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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343372/east-of-the-andes-the-genetic-profile-of-the-peruvian-amazon-populations
#1
T Di Corcia, C Sanchez Mellado, T J Davila Francia, G Ferri, S Sarno, D Luiselli, O Rickards
OBJECTIVES: Assuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America...
March 25, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332189/technical-intelligence-and-culture-nut-cracking-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#2
Christophe Boesch, Daša Bombjaková, Adam Boyette, Amelia Meier
OBJECTIVES: According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319276/comparisons-of-statistical-techniques-to-assess-age-related-skeletal-markers-in-bioarchaeology
#3
Colleen M Cheverko, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Many authors argue that inconsistencies between studies of skeletal markers are based on different data collection protocols, especially when comparing age-related markers such as osteoarthritis. Less attention is given to the choice of statistical techniques that are used to test the hypotheses associated with the data. This paper addresses how different statistical techniques compare the prevalence of age-related skeletal indicators, specifically osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in eight postcranial joints in 243 adult individuals from seven prehistoric archaeological sites in Central California, and data was compared between three time periods [Early (4800-2800 BP), Middle (2800-1200 BP), and Late (1200-250 BP)] using commonly used statistical tests: chi-square, Fisher's exact, and odds ratios...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319268/developmental-changes-in-feeding-behaviors-of-infant-chimpanzees-at-mahale-tanzania-implications-for-nutritional-independence-long-before-cessation-of-nipple-contact
#4
Takuya Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Weaning of chimpanzees is considered to occur at 4-5-years-old with complete cessation of nipple contact and timing of reconception calculated by inter-birth interval minus gestation length. This is also the basis of "early weaning" in humans (i.e., approximately 2.5-years-old). However, recent studies of the survival of orphans and the first molar (M1) eruption in wild chimpanzees have predicted that infants move toward nutritional independence at 3-years-old. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate ontogeny of feeding behavior at around 3-years-old in wild infant chimpanzees...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319251/limb-bone-allometry-in-modern-euro-americans
#5
R L Jantz, L Meadows Jantz
OBJECTIVES: The pattern of static and secular allometry was examined in a time series of limb bone lengths from individuals with birth years ranging from 1840 to 1989. The main hypothesis investigated was that secular changes in limb proportions, as seen in changes in the brachial and crural indices, can be explained by allometric responses to increasing size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maximum lengths of humerus, radius, femur, and tibia were obtained from 19th and 20th centuries identified skeletons...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299784/ontogenetic-changes-in-limb-postures-and-their-impact-on-effective-limb-length-in-baboons-papio-cynocephalus
#6
Angel Zeininger, Liza J Shapiro, David A Raichlen
OBJECTIVES: Digitigrade hand and foot postures and extended elbows and knees are considered adaptations to running in cursorial mammals because they increase effective limb lengths (ELLs). However, the relationship between digitigrady and ELL in primates is not well understood. We documented the ontogeny of limb postures in baboons to better understand the function of digitigrady during walking. We hypothesized that the hand and foot would become more elevated and the elbow and knee more extended, leading to increased relative ELLs throughout ontogeny...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299782/a-test-of-a-skeletal-ageing-method-based-on-resorption-of-the-alveolar-crest-following-tooth-loss-using-a-skeletal-population-of-documented-age-at-death
#7
Simon Mays
OBJECTIVES: Resorption of the alveolar process occurs following tooth loss, and appears to continue for a prolonged period. Previous study (Mays, ) with a known-age collection of human remains suggested the potential of this phenomenon for age estimation in remains of adults who have lost one or more molar teeth. This article tests this ageing technique on another known age group, and attempts to evaluate the impact of some extraneous factors on the method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprises adult skeletons (N = 110) of documented age at death from 18th to 19th century London...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299780/age-related-changes-of-sulcal-imprints-on-the-endocranium-in-the-japanese-macaque-macaca-fuscata
#8
Nguyen Van Minh, Yuzuru Hamada
