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Medicine, Science, and the Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310502/post-mortem-computed-tomography-technical-principles-and-recommended-parameter-settings-for-high-resolution-imaging
#1
Dominic Gascho, Michael J Thali, Tilo Niemann
Post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) has become a standard procedure in many forensic institutes worldwide. However, the standard scan protocols offered by vendors are optimised for clinical radiology and its main considerations regarding computed tomography (CT), namely, radiation exposure and motion artefacts. Thus, these protocols aim at low-dose imaging and fast imaging techniques. However, these considerations are negligible in post-mortem imaging, which allows for significantly increased image quality...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803513/mechanisms-of-unexpected-death-and-autopsy-findings-in-friedreich-ataxia
#2
Roger W Byard, John D Gilbert
A 36-year-old woman with a clinical history of Friedreich ataxia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was found unexpectedly dead at her home. The heart showed asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy, with an interventricular septal thickness of 20-25 mm (the remainder of the left ventricular wall measured 15 mm). Histologically, both ventricles had irregular areas of marked myocyte hypertrophy with associated interstitial fibrosis and focal myofibre disarray. There was neuronal loss within the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, with vacuolation and axonal loss in the dorsal columns and spinocerebellar tracts of the upper cervical spinal cord...
October 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715977/iatrogenic-tracheoarterial-fistula-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Durmić Tijana, Čurović Ivana, Bogdanović Milenko, Savić Slobodan
Tracheo-innominate fistula is a rare but recognised life-threatening complication most commonly associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy who developed a tracheo-innominate fistula secondary to the prolonged intubation after a pool accident. After 16 days of hospitalisation, the patient died as a consequence of a massive haemorrhage into the tracheobronchial tree and asphyxia. This is a rare complication, and to our knowledge, no case of tracheo-innominate fistula or any other case series concerning this rare complication has been reported in Serbia recently...
July 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697681/a-particularly-complex-case-of-matricide-by-means-of-plastic-bag-suffocation-case-report
#4
Arnaldo Stanislao Migliorini, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Andrea Piccinini, Riccardo Zoja
A rare case of homicide with plastic bag suffocation is presented in which forensic genetic investigations were carried out on the inner surface of a plastic bag placed over the head of an elderly woman, bedridden after a stroke. The results obtained suggested that she had been murdered and hinted at the perpetrator of the crime. In fact, it emerged that biological traces left by the victim matched those of her principal caregiver, her psychotic daughter, who later confessed to the crime. The old woman also had a son affected by a serious illness, whose genetic profile was found on the same bag...
July 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587536/commotio-cordis-a-review
#5
Ritesh G Menezes, Huda Fatima, Syed Ather Hussain, Saba Ahmed, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Magdy A Kharoshah, Mohammed Madadin, Pradhum Ram, Sadip Pant, Sushil Allen Luis
Commotio cordis is an increasingly reported fatal mechano-electric syndrome and is the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. It is most commonly associated with a sports-related injury, wherein, there is a high-velocity impact between a projectile and the precordium. By virtue of this impact, malignant arrhythmias consequently develop leading to the individual's immediate demise, accompanied by a relatively normal post-mortem analysis. The importance of an autopsy remains paramount to exclude other causes of sudden death...
July 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513267/self-use-of-snake-venom-the-other-side-of-the-coin
#6
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Nanjundan Karthikeyan, Narendra Nath Jena, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438101/intravenous-administration-of-cannabis-and-lethal-anaphylaxis
#7
John D Gilbert, Marc Grabowski, Roger W Byard
Cannabis allergy appears to be increasing. A 33-year-old woman is reported who collapsed and died shortly after injecting herself with a cannabis solution prepared by pouring boiling water onto plant material. There were no significant findings at autopsy, except for a single recent venepuncture wound in the left cubital fossa. Toxicological examination of the blood revealed low levels of methylamphetamine and amphetamine with tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-THC, and no opiates. The syringe used by the decedent contained Δ(9)-THC...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438100/an-epidemiology-of-sexual-assault-among-elderly-women-in-the-mthatha-area-of-south-africa
#8
Banwari L Meel
Background South Africa has one of the highest rates of rape in the world, but this barely seems to surprise anyone. It is extremely disturbing, especially when children and elderly women are raped. Women and children are usually the weakest group in society physically, as well as the most exposed to abuse and neglect. It should be the responsibility of a civil society to protect these vulnerable groups from harm. Objective This study investigated the trend of rapes among elderly women in the Mthatha area of South Africa...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438099/a-single-centre-review-of-suspected-sudden-infant-death-cases
#9
Janos Bokor, Krisztina Danics, Eszter Bencze, Eva Keller, Zoltan Szollosi
This study aimed to establish the number of deaths in infants under 1 year of age that were being reported for medico-legal examination at a single large academic centre in Hungary, as well as the method of these investigations with special emphasis on histopathology, ancillary techniques and the adherence of our current practice to international recommendations. A single-centre, retrospective audit was conducted on all suspected sudden infant death cases. After the review there were eight infectious background sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases, infectious respiratory tract disease in 14 cases, cardiac septal tumour in one case, and hepatic, possibly metabolic, disorder in one case...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438098/corrigendum
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438097/people-can-die-from-opiate-withdrawal
#11
