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American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

Rohini Pahwa, Anthony Fulginiti, John S Brekke, Eric Rice
Disclosure related to mental illness has been linked to various positive outcomes, including better mental health. However, many individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to practice non-disclosure. Even though disclosure inherently occurs within the context of one's social relationships, research has generally conceptualized mental illness disclosure as an individual level phenomenon and neglected to consider preferences concerning to whom an individual discloses and the factors that influence this decision...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Victoria C Scott, Tara Kenworthy, Erin Godly-Reynolds, Gilberte Bastien, Jonathan Scaccia, Courtney McMickens, Sharon Rachel, Sayon Cooper, Glenda Wrenn, Abraham Wandersman
Integration of behavioral health and primary care services is a promising approach for reducing health disparities. The growing national emphasis on care coordination has mobilized efforts to integrate behavioral health and primary care services across the United States. These efforts align with broader health care system goals of improving health care quality, health equity, utilization efficiency, and patient outcomes. Drawing from our work on a multiyear integrated care initiative (Integrated Care Leadership Program; ICLP) and an implementation science heuristic for organizational readiness (Readiness = Motivation x General Capacity and Innovation-Specific Capacity; R = MC2), this article describes the development and implementation of a tool to assess organizational readiness for integrated care, referred to as the Readiness for Integrated Care Questionnaire (RICQ)...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Rana Eseed, Mona Khoury-Kassabri
Alcohol use among Muslims has received scant research attention, and little is known about the factors that underlie Arab Muslim adolescents' use of alcohol. The data used in this study is based on a large and representative sample of 2,948 Arab Muslim students from Israel, aged 11-18. The results showed that almost 10% of the adolescents reported using alcohol. The findings indicated that greater exposure to community violence victimization increases the risk for adolescent affiliation with delinquent peers, which in turn increases the use of alcohol...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Cris M Sullivan, Tyler Virden
Survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have a variety of reasons for turning to domestic violence shelter programs. Some are seeking temporary respite and immediate safety while others are seeking longer term assistance to heal from their trauma and begin new lives. In line with these differing needs, some survivors only stay in shelter for a few days, while others may need to stay for months or even years. The current study involved secondary data analysis of an 8-state study that collected information from survivors shortly after they arrived in shelter and shortly before exit...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
José Juan Vázquez, Sonia Panadero, Claudia Zúñiga
Causal attributions of homelessness may affect both the design and acceptance of public policies aimed at improving the situation of homeless people and the strategies that homeless people themselves decide to adopt in order to cope with their situation. This article analyzes the differences in causal attributions of homelessness based on gender, age, nationality, educational background, perceived social class, evolution of personal economic situation, and future expectations between the members of 2 groups: (a) "homeless group", consisting of a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid, Spain (n = 188); and (b) "domiciled group", consisting of a sample of people in Madrid at no risk of homelessness (n = 180), matched for sex, age and nationality...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Elizabeth C Thomas, Gretchen Snethen, Mark S Salzer
Understanding age-related expectations for community participation can aid mental health providers and policy makers in the design and tailoring of age-appropriate services to better meet consumers' participation needs. This study seeks to describe and compare the amount, importance, and sufficiency of community participation in younger adult, middle-aged adult, and older adult consumers. Participants were 879 adults with serious mental illnesses who completed the Temple University Community Participation Measure as part of several studies (only baseline data were analyzed)...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Rami Benbenishty, Alana Siegel, Ron Avi Astor
Although adolescents in foster care are known to be more at risk for school-related academic challenges, there is a paucity of research on their school-related experiences, such as victimization and relationships with teachers, compared with their same-age peers not in care. The aim of this article is to compare foster-care adolescents and their schoolmates on data that was drawn from the statewide representative California Healthy Kids survey and includes 165,815 nonfoster youth and 706 foster youth in 9th and 11th grades...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Yvonne Rafferty
There has been a plethora of outcomes associated with child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation; however little attention has been paid to how outcomes are addressed for children who are placed into residential aftercare recovery programs following their identification as victims. Field-based qualitative research was undertaken in South and Southeast Asia, and involved interviews with 213 representatives from U.N. and governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and residential aftercare recovery programs...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Adeem Ahmad Massarwi
In the current study, we examined the role of parent-child support as a protective factor that moderates the correlation between exposure to neighborhood violence and perpetration of moderate physical violence among 3,187 Arab-Palestinian adolescents who live in Israel (aged 12 to 18), from 21 different schools who were selected randomly. The probability sampling method was a nonproportional multistage stratified cluster sample. We also examined gender differences across this protective process. Participants completed a structured, anonymous self-report questionnaire...
