Read by QxMD icon Read

American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Ye Sel Kim, In Sung Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Dasom Kim, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether there was any secular change in cranial vault morphology among Koreans born between the 1930s and 1970s, a period of dramatic shift in Korea's socioeconomic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using three-dimensional MRI volumetry, we obtained the intracranial volume (ICV) and craniometric measurements of 115 healthy Koreans: 58 individuals (32 males and 26 females) born in the 1930s (1926-1936) and 57 (28 males and 29 females) born in the 1970s (1972-1979)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Teresa Fernández-Crespo, Rick J Schulting, Javier Ordoño, Andreas Duering, Francisco Etxeberria, Lourdes Herrasti, Ángel Armendariz, José I Vegas, Christopher Bronk Ramsey
OBJECTIVES: San Juan ante Portam Latinam is one of a small number of European Neolithic sites meeting many of the archaeological criteria expected for a mass grave, and furthermore presents evidence for violent conflict. This study aims to differentiate between what is potentially a single episode of deposition, versus deposition over some centuries, or, alternatively, that resulting from a combination of catastrophic and attritional mortality. The criteria developed are intended to have wider applicability to other such proposed events...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Yasuo Hagihara, Takashi Nara
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate differences in the diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry (CSG) of the metatarsal bones (MTs) between two populations with different habitual activities: the Jomon hunter-gatherers and modern Japanese people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the first through fifth MTs of 117 skeleton samples: 59 (33 men and 26 women) were obtained from Late and Final Jomon period archeological sites and 58 (31 men and 27 women) were from modern Japanese people...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Thomas A Terleph, S Malaivijitnond, U H Reichard
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to document song phrases of the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), an Asian ape that produces elaborate songs, often in well-coordinated male/female duets. We focused on the male coda, which is produced during vocal turn-taking with one's mate, and particularly its phrases containing rapid spectral and temporal variation, to investigate if modulation rates resemble those of lip-smacking in other nonhuman primates and human speech rhythm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We produced recordings from a large population of wild gibbons...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Xiufeng Huang, Qinghui Zhou, Xiaoyun Bin, Shu Lai, Chaowen Lin, Rong Hu, Jiashun Xiao, Dajun Luo, Yingxiang Li, Lan-Hai Wei, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Gang Chen, Chuan-Chao Wang
OBJECTIVES: The Jing people are a recognized ethnic group in Guangxi, southwest China, who are the immigrants from Vietnam during the 16th century. They speak Vietnamese but with lots of language borrowings from Cantonese, Zhuang, and Mandarin. However, it's unclear if there is large-scale gene flow from surrounding populations into Jing people during their language change due to the very limited genetic information of this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected blood samples from 37 Jing and 3 Han Chinese individuals from Wanwei, Shanxin, and Wutou islands in Guangxi and genotyped about 600,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Marc R Meyer, Charles Woodward, Amy Tims, Markus Bastir
OBJECTIVES: Uncinate processes are protuberances on the cranial surface of subaxial cervical vertebrae that assist in stabilizing and guiding spinal motion. Shallow uncinate processes reduce cervical stability but confer an increased range of motion in clinical studies. Here we assess uncinate processes among extant primates and model cervical kinematics in early fossil hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compare six fossil hominin vertebrae with 48 Homo sapiens and 99 nonhuman primates across 20 genera...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Dawn M Kitchen, Liliana Cortés-Ortiz, Pedro A D Dias, Domingo Canales-Espinosa, Thore J Bergman
OBJECTIVES: When closely related species overlap geographically, selection may favor species-specific mate recognition traits to avoid hybridization costs. Conversely, the need to recognize potential same-sex rivals may select for lower specificity, creating the possibility that selection in one domain constrains evolution in the other. Despite a wealth of data on mate recognition, studies addressing rival recognition between hybridizing species are limited to a few bird species. Using naïve populations, we examine the extent to which failed rival recognition might have affected hybridization patterns when two species of howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra and A...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Rebecca Scopa Kelso
OBJECTIVES: Human subadult skeletal remains can provide a unique perspective into biosocial aspects of Mississippian period population interactions within and between the Middle Cumberland (MCR) and Eastern Tennessee Regions (ETR). The majority of previous studies have concentrated on adult skeletal remains, leaving out a large and extremely important population segment. METHODS: Skeletal indicators of disease, growth, body proportions, and metabolic stress were collected from subadult remains from five archaeological sites over several temporal periods...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
L E Copes, H Schutz, E M Dlugsoz, S Judex, T Garland
OBJECTIVES: To use a mouse model to investigate the relationships among the components of the systemic robusticity hypothesis (SRH): voluntary exercise on wheels, spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in cages, growth hormones, and skeletal robusticity, especially cranial vault thickness (CVT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty female mice from lines artificially selected for high running (HR) and 50 from nonselected control (C) lines were housed in cages with (Active) or without wheels (Sedentary)...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Kate McGrath, Sireen El-Zaatari, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Margaret A Stanton, Donald J Reid, Tara S Stoinski, Michael R Cranfield, Antoine Mudakikwa, Shannon C McFarlin
OBJECTIVE: Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is a condition marked by localized reductions in enamel thickness, resulting from growth disruptions during dental development. We use quantitative criteria to characterize the depth of LEH defects and "normal" perikymata in great apes. We test the hypothesis that mountain gorillas have shallow defects compared to other taxa, which may have led to their underestimation in previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previous attempts to characterize LEH morphology quantitatively have been limited in sample size and scope...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Cecilia García-Campos, María Martinón-Torres, Laura Martín-Francés, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Mario Modesto-Mata, Bernardo Perea-Pérez, Clément Zanolli, Elena Labajo González, José Antonio Sánchez Sánchez, Elena Ruiz Mediavilla, Claudio Tuniz, José María Bermúdez de Castro
