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Mutation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212500/cyto-genotoxic-and-dna-methylation-changes-induced-by-different-crystal-phases-of-tio2-np-in-bronchial-epithelial-16-hbe-cells
#1
Manosij Ghosh, Deniz Öner, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Stevan M Cokic, Sven Seys, Stef Kerkhofs, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Peter Hoet, Lode Godderis
With the increase in use of TiO2-np, a better understanding of their safety is important. In the present study the effect of different crystal phases of TiO2-np (anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture; 20-26nm) were studied for cyto-genotoxicity and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Cytotoxic response was observed at a concentration of 25μg/ml for the particles tested. Results of comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of these particles...
February 10, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103492/a-novel-type-of-gene-interaction-in-d-melanogaster
#2
B F Chadov, E V Chadova, N B Fedorova
The genes interact according to classical mechanisms, namely, complementation, modification, polymery, and epistasis, in the cells and organisms carrying these genes. Here we describe a novel type of gene interaction when the interacting genes reside in parents, whereas the interaction event takes place in their progenies lacking these genes. The conditional mutations in the D. melanogaster male X chromosome caused the "prohibition on producing daughters" in its offspring. The chromosomal rearrangements in chromosomes 2 and 3 of its female partner removed the prohibition...
January 11, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088539/the-dna-damage-response-of-c-elegans-affected-by-gravity-sensing-and-radiosensitivity-during-the-shenzhou-8-spaceflight
#3
Ying Gao, Dan Xu, Lei Zhao, Yeqing Sun
Space radiation and microgravity are recognized as primary and inevitable risk factors for humans traveling in space, but the reports regarding their synergistic effects remain inconclusive and vary across studies due to differences in the environmental conditions and intrinsic biological sensitivity. Thus, we studied the synergistic effects on transcriptional changes in the global genome and DNA damage response (DDR) by using dys-1 mutant and ced-1 mutant of C. elegans, which respectively presented microgravity-insensitivity and radiosensitivity when exposure to spaceflight condition (SF) and space radiation (SR)...
January 7, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033535/sample-size-determination-for-the-fluctuation-experiment
#4
Qi Zheng
The Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment protocol is increasingly employed to determine microbial mutation rates in the laboratory. An important question raised at the planning stage is "How many cultures are needed?" For over 70 years sample sizes have been determined either by intuition or by following published examples where sample sizes were chosen intuitively. This paper proposes a practical method for determining the sample size. The proposed method relies on existing algorithms for computing the expected Fisher information under two commonly used mutant distributions...
December 19, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137367/genomic-health-status-assessed-by-a-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-in-a-healthy-middle-aged-korean-population
#5
Nan Young Cho, Kyung Woon Kim, Kyoung Kon Kim
The aim of this study was to determine the typical incidence of micronuclei (MNi) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy middle-aged Koreans using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Non-smoking, low-risk alcohol-drinking healthy Korean men and women aged 30 to 59 years were recruited. Participants were divided into three groups according to age, i.e., 30 to 39, 40 to 49, and 50 to 59 years. Fifty participants were included in each age group, for a total of 300 participants. DNA damage was measured based on the number of binucleated (BN) cells with MNi, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), and nuclear buds (NBUDs) using the CBMN-Cyt assay...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137366/somatic-mutations-in-cancer-stochastic-versus-predictable
#6
Barry Gold
The origins of human cancers remain unclear except for a limited number of potent environmental mutagens, such as tobacco and UV light, and in rare cases, familial germ line mutations that affect tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. A significant component of cancer etiology has been deemed stochastic and correlated with the number of stem cells in a tissue, the number of times the stem cells divide and a low incidence of random DNA polymerase errors that occur during each cell division. While somatic mutations occur during each round of DNA replication, mutations in cancer driver genes are not stochastic...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137365/in-vitro-protective-effects-of-botryosphaeran-a-1%C3%A2-3-1%C3%A2-6-%C3%AE-d-glucan-against-mutagens-in-normal-and-tumor-rodent-cells
#7
Leandra E Kerche-Silva, Ilce M S Cólus, Maressa Malini, Mateus Prates Mori, Robert F H Dekker, Aneli M Barbosa-Dekker
Botryosphaeran (BOT) is an exocellular β-d-glucan (carbohydrate biopolymer) of the (1→3;1→6)-linked type produced by Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05. The cytotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and protective effects of this substance were evaluated in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) and rat hepatocarcinoma cells (HTC) by the micronucleus test (MN) and the comet assay. BOT was not genotoxic in either cell line; it decreased the clastogenic effects of doxorubicin, H2O2, and benzo[a]pyrene. These results indicate that BOT may have potential as a therapeutic agent...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137364/nucleoplasmic-bridges-as-a-biomarker-of-dna-damage-exposed-to-radon
