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Folia Microbiologica

Ravi Bhushan Kumar, Syed Imteyaz Alam
Clostridium perfringens is a Validated Biological Agent and a pathogen of medical, veterinary, and military significance. Gas gangrene is the most destructive of all the clostridial diseases and is caused by C. perfringens type A strains wherein the infection spreads quickly (several inches per hour) with production of gas. Influence of repeated in vitro cultivation on the infectivity of C. perfringens was investigated by comparing the surface proteins of laboratory strain and repository strains of the bacterium using 2DE-MS approach...
February 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Jan Šíma, Rachel Milne, Čeněk Novotný, Pavel Hasal
White rot fungi (WRF) are applicable to biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, excessive biomass growth typical for WRF cultivation can hinder their large scale applications. Therefore, immobilization of Irpex lacteus to liquid-core alginate beads restricting excessive mycelium growth and simultaneously keeping high degradation rate of pollutants was tested. Effective diffusivities of dyes to the beads varied from (2.98 ± 0.69) × 10(-10) to (10.27 ± 2.60) × 10(-10) m(2)/s. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) were used as model dyes...
February 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Itxaso Montánchez, Anna Chao Kaberdina, Elena Sevillano, Lucía Gallego, Susana Rodríguez-Couto, Vladimir R Kaberdin
Polychlorinated aromatic compounds, including pentachlorobenzenes and hexachlorobenzenes, are recalcitrant industrial pollutants that cause adverse effects on living cells. In this paper, the isolation of Pseudomonas fluorescens species with high resistance to pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) is reported. It was found that, in contrast to its slightly negative effect on P. fluorescens growth, PeCB readily inhibited the cell growth of Serratia spp. and Escherichia coli strains, thus indicating that inhibition of bacterial growth by PeCB is species-dependent...
February 10, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Fernanda Freire, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge
Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C...
February 6, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Ivana Charousová, Heinrich Steinmetz, Juraj Medo, Soňa Javoreková, Joachim Wink
Myxobacteria, a group of antimicrobial producing bacteria, have been successfully cultured and characterized from ten soil samples collected from different parts of Slovakia. A total of 79 myxobacteria belonging to four genera (Myxococcus, Corallococcus, Sorangium, and Polyangium) were isolated based on aspects of their life cycle. Twenty-five of them were purified, fermented, and screened for antimicrobial activities against 11 test microorganisms. Results indicated that crude extracts showed more significant activities against Gram-positive than against Gram-negative bacteria or fungi...
February 4, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Dan-Dan Long, Rong-Rong Fu, Jian-Rong Han
Aspergillus oryzae G15 was cultured on Czapek yeast extract agar medium containing different concentrations of copper and lead to investigate the mechanisms sustaining metal tolerance. The effects of heavy metals on biomass, metal accumulation, metallothionein (MT), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were evaluated. Cu and Pb treatment remarkably delayed sclerotial maturation and inhibited mycelial growth, indicating the toxic effects of the metals. Cu decreased sclerotial biomass, whereas Pb led to an increase in sclerotial biomass...
January 29, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Ivana Shawkatová, Juraj Javor, Zuzana Párnická, Mária Bucová, Daniela Čopíková-Cudráková, Jozef Michalík, Karin Gmitterová, Daniel Čierny, Milan Buc, Vladimíra Ďurmanová
Infiltration of immune cells into CNS is one of the essential events in multiple sclerosis (MS) development. Adhesion molecules like the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) play critical role in this process. Therefore, the ICAM1 gene containing two important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belongs to candidate loci with possible involvement in MS susceptibility and/or severity. The objective of our case-control study was to analyze the association of two functional ICAM1 polymorphisms rs1799969 (or G241R) and rs5498 (or K469E) with susceptibility to MS and evaluate their influence on the age at disease onset, severity, neurological disability and progression rate...
January 27, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Roberto Zoccola, Maurizio Mazzei, Maria Luisa Carrozza, Emanuele Ricci, Mario Forzan, Federica Pizzurro, Monica Giammarioli, Patrizia Bandecchi, Francesco Tolari
A single-step TaqMan® RT-qPCR was developed for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), an important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The assay was based on conserved 5'UTR sequences of Italian BVDV-1 isolates. In order to establish a diagnostic protocol which simplifies sample collection and processing, the assay was tested on a variety of biological specimens collected from persistently infected calves. The samples analyzed included PBMCs, plasma, dry blood, ear notch and hair bulb. Time and costs required for the analysis of each type of specimen were compared...
January 26, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
M Pánek, M Tomšovský
The reactions of isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, P. nicotianae and P. × pelgrandis to metalaxyl, mancozeb, dimethomorph, streptomycin and chloramphenicol were tested to obtain information about the variability of resistance in these pathogens. Distinct genetic groups showed significant differences in resistance to all tested substances except streptomycin. In response to streptomycin, the growth inhibition rates of distinct groups did not differ significantly. The most remarkable differences were detected in the reactions to chloramphenicol and metalaxyl...
January 26, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Haruo Sugita, Shun Kitao, Satoshi Narisawa, Ryosuke Minamishima, Shiro Itoi
Intestinal bacteria isolated from goldfish (Carassius auratus) were identified based on 16 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences and screened for their ability to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), an autoinducer of the quorum sensing (QS) system. The 230 aerobes/facultative anaerobes that were isolated comprised members of the genera Aeromonas (184 isolates), Citrobacter (11), Enterobacter (2), Shewanella (28), Vagococcus (1), and Vibrio (4). Among these genera, the two most abundant species were Aeromonas veronii (163 isolates) and Shewanella xiamenensis (27)...
