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American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

Joan A Reid, Michael T Baglivio, Alex R Piquero, Mark A Greenwald, Nathan Epps
The objective of this study was to analytically identify risk profiles for juvenile human trafficking (JHT) based on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and health risk behaviors. First, the study examined which types of ACEs and health risk behaviors were more prevalent among trafficked adolescents using a sample of 913 male and female juvenile-justice-involved adolescents with suspected or verified JHT abuse reports documented between 2009 and 2015 and a comparison group (matched by age, gender, race, ethnicity, and location)...
November 15, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Elizabeth C Thomas, Andrea Bilger, Amy Blank Wilson, Jeffrey Draine
Individuals with psychiatric disabilities who are involved in the criminal justice system face a number of challenges to community integration upon release. There is a critical need to develop and evaluate interventions for these individuals that connect them to the community by enhancing naturalistic social connections and helping them to participate meaningfully in valued roles. The purposes of this article are to describe, provide a theoretical rationale, and propose a conceptual model for the use of a particular restorative justice model, circles of support and accountability, to meet this need...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Jennifer M Gómez
The differential contexts that ethnic minorities face as a result of lower societal status impact outcomes of trauma. Cultural betrayal trauma theory (CBTT) is a contextualized framework that was created to examine trauma in minority populations. According to CBTT, due to societal inequality, within-group trauma in minority populations is a cultural betrayal that contributes to outcomes. In addition to looking at typically studied abuse outcomes (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder), CBTT also predicts cultural outcomes, such as internalized prejudice, changes in ethnic identity, and (intra)cultural pressure (e...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Megan Todd, Julien Teitler
Depression is the most prevalent mood disorder in the United States, and disparities in depressive symptoms and treatment by socioeconomic status have been well-documented. Recent evidence suggests the prevalence of depression is increasing, but less is known about time trends in disparities. Using nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined patterns of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and treatment (self-reported psychotherapy and psychopharmacology)...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sean A Kidd, Nina Vitopoulos, Tyler Frederick, Scott Leon, Jeff Karabanow, Kwame McKenzie
This article examines the feasibility of a complex intervention designed to facilitate the transition of youth out of homelessness. It is intended to contribute to efforts to build out the youth homelessness intervention literature, which is underdeveloped relative to descriptive characterizations of risk. The 6-month intervention examined here, referred to as the Housing Outreach Program-Collaboration (HOP-C), is comprised of transitional outreach-based case management, individual and group mental health supports, and peer support...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Felicia Mata-Greve, Lucas Torres
Experiencing discrimination or rejection from one's own ethnic group can have adverse effects on mental health above and beyond general ethnic discrimination alone. Intragroup marginalization is a term that involves being marginalized by members of one's own ethnic group for acting in concordance with the mainstream culture (Castillo, Conoley, Brossart, & Quiros, 2007). Minimal research has examined rejection by one's own ethnic group for acting too enculturated to one's home culture, or intragroup separation...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Lynn C Holley, Hyunsung Oh, De'Shay Thomas
Little is known about mental illness discrimination toward and supports for people with mental health conditions (MHCs) who are of color and/or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). Informed by an intersectionality framework that facilitates an understanding of intragroup dynamics, this exploratory qualitative study used in-depth interviews to ask 20 people with MHCs and family members of people with MHCs who also identified as of color and/or LGB about their experiences (a) with mental illness discrimination and supports within their identity communities and (b) in peer- and family-run programs...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Geneviève Laurent, Hannah K Hecht, Karin Ensink, Jessica L Borelli
Evidence suggests that emotional understanding (EU) assists in the regulation of aggression, which in turn, predicts better social functioning. Although the links among EU, aggression, and social functioning have been preliminarily explored, significant gaps remain in our comprehension of the factors that could qualify these links (e.g., impact of developmental stage, type of aggression, type of social functioning, and different dimensions of EU). Here we conduct a multidimensional assessment of EU, aggression, and social functioning within a sample of aggressive preschoolers (n = 24) and a matched comparison group (n = 26; N = 50, 26 girls; Mage = 53...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
John R Blosnich, Erin C Cassese, M Reuel Friedman, Robert W S Coulter, Jordan M Sang, Derrick D Matthews, Christina Mair
Religious freedom restoration acts (RFRAs) in the United States potentially facilitate discrimination against lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (i.e., sexual minorities). In the current investigation, we explored whether a population health metric among sexual minority adults changed over time based on the presence, absence, or introduction of a state RFRA. Data are from 21 of the United States that gathered sexual orientation data from population-based samples of noninstitutionalized adults in the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (CDC, 2015, 2016)...
