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Mutation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340408/ongoing-evolution-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-sublines-complicates-studies-of-dna-damage-repair-and-tolerance
#1
Julia Sidorenko, Tatjana Jatsenko, Maia Kivisaar
Sublines of the major P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1 are derivatives of the original PAO1 isolate, which are maintained in laboratories worldwide. These sublines display substantial genomic and phenotypic variation due to ongoing microevolution. Here, we examined four sublines, MPAO1, PAO1-L, PAO1-DSM and PAO1-UT, originated from different laboratories, and six DNA polymerase-deficient mutants from the P. aeruginosa MPAO1 transposon library for their employment in elucidation of DNA damage repair and tolerance mechanisms in P...
March 16, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340407/transmission-of-persistent-ionizing-radiation-induced-foci-through-cell-division-in-human-primary-cells
#2
Aurelie Vaurijoux, Pascale Voisin, Amelie Freneau, Joan Francesc Barquinero, Gaetan Gruel
Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation are associated with lethal effects and genomic instability. After the initial breaks and chromatin destabilization, a set of post-translational modifications of histones occurs, including phosphorylation of serine 139 of histone H2AX (γH2AX), which leads to the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF). DSB repair results in the disappearance of most IRIF within hours after exposure, although some remain 24h after irradiation...
March 10, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325496/international-organizations-risk-assessment-and-research-why-what-and-how
#3
REVIEW
R Julian Preston
The process of setting radiation protection standards requires the interaction of a number of international and national organizations that in turn require the input of scientific and regulatory experts. Bill Morgan served in an expert capacity for several of these organizations particularly for the application of radiation biology data to risk assessment. He brought great enthusiasm and dedication to these committee efforts. In fact, he really enjoyed this type of service. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), for example, provides comprehensive reviews of the input data for radiation risk assessments...
March 8, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340409/mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-oxidative-damage-in-hl-60-cells-exposed-to-900mhz-radiofrequency-fields
#4
Yulong Sun, Lin Zong, Zhen Gao, Shunxing Zhu, Jian Tong, Yi Cao
HL-60 cells, derived from human promyelocytic leukemia, were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120μW/cm(2) power intensity for 4h/day for 5 consecutive days to examine whether such exposure is capable damaging the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the effect of RF exposure was examined on 8-hydroxy-2'-dexoyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is a biomarker for oxidative damage and on the mitochondrial synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the energy required for cellular functions...
March 7, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283188/targeted-cytoplasmic-irradiation-and-autophagy
#5
Jinhua Wu, Bo Zhang, Yen-Ruh Wuu, Mercy M Davidson, Tom K Hei
The effect of ionizing irradiation on cytoplasmic organelles is often underestimated because the general dogma considers direct DNA damage in the nuclei to be the primary cause of radiation induced toxicity. Using a precision microbeam irradiator, we examined the changes in mitochondrial dynamics and functions triggered by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation with α-particles. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation led to activation of autophagy, which degraded dysfunctional mitochondria in order to maintain cellular energy homeostasis...
March 1, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284774/analysis-of-microsatellite-instability-in-crispr-cas9-editing-mice
#6
Xueyun Huo, Yating Du, Jing Lu, Meng Guo, Zhenkun Li, Shuangyue Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Zhenwen Chen, Xiaoyan Du
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR- associated (Cas) protein 9 system is a novel and powerful tool which is widely used for genome editing. CRISPR/Cas9 is RNA-guided and can lead to desired genomic modifications. However, whether the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing causes genomic alterations and genomic instability, such as microsatellite instability (MSI), is still unknown. Here we detected MSI in 21 CRISPR/Cas9 mouse strains using a panel of 42 microsatellite loci which were selected from our previous studies...
February 28, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103492/a-novel-type-of-gene-interaction-in-d-melanogaster
#7
B F Chadov, E V Chadova, N B Fedorova
The genes interact according to classical mechanisms, namely, complementation, modification, polymery, and epistasis, in the cells and organisms carrying these genes. Here we describe a novel type of gene interaction when the interacting genes reside in parents, whereas the interaction event takes place in their progenies lacking these genes. The conditional mutations in the D. melanogaster male X chromosome caused the "prohibition on producing daughters" in its offspring. The chromosomal rearrangements in chromosomes 2 and 3 of its female partner removed the prohibition...
January 11, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088539/the-dna-damage-response-of-c-elegans-affected-by-gravity-sensing-and-radiosensitivity-during-the-shenzhou-8-spaceflight
#8
Ying Gao, Dan Xu, Lei Zhao, Yeqing Sun
Space radiation and microgravity are recognized as primary and inevitable risk factors for humans traveling in space, but the reports regarding their synergistic effects remain inconclusive and vary across studies due to differences in the environmental conditions and intrinsic biological sensitivity. Thus, we studied the synergistic effects on transcriptional changes in the global genome and DNA damage response (DDR) by using dys-1 mutant and ced-1 mutant of C. elegans, which respectively presented microgravity-insensitivity and radiosensitivity when exposure to spaceflight condition (SF) and space radiation (SR)...
