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Medicine, Science, and the Law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438101/intravenous-administration-of-cannabis-and-lethal-anaphylaxis
#1
John D Gilbert, Marc Grabowski, Roger W Byard
Cannabis allergy appears to be increasing. A 33-year-old woman is reported who collapsed and died shortly after injecting herself with a cannabis solution prepared by pouring boiling water onto plant material. There were no significant findings at autopsy, except for a single recent venepuncture wound in the left cubital fossa. Toxicological examination of the blood revealed low levels of methylamphetamine and amphetamine with tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-THC, and no opiates. The syringe used by the decedent contained Δ(9)-THC...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438100/an-epidemiology-of-sexual-assault-among-elderly-women-in-the-mthatha-area-of-south-africa
#2
Banwari L Meel
Background South Africa has one of the highest rates of rape in the world, but this barely seems to surprise anyone. It is extremely disturbing, especially when children and elderly women are raped. Women and children are usually the weakest group in society physically, as well as the most exposed to abuse and neglect. It should be the responsibility of a civil society to protect these vulnerable groups from harm. Objective This study investigated the trend of rapes among elderly women in the Mthatha area of South Africa...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438099/a-single-centre-review-of-suspected-sudden-infant-death-cases
#3
Janos Bokor, Krisztina Danics, Eszter Bencze, Eva Keller, Zoltan Szollosi
This study aimed to establish the number of deaths in infants under 1 year of age that were being reported for medico-legal examination at a single large academic centre in Hungary, as well as the method of these investigations with special emphasis on histopathology, ancillary techniques and the adherence of our current practice to international recommendations. A single-centre, retrospective audit was conducted on all suspected sudden infant death cases. After the review there were eight infectious background sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases, infectious respiratory tract disease in 14 cases, cardiac septal tumour in one case, and hepatic, possibly metabolic, disorder in one case...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438098/corrigendum
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438097/people-can-die-from-opiate-withdrawal
#5
Margaret Mary Stark, Jason Payne-James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438096/venous-air-embolism-an-under-recognised-entity-in-blunt-force-trauma-and-the-importance-of-radiology
#6
Marna du Plessis, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Air embolism (AE) is considered a rare event and can be either iatrogenic or traumatic. Various post-mortem methods to detect AE exist, of which radiology is preferred. The presence of air in the heart can be demonstrated using special dissection techniques where the heart is opened under water or by needle puncture from a water-filled syringe. Three cases of blunt-force head injury are presented herein, with AE being diagnosed by conventional radiography using a Lodox Statscan® full-body digital X-ray machine in all cases...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391742/the-use-of-human-samples-obtained-during-medicolegal-autopsies-in-research-an-introduction-to-current-conditions-and-initiatives-in-japan
#7
Takako Tsujimura-Ito, Yusuke Inoue, Kaori Muto, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
Background Leftover samples obtained during autopsies are extremely important basic materials for forensic research. However, there are no established practices for research-related use of obtained samples. Objective This study discusses good practice for the secondary use of samples collected during medicolegal autopsies. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medicolegal autopsies in Japan, and 48 responses were received (response rate: 63.2%). As a secondary analysis, we surveyed information provided on department websites...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376670/in-re-guardianship-of-hailu-the-nevada-supreme-court-casts-doubt-on-the-standard-for-brain-death-diagnosis
#8
Greg Yanke, Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
In the recent court case of In Re Guardianship of Hailu, the Nevada Supreme Court cast doubt on the acceptability of the American Academy of Neurology's guidelines as a medical standard for determining brain death. The Uniform Determination of Death Act, which has been adopted in every state, requires that brain death diagnoses be made in accordance with accepted medical standards. The Court expressed concern that the guidelines fail to ensure that there is an irreversible cessation of all functions of a person's entire brain, which is a component of the Act's definition of death...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372525/acute-forces-required-for-fatal-compression-asphyxia-a-biomechanical-model-and-historical-comparisons
#9
Mark W Kroll, G Keith Still, Tom S Neuman, Michael A Graham, Lanny V Griffin
Background Fatalities from acute compression have been reported with soft-drink vending machine tipping, motor vehicle accidents, and trench cave-ins. A major mechanism of such deaths is flail chest but the amount of force required is unclear. Between the range of a safe static chest compression force of 1000 N (102 kg with earth gravity) and a lethal dynamic force of 10-20 kN (falling 450 kg vending machines), there are limited quantitative human data on the force required to cause flail chest, which is a major correlate of acute fatal compression asphyxia...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372524/the-demographic-characteristics-of-medicolegal-death-among-welfare-recipients-in-tokyo-metropolis-2008-2013
#10
Hideto Suzuki, Takanobu Tanifuji, Nobuyuki Abe, Tatsushige Fukunaga
Background The number of welfare recipients has steadily increased in Japan during recent years, although the number of homeless persons has decreased. Despite there being many reports regarding medicolegal death among homeless persons, medicolegal death among welfare recipients has not been fully investigated. Methods We identified 10,293 individuals who received welfare aid during their lifetime among the 81,867 cases that were examined by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office (2008-2013). We retrospectively compared the proportions of medicolegal death to total population, age, sex, family status, clinical history, and manners/causes of death among non-indigent persons (controls), homeless persons, and welfare recipients...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262050/a-retrospective-study-describing-the-characteristics-of-one-mental-health-trust-s-admissions-under-sections-47-and-48-of-the-mental-health-act-1983
#11
Ravindran Neeilan, Aileen O'Brien
Sections 47 and 48 of the Mental Health Act 1983 allow prisoners to be transferred from prison to an appropriate health-care setting in order to be treated. There is an awareness that delays exist when transferring prisoners to hospital. However, literature regarding the delay in returning these patients from hospital is limited. The admissions from prison to a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) in South West London were compared to non-offenders on the PICU in order to compare the average length of stay for both groups and the time taken for the discharge from PICU once felt clinically appropriate...
