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Mutation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926746/effect-of-modeled-microgravity-on-uv-c-induced-interplant-communication-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Ting Wang, Wei Xu, Huasheng Li, Chenguang Deng, Hui Zhao, Yuejin Wu, Min Liu, Lijun Wu, Jinying Lu, Po Bian
Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be an important feature of long-duration space missions of which higher plants are one of the indispensable components. Because of its pivotal role in enabling plants to cope with environmental stress, interplant communication might have important implications for the ecological stability of such CELSS. However, the manifestations of interplant communication in microgravity conditions have yet to be fully elucidated. To address this, a well-established Arabidopsis thaliana co-culture experimental system, in which UV-C-induced airborne interplant communication is evaluated by the alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in bystander plants, was placed in microgravity modeled by a two-dimensional rotating clinostat...
September 6, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910671/delayed-effects-of-accelerated-heavy-ions-on-the-induction-of-hprt-mutations-in-v79-hamster-cells
#2
Pavel Bláha, Nataliya A Koshlan, Igor V Koshlan, Daria V Petrova, Yulia V Bogdanova, Raisa D Govorun, Viliam Múčka, Evgeny A Krasavin
Fundamental research on the harmful effects of ionizing radiation on living cells continues to be of great interest. Recently, priority has been given to the study of high-charge and high-energy (HZE) ions that comprise a substantial part of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectra that would be encountered during long-term space flights. Moreover, predictions of the delayed genetic effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) exposure is becoming more important as heavy ion therapy use is increasing. This work focuses mainly on the basic research on the delayed effects of HZE ions on V79 Chinese hamster cells, with emphasis on the induction of HPRT mutations after prolonged expression times (ET)...
August 31, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938109/investigating-mutation-specific-biological-activities-of-small-molecules-using-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-for-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-cancer
#3
P Anoosha, R Sakthivel, M Michael Gromiha
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a potential drug target in cancer therapy. Missense mutations play major roles in influencing the protein function, leading to abnormal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. A number of EGFR inhibitor molecules targeting ATP binding domain were developed for the past two decades. Unfortunately, they become inactive due to resistance caused by new mutations in patients, and previous studies have also reported noticeable differences in inhibitor binding to distinct known driver mutants as well...
August 26, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843068/identification-of-intronic-splice-site-mutations-in-gata4-gene-in-indian-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#4
Divya Bose, Vaigundan D, Mitesh Shetty, Krishnappa J, A V M Kutty
Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect among congenital anomalies that arise before birth. GATA4 transcription factor plays an important role in foetal heart development. Mutational analysis of GATA4 gene in CHD patients revealed five known heterozygous mutations (p.T355S, p.S377G, p.V380M, p.P394T and p.D425N) identified in exons 5 and 6 regions and fifteen intronic variants in the non-coding regions (g.76885T>C/Y,g.76937G>S, g.78343G>R, g.83073T>Y, g.83271C>A/M, g.83318G>K, g...
August 18, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843435/role-of-specialized-dna-polymerases-in-the-limitation-of-replicative-stress-and-dna-damage-transmission
#5
REVIEW
Elodie Bournique, Marina Dall'Osto, Jean-Sébastien Hoffmann, Valérie Bergoglio
Replication stress is a strong and early driving force for genomic instability and tumor development. Beside replicative DNA polymerases, an emerging group of specialized DNA polymerases is involved in the technical assistance of the replication machinery in order to prevent replicative stress and its deleterious consequences. During S-phase, altered progression of the replication fork by endogenous or exogenous impediments induces replicative stress, causing cells to reach mitosis with genomic regions not fully duplicated...
August 14, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934716/automatic-detection-of-micronuclei-by-cell-microscopic-image-processing
#6
Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Hosein Azimian, Omid Sarrafzadeh, Shokoufeh Mohebbi, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard
With the development and applications of ionizing radiation in medicine, the radiation effects on human health get more and more attention. Ionizing radiation can lead to various forms of cytogenetic damage, including increased frequencies of micronuclei (MNi) and chromosome abnormalities. The cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is widely used method for measuring MNi to determine chromosome mutations or genome instability in cultured human lymphocytes. The visual scoring of MNi is time-consuming and scorer fatigue can lead to inconsistency...