January 7, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283092/micronucleus-cell-free-dna-and-plasma-glycan-composition-in-the-newborns-of-healthy-and-diabetic-mothers
#9
Aleksandra Fucic, Vedrana Guszak, Toma Keser, Jasenka Wagner, Emilja Juretić, Davor Plavec, Ranko Stojković, Olga Gornik, Gordan Lauc
Diabetes is associated with certain environmental exposures, heritable factors, and metabolic conditions of intrauterine development due to diabetes in the mother. We evaluated genomic damage, cell-free DNA, N-glycosylation of umbilical cord plasma proteins (PG), and nuclear division index (NDI) as possible prognostic biomarkers of health risk in the newborns of mothers with treated pregestational diabetes (NBDM; 22 mothers), compared these parameters with those from newborns of healthy mothers (NBHM; 89 mothers), and associated the results with the mothers' lifestyle in both groups, based on a detailed questionnaire...
March 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283091/cyp1a1-i462v-polymorphism-is-associated-with-reduced-genotoxicity-in-yeast-despite-positive-association-with-increased-cancer-risk
#10
Julian Freedland, Cinzia Cera, Michael Fasullo
CYP1A1 functions in detoxifying xenobiotics but occasionally converts compounds into potent genotoxins. CYP1A1 activates polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene 7,8 dihydrodiol (BaP-DHD), rendering them genotoxic. Particular alleles of CYP1A1, such as CYP1A1 I462V have been correlated with a higher incidence of breast and lung cancer, but it is unknown whether these variants express enzymes in vivo that are more potent in generating genotoxins. We individually expressed CYP1A1 (CYP1A1.1), CYP1A1 T461N (CYP1A1...
March 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283090/cytotoxicities-and-genotoxicities-of-cements-based-on-calcium-silicate-and-of-dental-formocresol
#11
Hyunjung Ko, Youngdan Jeong, Miri Kim
Increasing interest is being paid to the toxicities of dental materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxicities and genotoxicities of endodontic compounds to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) reproductive cells. Cultured CHO-K1 cells were treated with dental formocresol, two types of calcium hydroxide paste, and two types of mineral trioxide aggregate cement for 24h. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was performed on each culture, and the micronucleus frequency was determined by performing a micronucleus assay...
March 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283089/e-coli-mismatch-repair-enhances-at-to-gc-mutagenesis-caused-by-alkylating-agents
#12
Kota Nakano, Yoko Yamada, Eizo Takahashi, Sakae Arimoto, Keinosuke Okamoto, Kazuo Negishi, Tomoe Negishi
Alkylating agents are known to induce the formation of O(6)-alkylguanine (O(6)-alkG) and O(4)-alkylthymine (O(4)-alkT) in DNA. These lesions have been widely investigated as major sources of mutations. We previously showed that mismatch repair (MMR) facilitates the suppression of GC-to-AT mutations caused by O(6)-methylguanine more efficiently than the suppression of GC-to-AT mutations caused by O(6)-ethylguanine. However, the manner by which O(4)-alkyT lesions are repaired remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the repair pathway involved in the repair of O(4)-alkT...
March 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283088/vitamin-e-coated-dialysis-membranes-reduce-the-levels-of-oxidative-genetic-damage-in-hemodialysis-patients
#13
Lara Rodríguez-Ribera, Zuray Corredor, Irene Silva, Juan Manuel Díaz, José Ballarín, Ricard Marcos, Susana Pastor, Elisabet Coll
End-stage renal disease patients present oxidative stress status that increases when they are submitted to hemodialysis (HD). This increase in oxidative stress can affect their genetic material, among other targets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using polysulfone membranes coated with vitamin E, during the HD sessions, on the levels of genetic damage of HD patients. Forty-six patients were followed for 6 months, of whom 29 changed from conventional HD to the use of membranes coated with vitamin E...
March 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283087/bisdemethoxycurcumin-enhances-x-ray-induced-apoptosis-possibly-through-p53-bcl-2-pathway
#14
Atsushi Enomoto, Junko Yamada, Akinori Morita, Kiyoshi Miyagawa
Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), which is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, has anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Here we found that BDMC enhanced X-ray-induced apoptosis in human T-cell leukemia MOLT-4 cells. Knockdown of p53 significantly attenuated the radiosensitizing effect of BDMC. However, BDMC did not enhance X-ray-mediated activation of the p53 signaling pathway via p53's transactivation or mitochondrial translocation. On the other hand, BDMC promoted the X-ray-induced dephosphorylation at Ser 70 in Bcl-2's flexible loop regulatory domain and Bcl-2 binding to p53...
