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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913906/semiautomatic-extraction-of-cortical-thickness-and-diaphyseal-curvature-from-ct-scans
#1
Ján Dupej, Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Josef Pelikán, Jaroslav Brůžek
The understanding of locomotor patterns, activity schemes, and biological variations has been enhanced by the study of the geometrical properties and cortical bone thickness of the long bones measured using CT scan cross-sections. With the development of scanning procedures, the internal architecture of the long bones can be explored along the entire diaphysis. Recently, several methods that map cortical thickness along the whole femoral diaphysis have been developed. Precise homology is vital for statistical examination of the data; however, the repeatability of these methods is unknown and some do not account for the curvature of the bones...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913852/testing-support-for-the-northern-and-southern-dispersal-routes-out-of-africa-an-analysis-of-levantine-and-southern-arabian-populations
#2
Deven N Vyas, Ali Al-Meeri, Connie J Mulligan
OBJECTIVES: The Northern Dispersal Route (NDR) and Southern Dispersal Route (SDR) are hypothesized to have been used by modern humans in the dispersal out of Africa. The NDR follows the Nile into Northeast Africa and crosses the Red Sea into the Levant. The SDR emerges from the Horn of Africa and crosses the Bab el-Mandeb into southern Arabia. In this study, we analyze genetic data from populations living along the NDR and SDR to test support for each dispersal route. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped 90 Yemeni samples on the Affymetrix Human Origins array...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895134/new-primate-locality-from-the-early-miocene-of-patagonia-argentina
#3
Nelson M Novo, Marcelo F Tejedor, María E Pérez, J Marcelo Krause
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work is to present a new primate locality with evidence that increases the knowledge on the radiation of the extinct platyrrhine primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the new specimen and compared it to specimens identified as Mazzonicebus almendrae. RESULTS: The new first and second molars were comparable to Mazzonicebus almendrae in all morphological details, allowing us to allocate the new specimen to M...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895116/age-at-reproductive-debut-developmental-predictors-and-consequences-for-lactation-infant-mass-and-subsequent-reproduction-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#4
Florent Pittet, Crystal Johnson, Katie Hinde
OBJECTIVES: The age at which females initiate their reproductive career is a critical life-history parameter with potential consequences on their residual reproductive value and lifetime fitness. The age at reproductive debut may be intimately tied to the somatic capacity of the mother to rear her young, but relatively little is known about the influence of age of first birth on milk synthesis within a broader framework of reproductive scheduling, infant outcomes, and other life-history tradeoffs...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884802/a-female-viking-warrior-confirmed-by-genomics
#5
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Anna Kjellström, Torun Zachrisson, Maja Krzewińska, Veronica Sobrado, Neil Price, Torsten Günther, Mattias Jakobsson, Anders Götherström, Jan Storå
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877343/transition-to-agriculture-in-south-eastern-arabia-insights-from-oral-conditions
#6
Olivia Munoz
OBJECTIVES: In Southeast (SE) Arabia, agriculture is supposed to expand around 3000 BC, but its tempo and its actual role in populations' subsistence is still debated by archaeologists. Here, we compare dental health conditions of 11 skeletal samples from coastal and inland sites, dated from the Late Neolithic (ca. 4500-3100 BC) to the Early Bronze Age (EBA), conventionally divided into Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BC) and Umm an-Nar period (ca. 2700-2000 BC). The goal is to assess long-term trends in subsistence patterns and regional variability during the local transition to agriculture...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877335/cranial-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-kinda-baboon-papio-hamadryas-kindae
#7
Michelle Singleton, Brielle C Seitelman, Joseph R Krecioch, Stephen R Frost
OBJECTIVES: The smallest extant member of genus Papio, the Kinda baboon exhibits low sexual dimorphism and a distinctive cranial shape. Ontogenetic scaling accounts for most cranial-shape differences within Papio, but studies have shown that the Kinda follows a separate ontogenetic trajectory. If so, its cranial-dimorphism pattern should differ from other subspecies. To evaluate this hypothesis, morphometric analysis was used to investigate cranial dimorphism in Papio. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 434 adult crania representing six Papio subspecies...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872656/comparison-of-hand-use-and-forelimb-posture-during-vertical-climbing-in-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#8
