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American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991821/youth-serving-institutional-resources-and-neighborhood-safety-ties-with-positive-youth-development
#1
Sara Anderson, Elana R McDermott, Margaret C Elliott, Alice E Donlan, Katie Aasland, Jonathan F Zaff
Neighborhoods are critical contexts for adolescent development, but little attention has been paid to how neighborhood characteristics play a role in positive youth development (PYD), notably among predominantly African American youth. This study examined distinct features of the neighborhood, including youth-serving institutional resources (YSI) and safety, as they relate to PYD among adolescents from low-income neighborhoods in an urban setting (n = 491, 68.6% African American). Because neighborhood experiences during adolescence often differ based on gender, we also examined moderation by gender...
December 19, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991820/stressful-life-events-and-perceived-parental-control-in-formerly-homeless-families-impact-on-child-internalizing-symptoms
#2
Damir S Utržan, Timothy F Piehler, Abigail H Gewirtz, Gerald J August
Research has neglected the potential role of perceived parental control as a moderator between stressful life events (SLEs) and child-internalizing symptoms. Using secondary data from the Early Risers "Skills for Success" Program (August, Realmuto, Hektner, & Bloomquist, 2001), this study examined the impact of perceived parental control on the association between SLEs and child internalizing symptoms in formerly homeless families. The sample consisted of 137 families with 223 children between 4 and 12 years of age (M = 8...
December 19, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977287/strengths-and-weaknesses-of-the-young-black-men-masculinities-and-mental-health-ybmen-facebook-project
#3
Daphne C Watkins, Julie Ober Allen, Janelle R Goodwill, Blake Noel
The Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) project is a Facebook-based intervention that provides mental health education and social support to young Black men. The YBMen project was created to better understand and address the pressures and needs of young Black men, particularly with regard to issues related to their conceptualization of masculinity and mental health. Black men from a 2-year liberal arts college in the Midwest (United States) enrolled in the YBMen pilot project. The purpose of this study is to report what participants in the YBMen pilot project liked and disliked about the intervention, along with their suggestions for improvement...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977286/present-protective-and-promotive-mentors-roles-in-the-lives-of-young-adults-in-residential-care
#4
Yafit Sulimani-Aidan
Mentoring relationships are considered among the most significant relationships with nonparental figures and a protective factor against a wide range of negative outcomes. This exploratory study explored mentoring relationships in the lives of 140 care leavers, and the way those relationships influenced their life course. Findings showed that most of the mentors were known to the young adults from their former care placement for 3 years and above. Thematic analysis revealed 2 main "types" of mentor: (1) a present, accessible and supportive mentor, who is mainly characterized as a parental figure and a role model, a life coach who is also a confidant; (2) a motivating and catalyzing mentor, who is characterized as promoting adaptive coping with life stressors, and leading the young adults to set and achieve their goals and change their behavioral and mental status for the better...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977285/general-practitioners-beliefs-about-people-with-schizophrenia-and-whether-they-should-be-subject-to-discriminatory-treatment-when-in-medical-hospital-the-mediating-role-of-dangerousness-perception
#5
Lorenza Magliano, Rosanna Punzo, Antonella Strino, Roberta Acone, Gaetana Affuso, John Read
This study explored the relationships between General Practitioners' (GPs) beliefs about People With Schizophrenia (PWS) and GPs' recommendations regarding restrictions for such people when in medical (nonpsychiatric) hospital, and whether these relationships were mediated by dangerousness perception. There were 322 randomly selected Italian GPs who completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs about PWS. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to explore the effects of these beliefs on the GPs' views about the need for restrictive rules in hospital...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977284/adaptation-and-implementation-of-a-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-girls-in-child-welfare
#6
Wendy Auslander, Hollee McGinnis, Sarah Tlapek, Penny Smith, April Foster, Tonya Edmond, Jerry Dunn
This study describes the process of adapting and implementing Girls Aspiring toward Independence (GAIN), a trauma-focused, group-based therapy adapted from Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) for girls in child welfare. Descriptive data were examined on 3 outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and social problem-solving skills among adolescent girls in the child welfare system. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to inform the adaptation of the CBITS intervention, evaluate feasibility, treatment fidelity, and acceptability, and to test the effects of the intervention...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977283/examining-the-effects-of-emotional-and-cognitive-desensitization-to-community-violence-exposure-in-male-adolescents-of-color