January 26, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Anuraag Boddupalli, Rameshwar Tiwari, Anamika Sharma, Surender Singh, Radha Prasanna, Lata Nain
There is a growing interest in the use of bioinoculants to assist mineral fertilizers in improving crop production and yield. Azotobacter and Pseudomonas are two agriculturally relevant strains of bacteria which have been established as efficient bioinoculants. An experiment involving addition of graded concentrations of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was undertaken using log phase cultures of Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Growth kinetics revealed a clear trend of gradual decrease with Pseudomonas; however, Azotobacter exhibited a twofold enhancement in growth with increase in the concentration of ZnO concentration...
January 20, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Fatemeh Andalibi, Mehdi Fatahi-Bafghi
Gordonia spp. are members of the actinomycete family, and the environment, especially soil, is the natural habitat of this genus of bacteria. Gordonia spp. are important for two aspects: first, some Gordonia species cause a broad spectrum of diseases in healthy and immunocompromised individuals; second, these bacteria are capable of producing useful secondary metabolites, which may be used in various industries; therefore, discrimination of the genus Gordonia from other genera in the actinomycete family is important...
January 20, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Malabika Banerjee, Debaprasad Parai, Subrata Chattopadhyay, Samir Kumar Mukherjee
Increasing bacterial resistance to common drugs is a major public health concern for the treatment of infectious diseases. Certain naturally occurring compounds of plant sources have long been reported to possess potential antimicrobial activity. This study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity and possible mechanism of action of andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone from a traditional medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. Extent of antibacterial action was assessed by minimal bactericidal concentration method...
January 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Andrea Lauková, Anna Kandričáková, Pavel Pleva, Leona Buňková, Jana Ščerbová
In ostriches and pheasants, there is still limited information relating to staphylococci and their properties. Biogenic amines (BAs) are nitrogenous low-molecular-weight substances with biological functions in animals, plants and microorganisms. In this study, we focused on BA production by targeted faecal staphylococci from ostriches and pheasants and their sensitivity to lantibiotic bacteriocin gallidermin. Gallidermin belongs in a group of polycyclic proteinaceous antimicrobial substances. Thirty-six faecal staphylococci (24 strains from 140 ostriches, 12 from 60 pheasants) comprising different species were tested...
January 13, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Alicja Sękowska
The genus Raoultella belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Raoultella spp. are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile rods. This genus can be distinguished from the genus Klebsiella, in that genus use histamine as the only source of carbon in the medium. Also, Raoultella grow at 4 °C and do not produce gas from lactose at 44.5 °C. Raoultella sp. is known to inhabit natural environments (water, soil, plants). The reservoir of Raoultella is the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract. Raoultella spp...
January 6, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Shahid Rafi, Amna Shoaib, Zoia Arshad Awan, Nayab Batool Rizvi, Nafisa, Muhammad Shafiq
Sclerotium rolfsii is one of the most destructive fungal plant pathogens that can infect over 500 plants and can adapt to diverse environmental conditions. The present research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of both hexa- and trivalent chromium (Cr) on growth, morphology, enzymatic characteristics, and metal accumulation in S. rolfsii under laboratory conditions. Experiments were performed in both malt extract broth and agar growth medium amended with six different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm) of each Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions inoculated with fungus and incubated for 6-7 days at 25 ± 3 °C...
December 26, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Annet Heuvelink, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Hilmar van Weering, Erik van Engelen, Michael Bülte, Ömer Akineden
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a vigorous microorganism which causes incurable chronic enteritis, Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. A target of control programmes for JD is to accurately detect MAP-infected cattle early to reduce disease transmission. The present study evaluated the efficacy of two different cultural procedures and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection of subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Therefore, sixty-one faecal samples were collected from two Dutch dairy herds (n = 40 and n = 21, respectively) which were known to be MAP-ELISA positive...
December 17, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Young Min Lee, Hanbyul Lee, Young Mok Heo, Hwanhwi Lee, Joo-Hyun Hong, Jae-Jin Kim
The present study was conducted to determine the gene responsible for beta-glucosidase (BGL) production and to generate a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of one of the putative BGL genes, which showed a significant expression level when Schizophyllum commune KUC9397 was grown in optimized medium. The relative expression levels of seven genes encoding BGL of S. commune KUC9397 were determined with real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR in cellulose-containing optimized medium (OM) compared to glucose-containing basal medium (BM)...
November 30, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Daniele Zendrini Rechenchoski, Ligia Carla Faccin-Galhardi, Rosa Elisa Carvalho Linhares, Carlos Nozawa
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common and widespread; nevertheless, their outcome can be of unpredictable prognosis in neonates and in immunosuppressed patients. Anti-HSV therapy is effective, but the emergence of drug-resistant strains or the drug toxicity that hamper the treatment is of great concern. Vaccine has not yet shown relevant benefit; therefore, palliative prophylactic measures have been adopted to prevent diseases. This short review proposes to present concisely the history of HSV, its taxonomy, physical structure, and replication and to explore the pathogenesis of the infection, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis and epidemiology of the diseases...
March 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Sonika Sharma, Soumya Chatterjee, Sibnarayan Datta, Rishika Prasad, Dharmendra Dubey, Rajesh Kumar Prasad, Mohan G Vairale
Bacteriophages (or phages), the most abundant viral entity of the planet, are omni-present in all the ecosystems. On the basis of their unique characteristics and anti-bacterial property, phages are being freshly evaluated taxonomically. Phages replicate inside the host either by lytic or lysogenic mode after infecting and using the cellular machinery of a bacterium. Since their discovery by Twort and d'Herelle in the early 1900s, phage became an important agent for combating pathogenic bacteria in clinical treatments and its related research gained momentum...
January 2017: Folia Microbiologica
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