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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432829/trabecular-mapping-leveraging-geometric-morphometrics-for-analyses-of-trabecular-structure
#1
Adam D Sylvester, Claire E Terhune
OBJECTIVES: Trabecular microstructure of limb bone epiphyses has been used to elucidate the relationship between skeletal form and behavior among mammals. Such studies have often relied on the analysis of a single volume of interest (VOI). Here we present a method for evaluating variation in bone microstructure across articular surfaces by leveraging sliding semilandmarks. METHODS: Two samples were used to demonstrate the proposed methodology and test the hypothesis that microstructural variables are homogeneously distributed: tali from two ape genera (Pan and Pongo, n = 9) and modern human distal femora (n = 10)...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432824/brief-communication-an-analysis-of-dental-development-in-pleistocene-homo-using-skeletal-growth-and-chronological-age
#2
Maja Šešelj
OBJECTIVES: This study takes a new approach to interpreting dental development in Pleistocene Homo in comparison with recent modern humans. As rates of dental development and skeletal growth are correlated given age in modern humans, using age and skeletal growth in tandem yields more accurate dental development estimates. Here, I apply these models to fossil Homo to obtain more individualized predictions and interpretations of their dental development relative to recent modern humans...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429848/stuck-in-fragments-population-genetics-of-the-endangered-collared-brown-lemur-eulemur-collaris-in-the-malagasy-littoral-forest
#3
Stefania Bertoncini, Jacopo D'Ercole, Francesca Brisighelli, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Cristian Capelli, Sergio Tofanelli, Giuseppe Donati
OBJECTIVES: The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382719/ancient-mitochondrial-dna-and-ancestry-of-paquim%C3%A3-inhabitants-casas-grandes-a-d-1200-1450
#4
Ana Y Morales-Arce, Meradeth H Snow, Jane H Kelley, M Anne Katzenberg
OBJECTIVES: The Casas Grandes (Paquimé) culture, located in the Northwest of Chihuahua, Mexico reached its apogee during the Medio Period (A.D. 1200-1450). Paquimé was abandoned by the end of the Medio Period (A.D. 1450), and the ancestry of its inhabitants remains unsolved. Some authors suggest that waves of Mesoamerican immigrants, possibly merchants, stimulated Paquimé's development during the Medio Period. Archaeological evidence suggests possible ties to groups that inhabited the Southwestern US cultures...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374500/fueguian-crania-and-the-circum-pacific-rim-variation
#5
D Turbon, C Arenas, C M Cuadras
OBJECTIVES: The Fueguians are descendants of the first settlers of America, a 'relict' isolated geographically for 10,000 years. We compared their cranial variation with other Americans, and samples from Asia and Australia to know whether the modern extinct Fueguians can be considered Paleoamericans or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein we study 176 Fuego-Patagonian skulls, the largest cranial sample to be studied, refined and well documented, using CVA, and the D(2) of Mahalanobis...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374460/the-5th-national-survey-on-the-physical-growth-and-development-of-children-in-the-nine-cities-of-china-anthropometric-measurements-of-chinese-children-under-7%C3%A2-years-in-2015
#6
Ya-Qin Zhang, Hui Li, Hua-Hong Wu, Xin-Nan Zong, Zong-Han Zhu, Ying Pan, Jia Li, Xing-Rong Zheng, Mei Wei, Mei-Ling Tong, Ai-Fen Zhou, Yan Hu, Wei Chen, Ke Zhu, Yang Yu
OBJECTIVES: To describe the physical growth of healthy children under 7 years in China based on the latest national survey and provide more data for revising growth reference and monitoring the impact of social development on children's health and growth. METHODS: In the cross-sectional survey, 161,774 healthy children under 7 years were selected by multistage stratified cluster sampling method in nine cities of China. According to the geographical location, the nine cities were divided into northern, central and southern regions, and each city included urban and suburban areas...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374451/dental-wear-and-age-grading-at-roonka-south-australia
#7
Judith Littleton
OBJECTIVES: In many hunter-gatherer populations, the teeth are used as a third hand or a tool. Much attention has been paid to wear and its relationship to gendered division of labor, but age is also a significant organizing factor in many societies. In this article, I analyze whether the pattern of wear at Roonka, Australia, reflects the age-graded acquisition of tasks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The remains analyzed come from Roonka and date from c6000 BP to 150 BP...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374441/applying-wet-sieving-fecal-particle-size-measurement-to-frugivores-a-case-study-of-the-eastern-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii
#8
Taylor E Weary, Richard W Wrangham, Marcus Clauss
OBJECTIVES: Fecal particle size (FPS) as quantified by wet sieving analysis is a measure of chewing efficiency relevant for the understanding of physiological adaptations and constraints in herbivores. FPS has not been investigated systematically in frugivores, and important methodological problems remain. In particular, food items that are not chewed may skew estimates of FPS. We address such methodological issues and also assess the influence of diet type and age on FPS in wild chimpanzees...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369662/early-pleistocene-hominin-deciduous-teeth-from-the-homo-antecessor-gran-dolina-td6-bearing-level-sierra-de-atapuerca-spain
#9
José María Bermúdez de Castro, María Martinón-Torres, Laura Martín-Francés, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Mario Modesto-Mata, Cecilia García-Campos, Xiujie Wu, Song Xing, Wu Liu
OBJECTIVES: During the last 13 years, the late Early Pleistocene Gran Dolina-TD6-2 level (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded an additional sample of 26 dental specimens attributed to Homo antecessor. In this report, we present a descriptive and comparative study of the six deciduous teeth. METHODS: We provide external and internal morphological descriptions following classical terminology, as well as the mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the teeth...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369733/feeding-in-fear-how-adult-male-western-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-verus-adjust-to-predation-and-savanna-habitat-pressures
#10
Stacy Lindshield, Brent J Danielson, Jessica M Rothman, Jill D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated risk-sensitive foraging in adult male western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) occupying a savanna environment at Fongoli, Senegal. The aim of this study was to determine how the risks of predation and heat stress influenced their behavior while feeding on a key food, fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximity of fruiting baobab trees to anthropogenic landmarks were compared to food intake, feeding rate, and behavioral indicators of fear in adult males (N = 11) at Fongoli...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369731/buccal-dental-microwear-texture-and-catarrhine-diets
#11
Andrés Aliaga-Martínez, Alejandro Romero, Jordi Galbany, R Adriana Hernández-Aguilar, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
OBJECTIVES: Two-dimensional dental microwear analyses on occlusal and nonocclusal enamel surfaces have been widely applied to reconstruct the feeding behaviors of extant primates and to infer ecological adaptations in fossil hominins. To date, analyses of dental microwear texture, using three-dimensional, Scale-Sensitive Fractal Analysis approaches has only been applied to occlusal surfaces. Here, for the first time, we apply this 3D proxy to buccal enamel surfaces of catarrhine primates of known feeding ecologies to assess the utility of nonocclusal microwear texture variables as indicators of dietary habits...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345800/ancestry-dynamics-in-a-south-american-population-the-impact-of-gene-flow-and-preferential-mating
#12
Philip W Hedrick
OBJECTIVES: European ancestry in many populations in Latin America at autosomal loci is often higher than that from X-linked loci indicating more European male ancestry and more Amerindian female ancestry. Generally, this has been attributed to more European male gene flow but could also result from an advantage to European mating or reproductive success. METHODS: Population genetic models were developed to investigate the dynamics of gene flow and mating or reproductive success...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345788/horticultural-activity-predicts-later-localized-limb-status-in-a-contemporary-pre-industrial-population
#13
Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C Trumble, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven
OBJECTIVES: Modern humans may have gracile skeletons due to low physical activity levels and mechanical loading. Tests using pre-historic skeletons are limited by the inability to assess behavior directly, while modern industrialized societies possess few socio-ecological features typical of human evolutionary history. Among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists, we test whether greater activity levels and, thus, increased loading earlier in life are associated with greater later-life bone status and diminished age-related bone loss...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345775/quantification-of-the-position-and-depth-of-the-flexor-hallucis-longus-groove-in-euarchontans-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-primate-positional-behavior
#14
Gabriel S Yapuncich, Erik R Seiffert, Doug M Boyer
