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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543029/temporal-trends-in-craniometric-estimates-of-admixture-for-a-modern-american-sample
#1
Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: Temporal trends in craniometric estimates of admixture are investigated for three U.S. populations in the FDB. Patterns of association between birth years and posterior probabilities of cluster membership are identified to assess how these proportions of admixture have changed over recent time. Demographic and genetic data correlates, patterns of morphological expression, and shifts in source populations are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estimates of three-way admixture were obtained for 1,521 individuals of documented population, sex, and birth years that span the 20th century...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542797/application-of-geographic-information-systems-to-investigating-associations-between-social-status-and-burial-location-in-medieval-trino-vercellese-piedmont-italy
#2
Marissa C Stewart, Giuseppe Vercellotti
OBJECTIVES: Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542741/age-estimation-of-immature-human-skeletal-remains-from-the-dimensions-of-the-girdle-bones-in-the-postnatal-period
#3
Hugo F V Cardoso, Laure Spake, Louise T Humphrey
OBJECTIVES: This study provides classical calibration regression formulae for age estimation from the dimensions of unfused shoulder and pelvic girdle bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age estimation models were derived from a sample of 160 known age and sex individuals (63 females and 97 males) aged birth to 12 years, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. The sample was divided into two age groups at the age of 2 years, and formulae were obtained for the sexes separately and combined...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542729/occupational-manual-activity-is-reflected-on-the-patterns-among-hand-entheses
#4
Fotios Alexandros Karakostis, Gerhard Hotz, Heike Scherf, Joachim Wahl, Katerina Harvati
OBJECTIVES: In anthropological sciences, entheses are widely utilized as occupational stress markers. However, the reaction of entheseal surfaces to mechanical loading is not well understood. Furthermore, previous studies on entheses relied on the individuals' occupation-at-death. Past research by one of us has identified two patterns among hand entheses, proposing that they reflect two synergistic muscle groups. Here, we investigate the association between these patterns and habitual manual activity using an extensively documented skeletal sample and a three-dimensional system of quantification...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542710/behavioral-inferences-from-the-high-levels-of-dental-chipping-in-homo-naledi
#5
Ian Towle, Joel D Irish, Isabelle De Groote
OBJECTIVES: A variety of mechanical processes can result in antemortem dental chipping. In this study, chipping data in the teeth of Homo naledi are compared with those of other pertinent dental samples to give insight into their etiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Permanent teeth with complete crowns evidencing occlusal wear were examined macroscopically. The location, number, and severity of fractures were recorded and compared to those found in samples of two other South African fossil hominin species and in samples of nonhuman primates (n = 3) and recent humans (n = 7)...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542704/trabecular-and-cortical-bone-structure-of-the-talus-and-distal-tibia-in-pan-and-homo
#6
Zewdi J Tsegai, Matthew M Skinner, Andrew H Gee, Dieter H Pahr, Graham M Treece, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Internal bone structure, both cortical and trabecular bone, remodels in response to loading and may provide important information regarding behavior. The foot is well suited to analysis of internal bone structure because it experiences the initial substrate reaction forces, due to its proximity to the substrate. Moreover, as humans and apes differ in loading of the foot, this region is relevant to questions concerning arboreal locomotion and bipedality in the hominoid fossil record...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504464/skeletal-maturity-of-the-hand-in-an-east-african-group-from-sudan
#7
Fadil Elamin, Nihal Abdelazeem, Ahmed Elamin, Duaa Saif, Helen M Liversidge
OBJECTIVES: Studies of skeletal maturity from Africa indicate a delay, reflected in a negative relative skeletal age (RSA). This study aims to evaluate the influence of age, socioeconomic status (SES) and nutritional status on skeletal maturation in a large sample of children from North Sudan. MATERIALS: The sample consisted 665 males and 1018 females from 3-25 years from Khartoum. Height, weight, age of menarche and, SES were recorded of patients attending for dental treatment...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504354/new-methodology-to-reconstruct-in-2-d-the-cuspal-enamel-of-modern-human-lower-molars
#8
Mario Modesto-Mata, Cecilia García-Campos, Laura Martín-Francés, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Rebeca García-González, Yuliet Quintino, Antoni Canals, Marina Lozano, M Christopher Dean, María Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez de Castro