OBJECTIVES: The degree of expression of sulcal patterns on endocasts of nonhuman primates has been shown to depend primarily on species (brain size) and age of the individual. It has been suggested that brain details on endocasts are reproduced better in juvenile than adult primates. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the imprint of the major sulci on the endocranium of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from the juvenile period to adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using CT scans of 25 (12 males, 13 females) cranial specimens from macaques, we generated virtual endocasts to assess imprints of the seven main sulci on the endocranial surface...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295144/androgen-receptor-polyglutamine-repeat-length-ar-cagn-modulates-the-effect-of-testosterone-on-androgen-associated-somatic-traits-in-filipino-young-adult-men
#9
Calen P Ryan, Alexander V Georgiev, Thomas W McDade, Lee T Gettler, Dan T A Eisenberg, Margarita Rzhetskaya, Sonny S Agustin, M Geoffrey Hayes, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: The androgen receptor (AR) mediates expression of androgen-associated somatic traits such as muscle mass and strength. Within the human AR is a highly variable glutamine short-tandem repeat (AR-CAGn), and CAG repeat number has been inversely correlated to AR transcriptional activity in vitro. However, evidence for an attenuating effect of long AR-CAGn on androgen-associated somatic traits has been inconsistent in human populations. One possible explanation for this lack of consistency is that the effect of AR-CAGn on AR bioactivity in target tissues likely varies in relation to circulating androgen levels...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276055/patterns-of-long-bone-growth-in-a-mid-19th-century-documented-sample-of-the-urban-poor-from-bethnal-green-london-uk
#10
Rachel Ives, Louise Humphrey
OBJECTIVES: Studies of male and female long bone growth in past populations are limited and usually constrained by the lack of personal identification. This article aimed to evaluate long bone growth in a series of mid-19(th) century documented burials associated with the urban poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maximum diaphyseal lengths from 74 males and 70 females (2 months to 12 years) were compared to modern reference data from North America...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276048/stable-and-fluctuating-social-preferences-and-implications-for-cooperation-among-female-bonobos-at-luikotale-salonga-national-park-drc
#11
Liza R Moscovice, Pamela Heidi Douglas, Laura Martinez-Iñigo, Martin Surbeck, Linda Vigilant, Gottfried Hohmann
OBJECTIVES: Female bonobos (Pan paniscus) are characterized as highly affiliative and cooperative, but few studies have quantified the strength and stability of female intra-sexual relationships or explored how variation in social relationships influences cooperation. We measure female social preferences, identify causes of variation in preferences, and test whether variation in social preferences predicts food sharing or coalitionary support. METHODS: Data were collected over 3 years from females in the Bompusa community at LuiKotale, DRC...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251607/a-radiographic-study-of-permanent-molar-development-in-wild-virunga-mountain-gorillas-of-known-chronological-age-from-rwanda
#12
Alexandra E Kralick, M Loring Burgess, Halszka Glowacka, Keely Arbenz-Smith, Kate McGrath, Christopher B Ruff, King Chong Chan, Michael R Cranfield, Tara S Stoinski, Timothy G Bromage, Antoine Mudakikwa, Shannon C McFarlin
OBJECTIVES: While dental development is important to life history investigations, data from wild known-aged great apes are scarce. We report on the first radiographic examination of dental development in wild Virunga mountain gorillas, using known-age skeletal samples recovered in Rwanda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 43 individuals (0.0-14.94 years), we collected radiographs of mandibular molars, and where possible, cone beam CT scans. Molar crown and root calcification status was assessed using two established staging systems, and age prediction equations generated using polynomial regression...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224607/a-giant-among-dwarfs-a-new-species-of-galago-primates-galagidae-from-angola
#13
Magdalena S Svensson, Elena Bersacola, Michael S L Mills, Rachel A Munds, Vincent Nijman, Andrew Perkin, Judith C Masters, Sébastien Couette, K Anne-Isola Nekaris, Simon K Bearder
OBJECTIVES: Based on vocalization recordings of an unknown galago species, our main objectives were to compare morphology and call structure with known closely-related taxa and describe a new species of galago. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted field surveys in three forest habitats along the escarpment region in western Angola (Kumbira Forest, Bimbe Area, and Northern Scarp Forest), and examined galago specimens from museums worldwide. We digitized and analyzed calls using Avisoft SASLab Pro software...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218399/smooth-operator-the-effects-of-different-3d-mesh-retriangulation-protocols-on-the-computation-of-dirichlet-normal-energy
#14
Jackson P Spradley, James D Pampush, Paul E Morse, Richard F Kay
