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American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

Oswaldo Moreno, Esteban Cardemil
In this study, we conducted a path analysis on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to investigate the role of religious attendance on mental health among Mexican populations. Using data from 868 Latinos of Mexican origin, we further investigated the extent to which religious attendance mediated the direct path between generation status and lifetime prevalence rates of any substance use disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder. Results indicate that Mexican immigrants endorsed lower lifetime prevalence rates of depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder and endorsed higher levels of religious attendance...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sharon Avidor, Yafit Levin, Zahava Solomon
This longitudinal study assesses the trajectories of depressive symptoms and subjective age and the mediating role of guilt in the association between them. Two groups of aging Israeli combat veterans (M age = 57), 128 ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs), and 106 comparable combat veterans (controls), were assessed at 3 times: 18 (Time 1 [T1]), 30 (Time 2 [T2]), and 35 (Time 3 [T3]) years after the war. They filled out self-report questionnaires on depression, guilt, and subjective age. Results revealed that significantly more ex-POWs had chronic or delayed clinical levels of depressive symptoms than did controls and that chronic and delayed depressive symptoms were associated with a higher subjective age at T3...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Tony Xing Tan, Eun Sook Kim, Jennifer Baggerly, E Emily Mahoney, Jessica Rice
In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted)...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Robert W S Coulter, Shari Kessel Schneider, Blair Beadnell, Lydia O'Donnell
This study examined sexual-orientation differences in reports of outside- and within-school adult support, and whether sexual orientation moderates the associations between adult support and suicidality (i.e., thoughts, plans, and attempts). At 26 high schools across MetroWest Boston, 22,834 students completed surveys assessing: sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual, or questioning); presence of outside- and within-school adult support; and past-year suicidality. Multivariable regression analyses with General Estimating Equations (adjusting for gender, grade, and race/ethnicity) examined sexual-orientation subgroup differences in adult support, and how sexual orientation and adult support were associated with suicidality...
September 5, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Ruirui Zhang, Winnie W S Mak, Randolph C H Chan
Although people in recovery from mental illness can continue to live a personally meaningful life despite their mental illness, their perception of mental illness as being a threat to their basic needs may influence the way they view themselves as a person with mental illness and their sense of mastery over their condition. The present study explored the effects of perceived primal threat on the recovery of people with mental illness, considering the mediating roles of self-stigma and self-empowerment. Latent variable structural equation modeling was conducted among 376 individuals with mental illness in Hong Kong...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Paul Youngbin Kim, Dana L Kendall, Hee-Sun Cheon
The present study is an empirical investigation of cultural mistrust as a mediator in the association between racial microaggressions and mental health (anxiety, depression, and well-being) in a sample of Asian American college students. In addition, we explored the role of cultural mistrust as a mediator in the association between racial microaggressions and attitudes toward seeking professional help. Asian American participants (N = 156) were recruited from 2 institutions located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Alisia G T T Tran, Jeffrey S Mintert, Gilbert B Jew
This article utilizes moderated mediation analyses to explore whether the relations between parental ethnic-racial socialization (PERS) dimensions and social attitudes differ across ethnic-racial minority (n = 128) and White (n = 131) college-going emerging adults. We examined social dominance orientation (SDO) as an index of antiegalitarian intergroup attitudes and attitudes toward interpersonal harmony as an index of interpersonal attitudes. We tested whether there were ethnic-racial variations in mediation models in which each type of PERS dimension was expected to be linked to greater antiegalitarian attitudes (greater SDO), which, in turn, was predicted to be associated with less prosocial attitudes (lower harmony enhancement)...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Svetlana Yampolskaya, Debra Mowery
The study aims were to identify distinct subgroups among youth placed in therapeutic group care (TGC) and to examine the effect of specific constellations of risk factors on readmission to residential mental health care and involuntary psychiatric examination among youth in TGC. Several administrative databases were merged to examine outcomes for youth placed in TGC during fiscal year FY04-05 through FY07-08 (N = 1,009). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted. Two classes were identified: youth with multiple needs (Class 1) and lower risk youth (Class 2)...
July 14, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Joey Nuñez Estrada, Tamika D Gilreath, Cathia Y Sanchez, Ron Avi Astor
Recent studies have found that military-connected students confront many challenges-such as secondary traumatization-that may stem from a parent's deployment and frequent relocations. It is possible that multiple moves and deployments of family service members are associated with military-connected students' gang membership and involvement with school violence behaviors. In this study, a total of 13,484 students completed the core and military modules of the California Healthy Kids Survey. Logistic regressions examined the odds of a student being a member of a gang given their grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school violence behaviors, military-connectedness, changes in schools, and familial deployments...
July 14, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Özlem Bekar, Rebecca Shahmoon-Shanok, Miriam Steele, Jaclyn Levy, Lauren deFressine, Katie Giuseppone, Howard Steele
Risk factors during preschool years, such as poverty and unattended social/emotional problems, are known to have a strong negative influence on children's later functioning. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an on-site integrated school-based mental health services and consultation program for preschool children and their families. The sample consisted of 47 children and parents in 3 childcare centers who came from low-socioeconomic, urban backgrounds. Parents provided questionnaire data on children's social-emotional functioning at 2 assessment times...