OBJECTIVE: On the talus, the position and depth of the groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon have been used to infer phylogenetic affinities and positional behaviors of fossil primates. This study quantifies aspects of the flexor hallucis longus groove (FHLG) to test if: (1) a lateral FHLG is a derived strepsirrhine feature, (2) a lateral FHLG reflects inverted and abducted foot postures, and (3) a deeper FHLG indicates a larger muscle. METHODS: We used linear measurements of microCT-generated models from a sample of euarchontans (n = 378 specimens, 125 species) to quantify FHLG position and depth...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345761/shifting-diet-shifting-culture-a-bioarchaeological-approach-to-island-dietary-development-on-iron-age-%C3%A3-land-baltic-sea
#15
Helene Wilhelmson
OBJECTIVES: The diet and subsistence in Iron-Age Öland is debated as earlier studies and different archaeological sources seemingly provide conflicting interpretations. The objectives of this study are therefore to: (i) add new insights on diet and (ii) investigate the chronological variation in detail. It is common in studies of diet to investigate differences between datasets defined by archaeological periods (determined by artefact typology), but it is rare to explore whether these dietary changes are, in fact, well correlated with these temporal categories or not...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345756/the-dawn-of-dentistry-in-the-late-upper-paleolithic-an-early-case-of-pathological-intervention-at-riparo-fredian
#16
Gregorio Oxilia, Flavia Fiorillo, Francesco Boschin, Elisabetta Boaretto, Salvatore A Apicella, Chiara Matteucci, Daniele Panetta, Rossella Pistocchi, Franca Guerrini, Cristiana Margherita, Massimo Andretta, Rita Sorrentino, Giovanni Boschian, Simona Arrighi, Irene Dori, Giuseppe Mancuso, Jacopo Crezzini, Alessandro Riga, Maria C Serrangeli, Antonino Vazzana, Piero A Salvadori, Mariangela Vandini, Carlo Tozzi, Adriana Moroni, Robin N M Feeney, John C Willman, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Stefano Benazzi
OBJECTIVES: Early evidence for the treatment of dental pathology is found primarily among food-producing societies associated with high levels of oral pathology. However, some Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers show extensive oral pathology, suggesting that experimentation with therapeutic dental interventions may have greater antiquity. Here, we report the second earliest probable evidence for dentistry in a Late Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer recovered from Riparo Fredian (Tuscany, Italy)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345754/second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-2d-4d-is-unrelated-to-measures-of-somatic-reproductive-effort-among-young-men-from-cebu-the-philippines
#17
Alexander V Georgiev, Calen P Ryan, Lee T Gettler, Thomas W McDade, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: A low second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio, a retrospective marker of high prenatal androgens, predicts increased investment in costly sexually dimorphic traits in men in some studies, although results are mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that the association of low 2D:4D ratios with increased muscularity and decreased adiposity depends on current testosterone (T) levels, such that digit ratio will be a particularly strong predictor of outcomes among men exhibiting a mating-effort-oriented endocrinological profile (high T)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343372/east-of-the-andes-the-genetic-profile-of-the-peruvian-amazon-populations
#18
T Di Corcia, C Sanchez Mellado, T J Davila Francia, G Ferri, S Sarno, D Luiselli, O Rickards
OBJECTIVES: Assuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America...
March 25, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332189/technical-intelligence-and-culture-nut-cracking-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#19
Christophe Boesch, Daša Bombjaková, Adam Boyette, Amelia Meier
OBJECTIVES: According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319276/comparisons-of-statistical-techniques-to-assess-age-related-skeletal-markers-in-bioarchaeology
#20
Colleen M Cheverko, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Many authors argue that inconsistencies between studies of skeletal markers are based on different data collection protocols, especially when comparing age-related markers such as osteoarthritis. Less attention is given to the choice of statistical techniques that are used to test the hypotheses associated with the data. This paper addresses how different statistical techniques compare the prevalence of age-related skeletal indicators, specifically osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in eight postcranial joints in 243 adult individuals from seven prehistoric archaeological sites in Central California, and data was compared between three time periods [Early (4800-2800 BP), Middle (2800-1200 BP), and Late (1200-250 BP)] using commonly used statistical tests: chi-square, Fisher's exact, and odds ratios...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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