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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Nobuyuki Kutsukake, Migaku Teramoto, Seijiro Honma, Yusuke Mori, Koki Ikeda, Rain Yamamoto, Takafumi Ishida, Toshikazu Hasegawa
OBJECTIVES: In group-living primates, it has been reported that the alpha male exhibits high concentrations of cortisol and testosterone in the context of mating competition. We investigated how the presence of females affected salivary cortisol and testosterone levels in males from a small captive group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Specifically, we assessed whether the presence of females resulted in a rapid increase in salivary cortisol and testosterone levels in the alpha male...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tesla A Monson, Leslea J Hlusko
OBJECTIVES: Although a great deal is known about the biology of tooth development and eruption, there remains disagreement about the factors driving the evolution of dental eruption sequence. We assessed postcanine eruption sequence across a large sample of primates to test two hypotheses: (1) Dental eruption sequence is significantly correlated with life history and body size variables that capture postnatal growth and longevity (Schultz's Rule), and (2) Dental eruption sequence is conserved phylogenetically...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Melanie J Miller, Sabrina C Agarwal, Lucero Aristizabal, Carl Langebaek
OBJECTIVES: Daily activities involve biomechanical strains acting on skeletal structures. This study identifies differences in activity patterns between males and females, and between young, middle, and older aged individuals within an excavated Muisca skeletal sample from the Eastern Andes region of Northern South America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Tibanica archaeological site (AD 1000-1400) is located at 2600 masl on the Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. Cross-sectional geometric analysis of femurs from 63 individuals and paired-humerii from 33 individuals was used to examine bone size (TA), strength (J) and diaphyseal shape (Imax /Imin , Ix /Iy )...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Vladimir Bajić, Chiara Barbieri, Alexander Hübner, Tom Güldemann, Christfried Naumann, Linda Gerlach, Falko Berthold, Hirosi Nakagawa, Sununguko W Mpoloka, Lutz Roewer, Josephine Purps, Mark Stoneking, Brigitte Pakendorf
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the genetic history of southern African populations with a special focus on their paternal history. We reexamined previous claims that the Y-chromosome haplogroup E1b1b (E-M293) was brought to southern Africa by pastoralists from eastern Africa, and investigated patterns of sex-biased gene flow in southern Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed previously published complete mtDNA genome sequences and ∼900 kb of NRY sequences from 23 populations from Namibia, Botswana, and Zambia, as well as haplogroup frequencies from a large sample of southern African populations and 23 newly genotyped Y-linked STR loci for samples assigned to haplogroup E1b1b...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Marco Milella, Barbara J Betz, Christopher J Knüsel, Clark Spencer Larsen, Irene Dori
OBJECTIVES: The transition from foraging to farming is usually associated with unprecedented population densities coupled with an increase in fertility and population growth. However, little is known about the biological effects of such demographic changes during the Neolithic. In the present work, we test the relationship between diachronic changes in population size, relative exposure to developmental stressors, and patterns of dental fluctuating asymmetry in the Neolithic population of Çatalhöyük (Turkey, 7,100-5,950 cal BC)...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Amy Robbins, Christina A T M B Tom, Miranda N Cosman, Cleo Moursi, Lillian Shipp, Taylor M Spencer, Timothy Brash, Maureen J Devlin
OBJECTIVES: Humans exhibit significant ecogeographic variation in bone size and shape. However, it is unclear how significantly environmental temperature influences cortical and trabecular bone, making it difficult to recognize adaptation versus acclimatization in past populations. There is some evidence that cold-induced bone loss results from sympathetic nervous system activation and can be reduced by nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) via uncoupling protein (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Michela Leonardi, Anna Sandionigi, Annalisa Conzato, Stefania Vai, Martina Lari, Francesca Tassi, Silvia Ghirotto, David Caramelli, Guido Barbujani
OBJECTIVES: With the advent of ancient DNA analyses, it has been possible to disentangle the contribution of ancient populations to the genetic pool of the modern inhabitants of many regions. Reconstructing the maternal ancestry has often highlighted genetic continuity over several millennia, but almost always in isolated areas. Here we analyze North-western Tuscany, a region that was a corridor of exchanges between Central Italy and the Western Mediterranean coast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We newly obtained mitochondrial HVRI sequences from 28 individuals, and after gathering published data, we collected genetic information for 119 individuals from the region...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Julia Beaumont, Elizabeth-Craig Atkins, Jo Buckberry, Hannah Haydock, Pennie Horne, Rachel Howcroft, Kevin Mackenzie, Janet Montgomery
OBJECTIVES: Recent developments in incremental dentine analysis allowing increased temporal resolution for tissues formed during the first 1,000 days of life have cast doubt on the veracity of weaning studies using bone collagen carbon (δ13 C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) isotope ratio data from infants. Here, we compare published bone data from the well-preserved Anglo-Saxon site of Raunds Furnells, England, with co-forming dentine from the same individuals, and investigate the relationship of these with juvenile stature...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Aldana Tavarone, María de Los Milagros Colobig, Esteban Passeggi, Mariana Fabra
OBJECTIVES: One of the major drawbacks involves the contamination produced during the sampling of dental calculus samples due to their manipulation with non-sterilized latex gloves containing maize starch. These gloves have been commonly used for the sampling, cleaning and conservation of archaeological materials. The objective of the present work is to propose a protocol for the cleaning of dental calculus samples that have been contaminated, allowing the removal of such material from the calculus surface...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Edwin Dickinson, Laura C Fitton, Kornelius Kupczik
