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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Lukáš Šebest, Marian Baldovič, Adam Frtús, Csaba Bognár, Klaudia Kyselicová, Ľudevít Kádasi, Radoslav Beňuš
OBJECTIVES: In the sixth century AD, Avars came to Central Europe from middle Eurasian steppes and founded a strong Empire called the Avar Khagante (568-799/803 AD) in the Pannonian basin. During the existence of this empire, they undertook many military and pugnacious campaigns. In the seventh century, they conquered the northern territory inhabited by Slavs, who were further recruited in Avar military and were commissioned with obtaining food supplies. During almost 200 years of Avar domination, a significant influence by the Avar culture (especially on the burial rite) and assimilation with indigenous population (occurrence of "East Asian"cranial features) could be noticed in this mixed area, which is supported by achaeological and anthropologcal research...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tony Chevalier, Jan Pieter Clarys, Philippe Lefèvre, Jean-Pol Beauthier, Stéphane Louryan, Erik Cattrysse
OBJECTIVES: The frequently used prediction equations of body mass do not seem appropriate for elderly individuals. Here, we establish the relationship between femoral dimensions and known body mass in elderly individuals in order to develop prediction formulas and identify the factors affecting their accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The body mass linear least-squares regression is based on 17 femoral dimensions, including femoral volume, and 66 individuals. Body proportion and composition effects on accuracy are analyzed by means of the body mass index (BMI) and on a subset sample (n = 25), by means of the masses of adipose, bone and muscle tissues...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Richard J Smith
There is over 60 years of discussion in the statistical literature concerning the misuse and limitations of null hypothesis significance tests (NHST). Based on the prevalence of NHST in biological anthropology research, it appears that the discipline generally is unaware of these concerns. The p values used in NHST usually are interpreted incorrectly. A p value indicates the probability of the data given the null hypothesis. It should not be interpreted as the probability that the null hypothesis is true or as evidence for or against any specific alternative to the null hypothesis...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Nathan E Thompson, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Shannon C McFarlin, Martha M Robbins, Tara S Stoinski, Sergio Almécija
OBJECTIVES: Gorillas, along with chimpanzees and bonobos, are ubiquitously described as 'knuckle-walkers.' Consequently, knuckle-walking (KW) has been featured pre-eminently in hypotheses of the pre-bipedal locomotor behavior of hominins and in the evolution of locomotor behavior in apes. However, anecdotal and behavioral accounts suggest that mountain gorillas may utilize a more complex repertoire of hand postures, which could alter current interpretations of African ape locomotion and its role in the emergence of human bipedalism...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Emma Pomeroy, Alison Macintosh, Jonathan C K Wells, Tim J Cole, Jay T Stock
OBJECTIVES: Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Francesc Calafell, Sarah A Princen, Ronny Decorte, Violet Soen
OBJECTIVES: War atrocities committed by the Spanish army in the Low Countries during the 16th century are so ingrained in the collective memory of Belgian and Dutch societies that they generally assume a signature of this history to be present in their genetic ancestry. Historians claim this assumption is a consequence of the so-called "Black Legend" and negative propaganda portraying and remembering Spanish soldiers as extreme sexual aggressors. The impact of the presence of Spaniards during the Dutch Revolt on the genetic variation in the Low Countries has been verified in this study...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Emranul Huq, Andrea B Taylor, Zuowei Su, Christine E Wall
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the vertical leaper Galago senegalensis will have epaxial extensor muscles with a fast fiber phenotype to facilitate rapid spinal extension during leaping in comparison to the slow-moving quadruped Nycticebus coucang. To test this, we determined the percentage of fiber cross-sectional area (%CSA) devoted to Type 2 fibers in epaxial muscles of G. senegalensis compared to those of N. coucang. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Type 1, Type 2, and hybrid fibers in iliocostalis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles of G...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Elizabeth K Mallott, Katherine R Amato, Paul A Garber, Ripan S Malhi
OBJECTIVES: Invertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Emma M Finestone, Mary H Brown, Stephen R Ross, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVES: Great apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics. METHODS: High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Pauline Baas, Tom van der Valk, Linda Vigilant, Urbain Ngobobo, Escobar Binyinyi, Radar Nishuli, Damien Caillaud, Katerina Guschanski
OBJECTIVES: The critically endangered Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) has experienced an estimated 77% population decline within a single generation. Although crucial for informed conservation decisions, there is no clear understanding about population structure and distribution of genetic diversity across the species' highly fragmented range. We fill this gap by studying several core and peripheral Grauer's gorilla populations throughout their distribution range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated genetic profiles for a sampling of an unstudied population of Grauer's gorillas from within the species' core range at 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and combined them with previously published and newly generated data from four other Grauer's gorilla populations, two mountain gorilla populations, and one western lowland gorilla population...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Teresa Delgado-Darias, Verónica Alberto-Barroso, Javier Velasco-Vázquez