March 30, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Maria Minas, Maria Teresa Ribeiro, James P Anglin
The importance of cultivating connection to enhance individual, relational and collective well-being is gaining attention in the current literature on building community. Although these goals are being increasingly considered, the concept of reciprocity has been less prominent than may be warranted in the field of psychology. This article presents a theoretical framework on the dynamics of reciprocity which resulted from grounded theory (GT) research involving 2 complementary studies. The first study involved 22 participants from different socioeconomic backgrounds engaged in "reflecting-team with appreciative audiences" sessions (Madsen, 2007) in Portugal...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Julia Dickson-Gomez, Katherine Quinn, Arturo Bendixen, Amy Johnson, Kelly Nowicki, Thant Ko Ko, Carol Galletly
Supportive housing has become the dominant model in the United States to provide housing to the chronically homeless and to improve their housing stability and health. Most supportive housing programs follow a "housing first" paradigm modeled after the Pathways to Housing program in New York City. However, components of housing first supportive housing models were poorly defined, and supportive models have varied considerably in their dissemination and implementation to other parts of the country. Recently, research has been conducted to determine the fidelity by which specific housing programs adhere to the Pathways Housing First model...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Megan L Kloep, Richard H Hunter, Sarah J Kertz
This study explored an intensive 3-week training program and use of psychiatric service dogs for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated symptoms. The sample included 2 separate cohorts of military veterans (n = 7 and n = 5) with prior diagnoses of PTSD. Participants completed self-report measures assessing PTSD, depression, perception of social support, anger, and overall quality of life 1 month prior to the training (baseline), at arrival to the training site, and 6-month follow-up...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Jun Sung Hong, Dexter R Voisin, Sujung Cho, Douglas C Smith, Stella M Resko
Urban African-American youth residing in poorly resourced communities are at a heightened risk of peer victimization, which consequently increases their likelihood of risky behaviors such as substance use. The present study examined whether there was a direct relationship between peer victimization and substance use and whether it was mediated by negative peer norms, internalizing problems, and bullying perpetration. African-American youth (n = 638) completed a self-administered questionnaire on age, biological sex, socioeconomic status, lifetime substance use, peer victimization and bullying perpetration, negative peer norms, and internalizing problems...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Lynette M Renner, Shamra Boel-Studt
Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Jaipaul L Roopnarine, Elif Dede Yildirim
Drawing on couple-focused prevention intervention models that target family level processes, we used complier average causal effect (CACE) estimates to determine whether relationship skills education moderated the association between fathers' depressive symptoms assessed when their children were 15-months-old and again when their children were 36-months-old. The sample consisted of low-income Hispanic American, European American, and African American fathers (N = 2,540) from the Building Strong Families Study...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Kate M Wegmann
Stereotype threat is a key contributor to chronic racial/ethnic disparities in mental health, physical health, and academic outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that stereotype threat may be a critical concern for narrowing these disparities. The objective of the current study is to determine whether children between the ages of 7-11 consciously perceive stereotype threat, and to examine children's descriptions of the phenomenon. Age-appropriate vignettes illustrated 6 forms of stereotype threat. 15 children from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds read and responded to 3 vignettes each...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
David C Talavera, Daniel J Paulus, Monica Garza, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Jeanette Valdivieso, Daniel Bogiaizian, Zuzuky Robles, Jafar Bakhshaie, Kara Manning, Rheeda Walker, Michael Businelle, Michael J Zvolensky
The present investigation examined the interactive effects of subjective social status and rumination in relation to anxiety/depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 276 Latinos (82% female; Mage = 39.2, SD = 11.1; 97.0% reported Spanish as first language) who attended a community-based primary health care clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between rumination and subjective social status was significantly associated with depression (B = -.04, t = -3.52, p < .001, 95% CI [-.06, -.02]), social anxiety (B = -...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Neal Krause, Kenneth I Pargament, Peter C Hill, Gail Ironson
A growing body of research suggests that greater exposure to spiritual struggles is associated with more physical and mental health problems. Spiritual struggles involve difficulties that a person may encounter with his or her faith, which may include having a troubled relationship with God, encountering difficulties with religious others, or being unable to find a sense of meaning in life. However, little is known about the way in which spiritual struggles may differ across racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to assess variations in spiritual struggles, health, and well-being among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Erin A Casey, Heather L Storer, Todd I Herrenkohl
Although research has identified factors that support and hinder proactive bystander behaviors among adolescents, less is known about the more specific bystander responses viewed by youth as feasible, or whether these responses are likely to be ultimately helpful in the context of bullying and teen dating violence (TDV). Goals of this exploratory study were to describe specific bystander behaviors that adolescents perceive as possible for addressing bullying and TDV among peers, to assess the potential impact of these behaviors, and to examine similarities and differences in bystander behaviors across these forms of aggression...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Kristin Gärtner Askeland, Børge Sivertsen, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Annette M La Greca, Grethe S Tell, Leif Edvard Aarø, Mari Hysing
Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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