#8
C Meenakshi, K Sivasubramanian, B Venkatraman
Radon is a naturally occurring radionuclide in the environment, during decay it emits high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha particles. When radon exposure is accompanied by smoking it has been reported that lung cancer risk is higher. Blood samples were collected after prior consent, 25 smokers and 25 non smokers (only males) exposed in vitro to radon gas with doses ranging between 0.3-12.6mGy Ionizing radiation is a strong clastogenic agent and a potent inducer of MN. Cytokinesis-Blocked Micro Nucleus (CBMN) assay has proven to be a reliable, thoroughly validated and standardised technique in the field of radiation biology...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137363/assessment-of-the-genotoxicity-of-the-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-imatinib-mesylate-in-cultured-fish-and-human-cells
#9
Matjaž Novak, Bojana Žegura, Jana Nunić, Goran Gajski, Marko Gerić, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Metka Filipič
The selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM) is a widely used anticancer drug. Recent studies showing that IM can induce DNA and chromosomal damage in crustaceans and higher plants prompted us to re-examine its potential genotoxicity. IM was not mutagenic in the Ames assay (Salmonella typhimurium). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in vitro in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver (ZFL), human hepatoma (HepG2), and human peripheral blood lymphocyte (HPBL) cells. Genotoxicity was determined with the comet assay and with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137362/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mouse-lymphoma-l5178y-3-7-2c-tk-reveals-millions-of-mutations-and-genetic-markers
#10
Page B McKinzie, Javier R Revollo
The mouse lymphoma L5178Y-3.7.2C (TK(+/-)) cell line is extensively used in genetic toxicology to conduct the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA). The MLA is used to establish the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and is one of the few genetic tests widely accepted by regulatory agencies throughout the world. Despite the extensive use and regulatory impact of L5178Y-3.7.2C (TK(+/-)) cells, little is known about their genetic composition or how it affects the outcome of the MLA. To determine the genetic background of this cell line, we sequenced and analyzed its entire genome...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107644/synergism-of-dam-muth-and-muts-in-methylation-directed-mismatch-repair-in-escherichia-coli
#11
Changkun Hu, Yunqi Zhao, Huiyun Sun, Yixin Yang
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a critical mutation surveillance system for recognizing and repairing erroneous insertion, deletion, and disincorporation of base. Major components of mismatch repair system consist of MutH, MutL, and MutS. Dam methylates adenine to distinguish newly synthesized daughter strands from the parent strands. Employing a tyrosine-auxotrophic E. coli FX-11 strain, the mutation frequency can be determined by the number of tyrosine revertants and the cell viability of FX-11 with deficiencies in dam and mismatch repair proteins...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010928/ganoderma-lucidum-total-triterpenes-induce-apoptosis-in-mcf-7-cells-and-attenuate-dmba-induced-mammary-and-skin-carcinomas-in-experimental-animals
#12
T P Smina, B Nitha, T P A Devasagayam, K K Janardhanan
Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes were evaluated for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-cancer activities. Cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic effect of total triterpenes were evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line using MTT assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by down-regulating the levels of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and also by up-regulating the levels of Bax and caspase-9. Anti-carcinogenicity of total triterpenes was analysed using dimethyl benz [a] anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papilloma and mammary adenocarcinoma in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats respectively...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010927/assessing-the-genotoxicity-of-two-commonly-occurring-byproducts-of-water-disinfection-chloral-hydrate-and-bromal-hydrate
#13
Tarek Manasfi, Michel De Méo, Carole Di Giorgio, Bruno Coulomb, Jean-Luc Boudenne
Water disinfection treatments result in the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that have been linked to adverse human health outcomes including higher incidence of bladder and colorectal cancer. However, data about the genotoxicity of DBPs is limited to only a small fraction of compounds. Chloral hydrate (CH) and bromal hydrate (BH) are two trihaloacetaldehydes commonly detected in disinfected waters, but little is known about their genotoxicity, especially BH. We investigated the genotoxicity of CH and BH using a test battery that includes three in vitro genotoxicity assays...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010926/increased-methylation-of-repetitive-elements-and-dna-repair-genes-is-associated-with-higher-dna-oxidation-in-children-in-an-urbanized-industrial-environment
#14
Isabel Alvarado-Cruz, Marco Sánchez-Guerra, Leticia Hernández-Cadena, Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Violeta Mugica, Nadia Azenet Pelallo-Martínez, María de Jesús Solís-Heredia, Hyang-Min Byun, Andrea Baccarelli, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega
