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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968909/trajectory-analysis-among-african-hominoids-can-provide-insights-into-genetic-and-epigenetic-influences-during-ontogeny
#1
Kevin Turley, Evan A Simons, Stephen R Frost
OBJECTIVES: Prior examination of the ontogeny of Hominoid talo-crural joint morphology using Singular Warp analysis suggested both a genetic and epigenetic signal during development. This question is examined using trajectory analysis and its implications for the Hominin fossil record explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trajectory analysis was used to examine talo-crural joint shape at different molar eruption stages during development among a cohort of 221 specimens of Homo sapiens, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Pan paniscus...
July 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900531/reply-to-ruff-warden-and-karlson
#2
LETTER
Sarah J Peacock, Theodore Garland, Kevin M Middleton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900529/new-genetic-evidence-of-affinities-and-discontinuities-between-bronze-age-siberian-populations
#3
Clémence Hollard, Vincent Zvénigorosky, Alexey Kovalev, Yurii Kiryushin, Alexey Tishkin, Igor Lazaretov, Eric Crubézy, Bertrand Ludes, Christine Keyser
OBJECTIVES: This work focuses on the populations of South Siberia during the Eneolithic and Bronze Age and specifically on the contribution of uniparental lineage and phenotypical data to the question of the genetic affinities and discontinuities between western and eastern populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed molecular analyses on the remains of 28 ancient humans (10 Afanasievo (3600-2500 BC) and 18 Okunevo (2500-1800 BC) individuals). For each sample, two uniparentally inherited systems (mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA) were studied, in order to trace back maternal and paternal lineages...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873392/facial-expressions-and-pair-bonds-in-hylobatids
#4
Brittany Florkiewicz, Gabriella Skollar, Ulrich H Reichard
OBJECTIVES: Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786835/bilateral-asymmetry-of-the-humerus-in-neandertals-australian-aborigines-and-medieval-humans
#5
Anna Maria Kubicka, Wioletta Nowaczewska, Antoine Balzeau, Janusz Piontek
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral asymmetry of diaphyseal shape and size may be a reflection of relative activity levels and patterns of habitual biomechanical stress in the upper arms of Neandertals and Homo sapiens. The main purpose of our study was to assess the level of directional asymmetry of humeral cross sections in Neandertals, recent Australian aborigines, and medieval farmers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Indices of directional and absolute asymmetry (%DA and %AA) of humeral cross-sectional properties in Neandertals and recent Homo sapiens were calculated...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767432/open-sepulchers-and-closed-boundaries-biodistance-analysis-of-cemetery-structure-and-postmarital-residence-in-the-late-prehispanic-andes
#6
Matthew C Velasco
OBJECTIVES: In the Late Intermediate Period Andes (AD 1100-1450), the proliferation of above-ground sepulchers reconfigured social boundaries within and between communities engaged in protracted conflict. However, the biosocial dimensions of these mortuary practices, and their implications for conflict and alliance formation, remain unexplored. This study examines patterns of phenotypic variation to: (1) evaluate if open sepulchers were organized on the basis of biological relatedness, and (2) explore if sex-specific phenotypic variability conforms to models of postmarital residence...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756202/scapular-breadth-is-associated-with-forelimb-dominated-suspensory-behavior-in-atelidae-comments-on-selby-and-lovejoy-2017
#7
LETTER
Jeffrey K Spear, Scott A Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737530/neuromandibular-integration-in-humans-and-chimpanzees-implications-for-dental-and-mandibular-reduction-in-homo
#8
Alessio Veneziano, Carlo Meloro, Joel D Irish, Chris Stringer, Antonio Profico, Isabelle De Groote
OBJECTIVES: Although the evolution of the hominin masticatory apparatus has been linked to diet and food processing, the physical connection between neurocranium and lower jaw suggests a role of encephalization in the trend of dental and mandibular reduction. Here, the hypothesis that tooth size and mandibular robusticity are influenced by morphological changes in the neurocranium was tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional landmarks, alveolar lengths, and mandibular robusticity data were recorded on a sample of chimpanzee and human skulls...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737526/short-dispersal-distance-of-males-in-a-wild-white-handed-gibbon-hylobates-lar-population
#9
Kazunari Matsudaira, Takafumi Ishida, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Ulrich H Reichard
OBJECTIVES: It has long been recognized that in gibbons both sexes disperse from the natal group. However, the fate of dispersed individuals was rarely documented. Here we provide the first detailed information on sex differences in dispersal patterns by analyzing the spatial genetic structure of a well-known white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosomal haplotypes, and autosomal microsatellite genotypes were determined for individuals of the Mo Singto study site, Khao Yai National Park, Thailand...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737523/effects-of-osteoarthritis-on-age-at-death-estimates-from-the-human-pelvis
#10
Stephanie E Calce, Helen K Kurki, Darlene A Weston, Lisa Gould
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the degree of error in age-at-death estimates when osteoarthritis (OA) is present in three separate pelvic joint areas: (1) the pubic symphysis, (2) the auricular surface, and (3) the acetabulum from a modern known-age European cemetery sample of adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age-at-death ranged from 17 to 79 years (x̄ =50.9 years; n = 252). OA in the pelvic joints was evaluated using standard ranked categorical scoring. Composite OA scores were derived through principal component analysis...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737514/regional-variation-in-weight-for-height-z-scores-and-surface-area-body-mass-ratio-of-chilean-children-from-birth-to-3-years-of-age
#11
