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American Journal of Physical Anthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791677/patterns-and-prevalence-of-violence-related-skull-trauma-in-medieval-london
#1
Kathryn Krakowka
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85)...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786488/post-weaning-diet-in-archaeological-human-populations-a-meta-analysis-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-stable-isotope-ratios-of-child-skeletons
#2
Takumi Tsutaya
OBJECTIVES: Childhood is a unique stage in human life history, in which subadults have completed their weaning process but are still dependent on older individuals for survival. Although the importance of food provisioning during childhood has been intensively discussed, childhood diet in the past has rarely been studied in a systematic manner. METHODS: In this study, a meta-analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of post-weaning children (PWC) in Holocene human populations around the world is presented...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786473/oh-83-a-new-early-modern-human-fossil-cranium-from-the-ndutu-beds-of-olduvai-gorge-tanzania
#3
Whitney B Reiner, Fidelis Masao, Sabrina B Sholts, Agustino Venance Songita, Ian Stanistreet, Harald Stollhofen, R E Taylor, Leslea J Hlusko
OBJECTIVE: Herein we introduce a newly recovered partial calvaria, OH 83, from the upper Ndutu Beds of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We present the geological context of its discovery and a comparative analysis of its morphology, placing OH 83 within the context of our current understanding of the origins and evolution of Homo sapiens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We comparatively assessed the morphology of OH 83 using quantitative and qualitative data from penecontemporaneous fossils and the W...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782792/the-genetic-admixture-in-tibetan-yi-corridor
#4
Hong-Bing Yao, Senwei Tang, Xiaotian Yao, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Wanhu Zhang, Zhiyan Xie, Qiajun Du, Liying Ma, Shuoyun Wei, Xue Gong, Zilong Zhang, Quanfang Li, Bingying Xu, Hu-Qin Zhang, Gang Chen, Chuan-Chao Wang
OBJECTIVES: The Tibetan-Yi Corridor located on the eastern edge of Tibetan Plateau is suggested to be the key region for the origin and diversification of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations and the main route of the peopling of the Plateau. However, the genetic history of the populations in the Corridor is far from clear due to limited sampling in the northern part of the Corridor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected blood samples from 10 Tibetan and 10 Han Chinese individuals from Gansu province and genotyped about 600,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766699/a-method-of-factor-analysis-for-shape-coordinates
#5
EDITORIAL
Fred L Bookstein
Currently the most common reporting style for a geometric morphometric (GMM) analysis of anthropological data begins with the principal components of the shape coordinates to which the original landmark data have been converted. But this focus often frustrates the organismal biologist, mainly because principal component analysis (PCA) is not aimed at scientific interpretability of the loading patterns actually uncovered. The difficulty of making biological sense of a PCA is heightened by aspects of the shape coordinate setting that further diverge from our intuitive expectations of how morphometric measurements ought to combine...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752654/land-use-and-mobility-during-the-neolithic-in-wales-explored-using-isotope-analysis-of-tooth-enamel
#6
Samantha Neil, Janet Montgomery, Jane Evans, Gordon T Cook, Chris Scarre
OBJECTIVES: The nature of land use and mobility during the transition to agriculture has often been debated. Here, we use isotope analysis of tooth enamel from human populations buried in two different Neolithic burial monuments, Penywyrlod and Ty Isaf, in south-east Wales, to examine patterns of land use and to evaluate where individuals obtained their childhood diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employ strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) and oxygen (δ(18) O) and carbon (δ(13) C) isotope analysis of enamel from adjacent molars...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752513/malnutrition-related-early-childhood-exposures-and-enamel-defects-in-the-permanent-dentition-a-longitudinal-study-from-the-bolivian-amazon
#7
Erin E Masterson, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Lloyd A Mancl, Esther Conde, Philippe P Hujoel