Johanna Neufuss, Martha M Robbins, Jana Baeumer, Tatyana Humle, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Studies on grasping and limb posture during arboreal locomotion in great apes in their natural environment are scarce and thus, attempts to correlate behavioral and habitat differences with variation in morphology are limited. The aim of this study is to compare hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in wild, habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and semi-free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to assess differences in the climbing styles that may relate to variation in hand or forelimb morphology and body size...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832931/the-characteristic-mid-shaft-cross-sectional-shape-of-the-ulna-in-jomon-hunter-gatherers
#9
Yasuo Hagihara, Takashi Nara
OBJECTIVES: The Jomon people were hunter-gatherers who inhabited the Japanese archipelago between 10,000 BC and 300 BC. Here, we focus on the mid-shaft cross-sectional shape of the ulna in the Jomon population and compare it with modern Japanese people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Jomon specimens, including 32 males and 22 females, were excavated from shell mound sites in the Pacific and Seto inland coastal area of Honshu island in the Japanese archipelago dated to the Late-to-Final Jomon phase (between 2,000 BC and 300 BC)...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832918/predictors-of-insubordinate-aggression-among-captive-female-rhesus-macaques
#10
Shannon K Seil, Darcy L Hannibal, Brianne A Beisner, Brenda McCowan
OBJECTIVES: Cercopithicine primates tend to have nepotistic hierarchies characterized by predictable, kinship-based dominance. Although aggression is typically directed down the hierarchy, insubordinate aggression does occur. Insubordination is important to understand because it can precipitate social upheaval and undermine group stability; however, the factors underlying it are not well understood. We test whether key social and demographic variables predict insubordination among captive female rhesus macaques...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832945/occurrence-of-osteon-banding-in-adult-human-cortical-bone
#11
Janna M Andronowski, Isaac V Pratt, David M L Cooper
OBJECTIVES: Differentiating human from nonhuman fragmented bone is often accomplished using histological methods if the observation of gross morphology proves insufficient. Linearly oriented primary and/or secondary osteonal systems, commonly referred to as osteon bands, are described as a strong indicator of nonhuman bone, particularly the occurrence of multiple bands. This phenomenon has been conventionally documented using two-dimensional (2D) histology, but such analyses are destructive and typically limited to a single cross-section...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832938/energetic-cost-of-walking-in-fossil-hominins
#12
M Vidal-Cordasco, A Mateos, G Zorrilla-Revilla, O Prado-Nóvoa, J Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: Many biomechanical studies consistently show that a broader pelvis increases the reaction forces and bending moments across the femoral shaft, increasing the energetic costs of unloaded locomotion. However, a biomechanical model does not provide the real amount of metabolic energy expended in walking. The aim of this study is to test the influence of pelvis breadth on locomotion cost and to evaluate the locomotion efficiency of extinct Pleistocene hominins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The current study measures in vivo the influence of pelvis width on the caloric cost of locomotion, integrating anthropometry, body composition and indirect calorimetry protocols in a sample of 46 subjects of both sexes...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832934/relative-tooth-size-at-birth-in-primates-life-history-correlates
#13
Timothy D Smith, Magdalena N Muchlinski, Wade R Bucher, Christopher J Vinyard, Christopher J Bonar, Sian Evans, Lawrence E Williams, Valerie B DeLeon
OBJECTIVES: Dental eruption schedules have been closely linked to life history variables. Here we examine a sample of 50 perinatal primates (28 species) to determine whether life history traits correlate with relative tooth size at birth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newborn primates were studied using serial histological sectioning. Volumes of deciduous premolars (dp(2) -dp(4) ), replacement teeth (if any), and permanent molars (M(1-2/3) ) of the upper jaw were measured and residuals from cranial length were calculated with least squares regressions to obtain relative dental volumes (RDVs)...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832929/a-test-of-the-optimal-iron-hypothesis-among-breastfeeding-ariaal-mothers-in-northern-kenya