OBJECTIVES: Changes to soft- and hard-tissue components of the masticatory complex during development can impact functional performance by altering muscle excursion potential, maximum muscle forces, and the efficiency of force transfer to specific bitepoints. Within Macaca fascicularis, older individuals exploit larger, more mechanically resistant food items and more frequently utilize wide-gape jaw postures. We therefore predict that key architectural and biomechanical variables will scale during ontogeny to maximize bite force and gape potential within older, larger-bodied individuals...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Zewdi J Tsegai, Matthew M Skinner, Dieter H Pahr, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Trabecular bone structure is known to be influenced by joint loading during life. However, many additional variables have the potential to contribute to trabecular bone structure of an adult individual, including age, sex, body size, genetics, and overall activity level. There is little research into intraspecific variability in trabecular bone and ontogeny of trabecular bone structure, especially in nonhuman primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigates trabecular structure in adult and immature chimpanzees from a single population using high-resolution microcomputed tomographic scans of the proximal humerus, proximal femur, and distal tibia...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Anne-Claire Fabre, Michael C Granatosky, Jandy B Hanna, Daniel Schmitt
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explore whether ground reaction forces recorded during horizontal walking co-vary with the shape of the long bones of the forelimb in strepsirrhines. To do so, we quantify (1) the shape of the shaft and articular surfaces of each long bone of the forelimb, (2) the peak vertical, mediolateral, and horizontal ground reaction forces applied by the forelimb during arboreal locomotion, and (3) the relationship between the shape of the forelimb and peak forces...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Stephanie L Canington, Adam D Sylvester, M Loring Burgess, Juho-Antti Junno, Christopher B Ruff
OBJECTIVES: A number of studies have demonstrated the ontogenetic plasticity of long bone diaphyseal structure in response to mechanical loading. Captivity should affect mechanical loading of the limbs, but whether captive apes grow differently than wild apes has been debated. Here, we compare captive and wild juvenile and adult Gorilla to ascertain whether growth trajectories in cross-sectional diaphyseal shape are similar in the two environments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of young juvenile (n = 4) and adult (n = 10) captive Gorilla gorilla gorilla specimens, with known life histories, were compared with age-matched wild G...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Moira A Kyweluk, Lynnette Leidy Sievert, Laura Huicochea-Gómez, Diana Cahuich-Campos, Thomas McDade, Daniel E Brown
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels among women of Maya and non-Maya ancestry in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of AMH can potentially predict age at menopause. Previous studies have indicated an early mean age at menopause among the Maya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women aged 40-60 (n = 97) participated in semistructured interviews, anthropometric measures, and blood samples. Maya/non-Maya ethnicity was determined by the last names, languages spoken, and birthplace of the woman, her parents, and her grandparents...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Alessandra Sperduti, Maria Rita Giuliani, Giuseppe Guida, Pier Paolo Petrone, Paola Francesca Rossi, Serena Vaccaro, David W Frayer, Luca Bondioli
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic macroscopic and microscopic examination of occlusal and para-occlusal wear in a large dental sample (n = 3,014) from 217 individuals dated to the Early Bronze age site of Gricignano d'Aversa, Italy. We used macroscopic and microscopic techniques to document nondietary occlusal and para-occlusal wear and to analyze calculus inclusions in some of the teeth. In combining an analysis of the wear with the calculus inclusions we linked the specific wear to the likely fiber that was involved in producing it...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Emily Skelly, Kostas Kapellas, Alan Cooper, Laura S Weyrich
Nearly all Indigenous populations today suffer from worse health than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and despite interventions against known factors, this health "gap" has not improved. The human microbiome-the beneficial, diverse microbial communities that live on and within the human body-is a crucial component in developing and maintaining normal physiological health. Disrupting this ecosystem has repercussions for microbial functionality, and thus, human health. In this article, we propose that modern-day Indigenous population health may suffer from disrupted microbial ecosystems as a consequence of historical colonialism...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jeremiah E Scott
OBJECTIVES: Previous investigations have identified several ecological traits that may have shaped differences in species richness among primate clades by influencing speciation and extinction probabilities. In this study, I reevaluate these cases in light of concerns about high false-positive rates of the methods used to detect trait-dependent diversification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for six traits were taken from the literature: activity pattern, sociality, mating system, terrestriality, frugivory, and mutualistic interactions with angiosperms (i...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Federico Lugli, Anna Cipriani, Valentina Tavaglione, Mirko Traversari, Stefano Benazzi
OBJECTIVES: In this work, we use Sr isotopes to analyze human hair and determine short-term movements of a contemporary human traveler and of early-modern individuals from an archaeological site (Roccapelago, Modena, Italy, 16th-18th century). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were performed using a Neptune MC-ICP-MS. We first set up and tested the procedure on scalp hair of a contemporary human, who spent some time between Brazil and Italy. We then analyzed the 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios of eight exceptionally well-preserved archaeological hair specimens associated with human mummies from Roccapelago...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Montserrat Sanz, Nohemi Sala, Joan Daura, Ana Pantoja-Pérez, Elena Santos, João Zilhão, Juan Luis Arsuaga
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to describe the taphonomic signatures of the Aroeira 3 cranium, with a specific focus on cranial breakage, comparing the cranium with other Middle and Upper Pleistocene hominin fossils in order to approximate the cause of death and the biological agencies and geologic processes involved in the taphonomic record of this specimen. Aroeira-3 was recovered from Acheulean layer X of Gruta da Aroeira (Portugal), dated to 390-436 ka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Taphonomic analyses noted surface modifications employing standard methods...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Soichiro Kusaka, Yasuhiro Yamada, Minoru Yoneda
OBJECTIVES: Holocene hunter-gatherers adapted to climatic and environmental changes over time. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of human skeletal remains from the Inariyama shell mound of the Final Jomon period have revealed large dietary variations in the population. This study analyzed radiocarbon dates of these individuals to test temporal changes in diet and its relationship with tooth ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine human skeletal remains from Inariyama were included in this study...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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