March 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254518/effect-of-modeled-microgravity-on-radiation-induced-adaptive-response-of-root-growth-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Chenguang Deng, Ting Wang, Jingjing Wu, Wei Xu, Huasheng Li, Min Liu, Lijun Wu, Jinying Lu, Po Bian
Space particles have an inevitable impact on organisms during space missions; radio-adaptive response (RAR) is a critical radiation effect due to both low-dose background and sudden high-dose radiation exposure during solar storms. Although it is relevant to consider RAR within the context of microgravity, another major space environmental factor, there is no existing evidence as to its effects on RAR. In the present study, we established an experimental method for detecting the effects of gamma-irradiation on the primary root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which RAR of root growth was significantly induced by several dose combinations...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249151/induction-of-the-long-noncoding-rna-nbr2-from-the-bidirectional-brca1-promoter-under-hypoxic-conditions
#16
J Erin Wiedmeier, Anna Ohlrich, Adrian Chu, Michael R Rountree, Mitchell S Turker
BRCA1 plays an important role in preventing breast cancer and is often silenced or repressed in sporadic cancer. The BRCA1 promoter is bidirectional: it drives transcription of the long non-coding (lnc) NBR2 transcript in the opposite orientation relative to the BRCA1 transcript. Hypoxic conditions repress BRCA1 transcription, but their effect on expression of the NBR2 transcript has not been reported. We used quantitative RT-PCR to measure BRCA1 and NBR2 transcript levels in 0% and 1% oxygen in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and found that NBR2 transcript levels increased as a function of time under hypoxic conditions, whereas BRCA1 mRNA levels were repressed...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212500/cyto-genotoxic-and-dna-methylation-changes-induced-by-different-crystal-phases-of-tio2-np-in-bronchial-epithelial-16-hbe-cells
#17
Manosij Ghosh, Deniz Öner, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Stevan M Cokic, Sven Seys, Stef Kerkhofs, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Peter Hoet, Lode Godderis
With the increase in use of TiO2-np, a better understanding of their safety is important. In the present study the effect of different crystal phases of TiO2-np (anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture; 20-26nm) were studied for cyto-genotoxicity and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Cytotoxic response was observed at a concentration of 25μg/ml for the particles tested. Results of comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of these particles...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137367/genomic-health-status-assessed-by-a-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-in-a-healthy-middle-aged-korean-population
#18
Nan Young Cho, Kyung Woon Kim, Kyoung Kon Kim
The aim of this study was to determine the typical incidence of micronuclei (MNi) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy middle-aged Koreans using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Non-smoking, low-risk alcohol-drinking healthy Korean men and women aged 30 to 59 years were recruited. Participants were divided into three groups according to age, i.e., 30 to 39, 40 to 49, and 50 to 59 years. Fifty participants were included in each age group, for a total of 300 participants. DNA damage was measured based on the number of binucleated (BN) cells with MNi, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), and nuclear buds (NBUDs) using the CBMN-Cyt assay...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137366/somatic-mutations-in-cancer-stochastic-versus-predictable
#19
Barry Gold
The origins of human cancers remain unclear except for a limited number of potent environmental mutagens, such as tobacco and UV light, and in rare cases, familial germ line mutations that affect tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. A significant component of cancer etiology has been deemed stochastic and correlated with the number of stem cells in a tissue, the number of times the stem cells divide and a low incidence of random DNA polymerase errors that occur during each cell division. While somatic mutations occur during each round of DNA replication, mutations in cancer driver genes are not stochastic...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137365/in-vitro-protective-effects-of-botryosphaeran-a-1%C3%A2-3-1%C3%A2-6-%C3%AE-d-glucan-against-mutagens-in-normal-and-tumor-rodent-cells
#20
Leandra E Kerche-Silva, Ilce M S Cólus, Maressa Malini, Mateus Prates Mori, Robert F H Dekker, Aneli M Barbosa-Dekker
Botryosphaeran (BOT) is an exocellular β-d-glucan (carbohydrate biopolymer) of the (1→3;1→6)-linked type produced by Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05. The cytotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and protective effects of this substance were evaluated in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) and rat hepatocarcinoma cells (HTC) by the micronucleus test (MN) and the comet assay. BOT was not genotoxic in either cell line; it decreased the clastogenic effects of doxorubicin, H2O2, and benzo[a]pyrene. These results indicate that BOT may have potential as a therapeutic agent...
February 2017: Mutation Research
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