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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639281/resolving-relationships-between-several-neolithic-and-mesolithic-populations-in-northern-eurasia-using-geometric-morphometrics
#1
Ekaterina Stansfield Bulygina, Anna Rasskasova, Natalia Berezina, Andrei D Soficaru
OBJECTIVES: Remains from several Eastern European and Siberian Mesolithic and Neolithic sites are analysed to clarify their biological relationships. We assume that groups' geographical distances correlate with genetic and, therefore, morphological distances between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Material includes complete male crania from several Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites across Northern Eurasia and from several modern populations. Geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistical techniques are applied to explore morphological trends, group distances, and correlations with their geographical position, climate, and the time of origin...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636089/geographic-substructure-in-craniometric-estimates-of-admixture-for-contemporary-american-populations
#2
Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates heterogeneity in craniometrically-derived estimates of admixture in order to reveal population substructure in a sample of Black, White, Hispanic, and Native American individuals from the FDB. It reports evidence of spatial trends in population-specific patterns of admixture and contextualizes its results in terms of demographic diversity in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The FDB was sampled to capture the population variation within forensic casework, skeletal collections, and the U...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635123/measuring-fitness-heritability-life-history-traits-versus-morphological-traits-in-humans
#3
Alina Gavrus-Ion, Torstein Sjøvold, Miguel Hernández, Rolando González-José, María Esther Esteban Torné, Neus Martínez-Abadías, Mireia Esparza
OBJECTIVES: Traditional interpretation of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection is that life history traits (LHT), which are closely related with fitness, show lower heritabilities, whereas morphological traits (MT) are less related with fitness and they are expected to show higher heritabilities. In humans, although few studies have examined the heritability of LHT and MT, none of them have analyzed the same sample for comparative purposes. Here we assessed, for the first time, the heritability, additive genetic variance (VA ), residual variance (VR ) and coefficient of genetic additive variation (CVA ) values of LHT and MT in a singular collection of identified skulls with associated demographic records from Hallstatt (Austria)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631376/scale-of-human-mobility-in-the-southern-andes-argentina-and-chile-a-new-framework-based-on-strontium-isotopes
#4
Ramiro Barberena, Víctor A Durán, Paula Novellino, Diego Winocur, Anahí Benítez, Augusto Tessone, María N Quiroga, Erik J Marsh, Alejandra Gasco, Valeria Cortegoso, Gustavo Lucero, Carina Llano, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of "high residential mobility" suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains. METHODS: We develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631293/region-dependent-patterns-of-trabecular-bone-growth-in-the-human-proximal-femur-a-study-of-3d-bone-microarchitecture-from-early-postnatal-to-late-childhood-period
#5
Petar Milovanovic, Danijela Djonic, Michael Hahn, Michael Amling, Björn Busse, Marija Djuric
OBJECTIVES: Parallel with body growth and development, bone structure in non-adults is reorganized to achieve the particular design observed in mature individuals. We traced the changes in three-dimensional trabecular microarchitectural design during the phases of locomotor maturation to clarify how human bone adapts to mechanical demands. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Micro-CT was performed on biomechanically-relevant subregions of the proximal femur (medial, intermediate and lateral neck regions, intertrochanteric region, metaphyseal region) from early postnatal period to late childhood...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626923/comparative-performance-of-deciduous-and-permanent-dental-morphology-in-detecting-biological-relatives
#6
Kathleen S Paul, Christopher M Stojanowski
OBJECTIVES: Dental morphology plays a key role in reconstructing population history and evolutionary relationships at global, regional, and intracemetery scales. At the inter-individual level, it is assumed that close biological kin exhibit greater phenotypic similarity than non-relatives. Heritability estimates provide one measure of phenotypic resemblance but are not easily incorporated into analyses of archaeological samples. In this study we evaluate the assumption that relatives are more similar phenotypically than non-relatives...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621827/maize-zea-mays-consumption-in-the-southern-andes-30%C3%A2-31%C3%A2-s-lat-stable-isotope-evidence-2000-bce-1540-ce
#7
Marta Alfonso-Durruty, Andrés Troncoso, Pablo Larach, Cristian Becker, Nicole Misarti