OBJECTIVES: This paper addresses the prevalence and pattern of physical violence in the prehispanic society of Gran Canaria and discusses its link with the social structure and insular context in which that people lived. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 347 prehispanic crania from Guayadeque Ravine (575-1415 AD) have been examined in order to determine the frequency, types, location, and timing of trauma. RESULTS: Craniofacial injuries are present in 27...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Elizabeth Weiss
OBJECTIVES: The Ryan Mound site in California spans 2000 years and has been utilized in over 200 studies. The Ryan Mound has been assumed to be a culturally and, therefore, a biologically continuous population over time. This study attempts to determine whether adults at the Ryan Mound consisted of a continuous population over the span of three temporal periods by using nonmetric skeletal traits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight nonmetric cranial traits and four nonmetric post-cranial traits were scored on adults...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Sandra Oliveira, Anne-Maria Fehn, Teresa Aço, Fernanda Lages, Magdalena Gayà-Vidal, Brigitte Pakendorf, Mark Stoneking, Jorge Rocha
OBJECTIVES: Southern Angola is a poorly studied region, inhabited by populations that have been associated with different migratory movements into southern Africa. Apart from Kx'a-speaking San foragers and Bantu-speaking pastoralists, ethnographic and linguistic studies have suggested the existence of an enigmatic array of pre-Bantu communities, like the Kwepe (formerly Khoe-Kwadi speakers), Twa and Kwisi. Here, we evaluate previous peopling hypotheses by assessing the relationships between different southern Angolan populations, based on newly collected linguistic data and complete mtDNA genomes...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Silviya Nikolova, Diana Toneva, Ivan Georgiev, Nikolai Lazarov
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to establish the frequency of the frontal sinus (FS) aplasia, to compare metopic and nonmetopic series and thus to assess the relationship between the preservation of metopic suture and FS development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FSs were investigated in 230 dry skulls of adult males distributed into control (137) and metopic (93) series. They were visualized through industrial digital radiography. RESULTS: In the control series, the FS aplasia was observed in 12...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Efthymia Nikita, Efrossyni Michopoulou
OBJECTIVES: This paper proposes a method for the quantification of the shape of sexually dimorphic cranial traits, namely the glabella, mastoid process and external occipital protuberance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed method was developed using 165 crania from the documented Athens Collection and tested on 20 Cretan crania. It is based on digital photographs of the lateral view of the cranium, drawing of the profile of three sexually dimorphic structures and calculation of variables that express the shape of these structures...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jordan K Karsten
OBJECTIVES: Although the presence of a preauricular sulcus is often cited as an indicator of female sex, very little research has been conducted to substantiate this claim. This article examines both the relationship between the incidence and morphology of the preauricular sulcus and sex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 500 left ossa coxae from the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection belonging to 261 males and 239 females were examined to investigate the relationship between the preauricular sulcus and sex...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Anne L Grauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lori D'Ortenzio, Tracy Prowse, Michael Inskip, Bonnie Kahlon, Megan Brickley
OBJECTIVES: Accurate age estimates are foundational for bioarchaeological research, yet the ability to accurately age older adult skeletons remains elusive. This study uses a new version of pulp/tooth area calculations to investigate chronological age of older archaeological individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulp/tooth area ratios were calculated on modern control teeth (n = 10) that were first radiographed and then sectioned for comparative analysis. Pulp/tooth area ratios were determined on sectioned teeth using ImageJ software for: (a) modern individuals of known age (n = 26); (b) individuals from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (1821-1874) with documented age (n = 50); and (c) Belleville individuals with skeletally estimated age (n = 122)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jacinda R Larson, Mange F Manyama, Joanne B Cole, Paula N Gonzalez, Christopher J Percival, Denise K Liberton, Tracey M Ferrara, Sheri L Riccardi, Emmanuel A Kimwaga, Joshua Mathayo, Jared A Spitzmacher, Campbell Rolian, Heather A Jamniczky, Seth M Weinberg, Charles C Roseman, Ophir Klein, Ken Lukowiak, Richard A Spritz, Benedikt Hallgrimsson
OBJECTIVES: Morphological integration, or the tendency for covariation, is commonly seen in complex traits such as the human face. The effects of growth on shape, or allometry, represent a ubiquitous but poorly understood axis of integration. We address the question of to what extent age and measures of size converge on a single pattern of allometry for human facial shape. METHODS: Our study is based on two large cross-sectional cohorts of children, one from Tanzania and the other from the United States (N = 7,173)...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Robert G Tague
OBJECTIVES: Three issues are considered on variation in number of presacral vertebrae (PSV) in humans: (1) sexual difference in number of PSV, (2) inactivation of Hoxd-11 gene as etiology for a supernumerary lumbar vertebra, and (3) anatomical correlates of a supernumerary lumbar vertebra, including lumbar-sacral nearthrosis, and pelvic size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample was 407 skeletonized females and 1,318 males from United States; ages at death were 20 to 49 years...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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