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Folia Microbiologica

Jana Amlerova, Ibrahim Bitar, Jaroslav Hrabak
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the most serious infectious diseases worldwide. Effective control of tuberculosis infection involves multiple steps, such as reliable detection, treatment, an epidemiological control as a part of case management, and further surveillance and monitoring of TB spread in the human population. Due to the accelerating advances in molecular biology, especially in DNA sequencing, in the past decade, the application of these methods has become crucial for TB evolution studies, differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes, and their distribution...
March 17, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Ekwu M Ameh, Sean Tyrrel, Jim Harris, Athanasios Ignatiou, Elena Orlova, Andreas Nocker
Disinfection aims at maximal inactivation of target organisms and the sustainable suppression of their regrowth. Whereas many disinfection efforts achieve efficient inactivation when the effect is measured directly after treatment, there are questions about the sustainability of this effect. One aspect is that the treated bacteria might recover and regain the ability to grow. In an environmental context, another question is how amenable surviving bacteria are to predation by omnipresent bacteriophages. Provisional data suggested that bacteria when subjected to sublethal heat stress might develop a phage-resistant phenotype...
March 15, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Misato Muro, Yoshihiko Soga, Tomoko Higuchi, Kota Kataoka, Daisuke Ekuni, Yoshinobu Maeda, Manabu Morita
Severe oral mucositis occurs frequently in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Oral mucosal bacteria can be associated with progression of oral mucositis, and systemic infection may occur via ulcerative oral mucositis. However, little information is available regarding the oral microbiota after HCT. Here, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to characterize the oral mucosal microbiota, which can be affected by antibiotics, before and after HCT. Sixty reduced-intensity HCT patients were enrolled...
March 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Anshu Babbar, Andreas Itzek, Dietmar H Pieper, D Patric Nitsche-Schmitz
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE), belonging to the group C and G streptococci, are human pathogens reported to cause clinical manifestations similar to infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. To scrutinize the distribution of gene coding for S. pyogenes virulence factors in SDSE, 255 isolates were collected from humans infected with SDSE in Vellore, a region in southern India, with high incidence of SDSE infections. Initial evaluation indicated SDSE isolates comprising of 82.35% group G and 17...
March 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Vladimír Kmeť, Anna Čuvalová, Michal Stanko
A total of 39 coagulase-negative staphylococci and seven Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from small mammal feces, i.e., the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the yellow-necked mouse (A. flavicollis) in two sampling areas, deciduous forest and karst plains. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed five species of coagulase-negative staphylococci: S. sciuri, S. hominis, S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, and S. xylosus. All strains were susceptible to tetracycline, linezolid, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Three MRSA strains with the mecA gene were detected...
March 9, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Marta Kierzkowska, Piotr Pędzisz, Ireneusz Babiak, Jakub Janowicz, Mateusz Kulig, Anna Majewska, Anna Sawicka-Grzelak, Grażyna Młynarczyk
Most Clostridium species are part of saprophytic microflora in humans and animals; however, some are well-known human pathogens. We presented the challenges in identifying the Clostridium species isolated from a patient with an infected open dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fourth digit of the right hand. The clinical materials were intraoperative samples collected from a patient diagnosed with an injury-related infection, with soft tissue loss and tendon sheath involvement. The available biochemical, molecular, and genetic techniques were used in identifying the isolated bacteria...
March 9, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
D Raszka, S Popelka, J Heřt, D Jahoda, I Landor, P Vavřík
Nocardiosis is a rare infection caused by the aerobic actinomycete of the Nocardia genus. In most cases, nocardiosis manifests as a lung infection or a bone lesion. Due to the nonspecific and mild clinical manifestations of nocardiosis, the establishment of definite diagnosis can be difficult. When antibiotic therapy is incorrectly targeted, only the symptoms of the disease are suppressed. The mainstay in the treatment of Nocardia osteomyelitis has so far been the combined surgical debridement with long-term, initially intravenous, antibiotic administration...
