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American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

Sarah N Wolford, Ashley N Cooper, Lenore M McWey
The link between maternal depression and negative child outcomes has been well-established; however, less is known regarding the impact of harsh parenting on child outcomes, especially for women living with depressive symptoms and whom also experienced child maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to examine harsh parenting practices as a mediator in this known association, in order to examine factors associated with negative child outcomes and to explore a reduction in future transmission of risk. Mediation analyses were conducted with 2 samples of mother-child dyads at separate time points (child age 6: n = 325; and youth age 12: n = 213) using data collected from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Adi Fridman-Teutsch, Shalhevet Attar-Schwartz
Commitment to school, commitment to learning, and educational expectations have been shown to contribute to positive outcomes among youth in the general population. However, it is an underexamined phenomenon among youth in care. This study examines the contribution of mother and father support and the moderating role of parents' marital status to commitment to school and learning among youth in residential care settings (RCSs) in Israel. The study was based on the reports of a random cluster sample of 1,409 adolescents (Grades 8 to 12) in 16 educational RCSs for youth from underprivileged backgrounds, who completed structured questionnaires...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
James A Griffin, Christopher F Drescher, Elizabeth D Eldridge, Alexis L Rossi, Megan M Loew, Lara M Stepleman
Sexual minority individuals experience a disproportionate burden of mental health issues, particularly in less populous cities of the southern United States. Unique identity-related stressors may explain these disparities. The current study examines relationships between sexual minority stress, identity, and anxiety in sexual minority individuals from a small metropolitan area of the South. Sexual minority individuals ( N = 249) from the Central Savannah River Area completed a survey assessing minority stress (i...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Inbal Barak, Adi Barak
This qualitative study explored the perspectives of at-risk Israeli female adolescents of Ethiopian origin (N = 15) regarding barriers to forming alliances with social workers. The study's rationale was based on the idea that an alliance enables clients to bring forth challenges and difficulties that are directly related to their well-being and, as such, is fundamental to the helping process. Four themes were identified as barriers to the forming of alliances with social workers: social workers' lack of availability; clients' perceived loss of independence in the process of receiving help; clients' sense of being forced to perform a different self ("passing"); and clients' difficulties in "opening up...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Travis Salway, Olivier Ferlatte, Aaron Purdie, Jean Shoveller, Terry Trussler, Mark Gilbert
Gay and bisexual men experience elevated rates of suicide ideation and attempts, as compared with heterosexual men, but face unique barriers in accessing health services. In this context, the present study sought to describe rates of health care engagement among gay and bisexual men with a recent history of suicide ideation or attempts. An anonymous online survey was conducted with 7,872 Canadian gay and bisexual men in 2014-2015. The sample was restricted to characterize patterns of mental health care engagement among respondents who reported suicide ideation or attempts in the previous 12 months...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
April Joy Damian, Tamar Mendelson, Janice Bowie, Joseph J Gallo
Youth exposure to trauma is a significant public health problem in the United States, particularly in urban areas. Although trauma-informed care (TIC) training of service providers to address this challenge is increasing nationwide, we lack empirical evidence regarding the feasibility and acceptability of cross-organizational TIC training, including perspectives of training participants. The purpose of our study was to evaluate participating service providers' self-reported changes in knowledge about trauma, attitudes toward traumatized individuals, and beliefs in their capacity to provide referrals to trauma services after completion of the TIC intervention...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Lawrence A Osborn, Catherine H Stein
Using a sample of 60 adults with serious mental illness in an inpatient psychiatric hospital, the present study examined the role of therapeutic relationship characteristics between consumers and mental health providers and consumers' views of recovery-oriented service delivery and individual well-being. Specifically, the present study examined how consumers' reports of working alliance and provider directiveness were associated with consumers' views of recovery-oriented service delivery and individual well-being...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Denise Saint Arnault, Seoyoon Woo
Despite increased risks for mental health problems, East Asian immigrant women have the lowest overall service-utilization rates of any cultural group in the United States. Although the influence of cultural processes as the cause of low service use is widely speculated, no empirical study has tested cultural determinants (including culturally specific idioms of distress, culture-based illness interpretations, or concerns about social consequences), social contextual factors, perceived need (PN), and help-seeking (HS) behaviors...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sara M Williams, Laura M Frey, Dese'Rae L Stage, Julie Cerel
Gender and sexual minorities (GSM) are at a higher risk for victimization, discrimination, and emotional distress. GSM also face unique stressors that contribute to negative mental health outcomes, such as family and interpersonal rejection, ostracism and isolation, and internalized gender and sexual stigma. Suicide attempt survivors often experience similar stigma and isolation after an attempt. However, little is known about the specific experiences of GSM individuals who attempt suicide. Transcripts of interviews with 25 GSM attempt survivors conducted as part of the Live Through This project were analyzed using an interpretive phenomenological approach...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Aaron L Norton, Tony Xing Tan
Given the current political climate in the United States, it is ever more important to understand the role political ideology plays in the counseling profession. Our study examined the role of political ideologies in 467 licensed mental health counselors' preferred counseling theories in clinical practice. We found (a) most participants reported liberal political ideologies; (b) the participants preferred cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), humanistic/constructivist/existentialist, and mindfulness-based theories over systemic, psychodynamic, and experiential theories; and (c) self-identification as conservative, registration with the Republican Party, and endorsement of Libertarian beliefs predicted a preference for CBT, self-identified liberal ideology predicted a preference for psychodynamic theory, and lower levels of libertarian beliefs predicted a preference for humanistic theories...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
José Juan Vázquez, Alberto E Berríos, Enrique Bonilla, Alexia C Suarez
Homelessness is a global phenomenon that affects groups in situations of poverty and social exclusion, in both developed and developing nations. However, the scientific literature on homeless people in developing countries is scant. This work shows the difficulties defining homelessness and examines the necessary criteria for who will be deemed a homeless person in a developing country. Furthermore, the results of the Point-In-Time (PIT) count of homeless people-a measure of the number of homeless people on a specific day-done in the city of León, Nicaragua (population: 185,000)...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Kaspar Burger
This study examined how children appraise the importance of their participation rights-that is, the right to express their views and the right to be heard-and whether such appraisals vary as a function of perceived discrimination in the school environment. The sample comprised 1,006 children (9.6-14.3 years of age; 51% boys) from 14 public primary schools in Geneva, Switzerland. Results indicate that a majority of children considered their participation rights as very important. Children's appraisals of these rights varied marginally between classes and schools...