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between early childhood malnutrition-related measures and subsequent enamel defects in the permanent dentition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study included 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years, 52% male) from the Bolivian Amazon. Exposures included: stunted growth (height-for-age z-scores), underweight (weight-for-age z-scores), anemia (hemoglobin), acute inflammation (C-reactive protein) and parasitic infection (hookworm)...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748526/a-craniometric-analysis-of-early-modern-romania-and-hungary-the-roles-of-migration-and-conversion-in-shaping-european-ottoman-population-history
#8
Kathryn Grow Allen, Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel
OBJECTIVES: Debate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Craniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736914/internal-diversification-of-non-sub-saharan-haplogroups-in-sahelian-populations-and-the-spread-of-pastoralism-beyond-the-sahara
#9
Iva Kulichová, Verónica Fernandes, Alioune Deme, Jana Nováčková, Vlastimil Stenzl, Andrea Novelletto, Luísa Pereira, Viktor Černý
BACKGROUND: Today, African pastoralists are found mainly in the Sahel/Savannah belt spanning 6,000 km from west to east, flanked by the Sahara to the north and tropical rainforests to the south. The most significant group among them are the Fulani who not only keep cattle breeds of possible West Eurasian ancestry, but form themselves a gene pool containing some paternally and maternally-transmitted West Eurasian haplogroups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated complete sequences for 33 mitogenomes belonging to haplogroups H1 and U5 (23 and 10, respectively), and genotyped 16 STRs in 65 Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b-V88...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714560/validation-and-reliability-of-the-sex-estimation-of-the-human-os-coxae-using-freely-available-dsp2-software-for-bioarchaeology-and-forensic-anthropology
#10
Jaroslav Brůžek, Frédéric Santos, Bruno Dutailly, Pascal Murail, Eugenia Cunha
OBJECTIVES: A new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714535/neandertal-talus-bones-from-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-site-asturias-spain-a-3d-geometric-morphometrics-analysis
#11
Antonio Rosas, Anabel Ferrando, Markus Bastir, Antonio García-Tabernero, Almudena Estalrrich, Rosa Huguet, Daniel García-Martínez, Juan Francisco Pastor, Marco de la Rasilla
OBJECTIVES: The El Sidrón tali sample is assessed in an evolutionary framework. We aim to explore the relationship between Neandertal talus morphology and body size/shape. We test the hypothesis 1: talar Neandertal traits are influenced by body size, and the hypothesis 2: shape variables independent of body size correspond to inherited primitive features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We quantify 35 landmarks through 3D geometric morphometrics techniques to describe H...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681947/speech-like-orofacial-oscillations-in-stump-tailed-macaque-macaca-arctoides-facial-and-vocal-signals
#12
Aru Toyoda, Tamaki Maruhashi, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Hiroki Koda
OBJECTIVES: Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681914/2-000-year-old-%C3%AE-thalassemia-case-in-sardinia-suggests-malaria-was-endemic-by-the-roman-period
#13
Claudia Viganó, Cordula Haas, Frank J Rühli, Abigail Bouwman
OBJECTIVES: The island of Sardinia has one of the highest incidence rates of β-thalassemia in Europe due to its long history of endemic malaria, which, according to historical records, was introduced around 2,600 years ago by the Punics and only became endemic around the Middle Ages. In particular, the cod39 mutation is responsible for more than 95% of all β-thalassemia cases observed on the island. Debates surround the origin of the mutation. Some argue that its presence in the Western Mediterranean reflects the migration of people away from Sardinia, others that it reflects the colonization of the island by the Punics who might have carried the disease allele...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664976/diet-of-the-prehistoric-population-of-rapa-nui-easter-island-chile-shows-environmental-adaptation-and-resilience
#14
Catrine L Jarman, Thomas Larsen, Terry Hunt, Carl Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G Close, Brian N Popp
OBJECTIVES: The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661006/using-demographic-characteristics-of-populations-to-detect-spatial-fragmentation-following-suspected-ebola-outbreaks-in-great-apes
#15
Céline Genton, Romane Cristescu, Sylvain Gatti, Florence Levréro, Elodie Bigot, Peggy Motsch, Pascaline Le Gouar, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Nelly Ménard