OBJECTIVES: The timing and dietary role of maize agriculture is central to archaeological discussions in the Andean region. In the semi-arid region of northern Chile (SARNC), archaeological models propose that maize was adopted during the Early Ceramic period in tandem with pottery and sedentism. Through stable isotope (SI) analyses, of bone collagen and apatite, this study assesses the timing of maize introduction, diachronic changes (2,000 BCE to 1,540 CE.), and synchronic dietary variability in the prehistoric SARNC...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621823/raw-material-procurement-for-termite-fishing-tools-by-wild-chimpanzees-in-the-issa-valley-western-tanzania
#8
Katarina Almeida-Warren, Volker Sommer, Alex K Piel, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
OBJECTIVES: Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617987/the-sex-selective-impact-of-the-black-death-and-recurring-plagues-in-the-southern-netherlands-1349-1450
#9
Daniel R Curtis, Joris Roosen
Although recent work has begun to establish that early modern plagues had selective mortality effects, it was generally accepted that the initial outbreak of Black Death in 1347-52 was a "universal killer." Recent bioarchaeological work, however, has argued that the Black Death was also selective with regard to age and pre-plague health status. The issue of the Black Death's potential sex selectivity is less clear. Bioarchaeological research hypothesizes that sex-selection in mortality was possible during the initial Black Death outbreak, and we present evidence from historical sources to test this notion...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605019/the-late-neandertal-permanent-lower-left-third-premolar-from-walou-cave-trooz-belgium-and-its-context
#10
Michel Toussaint, Christine Verna, Adeline Le Cabec, Aida Gómez-Robles, Christelle Draily, Michael P Richards, Stéphane Pirson
OBJECTIVES: We describe a hominin permanent lower left third premolar unearthed in 1997 at Walou Cave (Belgium), found in direct association with a Mousterian lithic industry, in a layer directly dated to 40-38,000 years BP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The taxonomical attribution of the tooth is addressed through comparative morphometric analyses, and stable isotope analyses aimed at determining the diet of the individual. RESULTS: The Walou P3 plots within the Neandertal range of variation and is significantly different from recent modern humans in all morphometric assessments...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605010/carbon-nitrogen-and-oxygen-isotope-fractionation-during-food-cooking-implications-for-the-interpretation-of-the-fossil-human-record
#11
Aurélien Royer, Valérie Daux, François Fourel, Christophe Lécuyer
OBJECTIVES: Stable isotope data provide insight into the reconstruction of ancient human diet. However, cooking may alter the original stable isotope compositions of food due to losses and modifications of biochemical and water components. METHODS: To address this issue, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were measured on meat aliquots sampled from various animals such as pork, beef, duck and chicken, and also from the flesh of fishes such as salmon, European seabass, European pilchard, sole, gilt-head bream, and tuna...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594081/new-evidence-suggesting-a-dissociated-etiology-for-cribra-orbitalia-and-porotic-hyperostosis
#12
Frances Rivera, Marta Mirazón Lahr
OBJECTIVES: Porotic hyperostosis (PH), characterized by porotic lesions on the cranial vault, and cribra orbitalia (CO), a localized appearance of porotic lesions on the roof of the orbits, are relatively common osteological conditions. Their etiology has been the focus of several studies, and an association with anemia has long been suggested. Anemia often causes bone marrow hypertrophy or hyperplasia, leading to the expansion in trabecular or cranial diploic bone as a result of increased hematopoiesis...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594068/chimpanzee-ankle-and-foot-joint-kinematics-arboreal-versus-terrestrial-locomotion
#13
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
OBJECTIVES: Many aspects of chimpanzee ankle and midfoot joint morphology are believed to reflect adaptations for arboreal locomotion. However, terrestrial travel also constitutes a significant component of chimpanzee locomotion, complicating functional interpretations of chimpanzee and fossil hominin foot morphology. Here we tested hypotheses of foot motion and, in keeping with general assumptions, we predicted that chimpanzees would use greater ankle and midfoot joint ranges of motion during travel on arboreal supports than on the ground...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581062/dental-evidence-for-wild-tuber-processing-among-titicaca-basin-foragers-7000-ybp
#14
James T Watson, Randall Haas
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work is to characterize dental wear in a skeletal sample dating to the Middle/Late Archaic period transition (8,000-6,700 cal. B.P.) from the Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru to better define subsistence behaviors of foragers prior to incipient sedentism and food production. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dental sample consists of 251 teeth from 11 individuals recovered from the site of Soro Mik'aya Patjxa (SMP), the earliest securely dated burial assemblage in the Lake Titicaca Basin and the only burial assemblage in the region from an unequivocal forager context...
