach to delimit species and elucidate geographic and evolutionary patterns in Gyroporus. For phylogenetic analyses, the protein-coding genes atp6 (mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit 6) and rpb2 (nuclear second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II) were selected based on their utility in studies of Boletales...
October 10, 2018: Mycologia
William J Davis, Kathryn T Picard, Jonathan Antonetti, Jennifer Edmonds, Jessica Fults, Peter M Letcher, Martha J Powell
Food webs in temporary forest ponds are driven by decomposition of terrestrial inputs. Chytrid fungi are important components of the fungal community, degrading leaf litter in streams reliant on terrestrial inputs and in lake ecosystems where they may stabilize the food web. However, little is known about chytrid fungi in temporary forest ponds. We inventoried the chytrid diversity present in two temporary forest ponds via light microscopy of baited samples and ion semiconductor (Ion Torrent) sequencing of environmental DNA...
October 1, 2018: Mycologia
Eduardo Fazolino Perez, Sandy C Suaza Blandón, Genivaldo Alves-Silva, Bernardo E Lechner, Rosa Mara B Silveira
Macrolepiota is a poorly known genus in the Neotropics. In order to increase knowledge about this group, we collected specimens from the Atlantic Forest in southern and northeastern Brazil. Macrolepiota cyanolamellata and M. sabulosa from subtropical and tropical regions, respectively, are proposed as new species. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) and the combined data set ITS + nuclear large subunit rDNA (28S) + RNA polymerase II second largest (RPB2), as well as morphological analyses...
September 24, 2018: Mycologia
Z Q Zeng, W Y Zhuang
A new holomorphic species, Hyalocylindrophora bispora, is described and illustrated based on a collection on rotten branches from Guangdong Province, China. The fungus is characterized by fleshy perithecia that become deeply cupulate when dry, covered with long and stiff hairs on the surface, and not change color in KOH or lactic acid. Asci are two-spored and evanescent at maturity. Ascospores are ellipsoidal to elongate-ellipsoidal, unicellular, and warted. Conidiogenous cells are phialidic and cylindrical...
September 21, 2018: Mycologia
Hafizi Rosli, Jean C Batzer, Thomas C Harrington, Mark L Gleason
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi infect the cuticle of fruit, including apple fruit, and produce pigmented colonies. A new member of this fungal complex in the genus Peltaster is described on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence. The SBFS complex is a diverse group of ectophytic fungi that reside primarily within the order Capnodiales. Sooty blotch and flyspeck isolates from apple orchards in the central United States were subjected to parsimony and Bayesian analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuc rDNA, the partial translation elongation factor 1-α gene, and the partial mitochondrial small subunit rRNA gene...
September 21, 2018: Mycologia
Hae Jin Cho, Myung Soo Park, Hyun Lee, Seung-Yoon Oh, Andrew W Wilson, Gregory M Mueller, Young Woon Lim
Species of Laccaria (Hydnangiaceae, Basidiomycota) are important in forest ecosystems as ectomycorrhizal fungi. Nine of the 75 described Laccaria species worldwide been reported from Korea. Most of these have European and North American names, and their identities are based solely on morphological features. To evaluate the taxonomy of Korean Laccaria, we used 443 specimens collected between 1981 and 2016 in a phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA (ITS) region, nuc 28S rDNA (28S), RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (rpb2), and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1)...
September 21, 2018: Mycologia
Eske De Crop, Felix Hampe, Komsit Wisitrassameewong, Dirk Stubbe, Jorinde Nuytinck, Annemieke Verbeken
The ectomycorrhizal milkcap genus Lactifluus (Russulaceae) is commonly found in tropical and subtropical forests of Southeast Asia. During several sampling expeditions in Thailand, multiple collections of Lactifluus (Lf.) species with pleurotoid or small agaricoid basidiocarps were found. A molecular study was combined with a morphological study, in which the collections were compared with herbarium material. The molecular study indicated that four Thai collections belonged to undescribed species within Lactifluus section Gerardii, as was also the case for herbarium collections of a pleurotoid species from Nepal...
September 21, 2018: Mycologia
Rodolfo Salas-Lizana, Ryoko Oono
Lophodermium is a large fungal genus consisting of over 100 named species, with ca. 38 of these commonly found as endophytes of pine needles. In this study, we use both morphological and sequencing data to describe a new Lophodermium species associated with haploxylon pines from the Pacific Northwest. This new species resembled the morphology of L. nitens, another commonly occurring species from the same geographic regions and host species. They both present dark subcuticular ascocarps without lips. However, the upper walls of their ascocarps are different, as the new species forms an inward V-shaped folding, not present in L...
September 19, 2018: Mycologia
Melissa Mardones, Tanja Trampe-Jaschik, Tina A Hofmann, Ralph D Mangelsdorff, Meike Piepenbring
Species of tropical tar spot fungi (Phyllachorales, Ascomycota) are obligate biotrophic plant parasitic fungi associated with living leaves of a wide range of families of host plants, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. In this study, samples of tropical tar spot fungi were collected in forests in Costa Rica and Panamá. To identify taxa, we used morphology and information on host plants and combined multigene phylogeny of four genes: the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (28S rDNA), the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA), the complete internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (nuc rDNA ITS1-5...