OBJECTIVES: Demographic crashes due to emerging diseases can contribute to population fragmentation and increase extinction risk of small populations. Ebola outbreaks in 2002-2004 are suspected to have caused a decline of more than 80% in some Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. We investigated whether demographic indicators of this event allowed for the detection of spatial fragmentation in gorilla populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected demographic data from two neighbouring populations: the Lokoué population, suspected to have been affected by an Ebola outbreak (followed from 2001 to 2014), and the Romani population, of unknown demographic status before Ebola outbreaks (followed from 2005 to 2014)...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653771/resource-intensification-and-osteoarthritis-patterns-changes-in-activity-in-the-prehistoric-sacramento-san-joaquin-delta-region
#16
Colleen M Cheverko, Eric J Bartelink
OBJECTIVES: Ethnohistoric accounts and archaeological research from Central California document a shift from the use of lower-cost, high-ranked resources (e.g., large game) toward the greater use of higher-cost, low-ranked resources (e.g., acorns and small seeds) during the Late Holocene (4500-200 BP). The subsistence transition from higher consumption of large game toward an increased reliance on acorns was likely associated with increases in levels of logistical mobility and physical activity...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639281/resolving-relationships-between-several-neolithic-and-mesolithic-populations-in-northern-eurasia-using-geometric-morphometrics
#17
Ekaterina Stansfield Bulygina, Anna Rasskasova, Natalia Berezina, Andrei D Soficaru
OBJECTIVES: Remains from several Eastern European and Siberian Mesolithic and Neolithic sites are analysed to clarify their biological relationships. We assume that groups' geographical distances correlate with genetic and, therefore, morphological distances between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Material includes complete male crania from several Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites across Northern Eurasia and from several modern populations. Geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistical techniques are applied to explore morphological trends, group distances, and correlations with their geographical position, climate, and the time of origin...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636089/geographic-substructure-in-craniometric-estimates-of-admixture-for-contemporary-american-populations
#18
Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates heterogeneity in craniometrically-derived estimates of admixture in order to reveal population substructure in a sample of Black, White, Hispanic, and Native American individuals from the FDB. It reports evidence of spatial trends in population-specific patterns of admixture and contextualizes its results in terms of demographic diversity in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The FDB was sampled to capture the population variation within forensic casework, skeletal collections, and the U...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635123/measuring-fitness-heritability-life-history-traits-versus-morphological-traits-in-humans
#19
Alina Gavrus-Ion, Torstein Sjøvold, Miguel Hernández, Rolando González-José, María Esther Esteban Torné, Neus Martínez-Abadías, Mireia Esparza
OBJECTIVES: Traditional interpretation of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection is that life history traits (LHT), which are closely related with fitness, show lower heritabilities, whereas morphological traits (MT) are less related with fitness and they are expected to show higher heritabilities. In humans, although few studies have examined the heritability of LHT and MT, none of them have analyzed the same sample for comparative purposes. Here we assessed, for the first time, the heritability, additive genetic variance (VA ), residual variance (VR ) and coefficient of genetic additive variation (CVA ) values of LHT and MT in a singular collection of identified skulls with associated demographic records from Hallstatt (Austria)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631376/scale-of-human-mobility-in-the-southern-andes-argentina-and-chile-a-new-framework-based-on-strontium-isotopes
#20
Ramiro Barberena, Víctor A Durán, Paula Novellino, Diego Winocur, Anahí Benítez, Augusto Tessone, María N Quiroga, Erik J Marsh, Alejandra Gasco, Valeria Cortegoso, Gustavo Lucero, Carina Llano, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of "high residential mobility" suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains. METHODS: We develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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