Rodrigo Retamal, C G Nicholas Mascie-Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were to see how much of the variation in weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) and surface area/body mass ratio (SA/mass) were associated with regional (county) differences including mean temperature. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Longitudinal data were obtained from routine medical check-ups on 8,373 children from nine counties across Chile. WHZ and SA/mass were calculated from weight and height from birth to 3-years old at 6 monthly intervals...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722435/stature-estimation-equations-for-south-asian-skeletons-based-on-dxa-scans-of-contemporary-adults
#12
Emma Pomeroy, Veena Mushrif-Tripathy, Jonathan C K Wells, Bharati Kulkarni, Sanjay Kinra, Jay T Stock
OBJECTIVES: Stature estimation from the skeleton is a classic anthropological problem, and recent years have seen the proliferation of population-specific regression equations. Many rely on the anatomical reconstruction of stature from archaeological skeletons to derive regression equations based on long bone lengths, but this requires a collection with very good preservation. In some regions, for example, South Asia, typical environmental conditions preclude the sufficient preservation of skeletal remains...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722427/scapular-breadth-does-not-discriminate-suspension-from-clambering-in-hominoids-a-response-to-spear-and-williams
#13
LETTER
Michael S Selby, C Owen Lovejoy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719049/are-olfactory-traits-in-a-pair-bonded-primate-under-sexual-selection-an-evaluation-of-sexual-dimorphism-in-aotus-nancymaae
#14
Andrea Spence-Aizenberg, Lawrence E Williams, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
OBJECTIVES: Sexual selection has seemingly influenced chemical communication in numerous non-human primates, although it is unclear whether it has influenced strictly pair-living and pair-bonded taxa. The physical similarities between male and female owl monkeys suggest that disruptive selection has not played a role in this taxon. However, given their nocturnality, olfactory traits may show differing patterns of sexual selection than visual traits. If sexual selection has influenced chemical communication in owl monkeys, we expect larger scent glands and greater scent-marking in females given the high degree of paternal care, as has been proposed for callitrichines...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719045/wearing-the-marks-of-violence-unusual-trauma-patterning-at-coyo-oriental-northern-chile
#15
Christina Torres-Rouff, Mark Hubbe, William J Pestle
OBJECTIVES: In this article, we present analyses of traumatic injury data from the Middle Period Coyo Oriental cemetery in northern Chile. We test a series of hypotheses about the role of sex, foreign contact, ritual access, and temporal shifts, in the patterning of cranial trauma in this cemetery. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-seven crania from Coyo Oriental were analyzed using standard bioarcheological methods to determine sex and age as well as the presence of cranial fractures...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719044/a-reassessment-of-the-presumed-badegoulian-skull-from-rond-du-barry-cave-polignac-france-using-direct-ams-radiocarbon-dating
#16
Sahra Talamo, Mathilde Samsel, Klervia Jaouen, Vincent Delvigne, Audrey Lafarge, Jean-Paul Raynal, Jean-Jacques Hublin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683479/bone-functional-adaptation-does-not-erase-neutral-evolutionary-information
#17
Gina Agostini, Brigitte M Holt, John H Relethford
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether diaphyseal and craniofacial variation similarly reflect neutral genetic variation among modern European and South Africans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diaphyseal and craniofacial data were collected on English, South European, and South African samples. The Relethford-Blangero model was used to compare predicted among-population relationships generated by limb bones relative to those generated by the crania and, further, to test whether adaptive plasticity affected these predicted relationships...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681138/the-genome-of-an-ancient-rouran-individual-reveals-an-important-paternal-lineage-in-the-donghu-population
#18
Jiawei Li, Ye Zhang, Yongbin Zhao, Yongzhi Chen, A Ochir, Sarenbilige, Hong Zhu, Hui Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Following the Xiongnu and Xianbei, the Rouran Khaganate (Rouran) was the third great nomadic tribe on the Mongolian Steppe. However, few human remains from this tribe are available for archaeologists and geneticists to study, as traces of the tombs of these nomadic people have rarely been found. In 2014, the IA-M1 remains (TL1) at the Khermen Tal site from the Rouran period were found by a Sino-Mongolian joint archaeological team in Mongolia, providing precious material for research into the genetic imprint of the Rouran...
April 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681126/structural-and-molecular-study-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle-of-modern-humans-homo-sapiens-and-common-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#19
J M Potau, A Casado, M de Diego, N Ciurana, J Arias-Martorell, G Bello-Hellegouarch, M Barbosa, F J de Paz, J F Pastor, A Pérez-Pérez
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the muscle architecture and the expression pattern of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens in order to identify differences related to their different types of locomotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have analyzed nine supraspinatus muscles of Pan troglodytes and ten of Homo sapiens. For each sample, we have recorded the muscle fascicle length (MFL), the pennation angle, and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)...
April 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681055/reproducing-the-internal-and-external-anatomy-of-fossil-bones-two-new-automatic-digital-tools
#20
Antonio Profico, Stefan Schlager, Veronica Valoriani, Costantino Buzi, Marina Melchionna, Alessio Veneziano, Pasquale Raia, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Giorgio Manzi
OBJECTIVES: We present two new automatic tools, developed under the R environment, to reproduce the internal and external structures of bony elements. The first method, Computer-Aided Laser Scanner Emulator (CA-LSE), provides the reconstruction of the external portions of a 3D mesh by simulating the action of a laser scanner. The second method, Automatic Segmentation Tool for 3D objects (AST-3D), performs the digital reconstruction of anatomical cavities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the application of CA-LSE and AST-3D methods to different anatomical remains, highly variable in terms of shape, size and structure: a modern human skull, a malleus bone, and a Neanderthal deciduous tooth...
April 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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