OBJECTIVES: Accurate sex estimation is an essential step for the reconstruction of the biological profile of human remains. Earlier studies have shown that elements of the human permanent dentition are sexually dimorphic. The aims of this study are to determine the degree of sexual dimorphism in the dental tissue volumes and surface areas of mandibular canines and to explore its potential for reliable sex determination. METHOD: The teeth included in this study (n = 69) were selected from anthropological collections from Spain, South Africa and Sudan...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Mikel Arlegi, Aida Gómez-Robles, Asier Gómez-Olivencia
OBJECTIVES: Although integration studies are important to understand the evolution of organisms' traits across phylogenies, vertebral integration in primates is still largely unexplored. Here we describe and quantify patterns of morphological integration and modularity in the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) in extant hominines incorporating the potential influence of size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 546 subaxial cervical vertebrae from 141 adult individuals of Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Nicole D S Grunstra, Philipp Mitteroecker, Robert A Foley
OBJECTIVES: To infer the ecogeographic conditions that underlie the evolutionary diversification of macaques, we investigated the within- and between-species relationships of craniodental dimensions, geography, and environment in extant macaque species. We studied evolutionary processes by contrasting macroevolutionary patterns, phylogeny, and within-species associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three linear measurements of the permanent dentition and skull along with data about climate, ecology (environment), and spatial geography were collected for 711 specimens of 12 macaque species and analyzed by a multivariate approach...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Assaf Marom, Yoel Rak
OBJECTIVES: Among the diagnostic features of the Neandertal mandible are the broad base of the coronoid process and its straight posterior margin. The adaptive value of these (and other) anatomical features has been linked to the Neandertal's need to cope with a large gape. The present study aims to test this hypothesis with regard to the morphology of the coronoid process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This admittedly simple, intuitive hypothesis was tested here via a comparative finite-element study of the primitive versus modified state of the coronoid process, using two-dimensional models of the mandible...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Robin Yong, Sarbin Ranjitkar, Dimitra Lekkas, Demetrios Halazonetis, Alistair Evans, Alan Brook, Grant Townsend
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate size and shape variation of human premolars between Indigenous Australians and Australians of European ancestry, and to assess whether sex and ancestry could be differentiated between these groups using 3D geometric morphometrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy dental casts from each group, equally subdivided by sex, were scanned using a structured-light scanner. The 3D meshes of upper and lower premolars were processed using geometric morphometric methods...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Temitope A Esan, Lynne A Schepartz
Current dental maturity charts, such as the widely applied London atlas, do not take into consideration advanced tooth emergence and formation patterns observed in children of African ancestry. The result is inaccurate age estimation in Southern Africa, a region where there is great forensic and anthropological need for reliable age estimation. OBJECTIVES: To develop a population-specific atlas of permanent tooth emergence and formation for age estimation of Black Southern Africans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional study of 642 school children aged 5-20 years, panoramic radiographs taken during routine dental examination in a mobile treatment van were analyzed using the Demirjian method of eight (A-H) tooth formation stages...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Alessio Veneziano, Federica Landi, Antonio Profico
OBJECTIVE: Smoothing and decimation filters are commonly used to restore the realistic appearance of virtual biological specimens, but they can cause a loss of topological information of unknown extent. In this study, we analyzed the effect of smoothing and decimation on a 3D mesh to highlight the consequences of an inappropriate use of these filters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Topological noise was simulated on four anatomical regions of the virtual reconstruction of an orangutan cranium...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Charles L Nunn, David R Samson
OBJECTIVES: Primates vary in their sleep durations and, remarkably, humans sleep the least per 24-hr period of the 30 primates that have been studied. Using phylogenetic methods that quantitatively situate human phenotypes within a broader primate comparative context, we investigated the evolution of human sleep architecture, focusing on: total sleep duration, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep duration, and proportion of sleep in REM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used two different Bayesian methods: phylogenetic prediction based on phylogenetic generalized least squares and a multistate Onrstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) evolutionary model of random drift and stabilizing selection...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Stephanie Payne, Alison Macintosh, Jay Stock
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of body size and composition on maintaining hand temperature during severe cold exposure. The hand's high surface area-to-volume ratio predisposes the hand to heat loss, increasing the risk of cold injury and even hypothermia, which are major selective pressures in cold environments. While vasoregulation may reduce heat loss from the hand, the effect of body form, tissue thermogenesis, and body insulation on heat loss is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thermal imaging was used to determine heat loss during a 3-min ice-water hand immersion test carried out on 114 volunteers (female = 63, male = 51)...
February 11, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Juho-Antti Junno, Antoine Mudakikwa, Christophe P E Zollikofer, Marcia S Ponce de León, Shannon C McFarlin
OBJECTIVES: The effects of phylogeny and locomotor behavior on long bone structural proportions are assessed through comparisons between adult and ontogenetic samples of extant gorillas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 281 wild-collected individuals were included in the study, divided into four groups that vary taxonomically and ecologically: western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla), lowland and highland grauer gorillas (G. b. graueri), and Virunga mountain gorillas (G...
February 11, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"