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Dong Liu, Bernard Goffinet, Damien Ertz, André De Kesel, Xinyu Wang, Jae-Seoun Hur, Haixia Shi, Yanyun Zhang, Meixia Yang, Lisong Wang
Based on an exhaustive sampling of all known Lepidostromatales, a lineage of clavarioid lichen-forming basidiomycetes, we assess (i) the phylogenetic affinities of the six Chinese species currently accommodated in Multiclavula (Cantharellales) based on inferences from the 18S and 28S subunits of the nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat and (ii) the phylogenetic structure among Chinese populations of Lepidostromatales, based on the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) regions. Multiclavula fossicola and M...
January 15, 2018: Mycologia
Jinge Liu, Padmaja Nagabhyru, Christopher L Schardl
Many symbiotic Epichloë species are seed-transmitted in their grass hosts. For a detailed investigation of Epichloë festucae colonization throughout the life cycle of its host, the authors transformed strain Fl1 with a fungal-active gene for enhanced cyan-fluorescent protein (eCFP), introduced it into perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and used confocal microscopy to track its growth in the shoot apex, floral primordium, floral organs, seeds, and seedlings. Hyphae intercellularly colonized leaf sheaths, blades, true stems, and leaf primordia, and among floral primordia the endophyte exhibited different levels of colonization...
December 11, 2017: Mycologia
Y-T Huang, M Kolařík, M T Kasson, J Hulcr
Species of Geosmithia are cosmopolitan but understudied fungi, and most are associated with phloem-feeding bark beetles on various woody hosts. We surveyed 207 bark and ambrosia beetles from 37 species in the eastern USA for associated fungi. The community is dominated by species in the G. pallida species complex (GPSC) and included several Geosmithia isolates that appear to be new to science. The new Geosmithia isolates exhibited the characteristic brownish-colored colonies typical for the G. pallida species complex and were phylogenetically resolved as two genealogically exclusive lineages based on a concatenated multilocus data set based on the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the nuc rDNA (ITS1-5...
December 4, 2017: Mycologia
Andrew N Miller, Daniel B Raudabaugh, Teresa Iturriaga, P Brandon Matheny, Ronald H Petersen, Karen W Hughes, Matthias Gube, Rob A Powers, Timothy Y James, Kerry O'Donnell
Reports of true morels (Morchella) fruiting on conifer burn sites are common in western North America where five different fire-adapted species of black morels (Elata Clade) have been documented based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses. Fruiting of post-fire morels in eastern North America, by comparison, are rare and limited to a report from Minnesota in 1977 and eastern Ontario in 1991. Here, nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) sequences were used to identify the post-fire morel that fruited in great abundance the year following the 2012 Duck Lake Fire in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and after the 2016 large-scale fire in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee as M...
November 30, 2017: Mycologia
Jun-Liang Zhou, Bao-Kai Cui
Favolus is a natural genus that is closely related to Polyporus. A taxonomic study of Favolus was carried out based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and 18S and 28S genes of the nuc rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1-α), the mt 16S rDNA gene (mt rrnS), β-tubulin gene (TBB1), and the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) and second largest subunit (RPB2) genes. Fourteen specimens collected from subtropical to tropical regions in China were shown to be different from existing Favolus species...
November 30, 2017: Mycologia
Fang Wu, Jia-Jia Chen, Xiao-Hong Ji, Josef Vlasák, Yu-Cheng Dai
Rigidoporus and its morphologically similar genera Physisporinus, Oxyporus, and Leucophellinus, which include some forest pathogens and medicinal species, are very important groups of wood-decaying fungi. Species of these genera have not only ecological functions, but also economic importance. Phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on taxa in these genera were carried out. Inferred from phylogenies based on DNA sequences of the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) and D1-D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA, 36 species sampled that traditionally belong to Physisporinus, Rigidoporus, Leucophellinus, and Oxyporus are nested mostly in eight lineages...
November 20, 2017: Mycologia
Matthew A Campbell, Brian A Tapper, Wayne R Simpson, Richard D Johnson, Wade Mace, Arvina Ram, Yonathan Lukito, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Linda J Johnson, D Barry Scott, Austen R D Ganley, Murray P Cox
Endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) frequently occur within cool-season grasses and form interactions with their hosts that range from mutualistic to antagonistic. Many Epichloë species have arisen via interspecific hybridization, resulting in species with two or three subgenomes that retain all or nearly all of their original parental genomes, a process termed allopolyploidization. Here, we characterize Epichloë hybrida, sp. nov., a mutualistic species that has increasingly become a model system for investigating allopolyploidy in fungi...
