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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218399/smooth-operator-the-effects-of-different-3d-mesh-retriangulation-protocols-on-the-computation-of-dirichlet-normal-energy
#1
Jackson P Spradley, James D Pampush, Paul E Morse, Richard F Kay
OBJECTIVES: Dirichlet normal energy (DNE) is a metric of surface topography that has been used to evaluate the relationship between the surface complexity of primate cheek teeth and dietary categories. This study examines the effects of different 3D mesh retriangulation protocols on DNE. We examine how different protocols influence the DNE of a simple geometric shape-a hemisphere-to gain a more thorough understanding than can be achieved by investigating a complex biological surface such as a tooth crown...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218396/morphological-variation-among-late-holocene-mexicans-implications-for-discussions-about-the-human-occupation-of-the-americas
#2
Brianne Herrera, Daniel Peart, Nicole Hernandez, Kate Spradley, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Cranial morphology has previously been used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among populations, and has been an important tool in the reconstruction of ancient human dispersals across the planet. In the Americas, previous morphological studies support a scenario of people entering the Americas and dispersing from North America into South America through Meso America, making the Mexican territory the natural funnel through which biological diversity entered South America...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218393/the-relative-position-of-the-human-fibula-to-the-tibia-influences-cross-sectional-properties-of-the-tibia
#3
Benjamin M Auerbach, Alice F Gooding, Colin N Shaw, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: The fibula transmits loads within the lower limb of hominids. The few studies of variation in the cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of the fibula have established differences in its rigidity among groups engaged in distinct habitual loading activities. This study adds to this research by considering the relationship between CSG properties and the anatomical position of the fibula relative to the tibia among groups with differences in documented activity patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used pQCT scans taken at 50% of the length of the lower leg in 83 healthy young adult collegiate-aged individuals divided into five activity groups: runners, swimmers, cricketers, field hockey players, and non-athletes...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211566/applying-standard-perikymata-profiles-to-pongo-pygmaeus-canines-to-estimate-perikymata-counts-between-linear-enamel-hypoplasias
#4
Mackie O'Hara
OBJECTIVES: Recently, studies have interpreted regular spacing and average number of perikymata between dental enamel defects in orangutans to reflect seasonal episodes of physiological stress. To estimate the amount of time between developmental defects (enamel hypoplasia), studies have relied on perikymata counts. Unfortunately, perikymata are frequently not continuously visible between defects, significantly reducing data sets. A method is presented here for estimating the number of perikymata between defects using standard perikymata profiles (SPP) that allow the number of perikymata between all pairs of defects across a tooth to be analyzed...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211561/comparison-of-observed-and-expected-levels-of-genetic-diversity-based-on-surname-frequencies-an-example-from-historical-massachusetts
#5
John H Relethford
OBJECTIVES: The inverse of random inbreeding based on surname frequencies (1/Fr ) is an estimate of genetic diversity, and its expectation is a function of the number of migrants into a population. Observed and expected values of (1/Fr ) were compared to determine if observed diversity matches theoretical expectations under conditions of rapid demographic change using data from historical Massachusetts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on migration and surnames were taken from 6,038 marriage records from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries from five towns in north-central Massachusetts...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206677/human-adaptation-to-arsenic-in-andean-populations-of-the-atacama-desert
#6
Mario Apata, Bernado Arriaza, Elena Llop, Mauricio Moraga
OBJECTIVES: Quebrada Camarones, in the Atacama Desert, has the highest arsenic levels in the Americas (>1,000 µg/L). However, the Camarones people have subsisted in this adverse environment during the last 7,000 years and have not presented any epidemiological emergencies. Therefore, to solve this conundrum we compared the frequencies of four protective genetic variants of the AS3MT gene associated with efficient arsenic metabolization, between the living populations of Camarones and two other populations historically exposed to lower levels of arsenic...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198540/subadult-sex-estimation-from-diaphyseal-dimensions
