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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901271/hyperostosis-frontalis-interna-in-female-historic-skeletal-populations-age-sex-hormones-and-the-impact-of-industrialization
#1
A G Western, J J Bekvalac
OBJECTIVES: This analysis aims to investigate the impact of industrialization on the prevalence of Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna (HFI), focusing on the roles of age and parity to examine the claim that longevity and changing reproductive patterns have led to increased rates in modern populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 138 individuals from two documented London skeletal assemblages of the Industrial period were analyzed employing macroscopic observation, digital radiography and MicroCT scanning to establish the prevalence rates of HFI according to modern clinical standards...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896800/principal-component-analysis-in-the-evaluation-of-osteoarthritis
#2
Stephanie E Calce, Helen K Kurki, Darlene A Weston, Lisa Gould
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate advantages of principal component analysis (PCA) as a standardized procedure in the evaluation of osteoarthritis (OA) in a skeletal series to: (1) compute aggregate scores for joint complexes that accurately capture pathological expression, (2) reveal which variables describe the most sample variation in OA, (3) enable inter- and intra-sample comparison of results, and (4) formulate predictive models from component-based arthritic scores...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883188/structural-organization-and-tooth-development-in-a-homo-aff-erectus-juvenile-mandible-from-the-early-pleistocene-site-of-garba-iv-at-melka-kunture-ethiopian-highlands
#3
Clément Zanolli, M Christopher Dean, Yared Assefa, Priscilla Bayle, José Braga, Silvana Condemi, Metasebia Endalamaw, Blade Engda Redae, Roberto Macchiarelli
OBJECTIVES: The immature partial mandible GAR IVE from the c. 1.7 Ma old Garba IV site at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash Basin, Ethiopia), the earliest human representative from a mountain-like environment, represents one of the oldest early Homo specimens bearing a mixed dentition. Following its first description (Condemi, ), we extended the analytical and comparative record of this specimen by providing unreported details about its inner morphology, tooth maturational pattern and age at death, crown size, and tooth tissue proportions...
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874171/anthropologists-views-on-race-ancestry-and-genetics
#4
Jennifer K Wagner, Joon-Ho Yu, Jayne O Ifekwunigwe, Tanya M Harrell, Michael J Bamshad, Charmaine D Royal
: Controversies over race conceptualizations have been ongoing for centuries and have been shaped, in part, by anthropologists. OBJECTIVE: To assess anthropologists' views on race, genetics, and ancestry. METHODS: In 2012 a broad national survey of anthropologists examined prevailing views on race, ancestry, and genetics. RESULTS: Results demonstrate consensus that there are no human biological races and recognition that race exists as lived social experiences that can have important effects on health...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858979/spatial-variation-in-mandibular-bone-elastic-modulus-and-its-effect-on-structural-bending-stiffness-a-test-case-using-the-ta%C3%A3-forest-monkeys
#5
Kim N Le, Matthew Marsik, David J Daegling, Ana Duque, William Scott McGraw
OBJECTIVES: We investigated how heterogeneity in material stiffness affects structural stiffness in the cercopithecid mandibular cortical bone. We assessed (1) whether this effect changes the interpretation of interspecific structural stiffness variation across four primate species, (2) whether the heterogeneity is random, and (3) whether heterogeneity mitigates bending stress in the jaw associated with food processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of Taï Forest, Cote d'Ivoire, monkeys: Cercocebus atys, Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, and Cercopithecus diana...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858983/copper-and-zinc-isotope-ratios-in-human-bone-and-enamel
#6
Klervia Jaouen, Estelle Herrscher, Vincent Balter
OBJECTIVES: Here, we report Cu and Zn isotope ratios of bones and teeth of French people from various historical periods with the aim to understand how Cu and Zn isotope ratios of bone, a tissue that is continuously remodeled throughout life but that is prone to post-mortem diagenesis, compare with that of tooth enamel, a tissue that forms once during childhood but that is more resistant to diagenesis. Specifically, we examine (1) the potential existence of sex-related differences in the Cu isotope ratios (represented as δ(65) Cu) in the tooth enamel of identified men and women, and (2) a decrease of Zn isotope delta ratios (represented as δ(66) Zn) related to the increase of meat and fish consumption during the 20(th) century...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858981/a-multi-isotope-investigation-of-diet-and-subsistence-amongst-island-and-mainland-populations-from-early-medieval-western-britain
#7
Katie A Hemer, Angela L Lamb, Carolyn A Chenery, Jane A Evans