November 17, 2017: Mycologia
Vladimir Vujanovic, Seon Hwa Kim
Sphaerodes mycoparasitica Vuj. is a Fusarium-specific mycoparasite. Some recent discoveries recognize its biotrophic polyphagous lifestyle as an interesting biocontrol property against a broad spectrum of mycotoxigenic Fusarium hosts. Secondary metabolites such as mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. may play an important role in the signaling process, allowing an early mycoparasite-host recognition. A multiple-paper-disc assay has been conducted to test S. mycoparasitica hyphal adaptability to filtrates of 12 Fusarium spp...
November 17, 2017: Mycologia
Laura Guzmán-Dávalos, C K Pradeep, K B Vrinda, A Manoj Kumar, Virginia Ramírez-Cruz, María Herrera, Alma Rosa Villalobos-Arámbula, Kasem Soytong, Timothy J Baroni, M Catherine Aime
A new Asian species of Crepidotus (Basidiomycota, Agaricales), C. asiaticus, is presented based on morphological and nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and large subunit (28S) sequence data. This new species, found in India and Thailand, is characterized by the centrally stipitate medium-sized basidiomata, orange to reddish brown pileus, white to brownish orange lamellae, and white stipe. Based on morphology, C. asiaticus is similar to the neotropical C. thermophilus. However, the microscopic characters, especially the size and shape of the basidiospores, can be used to distinguish these two taxa, as well as their geographic distributions...
November 14, 2017: Mycologia
Shu-Cheng Chuang, Hsiao-Man Ho, Nicole Reynolds, Matthew E Smith, Gerald L Benny, Chiu-Yuan Chien, Ju-Lin Tsai
Four new species of Coemansia from Taiwan are described. Three produce spirally twisted sporangiophores, and these new taxa increase the number of species in the Coemansia spiralis complex from three to six. Each new taxon is morphologically unique. Coemansia biformis, sp. nov., has two different asexual reproductive types on the same thallus; one is straight and the other has a spiral fertile region. Coemansia helicoidea, sp. nov., has stoloniferous sporangiophores with a helicoid fertile region. Coemansia pennisetoides, sp...
November 13, 2017: Mycologia
Jing Luo, Phillip L Vines, Austin Grimshaw, Lindsey Hoffman, Emily Walsh, Stacy A Bonos, Bruce B Clarke, James A Murphy, William A Meyer, Ning Zhang
Summer patch is a common and destructive root disease of turfgrasses. In this study, a new Magnaporthiopsis species, M. meyeri-festucae, was identified from the roots of fine fescue (Festuca spp.) turfgrasses with summer patch-like symptoms. It is described and illustrated on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and partial sequences of rDNA 18S, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and 28S regions, and of MCM7, RPB1, and TEF1 genes. A key for all seven described species in the genus Magnaporthiopsis is provided...
November 13, 2017: Mycologia
Alexis L Carlson, Heather D Ishak, James Kurian, Alexander S Mikheyev, Isaac Gifford, Ulrich G Mueller
We dekaryotized the multinucleate fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus, a symbiotic fungus cultivated vegetatively by leafcutter ants as their food. To track genetic changes resulting from dekaryotization (elimination of some nuclei from the multinuclear population), we developed two multiplex microsatellite fingerprinting panels (15 loci total), then characterized the allele profiles of 129 accessions generated by dekaryotization treatment. Genotype profiles of the 129 accessions confirmed allele loss expected by dekaryotization of the multinucleate fungus...
November 10, 2017: Mycologia
Masahiko Tanahashi, Jong-Kuk Kim, Kana Watanabe, Takema Fukatsu, Kôhei Kubota
Among insect-fungus relationships, xylose-fermenting Scheffersomyces yeasts are well known for their potential in utilizing wood hemicelluloses and their association with various wood-feeding insects. However, their specificity to host insects or strain-level diversity within host species has not been clearly elucidated. In the insect family Lucanidae, larvae usually feed on decaying wood, and adult females consistently possess a fungus-storage organ, called the mycangium, near the abdominal tip. Here the authors investigated host-symbiont relationships between Scheffersomyces yeast symbionts and small blue stag beetles of the genus Platycerus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) in East Asia by using intergenic spacer (IGS) region as a genetic marker...