OBJECTIVES: In the last years different methodologies have been developed to reconstruct worn teeth. In this article, we propose a new 2-D methodology to reconstruct the worn enamel of lower molars. Our main goals are to reconstruct molars with a high level of accuracy when measuring relevant histological variables and to validate the methodology calculating the errors associated with the measurements. METHODS: This methodology is based on polynomial regression equations, and has been validated using two different dental variables: cuspal enamel thickness and crown height of the protoconid...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500747/investigating-biogeographic-boundaries-of-the-sunda-shelf-a-phylogenetic-analysis-of-two-island-populations-of-macaca-fascicularis
#9
A R Klegarth, S A Sanders, A D Gloss, K E Lane-deGraaf, L Jones-Engel, A Fuentes, H Hollocher
OBJECTIVES: Cyclical submergence and re-emergence of the Sunda Shelf throughout the Pleistocene served as a dynamic biogeographic landscape, across which long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have migrated and evolved. Here, we tested the integrity of the previously reported continental-insular haplotype divide reported among Y and mitochondrial DNA lineages across multiple studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The continental-insular haplotype divide was tested by heavily sampling wild macaques from two important biogeographic regions within Sundaland: (1) Singapore, the southernmost tip of continental Asia and (2) Bali, Indonesia, the southeastern edge of the Indonesian archipelago, immediately west of Wallace's line...
May 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497872/deviant-burials-and-social-identity-in-a-postmedieval-polish-cemetery-an-analysis-of-stable-oxygen-and-carbon-isotopes-from-the-vampires-of-drawsko
#10
Lesley A Gregoricka, Amy B Scott, Tracy K Betsinger, Marek Polcyn
OBJECTIVES: Deviant burials can reveal important information about both social and individual identity, particularly when the mortuary record is supplemented by an examination of skeletal remains. At the postmedieval (17th to 18th c. AD) cemetery of Drawsko (Site 1), Poland, six individuals (of n = 285) received deviant, anti-vampiristic mortuary treatment. A previous study using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios ( x¯= 0.7112 ± 0.0006, 1σ, n = 60) found that these "vampires" were in fact locals, not migrants to the region targeted for deviant burial due to their status as immigrant outsiders...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497849/differential-investment-in-body-girths-by-sex-evidence-from-3d-photonic-scanning-in-a-thai-cohort
#11
Meghan K Shirley, Tim J Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven, Jonathan C K Wells
OBJECTIVES: Life history trade-offs may manifest between competing organs and tissues in the body. Sexual dimorphism in tissue investment is well-established in humans, with sex-associated body shape differences linked to natural and sexual selection. This study uses three-dimensional (3D) photonic scanning to test whether males and females differentially invest energy in various body regions in relation to two independent proxies of growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body shape data (multiple girths) came from a Thai cohort (n = 11,610; 53% female; age range 21-88 years)...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467628/differences-between-biological-and-chronological-age-at-death-in-human-skeletal-remains-a-change-of-perspective
#12
Lourdes R Couoh
OBJECTIVES: This analysis seeks to determine whether differences between real and estimated chronological age (CA) with biological age (BA) in skeletal individuals reflect variability in aging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 87 individuals of two samples, ranging from 20 to 94 years old, were analyzed. One, partially documented, belongs to a Mexican skeletal collection dating to the 20th century; the other is an assemblage of prehispanic individuals from different archaeological sites...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464269/the-postcranial-skeletal-maturation-of-australopithecus-sediba
#13
Noel Cameron, Barry Bogin, Debra Bolter, Lee R Berger
OBJECTIVES: In 2008, an immature hominin defined as the holotype of the new species Australopithecus sediba was discovered at the 1.9 million year old Malapa site in South Africa. The specimen (MH1) includes substantial post-cranial skeletal material, and provides a unique opportunity to assess its skeletal maturation. METHODS: Skeletal maturity indicators observed on the proximal and distal humerus, proximal ulna, distal radius, third metacarpal, ilium and ischium, proximal femur and calcaneus were used to assess the maturity of each bone in comparison to references for modern humans and for wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464262/a-tale-of-agriculturalists-and-hunter-gatherers-exploring-the-thrifty-genotype-hypothesis-in-native-south-americans
#14
