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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

R Robin Baker, Todd K Shackelford
OBJECTIVES: The phrase "level of sperm competition" is used only vaguely in the primate literature. There is also little distinction between the important elements of frequency and intensity of sperm competition, largely because the two current forms of measurement (socio-sexual system and relative testes size) are both proxies which allow neither precision nor fine distinctions. Both measures have critics, socio-sexual system in particular being branded subjective, misleading, and changeable...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Brunilda Dhamo, Lea Kragt, Olja Grgic, Strahinja Vucic, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Fernando Rivadeneira, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Eppo B Wolvius, Edwin M Ongkosuwito
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the influence of ancestry on dental development in the Generation R Study. METHODS: Information on geographic ancestry was available in 3,600 children (1,810 boys and 1,790 girls, mean age 9.81 ± 0.35 years) and information about genetic ancestry was available in 2,786 children (1,387 boys and 1,399 girls, mean age 9.82 ± 0.34 years). Dental development was assessed in all children using the Demirjian method. The associations of geographic ancestry (Cape Verdean, Moroccan, Turkish, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese Creole and Surinamese Hindustani vs Dutch as the reference group) and genetic content of ancestry (European, African or Asian) with dental development was analyzed using linear regression models...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jessica M Gross
OBJECTIVES: African American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Yang Xia, Jinglei Zhang, Fei Yu, Hui Zhang, Tingting Wang, Yaowu Hu, Benjamin T Fuller
OBJECTIVES: Here we investigate breastfeeding and weaning practices and adult dietary habits at the Western Zhou Dynasty (1122-771 BC) site of Boyangcheng () located in Anhui Province, China. In addition, we utilize the differences in bone collagen turnover rates between rib and long bones from the same individual to examine past life histories, such as changes in diet or residence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone collagen from both the rib and long bones (either femora or humeri) of 42 individuals was measured for stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N)...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Urszula M Marcinkowska, Anthony C Little, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Ilona Nenko, Magdalena Klimek, Grazyna Jasienska
OBJECTIVES: The costs associated with reproduction (i.e., gestation, lactation, childcare) have long-term negative consequences by elevating risk of disease and reducing lifespan. We tested the hypotheses that high parity, and thus high reproductive costs bear by women, is perceived by other people when they evaluate facial appearance of health, attractiveness and age of mothers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using computer software we created average facial images based on real photographs of post-menopausal women with varying number of children; 3 parity categories were created (1-2, 4-5, and 7-9 children)...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lumila Paula Menéndez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Seyedeh M Kazzazi, Elena F Kranioti
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) images in measuring cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth sizes, by comparing the values obtained by 3D virtual models from CT images with those obtained using digital calipers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 530 maxillary and mandibular teeth of 51 individuals from two Iron Age sites were scanned using a Siemens Somatom sensation 64-slice computed tomography machine, and the images were reconstructed and measured...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Mark Hubbe, Madelyn K Green, Colleen M Cheverko, Walter A Neves
OBJECTIVES: The southern Brazilian shellmounds provide archaeological evidence of prolonged human activity in the coast from approximately 6000 to 1000 BP. Shellmound building populations exploited the rich coastal estuarine zones, and the human remains recovered from them are important sources of information on health and overall lifestyle of these mid-Holocene groups. Therefore, they were included in the Western Hemisphere Global History of Health project. The shellmounds contribute the highest Health Index in the Western Hemisphere, but these conclusions are based on collections that exclude postcranial remains...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Susan C Kuzminsky, Omar Reyes Báez, Bernardo Arriaza, César Méndez, Vivien G Standen, Manuel San Román, Iván Muñoz, Ángel Durán Herrera, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Archaeological and genetic research has demonstrated that the Pacific Coast was a key route in the early colonization of South America. Research examining South American skeletons >8000 cal BP has revealed differences in cranial morphology between early and late Holocene populations, which may reflect distinct migration events and/or populations. However, genetic, cultural, and some skeletal data contradict this model. Given these discrepancies, this study examines ∼9000 years of prehistory to test the hypothesis that Early skeletons have a distinct cranial morphology from later skeletons...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Anthony J Koehl, Jeffrey C Long
OBJECTIVE: We present a model that partitions Nei's minimum genetic distance between admixed populations into components of admixture and genetic drift. We applied this model to 17 admixed populations in the Americas to examine how admixture and drift have contributed to the patterns of genetic diversity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 618 short tandem repeat loci in 949 individuals from 49 population samples. Thirty-two samples serve as proxies for continental ancestors...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Leonardo Arias, Chiara Barbieri, Guillermo Barreto, Mark Stoneking, Brigitte Pakendorf