January 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205460/complaints-against-health-care-professionals-providing-police-custodial-and-forensic-medical-health-care-services-and-sexual-offence-examiner-services-in-england-wales-and-northern-ireland
#12
Kieran M Kennedy, Peter G Green, J Jason Payne-James
Complaints management is an integral component of good clinical governance and an essential contributor to patient safety. Little is known about complaints against health-care professionals (HCPs) in police custodial settings and sexual assault referral centres. This study explored the frequency with which complaints are made against such HCPs working in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. It explored the nature of those complaints and the procedures by which they are investigated. Relevant information was requested from all police services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; professional regulatory bodies; and the Independent Police Complaints Commission under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094603/lethal-mechanisms-in-gastric-volvulus
#13
Kimberley J Omond, Roger W Byard
A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043203/expert-assessments-of-war-casualties
#14
Lalić Hrvoje
By describing three different war casualty cases, this paper highlights the harshness of current legal regulations in Croatia, and the possible consequences of their strict implementation. In two of the three cases the second instance expert witness has ultimately found that, due to legal procedures being followed too strictly, the expert witness initially assessing the cases had exceeded the legal framework and actually assessed patients, that is, individuals claiming disability benefits, inadequately. However, in the third case the expert witnesses employed by the Disability Pension Insurance Institute were right in deciding that the claimant was not entitled to a higher category of disability...
January 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881496/penetrating-intracranial-injury-caused-by-an-unusual-home-made-iron-pyrotechnic-device
#15
Slobodan Nikolić, Vladimir Živković
Herein, a potentially dangerous explosive home-made device used for fun and entertainment is described. It consists of two iron parts connected with a U-shaped thick wire: a wedge about 8 cm in length, which fits into a hollow cylinder, filled with a small amount of nitre (the mineral form of potassium nitrate). Striking the device onto a hard surface creates a spark inside it, which burns the nitre, producing a very loud bang. We are in possession of such device in our forensic museum collection. We present a case from 1937 related to the use of this explosive home-made device...
November 23, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872398/five-year-study-of-unidentified-unclaimed-and-unknown-deaths-brought-for-medicolegal-autopsy-at-premier-hospital-in-new-delhi-india
#16
Abhishek Yadav, Adarsh Kumar, Rajanikanta Swain, Sudhir Kumar Gupta
Delhi is the second largest city of the world both in terms of population and area, as well as being the capital of India. Every year, thousands of people from different states throng to the capital in search of a job in order to earn a living. When these people die and their bodies are found without any identifying documentation, it is very difficult for the police to establish their identities. These bodies are labelled as unidentified/unclaimed or unknown, and are sent for usually sent for medicolegal autopsy...
November 21, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794077/assessing-dna-recovery-from-chewing-gum
#17
Alison M Eychner, Kelly M Schott, Kelly M Elkins
The purpose of this study was to evaluate which DNA extraction method yields the highest quantity of DNA from chewing gum. In this study, several popular extraction methods were tested, including Chelex-100, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA), DNA IQ, PrepFiler, and QIAamp Investigator, and the quantity of DNA recovered from chewing gum was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction with Quantifiler. Chewed gum control samples were submitted by anonymous healthy adult donors, and discarded environmental chewing gum samples simulating forensic evidence were collected from outside public areas (e...
October 28, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698150/trend-of-homicide-suicide-in-kanagawa-prefecture-japan-comparison-with-western-countries
#18
Fumiko Satoh, Motoki Osawa
We examined 169 deceased persons and 76 homicide-suicide cases reported in Japan's Kanagawa Prefecture from 1999 to 2011. The relationships between homicide-suicide perpetrators and homicide victims; the numbers of victims; their age, sex, causes and places of death; motivation; and the presence or absence of a suicide note were extracted and examined. The relationship between homicide-suicide perpetrators and homicide victims was examined based on findings from the following: 24 married couples (31%), 22 parents and children aged ≥18 years (29%), 19 parents and children aged ≤17 years (25%), seven families (9%), two couples (3%) and two miscellaneous relationships (3%)...
October 3, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628167/unintentional-deaths-from-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-due-to-a-traditional-practice-observed-during-the-post-partum-period
#19
P U Telisinghe, Senarath M Colombage, Pg Md Bahrin Pg Hj Aliuddin
Deaths resulting from carbon-monoxide poisoning have been reported in the medical literature under diverse circumstances. Here, we report four deaths due to carbon-monoxide poisoning as a result of a traditional practice involving the application of heat to the abdomen to facilitate uterine involution during the immediate post-partum period. Four people died due to carbon-monoxide poisoning in two separate incidents, including two women in the post-partum period. In both instances, the women slept beside a stove with burning charcoal, which was supposed to provide warmth to the lower abdomen...
September 14, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614469/vascular-lesions-simulating-bruising
#20
Roger W Byard, Maria Bellis, Neil Ei Langlois
Careful examination of the skin and soft tissues is a routine part of the forensic autopsy to identify and characterise traumatic lesions. Three cases are reported where benign vascular lesions presented as bruises. In case 1, a 44-year-old man with a history of epilepsy was found dead on the floor. Dissection of the neck revealed a haemorrhagic area 15 mm × 1.5 mm, deep to the left thyrohyoid muscle. In case 2, an 87-year-old man was found dead with a plastic bag over his head attached to an opened cylinder of nitrogen gas...
September 10, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
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