September 14, 2018: Mycologia
Gang Wu, Serena M L Lee, Egon Horak, Zhu L Yang
Dipterocarp forests are a typical and widespread type of vegetation in tropical lowlands of southeast Asia that harbor a high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi, including boletes. Based on molecular and morphological characters, a unique bolete found in Singapore associated with the dipterocarp Hopea odorata was proven to represent a new species in the proposed new genus Spongispora. Phylogenetic analyses of five loci indicate that Spongispora is nested in the subfamily Leccinoideae of the Boletaceae, most closely related to an inclusive clade of Leccinum, Leccinellum, Octaviania, Rossbeevera, and Turmalinea...
September 14, 2018: Mycologia
Xiangyuan Yan, Jinzhong Cao, Li Fan
Four new species, Tuber crassitunicatum, T. lishanense, T. piceatum, and T. wanglangense, are described and illustrated based on both morphological and molecular data. Morphologically, T. crassitunicatum is diagnosed by its brown ascomata and ellipsoidal ascospores ornamented by crowded spiny reticulum with more than 10 meshes across the spore width. Tuber lishanense can be recognized by its whitish to pale brown ascomata with a basal cavity, and very broadly ellipsoidal to subglobose ascospores ornamented by densely isolated spines...
July 2018: Mycologia
Xue Zhou, Kerry O'Donnell, Hye-Seon Kim, Robert H Proctor, Gail Doehring, Zhi-Min Cao
Fusarium zanthoxyli and F. continuum are sister taxa that are the etiological agents of canker disease of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) in northern China. These two pathogens, together with F. torreyae, the causal agent of canker disease of the critically endangered conifer Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) from northern Florida and southwestern Georgia, constitute a novel clade, the F. torreyae species complex. To assess their reproductive mode, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs was designed and validated, using MAT sequences mined from the whole-genome sequence of the three F...
July 2018: Mycologia
Urszula Czyzewska, Marek Bartoszewicz, Magdalena Siemieniuk, Adam Tylicki
Malassezia pachydermatis causes infections of the skin and mucous membranes, especially in animals. It is commonly accepted that symptom manifestation depends on the physiological status of the host (different metabolic, hormonal, and immunological disorders). However, it should be considered whether distinct strains of M. pachydermatis could have different pathogenic potential and maintain opposite relations with the host, such as commensalism or parasitism. The scope of this study was to explore the population structure, genetic diversity, and phylogenetic relationships of M...
July 2018: Mycologia
Arthur C Grupe, Marcelo A Sulzbacher, Tine Grebenc, Rosanne Healy, Gregory Bonito, Matthew E Smith
Truffles are sequestrate hypogeous fungi, and most form ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations with trees. Truffles belonging to the genus Tuber (Pezizales, Ascomycota), "true truffles," associate with diverse plant hosts, including economically important species such as pecan (Carya illinoinensis). Morphological and phylogenetic studies delimited several major lineages of Tuber, which include many cryptic and undescribed species. One of these, the Maculatum clade, is a speciose group characterized by relatively small, light-colored ascomata that have alveolate-reticulate spores...
July 2018: Mycologia
Mónica A Lugo, Eugenia Menoyo, Lucía Risio Allione, María A Negritto, Jeremiah A Henning, Ana M Anton
The Andean Puna is an arid, high-elevation plateau in which plants such as grasses experience high abiotic stress and distinctive environmental conditions. We assessed colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in the roots of 20 native grass species and examined the relationship between root-associated fungi (AMF and DSE) as a function of the elevation of study sites, the photosynthetic pathways of the grass hosts, and the hosts' life cycles. In general, grasses were co-colonized by AMF and DSE and the colonization by AMF and DSE was not extensive...
July 2018: Mycologia
Martina Réblová, Václav Štěpánek
Two new genera, Rhamphoriopsis and Xylolentia, are described for lignicolous perithecial ascomycetes occurring in terrestrial habitats. Fresh material, living cultures, morphology, and DNA sequence data (nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacers [ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS], 18S and 28S genes, and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II = RPB2) of these taxa and morphologically similar fungi were studied to determine their relationships. A monophyletic clade including Rhamphoria, Rhodoveronaea, a dematiaceous hyphomycete Linkosia multiseptum, and the two new genera was recovered in the Sordariomycetes based on the 18S-28S-RPB2 data set...
July 2018: Mycologia
Laura Guzmán-Dávalos, Joaquín Cifuentes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Mycologia
Xu Lu, Kari Steffen, Hai-Sheng Yuan
Three new species of Tomentella (Thelephorales) from Finland, T. globosa, T. lammiensis, and T. longisterigmata, are described and illustrated with morphological characteristics and nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. T. globosa is characterized by mucedinoid, pale to dark brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, globose basidiospores (echinuli up to 1.5 μm long). T. lammiensis is characterized by mucedinoid, oxide yellow to golden brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, ellipsoid, triangular, or lobbed basidiospores (echinuli up to 2 μm long)...
July 2018: Mycologia
Yu-Ming Ju, Jack D Rogers, Huei-Mei Hsieh
Twenty-five fructicolous and seminicolous species of Xylaria are classified into three groups by stromatal morphology: (i) the X. ianthinovelutina group; (ii) the X. carpophila group; and (iii) the X. heloidea group. Xylaria reevesiae, X. rossmanae, and X. vivantii are described as new species. Xylaria reevesiae belongs to the X. carpophila group, resembling X. euphorbiicola but differing from it mainly by having conspicuous perithecial mounds and growing on fallen fruits of a different host plant. Xylaria rossmanae and X...
July 2018: Mycologia
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