September 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sarah N Wolford, Ashley N Cooper, Lenore M McWey
The link between maternal depression and negative child outcomes has been well-established; however, less is known regarding the impact of harsh parenting on child outcomes, especially for women living with depressive symptoms and whom also experienced child maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to examine harsh parenting practices as a mediator in this known association, in order to examine factors associated with negative child outcomes and to explore a reduction in future transmission of risk. Mediation analyses were conducted with 2 samples of mother-child dyads at separate time points (child age 6: n = 325; and youth age 12: n = 213) using data collected from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Adi Fridman-Teutsch, Shalhevet Attar-Schwartz
Commitment to school, commitment to learning, and educational expectations have been shown to contribute to positive outcomes among youth in the general population. However, it is an underexamined phenomenon among youth in care. This study examines the contribution of mother and father support and the moderating role of parents' marital status to commitment to school and learning among youth in residential care settings (RCSs) in Israel. The study was based on the reports of a random cluster sample of 1,409 adolescents (Grades 8 to 12) in 16 educational RCSs for youth from underprivileged backgrounds, who completed structured questionnaires...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
James A Griffin, Christopher F Drescher, Elizabeth D Eldridge, Alexis L Rossi, Megan M Loew, Lara M Stepleman
Sexual minority individuals experience a disproportionate burden of mental health issues, particularly in less populous cities of the southern United States. Unique identity-related stressors may explain these disparities. The current study examines relationships between sexual minority stress, identity, and anxiety in sexual minority individuals from a small metropolitan area of the South. Sexual minority individuals ( N = 249) from the Central Savannah River Area completed a survey assessing minority stress (i...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Inbal Barak, Adi Barak
This qualitative study explored the perspectives of at-risk Israeli female adolescents of Ethiopian origin (N = 15) regarding barriers to forming alliances with social workers. The study's rationale was based on the idea that an alliance enables clients to bring forth challenges and difficulties that are directly related to their well-being and, as such, is fundamental to the helping process. Four themes were identified as barriers to the forming of alliances with social workers: social workers' lack of availability; clients' perceived loss of independence in the process of receiving help; clients' sense of being forced to perform a different self ("passing"); and clients' difficulties in "opening up...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Travis Salway, Olivier Ferlatte, Aaron Purdie, Jean Shoveller, Terry Trussler, Mark Gilbert
Gay and bisexual men experience elevated rates of suicide ideation and attempts, as compared with heterosexual men, but face unique barriers in accessing health services. In this context, the present study sought to describe rates of health care engagement among gay and bisexual men with a recent history of suicide ideation or attempts. An anonymous online survey was conducted with 7,872 Canadian gay and bisexual men in 2014-2015. The sample was restricted to characterize patterns of mental health care engagement among respondents who reported suicide ideation or attempts in the previous 12 months...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
April Joy Damian, Tamar Mendelson, Janice Bowie, Joseph J Gallo
Youth exposure to trauma is a significant public health problem in the United States, particularly in urban areas. Although trauma-informed care (TIC) training of service providers to address this challenge is increasing nationwide, we lack empirical evidence regarding the feasibility and acceptability of cross-organizational TIC training, including perspectives of training participants. The purpose of our study was to evaluate participating service providers' self-reported changes in knowledge about trauma, attitudes toward traumatized individuals, and beliefs in their capacity to provide referrals to trauma services after completion of the TIC intervention...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Lawrence A Osborn, Catherine H Stein
Using a sample of 60 adults with serious mental illness in an inpatient psychiatric hospital, the present study examined the role of therapeutic relationship characteristics between consumers and mental health providers and consumers' views of recovery-oriented service delivery and individual well-being. Specifically, the present study examined how consumers' reports of working alliance and provider directiveness were associated with consumers' views of recovery-oriented service delivery and individual well-being...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Denise Saint Arnault, Seoyoon Woo
Despite increased risks for mental health problems, East Asian immigrant women have the lowest overall service-utilization rates of any cultural group in the United States. Although the influence of cultural processes as the cause of low service use is widely speculated, no empirical study has tested cultural determinants (including culturally specific idioms of distress, culture-based illness interpretations, or concerns about social consequences), social contextual factors, perceived need (PN), and help-seeking (HS) behaviors...
September 3, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sara M Williams, Laura M Frey, Dese'Rae L Stage, Julie Cerel
Gender and sexual minorities (GSM) are at a higher risk for victimization, discrimination, and emotional distress. GSM also face unique stressors that contribute to negative mental health outcomes, such as family and interpersonal rejection, ostracism and isolation, and internalized gender and sexual stigma. Suicide attempt survivors often experience similar stigma and isolation after an attempt. However, little is known about the specific experiences of GSM individuals who attempt suicide. Transcripts of interviews with 25 GSM attempt survivors conducted as part of the Live Through This project were analyzed using an interpretive phenomenological approach...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Aaron L Norton, Tony Xing Tan
Given the current political climate in the United States, it is ever more important to understand the role political ideology plays in the counseling profession. Our study examined the role of political ideologies in 467 licensed mental health counselors' preferred counseling theories in clinical practice. We found (a) most participants reported liberal political ideologies; (b) the participants preferred cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), humanistic/constructivist/existentialist, and mindfulness-based theories over systemic, psychodynamic, and experiential theories; and (c) self-identification as conservative, registration with the Republican Party, and endorsement of Libertarian beliefs predicted a preference for CBT, self-identified liberal ideology predicted a preference for psychodynamic theory, and lower levels of libertarian beliefs predicted a preference for humanistic theories...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
José Juan Vázquez, Alberto E Berríos, Enrique Bonilla, Alexia C Suarez
Homelessness is a global phenomenon that affects groups in situations of poverty and social exclusion, in both developed and developing nations. However, the scientific literature on homeless people in developing countries is scant. This work shows the difficulties defining homelessness and examines the necessary criteria for who will be deemed a homeless person in a developing country. Furthermore, the results of the Point-In-Time (PIT) count of homeless people-a measure of the number of homeless people on a specific day-done in the city of León, Nicaragua (population: 185,000)...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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