June 5, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581022/a-multi-method-assessment-of-bone-maintenance-and-loss-in-an-imperial-roman-population-implications-for-future-studies-of-age-related-bone-loss-in-the-past
#15
Patrick Beauchesne, Sabrina C Agarwal
OBJECTIVES: One of the hallmarks of contemporary osteoporosis and bone loss is dramatically higher prevalence of loss and fragility in females post-menopause. In contrast, bioarchaeological studies of bone loss have found a greater diversity of age- and sex-related patterns of bone loss in past populations. We argue that the differing findings may relate to the fact that most studies use only a single methodology to quantify bone loss and do not account for the heterogeneity and complexity of bone maintenance across the skeleton and over the life course...
June 5, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573732/error-in-geometric-morphometric-data-collection-combining-data-from-multiple-sources
#16
Chris Robinson, Claire E Terhune
OBJECTIVES: This study compares two- and three-dimensional morphometric data to determine the extent to which intra- and interobserver and intermethod error influence the outcomes of statistical analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected five times for each method and observer on 14 anthropoid crania using calipers, a MicroScribe, and 3D models created from NextEngine and microCT scans. ANOVA models were used to examine variance in the linear data at the level of genus, species, specimen, observer, method, and trial...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573721/gps-identified-low-level-nocturnal-activity-of-vervets-chlorocebus-pygerythrus-and-olive-baboons-papio-anubis-in-laikipia-kenya
#17
Lynne A Isbell, Laura R Bidner, Margaret C Crofoot, Akiko Matsumoto-Oda, Damien R Farine
OBJECTIVES: Except for owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), all anthropoid primates are considered strictly diurnal. Recent studies leveraging new technologies have shown, however, that some diurnal anthropoids also engage in nocturnal activity. Here we examine the extent to which vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and olive baboons (Papio anubis) are active at night. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We deployed GPS collars with tri-axial accelerometer data loggers on 18 free-ranging adult females: 12 vervets spread among 5 social groups, and 6 olive baboons spread among 4 groups...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573649/intra-individual-metameric-variation-expressed-at-the-enamel-dentine-junction-of-lower-post-canine-dentition-of-south-african-fossil-hominins-and-modern-humans
#18
Lei Pan, John Francis Thackeray, Jean Dumoncel, Clément Zanolli, Anna Oettlé, Frikkie de Beer, Jakobus Hoffman, Benjamin Duployer, Christophe Tenailleau, José Braga
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the degree and patterning of inter- and intra-individual metameric variation in South African australopiths, early Homo and modern humans. Metameric variation likely reflects developmental and taxonomical issues, and could also be used to infer ecological and functional adaptations. However, its patterning along the early hominin postcanine dentition, particularly among South African fossil hominins, remains unexplored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microfocus X-ray computed tomography (µXCT) and geometric morphometric tools, we studied the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology and we investigated the intra- and inter-individual EDJ metameric variation among eight australopiths and two early Homo specimens from South Africa, as well as 32 modern humans...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568243/rethinking-the-starch-digestion-hypothesis-for-amy1-copy-number-variation-in-humans
#19
EDITORIAL
Catalina I Fernández, Andrea S Wiley
Alpha-amylase exists across taxonomic kingdoms with a deep evolutionary history of gene duplications that resulted in several α-amylase paralogs. Copy number variation (CNV) in the salivary α-amylase gene (AMY1) exists in many taxa, but among primates, humans appear to have higher average AMY1 copies than nonhuman primates. Additionally, AMY1 CNV in humans has been associated with starch content of diets, and one known function of α-amylase is its involvement in starch digestion. Thus high AMY1 CNV is considered to result from selection favoring more efficient starch digestion in the Homo lineage...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568077/letter-to-the-editor-reply-to-hardy-buckley-earliest-evidence-of-bitumen-from-homo-sp-teeth-is-from-el-sidro-n
#20
LETTER
Gregorio Oxilia, Flavia Fiorillo, Francesco Boschin, Elisabetta Boaretto, Salvatore A Apicella, Chiara Matteucci, Daniele Panetta, Rossella Pistocchi, Franca Guerrini, Cristiana Margherita, Massimo Andretta, Rita Sorrentino, Giovanni Boschian, Simona Arrighi, Irene Dori, Giuseppe Mancuso, Jacopo Crezzini, Alessandro Riga, Maria C Serrangeli, Antonino Vazzana, Piero A Salvadori, Mariangela Vandini, Carlo Tozzi, Adriana Moroni, Robin N M Feeney, John C Willman, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Stefano Benazzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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