March 5, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Aliandra G de Medeiros, Daiani C Savi, Prithiba Mitra, Khaled A Shaaban, Amit K Jha, Jon S Thorson, Jürgen Rohr, Chirlei Glienke
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been observed with increasing frequency over the past decades, driving the search for new drugs and stimulating the interest in natural products sources. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants represent a great source of novel bioactive compounds useful to pharmaceutical and agronomical purposes. Diaporthe terebinthifolii is an endophytic species isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius, a plant used in popular medicine for several health problems. The strain D. terebinthifolii LGMF907 was previously reported by our group to produce secondary metabolites with biological activity against phytopathogens...
March 1, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, José F Espinosa-Pérez, Hiram Villanueva-Lozano, Alexandra M Montoya, Angel Andrade, Alexandro Bonifaz, Gloria M González
Candida bracarensis is an emerging cryptic species within the Candida glabrata clade. To date, little is known about its epidemiology, virulence, and antifungal susceptibility. This study documents the occurrence of C. bracarensis for the first time in Mexico and focuses on its in vitro production of hydrolytic enzymes, as well as antifungal susceptibility to echinocandins. This strain was isolated from a vaginal swab of a female with vulvovaginal candidosis; exhibited a very strong activity of aspartyl proteinase, phospholipase, and hemolysin; and was susceptible to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin (MIC = 0...
February 27, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Zdeněk Žižka
A simultaneous application of negative phase contrast and polarization microscopy was used to study the internal structure of microbial cells. Negative phase contrast allowed us to display the fine cell structures with a refractive index of light approaching that of the environment, e.g., the cytoplasm, and converted an invisible phase image to a visible amplitude one. In the polarizing microscope, cross-polarizing filters, together with first-order quartz compensator and a turntable, showed maximum birefringence of individual structures...
February 24, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Amany M Ibrahim, Yasser M Ragab, Khaled A Aly, Mohamed A Ramadan
The ESAT6-like Secretion System (ESS) of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus secretes heterodimeric virulence effectors such as EsxB and EsxD. To gain insights into the nature of EsxB-EsxD interaction, randomly mutated esxB generated by error-prone PCR was co-transformed together with esxD as adenylate cyclase fusion constructs into cyclase-deficient Escherichia coli, followed by reverse bacterial two-hybrid screening. Three color species were observed: dark blue, light blue, and white (no EsxB-EsxD interaction)...
February 22, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Bretislav Lipovy, Iva Kocmanova, Jakub Holoubek, Marketa Hanslianova, Matej Bezdicek, Hana Rihova, Ivan Suchanek, Pavel Brychta
Patients with critical thermal trauma belong to one of the most high-risk groups for development of infectious complications. Fungal infections are not among frequent complications during therapy of patients with thermal trauma, yet their incidence dramatically aggravates the prognosis for patients with this disorder. In the case report, we present the case of a young man with a critical burn, where Westerdykella dispersa was isolated. Identification of the pathogen was provided with a combination of cultivation and molecular biological confirmation...
February 17, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Christian Hernández, Adriane M F Milagres, Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo, Karla María Muñoz-Páez, José Antonio García-Pérez, Enrique Alarcón
Efficient hydrolysis of holocellulose depends on a proper balance between cellulase (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase) and xylanase activities. The present study aimed to induce the production of cellulases and xylanases using liquid cultures (one, two, three, and four fungal strains on the same bioreactor) of wild strains of Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum. The strains were identified by amplification and analysis of the ITS rDNA region and the obtained sequences were deposited in Genbank...
February 8, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Marcela Kúdelová, Monika Jánošová, Petra Belvončíková
Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen that infects murid rodents, which serves as hosts for Ixodes ricinus ticks. For the first time, MHV-68 was detected in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on Lacerta viridis lizards trapped in Slovakia, which supports the idea that ticks can acquire the virus from feeding on infected hosts. The recent discovery of MHV-68 infection and MHV-68 M3 gene transcripts in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in Slovakia also supports this suggestion. Here, for the first time, we report MHV-68 infection, which was detected by nested PCR, in I...