#7
Noni K Gaylord-Harden, Suzanna So, Grace J Bai, Patrick H Tolan
The current study examined pathways in a model of desensitization, the Pathologic Adaptation Model, in adolescent males of color. Specifically, the current study examined depressive symptoms and deviant beliefs as mediators of the association between community violence exposure and subsequent violent behavior. The current study included 250 African-American (67%) and Latino (33%) male adolescents (T1 mean age = 15.32) from the Chicago Youth Development Study. Consistent with the Pathologic Adaptation Model, results demonstrated that depressive symptoms mediated the association between the quadratic violence exposure term in middle adolescence and violent behaviors in late adolescence, but the direction of the mediation effect was dependent upon the levels of violence exposure in middle adolescence...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977282/individual-and-neighborhood-stressors-sleep-problems-and-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression-among-latino-youth
#8
Sonia L Rubens, Omar G Gudiño, Paula J Fite, Jessica M Grande
Limited research has examined the relation between exposure to stressors and internalizing symptoms among Latino adolescents, including factors that account for this relation. This study examined whether sleep played a role in the relation between exposure to neighborhood- (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage) and individual-level (i.e., negative life events) stressors and symptoms of anxiety and depression among a sample of 144 low-income, Latino adolescents (54% males, mean age = 16.25, SD = 1.46) attending a charter high school in a large, Midwestern city...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977281/what-children-think-about-their-rights-and-their-well-being-a-cross-national-comparison
#9
Hanita Kosher, Asher Ben-Arieh
Recent years have brought a growing social and public commitment to the promotion of children's rights and children's well-being around the world, and these have become important goals of all those striving to improve children's lives. In spite of the intimate ideological connection between the concepts of children's rights and children's well-being, they have evolved separately both theoretically and empirically. In the current article, we present a study exploring the empirical association between these 2 concepts based on data from the International Survey on Children's Well-Being...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819438/positive-growth-from-adversity-and-beyond-insights-gained-from-cross-examination-of-clinical-and-nonclinical-samples
#10
Pninit Russo-Netzer, Galia Moran
Growth following adversity is a well-known phenomenon. Yet studies often focus on specific populations and/or specific types of adversities, thus limiting opportunities to identify underlying common processes of growth. The present study sought to identify shared positive change processes in different samples of individuals each of whom faced life adversities (clinical/nonclinical) and experienced growth as a result. We conducted a secondary analysis comparing in-depth interviews from 2 independent study samples including 27 Israeli adults that experienced spiritual growth and 31 American mental health peer-providers in recovery...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786503/buried-hatchets-marked-locations-forgiveness-everyday-racial-discrimination-and-african-american-men-s-depressive-symptomatology
#11
Wizdom Powell, Kira Hudson Banks, Jacqueline S Mattis
Everyday racial discrimination (ERD) is linked to pronounced depressive symptomatology among African American men. Yet, many African American men do not experience depressive symptoms following ERD exposure often because they use positive coping strategies that offset its effects. Granting forgiveness is 1 coping strategy associated with less depression. However, extant findings about the mental health benefits of forgiveness are somewhat mixed and pay scarce attention to offenses which are fleeting, historically rooted, and committed outside of close personal relationships...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786502/childhood-psychopathic-personality-and-callous-unemotional-traits-in-the-prediction-of-conduct-problems
#12
Louise Frogner, Chris L Gibson, Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed
This study analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study of Swedish preschoolers to examine whether psychopathic traits and concurrent conduct problems predict future conduct problems (CP) across 1- and 2-year follow-ups into early childhood. We tested the predictive ability of psychopathic traits while controlling for concurrent CP, and also by combining psychopathic traits with concurrent CP. A community sample of 1,867 preschoolers (47% girls) ages 3 to 5 years at baseline was recruited from a Swedish medium-sized municipality...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775410/from-awareness-to-action-examining-predictors-of-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-lgbt-activism-for-heterosexual-people
#13
K Nicole Jones, Melanie E Brewster
In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism)...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775409/adult-women-survivors-of-intrafamilial-child-sexual-abuse-and-their-current-relationship-with-the-abuser
#14
Zvi Eisikovits, Dafna Tener, Rachel Lev-Wiesel