OBJECTIVES: Northwestern Amazonia (NWA) is a center of high linguistic and cultural diversity. Several language families and linguistic isolates occur in this region, as well as different subsistence patterns, with some groups being foragers and others agriculturalists. In addition, speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages are known for practicing linguistic exogamy, a marriage system in which partners are taken from different language groups. In this study, we use high-resolution mitochondrial DNA sequencing to investigate the impact of this linguistic and cultural diversity on the genetic relationships and population structure of NWA groups...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Valentina Caruso, Marco Cummaudo, Emanuela Maderna, Annalisa Cappella, Giorgio Caudullo, Valentina Scarpulla, Cristina Cattaneo
OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to evaluate the preservation of the microstructure of skeletal remains collected from four different known burial sites (archaeological and contemporary). Histological analysis on undecalcified and decalcified thin sections was performed in order to assess which of the two techniques is more affected by taphonomic insults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A histological analysis was performed on both undecalcified and decalcified thin sections of 40 long bones and the degree of diagenetic change was evaluated using transmitted and polarized light microscopy according to the Oxford Histological Index (OHI)...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Phoebe R Spencer, Katherine A Sanders, Debra S Judge
OBJECTIVES: Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
François Druelle, Jesse Young, Gilles Berillon
OBJECTIVES: Relatively long digits are considered to enhance grasping performance in primates. We tested whether growth-related changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions may have behavioral implications for growing animals, by examining whether ontogenetic changes in digital proportions are related to variation in voluntary grasping behaviors in baboons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Longitudinal morphological and behavioral data were collected on 6 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) as they aged from 5 to 22 months...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Aram Yardumian, Ramaz Shengelia, David Chitanava, Shorena Laliashvili, Lia Bitadze, Irma Laliashvili, Fernando Villanea, Akiva Sanders, Andrew Azzam, Victoria Groner, Kristi Edleson, Miguel G Vilar, Theodore G Schurr
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we characterized genetic diversity in the Svans from northwestern Georgia to better understand the phylogeography of their genetic lineages, determine whether genetic diversity in the highland South Caucasus has been shaped by language or geography, and assess whether Svan genetic diversity was structured by regional residence patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in 184 individuals from 13 village districts and townlets located throughout the region...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Matthew C Lewis, Adam G West, M Justin O'Riain
OBJECTIVES: Stable isotope analysis has been used to investigate consumption of marine resources in a variety of terrestrial mammals, including humans, but not yet in extant nonhuman primates. We sought to test the efficacy of stable isotope analysis as a tool for such studies by comparing isotope- and observation-based estimates of marine food consumption by a troop of noncommensal, free-ranging chacma baboons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of baboon hair (n = 9) and fecal samples (n = 144), and principal food items (n = 362)...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
M J E Charpentier, L Givalois, C Faurie, O Soghessa, F Simon, P M Kappeler
OBJECTIVES: The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a neuroendocrine response to external and internal changes that animals face on a predictable or unpredictable basis. Across species, variation in glucocorticoid production has been related to such changes. In this study, we investigated the predictable, seasonal sources of variation in the levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) in a large natural population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Southern Gabon...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Katie E Faillace, Jonathan D Bethard, Murray K Marks
OBJECTIVES: Though applied in bioarchaeology, dental wear is an underexplored age indicator in the biological anthropology of contemporary populations, although research has been conducted on dental attrition in forensic contexts (Kim et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45, 303; Prince et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53, 588; Yun et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52, 678). The purpose of this study is to apply and adapt existing techniques for age estimation based on dental wear to a modern American population, with the aim of producing accurate age range estimates for individuals from an industrialized context...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tiffiny A Tung, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis is used to reconstruct diet among a pre-Hispanic population from the Peruvian Andes to evaluate whether local foodways changed with Wari imperial influence in the region. This study also compares local diet to other Wari-era sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples derive from the site of Beringa in Peru and correspond primarily to pre-Wari (200-600 CE) and Wari (600-1,000 CE). We examine stable carbon isotopes from enamel (n = 29) and bone apatite (n = 22), and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from bone collagen (n = 29), and we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data on archaeological and modern fauna (n = 37) and plants (n = 19) from the region...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Claire A Kirchhoff, Michael L Wilson, Deus C Mjungu, Jane Raphael, Shadrack Kamenya, D Anthony Collins
OBJECTIVES: We present a study of skeletal damage to four chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infanticide victims from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Skeletal analysis may provide insight into the adaptive significance of infanticide by examining whether nutritional benefits sufficiently explain infanticidal behavior. The nutritional hypothesis would be supported if bone survivorship rates and skeletal damage patterns are comparable to those of monkey prey. If not, other explanations, such as the resource competition hypothesis, should be considered...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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