August 12, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781144/regulation-of-repair-pathway-choice-at-two-ended-dna-double-strand-breaks
#7
REVIEW
Atsushi Shibata
A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is considered to be a critical DNA lesion because its misrepair can cause severe mutations, such as deletions or chromosomal translocations. For the precise repair of DSBs, the repair pathway that is optimal for the particular circumstance needs to be selected. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) functions in G1/S/G2 phase, while homologous recombination (HR) becomes active only in S/G2 phase after DNA replication. DSB end structure is another factor affecting the repair pathway...
July 29, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837838/single-nucleotide-variations-in-cultured-cancer-cells-effect-of-mismatch-repair
#8
Igor G Panyutin, Irina V Panyutin, Ian Powell-Castilla, Laura Felix, Ronald D Neumann
We assessed single nucleotide variations (SNVs) between individual cells in two cancer cell lines; DU145, from brain metastasis of prostate tumor with deficient mismatch repair; and HT1080, a fibrosarcoma cell line. Clones of individual cells were isolated, and sequenced using Ion Ampliseq comprehensive cancer panel that covered the exomes of 409 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Five clones of DU145 and four clones of HT1080 cells were analyzed. We found from 7 to 12 unique SNVs between DU145 clones, while HT1080 clones showed no more than one unique SNV...
July 27, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764947/environmental-mutagenesis-and-radiation-biology-the-legacy-of-william-morgan
#9
Jeffrey L Schwartz
A symposium entitled Environmental Mutagenesis and Radiation Biology was held on September 27, 2016 to honor the memory of Dr. William F. Morgan who passed away unexpectedly on November 13, 2015. The speakers presented the latest reviews on homologous recombination repair, induced genetic instability, bystander effects, and risk estimate development. Their presentations are presented following the introduction.
July 25, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779875/paths-from-dna-damage-and-signaling-to-genome-rearrangements-via-homologous-recombination
#10
REVIEW
Jac A Nickoloff
DNA damage is a constant threat to genome integrity. DNA repair and damage signaling networks play a central role maintaining genome stability, suppressing tumorigenesis, and determining tumor response to common cancer chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are critical lesions induced by ionizing radiation and when replication forks encounter damage. DSBs can result in mutations and large-scale genome rearrangements reflecting mis-repair by non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination...
July 24, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778421/the-emerging-roles-of-the-ubiquitination-deubiquitination-system-in-tumor-radioresistance-regarding-dna-damage-responses-cell-cycle-regulation-hypoxic-responses-and-antioxidant-properties-insight-into-the-development-of-novel-radiosensitizing-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Yoko Goto, Sho Koyasu, Minoru Kobayashi, Hiroshi Harada
Radiation therapy is one of the first-line treatments for many cancers, with no less than half of cancer patients receiving it in the US. Despite the development of innovative and high-precision radiation therapy strategies, many patients still experience local tumor recurrence after the treatment, at least in part, due to the existence of radioresistant cells in malignant tumor tissues. Among the various biological processes known to induce radioresistance, a post-translational protein modification, ubiquitination, has received marked attention in recent years...
July 22, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759748/dna-damage-levels-in-electronics-workers-in-southern-china-a-micro-whole-blood-comet-assay
#12
Zhiqiang Zhao, Xiumei Xing, Xiaoyan Ou, Xinxia Liu, Ridong Zhou, Huimin Zhang, Linqing Yang, Zhixiong Zhuang, Xiaolin Su, Yao Lu, Jun Jiang, Yarui Yang, Dong Cui, Yun He
We evaluated DNA damage levels of different categories of workers exposed to hazards inside electronics factories in Southern China. To find out the most dangerous risk factor, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 584 exposed subjects and 138 controls in an electronics factory in Southern China, where the electronics industry is prevalent. The exposed hazards included isopropanol (IPO), lead, noise, video display terminals (VDT), lead in a high-temperature (high-temp) environment, and IPO in a high-temp environment...
July 22, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764946/balancing-act-to-be-or-not-to-be-ubiquitylated
#13
REVIEW
Ryotaro Nishi
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious DNA lesions. Appropriate repair of DSB either by homologous recombination or non-homologous end-joining is critical for maintaining genome stability and fitness. DSB repair cooperates with cellular signalling networks, namely DSB response (DDR), which plays pivotal roles in the choice of DSB repair pathway, orchestrating recruitment of DDR factors to site of damage, transcription suppression and cell cycle checkpoint activation. It has been revealed that these mechanisms are strictly regulated, in time and space, by complex and minute ubiquitylation-mediated reactions...