This article examines the adult perceptions of women survivors of intrafamilial child sexual abuse and their current relationship with the family member who abused them in their childhood. Twenty Jewish Israeli women were interviewed in depth between 2008 and 2009. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis produced 2 interrelated continua with regard to the presence of the perpetrator in the women's life: a continuum of his actual daily presence in the woman's living space, ranging from complete absence to a continuous presence, and a continuum of his experiential presence, ranging from a high level of intrusiveness to encapsulation and total dissociation...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775408/symptoms-circumstances-and-service-systems-pathways-to-psychiatric-crisis-service-use-among-uninsured-young-adults
#15
Sarah Carter Narendorf, Michelle R Munson, Micki Washburn, Nicole Fedoravicius, Richard Wagner, Sara K Flores
Young adults have low rates of outpatient service utilization and higher rates of emergency service use compared to older adults. This study explored pathways to crisis service use for uninsured young adults who accessed emergency psychiatric treatment. Participants were 55 young adults (ages 18-25) who were on an inpatient short-term stabilization unit and had qualifying diagnoses for outpatient services (bipolar, major depression, or schizophrenia). Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted to understand decision-making and the events that led to service use...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080123/treating-adult-survivors-of-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-neglect-a-new-framework
#16
Frances K Grossman, Joseph Spinazzola, Marla Zucker, Elizabeth Hopper
This article provides the outline of a new framework for treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Component-based psychotherapy (CBP) is an evidence-informed model that bridges, synthesizes, and expands upon several existing schools, or theories, of treatment for adult survivors of traumatic stress. These include approaches to therapy that stem from more classic traditions in psychology, such as psychoanalysis, to more modern approaches including those informed by feminist thought...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080122/continuing-our-organizational-mission-a-new-name-for-a-new-time
#17
Deborah Klein Walker, Ryan P Kilmer, Mary I Armstrong
This editorial explains the need for a new name for the American Orthopsychiatric Association (ORTHO). As ORTHO continues their work into the 21st century, they want to better reflect their global membership and focus, increasing the number of partnerships with individuals and organizations, and commitment to a just society. Therefore, ORTHO is changing their name to the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice. It is crucial to underscore that, although the organizations name is changing, the values and principles that inform their work will remain the same...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893221/substance-use-and-psychological-distress-is-related-with-accommodation-status-among-homeless-immigrants
#18
Miguel Angel Navarro-Lashayas, Francisco Jose Eiroa-Orosa
Immigrant homelessness constitutes a cruel expression of social exclusion. We analyzed the relation of sociodemographic characteristics with stressful life events, substance use and psychological distress, giving a special importance to the influence of the time spent on the streets and the accommodation status of 107 homeless immigrants. To this end, both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined. Discussion groups with care resources practitioners and service users, were followed by in depth interviews combined with psychometric questionnaires...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732012/perceived-primal-threat-of-mental-illness-and-recovery-the-mediating-role-of-self-stigma-and-self-empowerment
#19
Ruirui Zhang, Winnie W S Mak, Randolph C H Chan
Although people in recovery from mental illness can continue to live a personally meaningful life despite their mental illness, their perception of mental illness as being a threat to their basic needs may influence the way they view themselves as a person with mental illness and their sense of mastery over their condition. The present study explored the effects of perceived primal threat on the recovery of people with mental illness, considering the mediating roles of self-stigma and self-empowerment. Latent variable structural equation modeling was conducted among 376 individuals with mental illness in Hong Kong...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414057/profiles-of-youth-in-therapeutic-group-care-associations-with-involuntary-psychiatric-examinations-and-readmissions
#20
Svetlana Yampolskaya, Debra Mowery
The study aims were to identify distinct subgroups among youth placed in therapeutic group care (TGC) and to examine the effect of specific constellations of risk factors on readmission to residential mental health care and involuntary psychiatric examination among youth in TGC. Several administrative databases were merged to examine outcomes for youth placed in TGC during fiscal year FY04-05 through FY07-08 (N = 1,009). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted. Two classes were identified: youth with multiple needs (Class 1) and lower risk youth (Class 2)...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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