Guillermo Reales, Diego L Rovaris, Vanessa C Jacovas, Tábita Hünemeier, José R Sandoval, Alcibiades Salazar-Granara, Darío A Demarchi, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Aline B Felkl, Michele A Serafini, Francisco M Salzano, Rafael Bisso-Machado, David Comas, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Maria Cátira Bortolini
OBJECTIVES: To determine genetic differences between agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer southern Native American populations for selected metabolism-related markers and to test whether Neel's thrifty genotype hypothesis (TGH) could explain the genetic patterns observed in these populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 375 Native South American individuals from 17 populations were genotyped using six markers (APOE rs429358 and rs7412; APOA2 rs5082; CD36 rs3211883; TCF7L2 rs11196205; and IGF2BP2 rs11705701)...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464240/body-growth-and-life-history-in-wild-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-from-volcanoes-national-park-rwanda
#15
Jordi Galbany, Didier Abavandimwe, Meagan Vakiener, Winnie Eckardt, Antoine Mudakikwa, Felix Ndagijimana, Tara S Stoinski, Shannon C McFarlin
OBJECTIVES: Great apes show considerable diversity in socioecology and life history, but knowledge of their physical growth in natural settings is scarce. We characterized linear body size growth in wild mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, a population distinguished by its extreme folivory and accelerated life histories. METHODS: In 131 individuals (0.09-35.26 years), we used non-invasive parallel laser photogrammetry to measure body length, back width, arm length and two head dimensions...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452131/the-influence-of-variation-in-parental-height-dimorphism-on-same-sex-parent-offspring-height-differences
#16
B Floyd
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates how adjusting for parental height dimorphism influences height differences among parents and same-sex offspring distinguished by parents' early backgrounds. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Regression analyses using data from independent groups of Taiwanese families, 56 with sons and 51 with daughters, evaluate how adjusting for parental height dimorphism influences same-sex parent-offspring height differences among families grouped by grandfathers' occupations into three status categories reflecting good to relatively poor early parental environments...
April 28, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432829/trabecular-mapping-leveraging-geometric-morphometrics-for-analyses-of-trabecular-structure
#17
Adam D Sylvester, Claire E Terhune
OBJECTIVES: Trabecular microstructure of limb bone epiphyses has been used to elucidate the relationship between skeletal form and behavior among mammals. Such studies have often relied on the analysis of a single volume of interest (VOI). Here we present a method for evaluating variation in bone microstructure across articular surfaces by leveraging sliding semilandmarks. METHODS: Two samples were used to demonstrate the proposed methodology and test the hypothesis that microstructural variables are homogeneously distributed: tali from two ape genera (Pan and Pongo, n = 9) and modern human distal femora (n = 10)...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432824/brief-communication-an-analysis-of-dental-development-in-pleistocene-homo-using-skeletal-growth-and-chronological-age
#18
Maja Šešelj
OBJECTIVES: This study takes a new approach to interpreting dental development in Pleistocene Homo in comparison with recent modern humans. As rates of dental development and skeletal growth are correlated given age in modern humans, using age and skeletal growth in tandem yields more accurate dental development estimates. Here, I apply these models to fossil Homo to obtain more individualized predictions and interpretations of their dental development relative to recent modern humans...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429848/stuck-in-fragments-population-genetics-of-the-endangered-collared-brown-lemur-eulemur-collaris-in-the-malagasy-littoral-forest
#19
Stefania Bertoncini, Jacopo D'Ercole, Francesca Brisighelli, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Cristian Capelli, Sergio Tofanelli, Giuseppe Donati
OBJECTIVES: The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382719/ancient-mitochondrial-dna-and-ancestry-of-paquim%C3%A3-inhabitants-casas-grandes-a-d-1200-1450
#20
Ana Y Morales-Arce, Meradeth H Snow, Jane H Kelley, M Anne Katzenberg
OBJECTIVES: The Casas Grandes (Paquimé) culture, located in the Northwest of Chihuahua, Mexico reached its apogee during the Medio Period (A.D. 1200-1450). Paquimé was abandoned by the end of the Medio Period (A.D. 1450), and the ancestry of its inhabitants remains unsolved. Some authors suggest that waves of Mesoamerican immigrants, possibly merchants, stimulated Paquimé's development during the Medio Period. Archaeological evidence suggests possible ties to groups that inhabited the Southwestern US cultures...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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