OBJECTIVES: Dirichlet normal energy (DNE) is a metric of surface topography that has been used to evaluate the relationship between the surface complexity of primate cheek teeth and dietary categories. This study examines the effects of different 3D mesh retriangulation protocols on DNE. We examine how different protocols influence the DNE of a simple geometric shape-a hemisphere-to gain a more thorough understanding than can be achieved by investigating a complex biological surface such as a tooth crown...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218396/morphological-variation-among-late-holocene-mexicans-implications-for-discussions-about-the-human-occupation-of-the-americas
#15
Brianne Herrera, Daniel Peart, Nicole Hernandez, Kate Spradley, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Cranial morphology has previously been used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among populations, and has been an important tool in the reconstruction of ancient human dispersals across the planet. In the Americas, previous morphological studies support a scenario of people entering the Americas and dispersing from North America into South America through Meso America, making the Mexican territory the natural funnel through which biological diversity entered South America...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218393/the-relative-position-of-the-human-fibula-to-the-tibia-influences-cross-sectional-properties-of-the-tibia
#16
Benjamin M Auerbach, Alice F Gooding, Colin N Shaw, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: The fibula transmits loads within the lower limb of hominids. The few studies of variation in the cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of the fibula have established differences in its rigidity among groups engaged in distinct habitual loading activities. This study adds to this research by considering the relationship between CSG properties and the anatomical position of the fibula relative to the tibia among groups with differences in documented activity patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used pQCT scans taken at 50% of the length of the lower leg in 83 healthy young adult collegiate-aged individuals divided into five activity groups: runners, swimmers, cricketers, field hockey players, and non-athletes...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211566/applying-standard-perikymata-profiles-to-pongo-pygmaeus-canines-to-estimate-perikymata-counts-between-linear-enamel-hypoplasias
#17
Mackie O'Hara
OBJECTIVES: Recently, studies have interpreted regular spacing and average number of perikymata between dental enamel defects in orangutans to reflect seasonal episodes of physiological stress. To estimate the amount of time between developmental defects (enamel hypoplasia), studies have relied on perikymata counts. Unfortunately, perikymata are frequently not continuously visible between defects, significantly reducing data sets. A method is presented here for estimating the number of perikymata between defects using standard perikymata profiles (SPP) that allow the number of perikymata between all pairs of defects across a tooth to be analyzed...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211561/comparison-of-observed-and-expected-levels-of-genetic-diversity-based-on-surname-frequencies-an-example-from-historical-massachusetts
#18
John H Relethford
OBJECTIVES: The inverse of random inbreeding based on surname frequencies (1/Fr ) is an estimate of genetic diversity, and its expectation is a function of the number of migrants into a population. Observed and expected values of (1/Fr ) were compared to determine if observed diversity matches theoretical expectations under conditions of rapid demographic change using data from historical Massachusetts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on migration and surnames were taken from 6,038 marriage records from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries from five towns in north-central Massachusetts...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206677/human-adaptation-to-arsenic-in-andean-populations-of-the-atacama-desert
#19
Mario Apata, Bernado Arriaza, Elena Llop, Mauricio Moraga
OBJECTIVES: Quebrada Camarones, in the Atacama Desert, has the highest arsenic levels in the Americas (>1,000 µg/L). However, the Camarones people have subsisted in this adverse environment during the last 7,000 years and have not presented any epidemiological emergencies. Therefore, to solve this conundrum we compared the frequencies of four protective genetic variants of the AS3MT gene associated with efficient arsenic metabolization, between the living populations of Camarones and two other populations historically exposed to lower levels of arsenic...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198540/subadult-sex-estimation-from-diaphyseal-dimensions
#20
Kyra E Stull, Ericka N L'Abbé, Stephen D Ousley
OBJECTIVES: Many studies on subadult sex estimation focus on elements that express sexually dimorphic features in adults. In contrast, diaphyseal dimensions have been shown to display sex-specific differences prior to adolescence. The current study evaluates the use of diaphyseal dimensions in subadult sex estimation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen postcranial measurements from six long bones were collected on Lodox Statscan radiographic images of 1,310 modern South African children between birth and 12 years of age...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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