November 9, 2017: Mycologia
Lucia Muggia, Riccardo Mancinelli, Tor Tønsberg, Agnieszka Jablonska, Martin Kukwa, Zdeněk Palice
The genus Cheiromycina is one of the few genera of lichenized hyphomycetes for which no sexual reproductive stages have been observed. The genus includes species from boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere where it is found growing on bark or wood. Congeners in Cheiromycina are characterized by a noncorticate thallus, nearly immersed in the substrate and presenting powdery unpigmented sporodochia, and containing chlorococcoid photobionts. The relationships of members of Cheiromycina with other fungi are not known...
November 1, 2017: Mycologia
Julia Pawłowska, Łukasz Istel, Michał Gorczak, Halina Galera, Marta Wrzosek, David L Hawksworth
The holotype of Thyronectria hyperantarctica was re-examined, redescribed, and compared with new collections of an Antarctic bryophilous ascomycete from a similar area. Because the condition of type material was insufficient for molecular studies, the authors designated an epitype from newly collected material with a high degree of morphological similarity to the holotype and paratype material. Phylogenetic analysis of the epitype revealed that its closest phylogenetic affinity was with the family Tilachlidiaceae and it formed a monophyletic group in this lineage within other collections of the species...
October 31, 2017: Mycologia
Li-Ping Tang, Su-See Lee, Nian-Kai Zeng, Qing Cai, Ping Zhang, Zhu L Yang
Some Amanita specimens collected from Malaysia are critically investigated by morphological examination and molecular analysis of two gene fragments, the nuc rDNA partial 28S (28S) gene and the internal transcriber spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) regions. Six phylogenetic species of Amanita section Caesareae are recognized among the studied collections. One of them is described as new, A. malayensis. Four of the phylogenetic species correspond with existing morphology-based taxa: A. aporema, A. javanica, A. princeps, and A...
October 30, 2017: Mycologia
János G Szarkándi, Geert Schmidt-Stohn, Bálint Dima, Shah Hussain, Sándor Kocsubé, Tamás Papp, Csaba Vágvölgyi, László G Nagy
Parasola represents an enigmatic lineage of veil-less, coprinoid fungi in Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales). The species-level taxonomy of the genus has been in a flux recently, resulting in the elimination of some long-established names and the description of new taxa. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Parasola using two nuc rDNA loci, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and 28S and identify several putatively undescribed species, of which three are formally described here (Parasola crataegi, P...
October 9, 2017: Mycologia
Peter R Johnston, Duckchul Park, Rob D Smissen
High-throughput sequencing technologies using amplicon approaches have changed the way that studies investigating fungal distribution are undertaken. These powerful and time-efficient technologies have the potential for the first time to accurately map fungal distributions across landscapes or changes in diversity across ecological or biological gradients of interest. There is no requirement for a fungus to form a fruiting body to be detected, and both culturable and nonculturable organisms can be detected...
October 6, 2017: Mycologia
Kazuaki Tanaka, Akira Hashimoto, Misato Matsumura, Toyozo Sato
A new genus, Brevicollum, is established for two new species, B. hyalosporum on Syzygium samarangense and B. versicolor on Volkameria inermis, in Japan. This genus is characterized by the presence of immersed ascomata with an excentric to central, short cylindrical ostiolar neck, thin ascomatal wall, clavate asci with a shallow ocular chamber, and broadly fusiform, hyaline to pale brown ascospores with a sheath. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a combined data set of sequences of 18S and 28S nuc rDNA genes and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) revealed that Brevicollum is a member of Neohendersoniaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes)...
October 5, 2017: Mycologia
Zixi Wang, Bainian Sun, Fankai Sun, Jidong Wang, Junling Dong, Mingxuan Sun, Baoxia Du
Several studies have investigated both the paleoclimate and the well-preserved fossil remains from the middle Miocene found in China's Fujian Province. This study describes two new species of Meliolinites, including their fungal hyphae, reproductive structures, and spores. The distribution of modern Meliolaceae indicates that they live in warm, humid, subtropical to tropical climates. Moreover, the fossil leaves and the epiphyllous fungal remains, indicate the prevalence of a warm, humid, subtropical to tropical climate in this area during the middle Miocene...
October 4, 2017: Mycologia
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