July 26, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Donald Wertlieb
As our American Orthopsychiatric Association (AOA) transforms into a Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice (GABHSJ), early childhood development (ECD), and, particularly, inclusive early childhood development (IECD) persists as a prime pathway toward enhancing behavioral health and social justice. As we systematically and intentionally include consideration of the rights and needs of young children with disabilities and their families in our research, practice, and policy, a twin-track (TT) approach that simultaneously considers universal factors alongside disability-specific factors can enhance our conceptualization of problems and solutions...
July 26, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Daphna Gross-Manos, Bridget M Haas, Francisca Richter, David Crampton, Jill E Korbin, Claudia J Coulton, James C Spilsbury
Neighborhood processes have been shown to influence child maltreatment rates, and accordingly neighborhood-based strategies have been suggested as helpful in intervening in and preventing child maltreatment. Although child-welfare workers are at the forefront of child maltreatment work, little is known about the extent to which their perspectives on neighborhood processes related to child maltreatment align with those of neighborhood residents. The current study examined the views of neighborhood residents (n = 400) and neighborhood-based child-welfare workers (n = 260) on 2 neighborhood process measures: social disorder and collective efficacy...
July 23, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Stacey A Shaw, Kaitlin P Ward, Veena Pillai, Devon E Hinton
Forcibly displaced persons confront multiple stressors while awaiting permanent asylum or resettlement and often experience high levels of emotional distress. This study assessed an 8-week somatic-focused culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention with 39 female refugees from Afghanistan living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Twenty-nine participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions, resulting in 20 participants in two separate treatment groups and 9 in a waitlist control group...
July 23, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Cynthia Fraga Rizo, Christopher J Wretman, Rebecca J Macy, Shenyang Guo, Dania M Ermentrout
Female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors who are their children's primary caregivers are often mandated to services by child protection services (CPS) and/or the courts. Unfortunately, scant evidence exists regarding mandated programs for CPS- and/or court-involved IPV survivors, particularly the mental health outcomes of such programs. Two human service agencies in the southeastern United States collaborated to develop and implement a novel 13-week intervention to address the needs of these mothers' as related to safety, parenting, and mental health...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Kathrine S Sullivan, Gordon Capp, Tamika D Gilreath
Military-connected youths are a vulnerable population exposed to a unique set of stressors, which may put them at increased risk for adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes, compared to their civilian counterparts. Among military-connected adolescents, emotional and instrumental parentification are mechanisms hypothesized to account for negative outcomes, including substance use. However, parentification may be protective in some cultures and has not been examined in the military population. Data were drawn from 1,441 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-graders who had a parent in the military and completed the 2013 California Healthy Kids Survey...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Nev Jones, Cherise Rosen, Shirley Helm, Sheila O'Neill, Larry Davidson, Mona Shattell
Whereas a growing literature has sought to understand challenges involved in the dissemination and implementation of specific evidence-based practices (EBP), few studies have centered on the perspectives of front-line community providers regarding best practices, clinical ideals and barriers to quality improvement for clients with psychosis. The goal of this project was to lay a foundation for future work aimed at improving the overall quality and impact of the multifaceted services typically provided to adults with psychosis served by the public mental health system...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Kristin N Anderson, Chandra L Bautista, Debra A Hope
Premature termination is a pervasive barrier to effective implementation of outpatient psychotherapy that frequently results in poorer outcomes for clients as well as poor resource allocation for clients, therapists, and society. Despite its high prevalence and cost, premature termination remains poorly understood, especially from the clients' perspective. The current study addressed some gaps in the literature using a national online survey design that permitted investigation of a broad range of potential predictors of premature termination...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sonya Gabrielian, Elizabeth Bromley, Alison B Hamilton, Van T Vu, Adrian Alexandrino, Ella Koosis, Alexander S Young
Few interventions train homeless consumers in housing-related independent living skills. To inform the development of such interventions for the Department of Veterans Affairs' Supported Housing consumers with serious mental illness, we examined these consumers' problem-solving skills and deficits. We performed semistructured interviews and cognitive tests with 20 consumers who retained housing for ≥1 year ("stayers") and 20 consumers who lost housing in <1 year ("exiters"). Salient types of problems were identified in the qualitative data; we categorized problem-solving approaches by complexity level and identified differences in problem-solving complexity by consumers' housing outcomes...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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