Margaret Mary Stark, Jason Payne-James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438096/venous-air-embolism-an-under-recognised-entity-in-blunt-force-trauma-and-the-importance-of-radiology
#12
Marna du Plessis, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Air embolism (AE) is considered a rare event and can be either iatrogenic or traumatic. Various post-mortem methods to detect AE exist, of which radiology is preferred. The presence of air in the heart can be demonstrated using special dissection techniques where the heart is opened under water or by needle puncture from a water-filled syringe. Three cases of blunt-force head injury are presented herein, with AE being diagnosed by conventional radiography using a Lodox Statscan® full-body digital X-ray machine in all cases...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372524/the-demographic-characteristics-of-medicolegal-death-among-welfare-recipients-in-tokyo-metropolis-2008-2013
#13
Hideto Suzuki, Takanobu Tanifuji, Nobuyuki Abe, Tatsushige Fukunaga
Background The number of welfare recipients has steadily increased in Japan during recent years, although the number of homeless persons has decreased. Despite there being many reports regarding medicolegal death among homeless persons, medicolegal death among welfare recipients has not been fully investigated. Methods We identified 10,293 individuals who received welfare aid during their lifetime among the 81,867 cases that were examined by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office (2008-2013). We retrospectively compared the proportions of medicolegal death to total population, age, sex, family status, clinical history, and manners/causes of death among non-indigent persons (controls), homeless persons, and welfare recipients...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283004/elimination-of-contaminating-amplified-short-tandem-repeat-products-by-autoclaving-and-ultraviolet-irradiation
#14
Jun Ohta, Atsunori Tanaka
DNA contamination can result in false interpretation of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA typing. Proper decontamination is particularly required in forensic DNA laboratories where probative value of the evidence may be affected. The aim of this study was to establish an effective DNA decontamination procedure for amplified STR products focusing on laboratory-related contamination. We verified the effectiveness of thermally and temporally extended autoclaving and ultraviolet irradiation for the elimination of contaminating amplified STR products...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283003/a-particular-case-of-accidental-asphyxiation
#15
Cristian D'Ovidio, Enrica Rosato, Martina Bonelli, Aldo Carnevale, Luigi T Marsella
The case reported involved a 60-year-old man with psychiatric illness who was found dead at his home. He was almost naked and showed signs of death by violent asphyxiation, which led to the suspicion of homicide. Autopsy findings showed foreign material in the trachea and larynx. However, the partially digested content in his stomach, the study of the gastric content and the microscopic analysis the airways made it possible to define this as accidental death due to inhalation of material from a diaper. Toxicological analysis detected the presence of phenytoin, valproic acid, and phenobarbital in his blood, with values within the therapeutic ranges...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283002/twenty-three-years-1993-2015-of-homicide-trends-in-the-transkei-region-of-south-africa
#16
Meel Banwari
Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256331/observations-on-self-incineration-characteristics-in-24-years-1993-2016-of-autopsies-in-the-city-of-milan
#17
Alberto Amadasi, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Francesca Maghin, Riccardo Zoja
Self-incineration is one of the most dramatic and lethal suicide methods. It is rarely reported in Western countries and is more frequent in developing regions. We illustrate the forensic cases of self-immolation occurring over 24 years in the city of Milan, Italy, highlighting the main issues of such a complex and rare suicide. We selected 33 cases of self-incineration among 23,417 autopsies (4022 suicides) performed at the Department of Legal Medicine of the University of Milan over a period of 24 years (1993-2016)...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141499/gastrointestinal-causes-of-sudden-unexpected-death-a-review
#18
Ritesh G Menezes, Saba Ahmed, Syed Bilal Pasha, Syed Ather Hussain, Huda Fatima, Magdy A Kharoshah, Mohammed Madadin
Gastrointestinal conditions are a less common cause of sudden unexpected death when compared to other conditions such as cardiovascular conditions, but they are equally important. Various congenital and acquired gastrointestinal conditions that have resulted in sudden unexpected death are discussed. The possible lethal mechanisms behind each condition, along with any associated risk factors or secondary diseases, have been described. Through this article, we aim to highlight the need for physicians to prevent death in such conditions by ensuring that subclinical cases are diagnosed correctly before it is too late and by providing timely and efficacious treatment to the patient concerned...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105556/twenty-five-years-of-french-jurisprudence-in-criminal-medical-liability
#19
Maxime Faisant, Frédérique Papin-Lefebvre, Camille Rerolle, Pauline Saint-Martin, Clotilde Rougé-Maillart
We report on a comprehensive 25-year study on criminal medical liability in France, undertaken to establish trends in the number of cases being brought before the criminal courts. We did this by querying the database on the Légifrance website using a Boolean equation (' pénal' (criminal) AND ' médecin' (physician) OR ' docteur' (doctor)). In total 539 cases were selected, in which the status of the physician either influenced the punishment imposed, or was a prerequisite for the commission of the offence...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087244/petechial-haemorrhages-as-a-consequence-of-very-short-term-strangulation-during-suicidal-fall-from-a-height-case-reconstruction
#20
Vladimir Živković, Slobodan Nikolić
We present the case of a 64-year-old woman who committed suicide by jumping from the open bedroom window of her second-floor apartment. However, during a head-first fall, the victim's head was caught perpendicularly between two parallel metal strands of wire, used for drying laundry, on the first-floor window. This led to a 180° rotation of the body around the lower part of the neck, bringing the victim's body into the legs-first position. This chain of events also caused short-term neck strangulation, for fractions of a second or a couple of seconds, which caused rupture of the peripheral venules and apparent neck, facial and conjunctival haemorrhages, above the level of strangulation ligature - the metal strands of wire...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
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