January 19, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Sinosh Skariyachan, Vaishnavi Sneha Sridhar, Swathi Packirisamy, Supreetha Toplar Kumargowda, Sneha Basavaraj Challapilli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium causes widespread diseases in humans. This bacterium is frequently related to nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteriaemia especially in immunocompromised patients. The current review focuses on the recent perspectives on biofilms formation by these bacteria. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often adhere to a surface. These adherent cells are usually embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)...
January 19, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Tatiana Kulakovskaya, Lyubov Ryazanova, Anton Zvonarev, Galina Khokhlova, Vladimir Ostroumov, Mikhail Vainshtein
Yeasts Cryptococcus humicola accumulated cadmium, cobalt, and iron (~ 50, 17, and 4% of the content in the medium, respectively) from the medium containing glucose, phosphate, and 2 mmol/L of metal salts. The effects of metal absorption on the levels of orthophosphate (Pi) and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) varied for the metals under study. The levels of Pi and polyP increased in the case of cadmium and cobalt, respectively. In the case of iron, no changes in the levels of Pi and polyP were observed. Multiple DAPI-stained polyP inclusions were observed in the cytoplasm of cadmium-containing cells...
January 19, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Márcia C Furlaneto, Helena P Góes, Hugo F Perini, Renan C Dos Santos, Luciana Furlaneto-Maia
Hemolytic factor production by pathogenic Candida species is considered an important attribute in promoting survival within the mammal host through the ability to assimilate iron from the hemoglobin-heme group. Hemolytic capability has been evaluated for Candida species based on hemolysis zones on plate assay, analysis of hemolytic activity in liquid culture medium, and hemolysis from cell-free culture broth. The production of hemolytic factor is variable among Candida species, where C. parapsilosis is the less hemolytic species...
January 15, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Farkhondeh Poursina, Jamshid Fagri, Nasrin Mirzaei, Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can convert to coccoid form in unfavorable conditions or as a result of antibiotic treatment. In order to adapt to harsh environments, H. pylori requires a stringent response which, encoded by the spoT gene, has a bifunctional enzyme possessing both (p)ppGpp synthetic and degrading activity. Our goal in this study was to compare spoT gene expression in spiral and induced coccoid forms of H. pylori with use of amoxicillin. First, clinical isolate coccoid forms were induced with amoxicillin; then, the viability test was analyzed by flow cytometer...
January 11, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Defne Gümüş, Fatma Kalaycı-Yüksek, Emre Yörük, Gülşen Uz, Eşref Çelik, Cansu Arslan, Elif Merve Aydın, Cem Canlı, Mine Anğ-Küçüker
The host is the main environment for bacteria, and they also expose to many antibiotics during the treatment of infectious diseases in host body. In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible changes in growth rate and expression levels of three virulence genes (foc/foc, cnf1, and usp) in a uropathogenic E. coli standard strain within the presence of ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The UPEC C7 strain was grown on tryptic soy broth-TSB (control), TSB + ciprofloxacin, TSB + nitrofurantoin, and TSB + trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for determination of both growth rate and gene expression level...
January 11, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Muhammad Yaqoob, Li Ping Wang, Jam Kashif, Javed Memon, Sajid Umar, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal, Muhammad Fiaz, Cheng-Ping Lu
The genetic basis for phenicol resistance was examined in 38 phenicol-resistant clinical Escherichia coli isolates from poultry. Out of 62 isolates, 38 showed resistance for chloramphenicol and nine for florfenicol, respectively. Each strain also demonstrated resistance to a variety of other antibiotics. Molecular detection revealed that the incidence rates of the cat1, cat2, flo, flo-R, cmlA, and cmlB were 32, 29, 18, 13, 0, and 0%, respectively. Nineteen strains were tolerant to organic solvents. PCR amplification of the complete acrR (regulator/repressor) gene of five isolates revealed the amino acid changes in four isolates...
January 6, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
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