OBJECTIVES: This is the first investigation of dietary practices amongst multiple early medieval populations (AD 500-1000) from Wales and the Isle of Man using carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis. The analysis will illuminate similarities or differences between the diets and subsistence strategies of populations occupying different geographical regions, specifically those living in marginal coastal regions in comparison to inland populations well-connected to ecclesiastical centres and high-status settlements...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861699/dietary-habits-in-new-france-during-the-17th-and-18th-centuries-an-isotopic-perspective
#8
J Vigeant, I Ribot, J-F Hélie
OBJECTIVE: Little attention has been given, so far, to the early colonial diet in New France from an isotopic perspective. Historical records that compare France to New France suggest a shift toward a more diverse diet, including a higher protein intake due to an improvement in living conditions in the New World, despite the retention of ancestral dietary habits. This hypothesis will be explored here. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stable carbon (organic and mineral) and nitrogen isotopes were measured on 43 individuals from Notre Dame cemetery (first Catholic parish church cemetery in Montreal, 1683-1803) as well as 13 French compatriots from La Rochelle, France (Protestant Hospital Cemetery, 1765-1792)...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808397/energy-related-influences-on-variation-in-breastfeeding-duration-among-indigenous-maya-women-from-guatemala
#9
Luseadra J McKerracher, Mark Collard, Rachel M Altman, Daniel Sellen, Pablo A Nepomnaschy
OBJECTIVES: The causes of variation in breastfeeding duration in humans are poorly understood, but life history factors related to maternal energetics drive much of the variation in lactation duration in nonhuman animals. With this in mind, we investigated whether four energy-related factors influence variation in breastfeeding duration in a non-industrial human population: (1) mortality risk during mother's development (assessed via mother's adult height), (2) reliance on nutrient-dense weaning foods, (3) access to and need for help with infant feeding and care ("allomaternal care"), and (4) maternal tradeoffs between current and future reproduction (measured via child's birth order)...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804125/humeral-correlates-of-forelimb-elevation-in-four-west-african-cercopithecid-monkeys
#10
Noah T Dunham, Erin E Kane, W Scott McGraw
OBJECTIVES: We previously found that differing degrees of forelimb flexion, elevation, and abduction during nonlocomotor foraging activities covaried with scapular morphology among four sympatric cercopithecids. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether features of the proximal humerus are similarly related to forelimb elevation during foraging. METHODS: Our sample consists of humeri (n = 42) of adult Cercocebus atys, Cercopithecus diana, Colobus polykomos, and Piliocolobus badius collected from Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796036/weaning-practices-among-pastoralists-new-evidence-of-infant-feeding-patterns-from-bronze-age-eurasia
#11
Alicia Ventresca Miller, Bryan K Hanks, Margaret Judd, Andrey Epimakhov, Dmitry Razhev
OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates infant feeding practices through stable carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotopic analyses of human bone collagen from Kamennyi Ambar 5, a Middle Bronze Age cemetery located in central Eurasia. The results presented are unique for the time period and region, as few cemeteries have been excavated to reveal a demographic cross-section of the population. Studies of weaning among pastoral societies are infrequent and this research adds to our knowledge of the timing, potential supplementary foods, and cessation of breastfeeding practices...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796034/holocene-population-history-of-the-sabana-de-bogot%C3%A3-region-northern-south-america-an-assessment-of-the-craniofacial-shape-variation
#12
Miguel Delgado
OBJECTIVES: Several authors using multiple and independent lines of evidence investigating the biocultural continuity versus discontinuity in the Sabana de Bogotá region, in the eastern highlands of Colombia, have arrived at contradictory conclusions supporting either scenarios. This study analyzes the craniofacial size and shape variation of diachronic samples from the study region to test distinct population history scenarios that support continuity or, alternatively, divergence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 92 adult skulls belonging to five chronological groups, ranging from c...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779766/investigating-economic-specialization-on-the-central-peruvian-coast-a-reconstruction-of-late-intermediate-period-ychsma-diet-using-stable-isotopes
#13
Sara J Marsteller, Natalya Zolotova, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: Hypothetical models of socioeconomic organization in pre-Columbian societies generated from the rich ethnohistoric record in the New World require testing against the archaeological and bioarchaeological record. Here, we test ethnohistorian Maria Rostworowski's horizontality model of socioeconomic specialization for the Central Andean coast by reconstructing dietary practices in the Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 900-1470) Ychsma polity to evaluate complexities in social behaviors prior to Inka imperial influence...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779749/sustained-myrmecophagy-in-nigerian-chimpanzees-preferred-or-fallback-food