DNA methylation in DNA repair genes participates in the DNA damage regulation. Particulate matter (PM), which has metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed, among others has been linked to adverse health outcomes and may modify DNA methylation. To evaluate PM exposure impact on repetitive elements and gene-specific DNA methylation and DNA damage, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 150 schoolchildren (7-10 years old) from an urbanized, industrial area of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), which frequently exhibits PM concentrations above safety standards...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010925/effects-of-chronic-restraint-induced-stress-on-radiation-induced-chromosomal-aberrations-in-mouse-splenocytes
#15
Takanori Katsube, Bing Wang, Kaoru Tanaka, Yasuharu Ninomiya, Guillaume Varès, Taiki Kawagoshi, Naoko Shiomi, Yoshihisa Kubota, Qiang Liu, Akinori Morita, Tetsuo Nakajima, Mitsuru Nenoi
Both ionizing radiation (IR) and psychological stress (PS) cause detrimental effects on humans. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced PS (CRIPS) diminished the functions of Trp53 and enhanced radiocarcinogenesis in Trp53-heterozygous (Trp53(+/-)) mice. These findings had a marked impact on the academic field as well as the general public, particularly among residents living in areas radioactively contaminated by nuclear accidents. In an attempt to elucidate the modifying effects of CRIPS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53(+/+)) animals, investigations involving multidisciplinary analyses were performed...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010924/upregulation-of-nrf2-through-autophagy-erk-1-2-ameliorates-ionizing-radiation-induced-cell-death-of-human-osteosarcoma-u-2-os
#16
Ni Chen, Rui Zhang, Teruaki Konishi, Jun Wang
The antioxidative response mediated by transcription factor NRF2 is thought to be a pivotal cellular defense system against various extrinsic stresses. It has been reported that activation of the NRF2 pathway confers cells with resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the current research, it was found that α-particle radiation has the ability to stimulate NRF2 expression in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Knockdown of cellular NRF2 level by shRNA-mediated gene silencing decreased the survival rate, increased the micronucleus formation rate and apoptosis rate in irradiated cells...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010923/biomonitoring-of-gasoline-station-attendants-exposed-to-benzene-effect-of-gender
#17
Angela M Moro, Natália Brucker, Mariele F Charão, Marília Baierle, Elisa Sauer, Gabriela Goethel, Anelise Barth, Sabrina N Nascimento, Bruna Gauer, Juliano Durgante, Beatriz S Amaral, Francisco R A Neto, Adriana Gioda, Solange C Garcia
Women are employed in increasing numbers as gasoline station attendants, a work category with risk of exposure to benzene. We have assessed the effect of gender on biomarkers of occupational benzene exposure. Gasoline station attendants (20 men and 20 women) and 40 control individuals (20 men and 20 women) with no history of occupational benzene exposure were evaluated. Benzene exposure was monitoring by environmental and biological measurements. Urinary trans,trans-muconic acid levels, well-known genetic and hematological alterations linked to benzene exposure, and non-cancer effects on the immune, hepatic, and renal systems were investigated...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908386/genetic-polymorphisms-in-19q13-3-genes-associated-with-alteration-of-repair-capacity-to-bpde-dna-adducts-in-primary-cultured-lymphocytes
#18
Mingyang Xiao, Sha Xiao, Tahar van der Straaten, Ping Xue, Guopei Zhang, Xiao Zheng, Qianye Zhang, Yuan Cai, Cuihong Jin, Jinghua Yang, Shengwen Wu, Guolian Zhu, Xiaobo Lu
Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), and its ultimate metabolite Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), are classic DNA damaging carcinogens. DNA damage in cells caused by BPDE is normally repaired by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) and Base Excision Repair (BER). Genetic variations in NER and BER can change individual DNA repair capacity to DNA damage induced by BPDE. In the present study we determined the number of in vitro induced BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes, to reflect individual susceptibility to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-induced carcinogenesis...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908385/the-mutagenic-assessment-of-an-electronic-cigarette-and-reference-cigarette-smoke-using-the-ames-assay-in-strains-ta98-and-ta100
#19
D Thorne, I Crooks, M Hollings, A Seymour, C Meredith, M Gaca
Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used to assess the mutagenic potential of the aerosol from a commercially available, rechargeable, closed system electronic-cigarette. Results obtained were compared to those for the mainstream smoke from a Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette. Two different test matrices were assessed. Aerosol generated from the e-cigarette was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad, eluted in DMSO and compared to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), which was generated in the same manner for mutagenicity assessment in the Salmonella assay...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908384/dna-replication-after-mutagenic-treatment-in-hordeum-vulgare
#20
Jolanta Kwasniewska, Arita Kus, Monika Swoboda, Agnieszka Braszewska-Zalewska
The temporal and spatial properties of DNA replication in plants related to DNA damage and mutagenesis is poorly understood. Experiments were carried out to explore the relationships between DNA replication, chromatin structure and DNA damage in nuclei from barley root tips. We quantitavely analysed the topological organisation of replication foci using pulse EdU labelling during the S phase and its relationship with the DNA damage induced by mutagenic treatment with maleic hydrazide (MH), nitroso-N-methyl-urea (MNU) and gamma ray...
December 2016: Mutation Research
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