#7
Kyra E Stull, Ericka N L'Abbé, Stephen D Ousley
OBJECTIVES: Many studies on subadult sex estimation focus on elements that express sexually dimorphic features in adults. In contrast, diaphyseal dimensions have been shown to display sex-specific differences prior to adolescence. The current study evaluates the use of diaphyseal dimensions in subadult sex estimation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen postcranial measurements from six long bones were collected on Lodox Statscan radiographic images of 1,310 modern South African children between birth and 12 years of age...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198537/racial-discrimination-associated-with-higher-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-a-sample-of-american-indian-adults
#8
Zaneta M Thayer, Irene V Blair, Dedra S Buchwald, Spero M Manson
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195301/people-choose-to-run-at-their-optimal-speed
#9
Joseph K Rathkey, Cara M Wall-Scheffler
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to test whether people choose to behave in a manner that reduces the amount of energy they use to travel a given distance. While this has been shown consistently for walking, it has never been tested with human running. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected energetic data and lower limb anthropometrics on nine men running at six different running speeds. We collected on all six speeds on 3 different days and took the average of the energetic values for each speed...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195305/reconstructing-diet-in-napoleon-s-grand-army-using-stable-carbon-and-nitrogen-isotope-analysis
#10
Sammantha Holder, Tosha L Dupras, Rimantas Jankauskas, Lana Williams, John Schultz
OBJECTIVES: Historical evidence has provided information regarding disease and mortality in Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Army, but dietary information beyond individual soldier accounts remains scarce. The purpose of this research is to reconstruct the diets of Napoleon's multiethnic army who were associated with the Russian Campaign of 1812. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio analysis on femoral bone collagen of 78 individuals recovered from a salvage excavation at the mass gravesite of Šiaurės miestelis in Vilnius, Lithuania...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195302/testing-biomechanical-models-of-human-lumbar-lordosis-variability
#11
Eric R Castillo, Connie Hsu, Ross W Mair, Daniel E Lieberman
OBJECTIVES: Lumbar lordosis (LL) is a key adaptation for bipedalism, but factors underlying curvature variations remain unclear. This study tests three biomechanical models to explain LL variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adults (15 male, 15 female) were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a standing posture analysis was conducted, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) was assessed. Three measures of LL were compared. The trunk's center of mass was estimated from external markers to calculate hip moments (Mhip ) and lumbar flexion moments...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186625/obituary-derek-f-roberts-1925-2016
#12
Michael H Crawford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170092/quantifying-the-impact-of-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct-scanning-of-human-fossil-teeth-on-esr-age-results
#13
Mathieu Duval, Laura Martín-Francés
Fossil human teeth are nowadays systematically CT-scanned by palaeoanthropologists prior to any further analysis. It has been recently demonstrated that this noninvasive technique has, in most cases, virtually no influence on ancient DNA preservation. However, it may have nevertheless an impact on other techniques, like Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating, by artificially ageing the apparent age of the sample. To evaluate this impact, we µCT-scanned several modern enamel fragments following the standard analytical procedures employed by the Dental Anthropology Group at CENIEH, Spain, and then performed ESR dose reconstruction for each of them...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164267/human-grooming-in-comparative-perspective-people-in-six-small-scale-societies-groom-less-but-socialize-just-as-much-as-expected-for-a-typical-primate
#14
Adrian V Jaeggi, Karen L Kramer, Raymond Hames, Evan J Kiely, Cristina Gomes, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven
OBJECTIVES: Grooming has important utilitarian and social functions in primates but little is known about grooming and its functional analogues in traditional human societies. We compare human grooming to typical primate patterns to test its hygienic and social functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were used to derive expected human grooming time given the potential associations between grooming, group size, body size, terrestriality, and several climatic variables across 69 primate species...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164262/brief-communication-correlation-between-elastic-modulus-and-radiographic-density-in-mandibular-cortical-bone-of-colobine-monkeys
#15
Andrew J Rapoff, W Scott McGraw, Ana Duque, David J Daegling
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between radiographic grayscale and elastic modulus was determined using mandibular cortical bone of colobine monkeys. Quantification of this relationship is critical for establishing absolute measures of structural rigidity of skeletal elements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the Vickers microhardness values in mandibular bone from two species of African colobine monkeys and related these values to elastic modulus through an empirically determined correlation...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164260/a-companion-to-south-asia-in-the-past-gwen-robbins-schug-subhash-r-walimbe-wiley-blackwell-oxford-2016-600-pp-isnb-978-1-119-05548-8-195-hardback
#16
REVIEW
James Blinkhorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158897/sex-specific-genetic-diversity-is-shaped-by-cultural-factors-in-inner-asian-human-populations
#17
Nina Marchi, Tatyana Hegay, Philippe Mennecier, Myriam Georges, Romain Laurent, Mark Whitten, Philipp Endicott, Almaz Aldashev, Choduraa Dorzhu, Firuza Nasyrova, Boris Chichlo, Laure Ségurel, Evelyne Heyer
OBJECTIVES: Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. METHODS: We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144947/comparative-primate-obstetrics-observations-of-15-diurnal-births-in-wild-gelada-monkeys-theropithecus-gelada-and-their-implications-for-understanding-human-and-nonhuman-primate-birth-evolution
#18
Nga Nguyen, Laura M Lee, Peter J Fashing, Niina O Nurmi, Kathrine M Stewart, Taylor J Turner, Tyler S Barry, Kadie R Callingham, C Barret Goodale, Bryce S Kellogg, Ryan J Burke, Emily K Bechtold, Megan J Claase, G Anita Eriksen, Sorrel C Z Jones, Jeffrey T Kerby, Jacob B Kraus, Carrie M Miller, Thomas H Trew, Yi Zhao, Evan C Beierschmitt, Malcolm S Ramsay, Jason D Reynolds, Vivek V Venkataraman
OBJECTIVES: The birth process has been studied extensively in many human societies, yet little is known about this essential life history event in other primates. Here, we provide the most detailed account of behaviors surrounding birth for any wild nonhuman primate to date. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a recent ∼10-year period, we directly observed 15 diurnal births (13 live births and 2 stillbirths) among geladas (Theropithecus gelada) at Guassa, Ethiopia. During each birth, we recorded the occurrence (or absence) of 16 periparturitional events, chosen for their potential to provide comparative evolutionary insights into the factors that shaped birth behaviors in humans and other primates...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138956/why-were-sardinians-the-shortest-europeans-a-journey-through-genes-infections-nutrition-and-sex
#19
Giovanni Mario Pes, Eugenia Tognotti, Michel Poulain, Dany Chambre, Maria Pina Dore
Since ancient times the Mediterranean island of Sardinia has been known for harboring a population with an average body height shorter than almost every other ethnic group in Europe. After over a century of investigations, the cause(s) at the origin of this uniqueness are not yet clear. The shorter stature of Sardinians appears to have been documented since prehistoric times, as revealed by the analysis of skeletal remains discovered in archaeological sites on the island. Recently, a number of genetic, hormonal, environmental, infective and nutritional factors have been put forward to explain this unique anthropometric feature, which persisted for a long time, even when environmental and living conditions improved around 1960...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128440/evolution-of-the-hominoid-scapula-and-its-implications-for-earliest-hominid-locomotion
#20
Michael S Selby, C Owen Lovejoy
OBJECTIVES: The higher primate scapula has been subject to many explanations of the putative "adaptive value" of its individual traits. However, the shift from the bone's position in above branch quadrupeds to its more posterolateral position in recent hominoids obviously required fundamental changes to its general form. We hypothesize that most features argued to be individually adaptive are more likely secondary consequences of changes in its fundamental bauplan, a view more consistent with modern developmental biology...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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