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American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

Peter K Deschamps, Esmee E Verhulp, Bram Orobio de Castro, Walter Matthys
The course of proactive aggressive behavior may be affected by empathy in response to sadness and distress of others. The aim of the current study is to examine empathy in response to sadness and distress and its relation to proactive and reactive aggression in a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems. At baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2), parents and teachers of 104 six- and seven-year-old children completed the Instrument for Reactive and Proactive Aggression. At T1, parents and teachers also reported empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Patricia Stoddard-Dare, LeaAnne DeRigne, Linda Quinn, Christopher Mallett
Nearly a third of all U.S. workers, primarily lower-paid employees, do not have paid sick leave benefits, prompting some lawmakers to consider mandating paid sick leave for all U.S. employees so workers can access timely health care without lost wages. A representative sample of 19,537 workers in current paid employment was examined, searching for the association between access to paid sick leave benefits and receipt of six different welfare and welfare-related services. After controlling for relevant demographic, work, income, and medical/health care variables, results of the logistic models indicate that, among working adults age 18-64, those without paid sick leave are 1...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
P Priscilla Lui
The acculturation gap-distress theory postulates that parent-offspring acculturation mismatch precipitates greater intergenerational conflict in immigrant families, which in turn increases the risk for psychological problems among offspring. Whereas cross-sectional studies have shown support for these theory-informed relations, comparatively little is known about whether acculturation mismatch negatively affects psychological functioning, or whether offspring's psychological problems precipitate greater perceived acculturation mismatch via intergenerational cultural conflict...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Yafit Sulimani-Aidan, Eran Melkman, Chan M Hellman
Hope has long been viewed as important to individuals attempting to overcome obstacles. Overall hope is the combination of one's appraisal of capability and determination to achieve goals (Agency) and identifying viable routes to reach them (Pathway) (Snyder, 1994). The main goal of this study was to examine the incremental contribution of mentoring to hope among youth on the verge of leaving care above and beyond related personal characteristics and placement history. The sample included 148 adolescents in residential care in Israel who had adult mentors (ages 16-19)...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Pratyusha Tummala-Narra, Zhushan Li, Janet Chang, Eun Jeong Yang, Jing Jiang, Michael Sagherian, Jenny Phan, Alyssa Alfonso
Guided by an integrative contextual framework of immigrant youth development (García Coll & Marks, 2012), this study investigated the potential role of developmental (e.g., ethnic identity) and contextual factors (e.g., perceived discrimination, stereotyping) in mental health outcomes and help-seeking attitudes, and variations across gender and nativity among Asian American college students. Online surveys assessing perceived subtle and blatant racism, ethnic identity, the internalization of the model minority stereotype, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking help from mental health professionals were administered to Asian American college student participants (n = 465) from diverse ethnic backgrounds and geographic regions in the United States...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Min Ah Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Hyeon Jin Park, Jaehee Yi, Eunmi Ahn, So Young Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Meerim Park, Yeon-Jung Lim, Eun Sil Park, Kyung Duk Park, Jun Sung Hong
Adolescents who reenter school after treatment for cancer may face certain challenges, such as social exclusion by their peers and difficulties in cognitive functioning, due to the cancer treatment and its psychosocial sequelae. Such challenges may have an impact on their mental health. This cross-sectional study examined the impact of peer exclusion-victimization and cognitive functioning on depression among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. A total of 175 adolescent survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 13 and 19 years completed a self-reported questionnaire...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Ibrahim Aref Kira, Hanaa Shuwiekh, Justyna Kucharska, Mounir Fawzi, Jeffrey S Ashby, Andrea Z Omidy, Sharifa Abou-Mediene, Linda Lewandowski
The current research and clinical focus on single traumas fails to assess numerous important trauma dynamics including trauma proliferation. In this study, 2 trauma proliferation pathways were identified that utilize a developmentally based trauma framework (DBTF). Data previously collected from 6 different cultural groups (N = 2279; 2 mental health clinics in Egypt and the United States, Native Americans, Palestinian adults in Gaza, and college students in Poland and Egypt) were reanalyzed. The 6 studies utilized DBTF-based measures of cumulative trauma and trauma types...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Dafna Tener, Efrat Lusky, Noam Tarshish, Shosh Turjeman
Sibling sexual abuse (SSA) represents a range of childhood sexual behaviors that cannot be considered manifestations of age-appropriate curiosity. Despite being the commonest and longest lasting form of sexual abuse within the family, SSA is the least reported, treated, and researched. This qualitative study is based on a sample of 60 mostly religious Jewish families referred to a child advocacy center (CAC) in Jerusalem from 2010 to 2015. It examines parental attitudes to SSA and their reconstruction, during and after their experience at the CAC...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Maura Shramko, Russell B Toomey, Karla Anhalt
Few studies have examined how the amalgamation of minority stressors for youth with multiple marginalized identities is associated with well-being. Additionally, among youth with multiple marginalized identities, identity centrality may clarify the associations between specific types of minority stressors (i.e., bias-based peer victimization, perceived discrimination) and adjustment. This study sought to identify intersectional profiles of perceived peer victimization, perceived discrimination, and identity centrality, specific to either Latinx ethnicity or sexual minority identity in the United States...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Ganga S Bey, Molly E Waring, Bill M Jesdale, Sharina D Person
Chronic stress stemming from social inequity has long been recognized as a risk factor for poor physical and psychological health, yet challenges remain in uncovering the mechanisms through which such exposures affect health outcomes and lead to racial and gender health disparities. Examination of sociocultural influences on group identity, coping, and the expression of stress may yield relevant insight into potential pathways of inequity's effect on risk for chronic disease. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic stress as measured by allostatic load (AL) and depression by gendered race group...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Krista Mehari, Catherine P Bradshaw
Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Eranda Jayawickreme, Nuwan Jayawickreme, Corinne E Zachry, Michelle A Goonasekera
There has been growing interest in understanding the psychological and social-environmental factors that facilitate adaptive functioning in populations affected by ethnopolitical warfare. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a brief measure incorporating local idioms of positive need fulfilment would predict functioning in a war-affected Sri Lankan population above and beyond psychopathology when controlling for demographic variables and current life stressors. A brief measure of positive need fulfillment was derived from qualitative data and administered to a sample of 163 Sri Lankans affected by the civil war...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Michael J Zvolensky, Daniel J Paulus, Jafar Bakhshaie, Monica Garza, Jeanette Valdivieso, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Lorraine R Reitzel, Andres G Viana, Chad Lemaire, Daniel Bogiaizian, Zuzuky Robles, Kara Manning, Nubia A Mayorga, Norman B Schmidt, Anahi Collado
Latinos face striking physical and mental health disparities. One factor associated with such disparities is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet there is presently a lack of empirical information about the mechanisms underlying relations between subjective social status and anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in community medical services that serve as focal catchment areas for assessment and intervention programming. The present investigation examined the unique explanatory roles of 2 transdiagnostic factors, rumination and anxiety sensitivity, in the relation between subjective social status and depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms as well as anxiety/depressive disorders, among Latinos seeking health services at a primary health care facility...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Genevieve Graaf, Lonnie Snowden
To assist families of youth with serious emotional disturbance in financing youth's comprehensive care, some states have sought and received Medicaid waivers. Medicaid waivers waive or relax the Medicaid means test for eligibility to provide insurance coverage to nonpoor families for expensive, otherwise out-of-reach treatment for youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance (SED). Waivers promote treatment access for the most troubled youth, and the present study investigated whether any of several Medicaid waiver options-and those that completely omit the means test in particular-are associated with higher state-wide public sector treatment penetration rates...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sonia L Rubens, Molly A Miller, Megan M Zeringue, Robert D Laird
Adolescents attending alternative high schools often present with high rates of academic and behavior problems. They are also at increased risk of poor health behaviors and engaging in physical violence compared with students in traditional high school settings. To address the needs of students in these educational settings, examining factors that influence academic problems in this population is essential. Research has established that both bullying/victimization and sleep problems increase adolescents' risk for academic problems...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Maureen E Murray, Dalia Y Khoury, Elizabeth M Z Farmer, Barbara J Burns
It is extremely challenging to implement evidence-based interventions in community-based agencies with sufficient quality, fidelity, and intensity to produce desired changes in practice and outcomes. This is particularly difficult to do within the confines of existing service providers' time, personnel, and resource constraints. Over the past 15 years, Together Facing the Challenge (TFTC) has been developed, tested, and disseminated in an effort to address this set of issues to improve treatment foster care (TFC)...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Nkiru Nnawulezi, Surbhi Godsay, Cris M Sullivan, Suzanne Marcus, Margaret Hacskaylo
The purpose of community-based domestic violence crisis housing programs (e.g., shelters) is to provide a safe setting that promotes empowerment for survivors of intimate partner violence. For staff to reach this aim, the program must have formal structures and processes in place to support such efforts. This study explored how low-barrier and voluntary service policies influenced staff practices and survivor empowerment. Low-barrier policies require that programs remove barriers that prevent survivors, particularly those who have mental health concerns and/or addictions, from being able to access services...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Jacqueline S Gray, Julio Brionez, Thomas Petros, Kevin T Gonzaga
Numerous psychometric measurements are used to assess for mental health problems in Native American and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) populations; however, few studies have been carried out to assess their validity and reliability within these populations. This study was designed to assess the validity and reliability of numerous measures among the Northern Plains Indians. This article is a partial report, focused on the psychometric measures directed at detecting depression, namely the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, the Tri-Ethnic Depression Scale (TEDS), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Z Ceren Acarturk, Sami Abuhamdeh, Baland Jalal, Nurdan Unaldı, Behiye Alyanak, Mustafa Cetinkaya, Birgul Gulen, Devon Hinton
The most common mental health problems among adolescents are anxiety and mood disorders. While disorder-specific cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for each of these conditions, the comorbidity between anxiety and mood disorders indicates a need for the development of evidence-based transdiagnostic treatments. To examine the efficacy of culturally adapted transdiagnostic CBT (CA-CBT) in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression in treatment-resistant Turkish adolescents, 13 adolescent participants with anxiety or mood disorders who were treatment resistant received 10 sessions of CA-CBT in group format...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Leanne L Heaton
This study examined differences in substance-related problems and receipt of substance-specific counseling in 7 different racial/ethnic groups of justice-involved youth. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 7,073 youth in residential placement across 36 states representing 5 program types. Descriptive analyses and regression modeling techniques were used to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity, substance problems, and substance services. Results show that more than 2/3 report a history of at least 1 substance-related problem...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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