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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Miguel de Arruda, Cynthia Lee Andruske, Cristian Luarte-Rocha, Rossana Gómez-Campos
OBJECTIVE: Identify changes in physical growth and abdominal adiposity at an interval of 14 years in children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data comes from two cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude of 2,320 meters. In 2001, 473 males and 482 females were assessed, and in 2015, 432 males and 403 females between 6.0 and 12.9 years old were evaluated. Data were collected in public state schools and measured using the anthropometric variables for weight, height, and waist circumference...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Laura A B Wilson, Rachel Ives, Louise T Humphrey
OBJECTIVES: Sex-specific differences in the shape of the iliac crest have been reported based on quantification of simplified curvature using two-dimensional variables or qualitative identification of faint/marked S-shaped curvature. An objective and quantitative approach for the evaluation of iliac crest curvature in juveniles was developed. Using three-dimensional data, ontogenetic variation in iliac curvature was investigated in relation to size and chronological age and its accuracy for sex estimation among juveniles was evaluated...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Iulia Bădescu, M Anne Katzenberg, David P Watts, Daniel W Sellen
OBJECTIVES: Determining nutritional development in wild primates is difficult through observations because confirming dietary intake is challenging. Physiological measures are needed to determine the relative contributions of maternal milk and other foods at different ages, and time of weaning. We used fecal stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) and fecal nitrogen concentrations (%N) from wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Uganda, to derive physiological dietary indicators during the transition from total reliance on maternal milk to adult foods after weaning...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Joanna Malukiewicz, Crystal M Hepp, Katerina Guschanski, Anne C Stone
OBJECTIVES: Two subgroups make up the marmoset genus Callithrix. The "aurita" group is composed of two species, whereas evolutionary relationships among the four species of the "jacchus" group remain unclear. To uncover these relationships, we first sequenced mitochondrial genomes for C. kuhlii and C. penicillata to complement data available for congeners. We then constructed a phylogenetic tree based on mtDNA heavy chain protein coding genes from several primates to untangle species relationships and estimate divergence times of the jacchus group...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Pamela L Geller, Christopher M Stojanowksi
OBJECTIVES: This article uses craniometric allocation as a platform for discussing the legacy of Samuel G. Morton's collection of crania, the process of racialization, and the value of contextualized biohistoric research perspectives in biological anthropology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard craniometric measurements were recorded for seven Seminoles in the Samuel G. Morton Crania Collection and 10 European soldiers from the Fort St. Marks Military Cemetery; all individuals were men and died in Florida during the 19th century...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Dan T A Eisenberg, Justin Tackney, Richard M Cawthon, Christina Theresa Cloutier, Kristen Hawkes
: Telomeres are repeating DNA at chromosome ends. Telomere length (TL) declines with age in most human tissues, and shorter TL is thought to accelerate senescence. In contrast, older men have sperm with longer TL; correspondingly, older paternal age at conception (PAC) predicts longer TL in offspring. This PAC-effect could be a unique form of transgenerational genetic plasticity that modifies somatic maintenance in response to cues of recent ancestral experience. The PAC-effect has not been examined in any non-human mammals...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Ashley S Hammond, Victoria P Johnson, James P Higham
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test for differences in hip joint range of motion (ROM) between captive and free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), particularly for hip joint abduction, which previous studies of captive macaques have found to be lower than predicted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hip ROM was assessed following standard joint measurement methodology in anesthetized adult free-ranging rhesus macaques (n = 39) from Cayo Santiago, and compared with published ROM data from captive rhesus macaques (n = 16) (Hammond, , American Journal of Physical Anthropology)...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Ishmael Kasvosve
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Julie Arnaud, Stefano Benazzi, Matteo Romandini, Alessandra Livraghi, Daniele Panetta, Piero A Salvadori, Lisa Volpe, Marco Peresani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is the assessment of Nadale 1, a Neanderthal deciduous tooth recently discovered in Northeastern Italy in the De Nadale cave (Middle Palaeolithic). Together with the clear archaeological context of the site, this study brings new insight on Neanderthal behavior and dental morphological variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used microCT data to provide a morphological description and morphometric analysis (diameter measurements and dental tissue volumes) of the Nadale 1 human tooth...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Elizabeth K Mallott, Paul A Garber, Ripan S Malhi
OBJECTIVES: Invertebrate foraging strategies in nonhuman primates often require complex extractive foraging or prey detection techniques. As these skills take time to master, juveniles may have reduced foraging efficiency or concentrate their foraging efforts on easier to acquire prey than adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use DNA barcoding, behavioral observations, and ecological data to assess age-based differences in invertebrate prey foraging strategies in a group of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in northeastern Costa Rica...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Fabian A Crespo, Christopher K Klaes, Andrew E Switala, Sharon N DeWitte