June 20, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Noëmi Edelkott, David W Engstrom, Pilar Hernandez-Wolfe, David Gangsei
This article presents results from a qualitative study further exploring the concept of vicarious resilience. Thirteen therapists working with survivors of torture in 3 different locations were interviewed to better understand the complexities and variations of vicarious resilience. The analysis focuses on the therapists' perception of clients' resilience and the therapists' awareness of how this affects the therapists themselves. Four major themes emerge: change in the therapists' self-perception and their general outlook on the world, altered spirituality, modified thoughts about self-care, and new views on trauma work and connecting with clients...
June 20, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Claire Snell-Rood, Emily Hauenstein, Carl Leukefeld, Frances Feltner, Amber Marcum, Nancy Schoenberg
This qualitative study explored social-cultural factors that shape treatment seeking behaviors among depressed rural, low-income women in Appalachia-a region with high rates of depression and a shortage of mental health services. Recent research shows that increasingly rural women are receiving some form of treatment and identifying their symptoms as depression. Using purposive sampling, investigators recruited 28 depressed low-income women living in Appalachian Kentucky and conducted semistructured interviews on participants' perceptions of depression and treatment seeking...
June 20, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Katharan D Cordell, Lonnie R Snowden
California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) created Full Service Partnership programs (FSPs) targeting socially and economically vulnerable children with mental illness who are underserved by counties' public mental health treatment system. To determine whether FSPs reach a distinctive group of children, this study compares indicators of FSP-targeted underservice for FSP entrants (n = 15,598) versus everyone treated in the counties' public mental health systems (n = 282,178) and for FSP entrants versus entrants in the most intensive Medicaid delivered program in California, Therapeutic Behavioral Services (TBS, n = 11,993)...
June 2, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Monnica T Williams, Matthew E Jahn
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations...
May 30, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Rony Berger, Hisham Abu-Raiya, Yotam Heineberg, Philip Zimbardo
Research has established robust links between gang membership, delinquency, violence and victimization. Yet studies examining the process of gang desistance in general and that of core gang members in particular, are quite rare. The current study aims to identify factors associated with desistance of core gang members as well as describe the nature of the process that these "formers" have undergone. Thirty-nine core ex-gang members (80% males and 20% females) from the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles, with an average length of 11...
May 30, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Mariela Andrades, Felipe E García, Alejandro Reyes-Reyes, Rosario Martínez-Arias, Isabel Calonge
The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children in its brief version (PTGI-C-R; Kilmer et al., 2009), an inventory that measured positive personal changes that occur after experiencing a traumatic event. The PTGI-C-R was applied to 393 children from 10 to 15 years of age affected by the earthquake and tsunami in Chile February 27, 2010. The scale showed good internal consistency and discriminant validity in relation to an inventory of posttraumatic stress symptoms...
May 23, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Jonathan Purtle, Katherine Lynn, Mashal Malik
Public awareness about traumatic stress is needed to address trauma as a public health issue. News media influence public awareness, but little is known about how traumatic-related disorders are portrayed in the news. A content analysis was conducted of all articles that mentioned posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in The New York Times between 1980-2015. There were 871 articles analyzed. The number of PTSD articles published annually increased dramatically, from 2 in 1980 to 70 in 2014. Overall, 50.6% of articles were focused on military populations...
May 16, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Jenna MacKay, Margaret Robinson, Sarah Pinder, Lori E Ross
Bisexual people constitute the largest sexual minority group in North America and experience significant mental health disparities in relation to heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians. In this article, we will examine the process and experience of help seeking among bisexuals. This was a community-based study that collected qualitative interview data from 41 diverse bisexual people from across Ontario, Canada. We analyzed the interview data using grounded theory and constructed an understanding of bisexuals' experiences of help seeking...
May 5, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Lin Fang, Miriam Schiff, Rami Benbenishty
Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors to cope with the negative psychological impacts resulting from exposure to political violence. Guided by the Deterioration Deterrence Model and General Strain Theory, the present study assessed the mediating role of school support and posttraumatic stress (PTS) on two adolescent risk behaviors (i.e., school violence and drug use) among Arab and Jewish Israeli adolescents. We analyzed data from a nationally representative survey that consisted of 4,733 Israeli high school students (54...
April 21, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Natalia Rakhlin, Sascha Hein, Niamh Doyle, Lesley Hart, Roman Koposov, Donna Macomber, Vladislav Ruchkin, Anastasia Strelina, Mei Tan, Elena L Grigorenko
The present study sought to compare 4 groups of age- and gender-matched children-(a) those reared in institutions for children without parental care in Russia; (b) those raised by their biological parents in Russia; (c) those adopted to the United States from Russian institutions; and (d) those born in the United States and raised by their biological parents-on indicators of cognition, language, and early learning. In addition, we aimed to compare the effects of the length of time spent in an institution, the age of initial placement in an institution, the age at adoption, and pre-institutional risk factors (i...
April 14, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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