#14
Masako Fujita, Katherine Wander
OBJECTIVE: The optimal iron hypothesis posits a trade-off in iron nutrition-iron deficiency restricts iron available to infectious agents, protecting against severe infection, but also compromises immune defense-such that mild-to-moderate iron deficiency may be more adaptive than either iron-replete or severe deficiency in environments with high infectious disease load. This hypothesis has not been tested among adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis of data and specimens from 220 lactating mothers in northern Kenya was conducted...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832928/variation-in-human-gape-cycle-kinematics-and-occlusal-topography
#15
Myra F Laird
OBJECTIVES: This study tested hypotheses relating intraspecific variation in occlusal morphology and intraspecific variation in jaw movements during feeding. Gape cycle kinematic variation was hypothesized to correlate with gape cycle number within a chewing sequence as well as with food toughness and stiffness. Gape cycle kinematic variation was also hypothesized to correlate with variation in occlusal area, slope, and volume. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-six adult human subjects chewed four foods with varying material properties while their jaw movements were recorded using three-dimensional coordinates of facial markers captured with a Vicon camera system...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832922/heritability-and-genetic-integration-of-tooth-size-in-the-south-carolina-gullah
#16
Christopher M Stojanowski, Kathleen S Paul, Andrew C Seidel, William N Duncan, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
OBJECTIVES: This article provides estimates of narrow-sense heritability and genetic pleiotropy for mesiodistal tooth dimensions for a sample of 20th century African American individuals. Results inform biological distance analysis and offer insights into patterns of integration in the human dentition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maximum mesiodistal crown dimensions were measured using Hillson-FitzGerald calipers on 469 stone dental casts from the Menegaz-Bock Collection...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791677/patterns-and-prevalence-of-violence-related-skull-trauma-in-medieval-london
#17
Kathryn Krakowka
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85)...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786488/post-weaning-diet-in-archaeological-human-populations-a-meta-analysis-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-stable-isotope-ratios-of-child-skeletons
#18
Takumi Tsutaya
OBJECTIVES: Childhood is a unique stage in human life history, in which subadults have completed their weaning process but are still dependent on older individuals for survival. Although the importance of food provisioning during childhood has been intensively discussed, childhood diet in the past has rarely been studied in a systematic manner. METHODS: In this study, a meta-analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of post-weaning children (PWC) in Holocene human populations around the world is presented...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786473/oh-83-a-new-early-modern-human-fossil-cranium-from-the-ndutu-beds-of-olduvai-gorge-tanzania
#19
Whitney B Reiner, Fidelis Masao, Sabrina B Sholts, Agustino Venance Songita, Ian Stanistreet, Harald Stollhofen, R E Taylor, Leslea J Hlusko
OBJECTIVE: Herein we introduce a newly recovered partial calvaria, OH 83, from the upper Ndutu Beds of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We present the geological context of its discovery and a comparative analysis of its morphology, placing OH 83 within the context of our current understanding of the origins and evolution of Homo sapiens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We comparatively assessed the morphology of OH 83 using quantitative and qualitative data from penecontemporaneous fossils and the W...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782792/the-genetic-admixture-in-tibetan-yi-corridor
#20
Hong-Bing Yao, Senwei Tang, Xiaotian Yao, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Wanhu Zhang, Zhiyan Xie, Qiajun Du, Liying Ma, Shuoyun Wei, Xue Gong, Zilong Zhang, Quanfang Li, Bingying Xu, Hu-Qin Zhang, Gang Chen, Chuan-Chao Wang
OBJECTIVES: The Tibetan-Yi Corridor located on the eastern edge of Tibetan Plateau is suggested to be the key region for the origin and diversification of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations and the main route of the peopling of the Plateau. However, the genetic history of the populations in the Corridor is far from clear due to limited sampling in the northern part of the Corridor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected blood samples from 10 Tibetan and 10 Han Chinese individuals from Gansu province and genotyped about 600,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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