: It is possible that during long lasting chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy individuals who generate a stronger immune response will produce a chronic shift in the systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. Consequently, the systemic immunological shift could affect inflammatory responses against other persistent pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To determine if in vitro exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Kathleen M Heath, Jacob H Axton, John M McCullough, Nathan Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
M E Boeyer, S D Ousley
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to conduct an analysis of ossification patterns in the distal femoral, proximal tibial, and proximal fibular epiphyses, and the patella. The results generated from this analysis will be compared with previous standards published by Elgenmark () and Garn et al. () to determine if clinical and skeletal age assessment standards should be updated for contemporary Americans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Pediatric Radiology Interactive Atlas (Patricia), a total of 1,317 epiphyses were scored for presence or absence from radiographs of 1,056 white individuals born in or after 1990...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
E Bocaege, S Hillson
OBJECTIVES: The investigation of the record of growth locked in dental enamel provides a unique opportunity to build a comprehensive picture of growth disruption episodes during childhood. This study presents a new methodological basis for the analysis of enamel growth disruptions (enamel hypoplasia) using incremental microstructures of enamel. METHODS: A three-dimensional technique based upon use of an Alicona 3D Infinite Focus imaging microscope and software is used to record developmental features in the enamel of human permanent mandibular lateral incisors of one individual from the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük (Turkey)...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Anna Rohnbogner, Mary Elizabeth Lewis
OBJECTIVES: The current understanding of child morbidity in Roman England is dominated by studies of single sites/regions. Much of the data are derived from third to fifth century AD Poundbury Camp, Dorchester, Dorset, considered an unusual site due to high levels of non-adult morbidity. There is little understanding of children in rural areas, and whether Poundbury Camp was representative of Romano-British childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study provides the first large scale analysis of child health in urban and rural Roman England, adding to the previously published intra-site analysis of non-adult paleopathology at Poundbury Camp...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
E Bocaege, L T Humphrey
OBJECTIVES: Whereas the differences in lateral enamel growth between fossil and modern populations have been well documented in recent years, few studies report on the variability in perikymata counts and distribution between modern human populations. There is a need for information on modern human populations from a wide range of geographical regions and archaeological populations to determine whether existing patterns are representative. The aim of this paper is to document enamel surface microstructures in human teeth from a previously unknown region and time period comprehensively...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Patricia M Lambert, Martin H Welker
OBJECTIVES: Bioarchaeological research has documented a general decline in health with the transition from foraging to farming, primarily with respect to changing patterns of morbidity. Less is known about changes in injury risk, an aspect of health more obviously tied to particular landscapes and behaviors associated with different subsistence regimes. The purpose of this research is to evaluate several hypotheses emerging from the ideal free distribution model (Fretwell & Lucas, ) that predict injury risk based on subsistence-specific practices and land use patterns...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Cuibin Wang, Lingxia Zhao
OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the distribution of perikymata on anterior teeth of Miocene Lufengpithecus lufengensis so as to broaden the comparative data of developmental variation within and among hominoids. We also compared perikymata-spacing pattern of Lufengpithecus lufengensis with hominins and extant African great apes to understand the implication of dental development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 anterior teeth (including 6 I1, 10 I2, and 14 C) of Lufengpithecus lufengensis were examined using a scanning electron microscope and Keyence VHX-600EOS digital microscope to document the number and distribution of perikymata on their labial surfaces...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Scott D Maddux, Lauren N Butaric, Todd R Yokley, Robert G Franciscus
OBJECTIVES: Although the internal nose is overwhelmingly responsible for heat and moisture exchange during respiration, external nasal morphology is more commonly cited as evincing climatic adaptation in humans. Here, we assess variation across all four morphofunctional units of the complete nasorespiratory tract (external pyramid, nasal aperture, internal nasal fossa, and nasopharynx) to determine which units provide the strongest evidence of climatic adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employ 20 linear measurements collected on 837 modern human crania from major geographic (Arctic Circle, Asia, Australia, Europe, Africa) and climatic (polar, temperate, hot-arid, tropical) zones...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Kathleen S Paul, Claudia M Astorino, Shara E Bailey
OBJECTIVES: The Patterning Cascade Model (PCM) provides an evolutionary developmental framework for exploring diversity in tooth crown form. According to the model, proximity of secondary enamel knots and tooth germ size track underlying developmental processes that dictate ultimate crown morphology (i.e., cusp number, accessory cusp presence/size). Previous research has shown the model to successfully predict variation in Carabelli's trait expression between antimeric and metameric pairs of human permanent molars...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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