#14
Volker Sommer, Umaru Buba, Gonçalo Jesus, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
OBJECTIVE: At some sites across Africa, chimpanzees consume army ants, often aided by plant tools, although consumption frequencies vary greatly. Other populations do not eat these insects at all, despite apparent abundance. The relative importance of this type of myrmecophagy for chimpanzee diet therefore remains unclear. We investigate if army ants constitute a preferred food or a fallback resource for chimpanzees at Gashaka, Nigeria, where army ants are consumed much more frequently than elsewhere...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770447/secular-trends-of-physical-growth-and-abdominal-adiposity-of-school-children-and-adolescents-living-at-a-moderate-altitude-in-peru
#15
Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Miguel de Arruda, Cynthia Lee Andruske, Cristian Luarte-Rocha, Rossana Gómez-Campos
OBJECTIVE: Identify changes in physical growth and abdominal adiposity at an interval of 14 years in children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data comes from two cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude of 2,320 meters. In 2001, 473 males and 482 females were assessed, and in 2015, 432 males and 403 females between 6.0 and 12.9 years old were evaluated. Data were collected in public state schools and measured using the anthropometric variables for weight, height, and waist circumference...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768228/quantification-of-3d-curvature-in-the-iliac-crest-ontogeny-and-implications-for-sex-determination-in-juveniles
#16
Laura A B Wilson, Rachel Ives, Louise T Humphrey
OBJECTIVES: Sex-specific differences in the shape of the iliac crest have been reported based on quantification of simplified curvature using two-dimensional variables or qualitative identification of faint/marked S-shaped curvature. An objective and quantitative approach for the evaluation of iliac crest curvature in juveniles was developed. Using three-dimensional data, ontogenetic variation in iliac curvature was investigated in relation to size and chronological age and its accuracy for sex estimation among juveniles was evaluated...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768227/a-novel-fecal-stable-isotope-approach-to-determine-the-timing-of-age-related-feeding-transitions-in-wild-infant-chimpanzees
#17
Iulia Bădescu, M Anne Katzenberg, David P Watts, Daniel W Sellen
OBJECTIVES: Determining nutritional development in wild primates is difficult through observations because confirming dietary intake is challenging. Physiological measures are needed to determine the relative contributions of maternal milk and other foods at different ages, and time of weaning. We used fecal stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) and fecal nitrogen concentrations (%N) from wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Uganda, to derive physiological dietary indicators during the transition from total reliance on maternal milk to adult foods after weaning...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762445/phylogeny-of-the-jacchus-group-of-callithrix-marmosets-based-on-complete-mitochondrial-genomes
#18
Joanna Malukiewicz, Crystal M Hepp, Katerina Guschanski, Anne C Stone
OBJECTIVES: Two subgroups make up the marmoset genus Callithrix. The "aurita" group is composed of two species, whereas evolutionary relationships among the four species of the "jacchus" group remain unclear. To uncover these relationships, we first sequenced mitochondrial genomes for C. kuhlii and C. penicillata to complement data available for congeners. We then constructed a phylogenetic tree based on mtDNA heavy chain protein coding genes from several primates to untangle species relationships and estimate divergence times of the jacchus group...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753072/the-vanishing-black-indian-revisiting-craniometry-and-historic-collections
#19
Pamela L Geller, Christopher M Stojanowksi
OBJECTIVES: This article uses craniometric allocation as a platform for discussing the legacy of Samuel G. Morton's collection of crania, the process of racialization, and the value of contextualized biohistoric research perspectives in biological anthropology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard craniometric measurements were recorded for seven Seminoles in the Samuel G. Morton Crania Collection and 10 European soldiers from the Fort St. Marks Military Cemetery; all individuals were men and died in Florida during the 19th century...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731903/paternal-and-grandpaternal-ages-at-conception-and-descendant-telomere-lengths-in-chimpanzees-and-humans
#20
Dan T A Eisenberg, Justin Tackney, Richard M Cawthon, Christina Theresa Cloutier, Kristen Hawkes
: Telomeres are repeating DNA at chromosome ends. Telomere length (TL) declines with age in most human tissues, and shorter TL is thought to accelerate senescence. In contrast, older men have sperm with longer TL; correspondingly, older paternal age at conception (PAC) predicts longer TL in offspring. This PAC-effect could be a unique form of transgenerational genetic plasticity that modifies somatic maintenance in response to cues of recent ancestral experience. The PAC-effect has not been examined in any non-human mammals...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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