July 21, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754468/microhomology-mediated-end-joining-good-bad-and-ugly
#14
REVIEW
Ja-Hwan Seol, Eun Yong Shim, Sang Eun Lee
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are induced by a variety of genotoxic agents, including ionizing radiation and chemotherapy drugs for treating cancers. The elimination of DSBs proceeds via distinctive error-free and error-prone pathways. Repair by homologous recombination (HR) is largely error-free and mediated by RAD51/BRCA2 gene products. Classical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) requires the Ku heterodimer and can efficiently rejoin breaks, with occasional loss or gain of DNA information. Recently, evidence has unveiled another DNA end-joining mechanism that is independent of recombination factors and Ku proteins, termed alternative non-homologous end joining (A-NHEJ)...
July 16, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734548/ubiquitin-like-modifications-in-the-dna-damage-response
#15
REVIEW
Zhifeng Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xingzhi Xu
Genomic DNA is damaged at an extremely high frequency by both endogenous and environmental factors. An improper response to DNA damage can lead to genome instability, accelerate the aging process and ultimately cause various human diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) are complex and are regulated at many levels, including at the level of post-translational modification (PTM). Since the discovery of ubiquitin in 1975 and ubiquitylation as a form of PTM in the early 1980s, a number of ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) have been identified, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8), interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10), ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFRM1), URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (URM1), autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12), autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8), fan ubiquitin-like protein 1 (FUB1) and histone mono-ubiquitylation 1 (HUB1)...
July 11, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704682/mutagenic-potential-of-hypoxanthine-in-live-human-cells
#16
Stephen DeVito, Jordan Woodrick, Linze Song, Rabindra Roy
Hypoxanthine (Hx) is a major DNA lesion generated by deamination of adenine during chronic inflammatory conditions, which is an underlying cause of various diseases including cancer of colon, liver, pancreas, bladder and stomach. There is evidence that deamination of DNA bases induces mutations, but no study has directly linked Hx accumulation to mutagenesis and strand-specific mutations yet in human cells. Using a site-specific mutagenesis approach, we report the first direct evidence of mutation potential and pattern of Hx in live human cells...
June 28, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844241/is-mobile-phone-radiation-genotoxic-an-analysis-of-micronucleus-frequency-in-exfoliated-buccal-cells
#17
F M de Oliveira, A M Carmona, C Ladeira
Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844240/developmental-toxicity-and-dna-damaging-properties-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-the-catfish-clarias-gariepinus
#18
Alaa El-Din H Sayed, Hamdy A M Soliman
Although, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in many different products, little information is known about their toxicity in tropical fish embryos. Therefore, this study evaluated the developmental toxicity of waterborne silver nanoparticles in embryos of Clarias gariepinus. Embryos were treated with (0, 25, 50, 75ng/L silver nanoparticles) in water up to 144h postfertilization stage (PFS). Results revealed various morphological malformations including notochord curvature and edema. The mortality rate, malformations, and DNA fragmentation in embryos exposed to silver nanoparticles increased in a dose- and embryonic stage-dependent manner...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844239/personal-samplers-of-bioavailable-pesticides-integrated-with-a-hair-follicle-assay-of-dna-damage-to-assess-environmental-exposures-and-their-associated-risks-in-children
#19
Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Kim A Anderson, Haiying Chen, Rebecca Anderson, Naike Salvador-Moreno, Dana C Mora, Carolyn Poutasse, Paul J Laurienti, Stephanie S Daniel, Thomas A Arcury
Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844238/mechanisms-of-chromosomal-aberrations-induced-by-sesamin-metabolites-in-chinese-hamster-lung-cells
#20
Yoshiko Ono, Namino Tomimori, Hisako Hori, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Hiroshi Shibata
Sesamin is a major lignan in sesame seeds and oil. We previously demonstrated that sesamin induces chromosomal aberrations (CA) in Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU) cells in the presence of a metabolic activation system (S9 mix), although no genotoxicity was detected in vivo. To clarify the mechanism of CA induction by sesamin, we identified its principal active metabolite. A mono-catechol derivative, [2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-6-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabi-cyclo[3.3.0]octane (SC-1)], was previously identified in culture medium when sesamin was incubated with S9 mix...
October 2017: Mutation Research
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