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Journal of Radiation Research

Hitoshi Maemoto, Takafumi Toita, Takuro Ariga, Joichi Heianna, Tsuneo Yamashiro, Sadayuki Murayama
To determine the predictive factors affecting uterine movement during radiotherapy (RT), we quantified interfraction uterine movement using computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT). A total of 38 patients who underwent definitive RT for cervical cancer were retrospectively analyzed. We compared pre-RT planning CT (n = 38) and intratreatment CBCT (n = 315), measuring cervical and corporal movement in each direction. Correlations between uterine movement and volume changes of the bladder and rectum on all CBCT scans were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation analysis...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Kaye Showler, Mayumi Nishimura, Kazuhiro Daino, Tatsuhiko Imaoka, Yukiko Nishimura, Takamitsu Morioka, Benjamin J Blyth, Toshiaki Kokubo, Masaru Takabatake, Maki Fukuda, Hitomi Moriyama, Shizuko Kakinuma, Masahiro Fukushi, Yoshiya Shimada
The PI3K/AKT pathway is one of the most important signaling networks in human breast cancer, and since it was potentially implicated in our preliminary investigations of radiation-induced rat mammary carcinomas, our aim here was to verify its role. We included mammary carcinomas induced by the chemical carcinogen 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to determine whether any changes were radiation-specific. Most carcinomas from both groups showed activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, but phosphorylation of AKT1 was often heterogeneous and only present in a minority of carcinoma cells...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Chun-Ming Huang, Ming-Yii Huang, Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Ching-Wen Huang, Cheng-Jen Ma, Chih-Hung Lin, Chih-Jen Huang, Jaw-Yuan Wang
The aim of the study was to compare clinical outcomes and toxicity between 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) administered through helical tomotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy. We reviewed 144 patients with Stage II-III rectal cancer receiving preoperative fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy followed by radical resection. Tumor responses following chemoradiotherapy were evaluated using the Dworak tumor regression grade (TRG)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Moonkyoo Kong, Seong Eon Hong
The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of tumor regression with respect to follow-up duration after chemoradiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A total of 27 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included and received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patterns of primary tumor regression and development of locoregional recurrences were evaluated by imaging studies every 1 to 2 months. Primary tumors gradually regressed over the period of follow-up. The median time to full regression was 4...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Zhou Huang, Bing Sun, Ge Shen, Lei Cha, Xiangying Meng, Junliang Wang, Zhenshan Zhou, Shikai Wu
The outcome of recurrent brain metastasis is dismal. This study aims to assess the clinical outcomes and toxicity of reirradiation as a salvage treatment for progressive brain metastasis in patients with advanced breast cancer. Between July 2005 and September 2014, the medical records of 56 patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Of these patients, 39 received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) reirradiation (Group 1), and 17 received SRS followed by WBRT reirradiation (Group 2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Kouji Katsura, Satoru Utsunomiya, Eisuke Abe, Hironori Sakai, Naotaka Kushima, Satoshi Tanabe, Takumi Yamada, Takahide Hayakawa, Yoshihiko Yamanoi, Syuhei Kimura, Shinichi Wada, Hidefumi Aoyama, Takafumi Hayashi
The changes in dose distribution caused by backscatter radiation from a common commercial dental alloy (Au-Ag-Pd dental alloy; DA) were investigated to identify the optimal material and thicknesses of a dental device (DD) for effective prevention of mucositis. To this end, 1 cm(3) of DA was irradiated with a 6-MV X-ray beam (100 MU) in a field size of 10 × 10 cm(2) using a Novalis TX linear accelerator. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyolefin elastomer, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were selected as DD materials...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Jinmei Chen, Weijian Zhang, Lurong Zhang, Jiemin Zhang, Xiuying Chen, Meichun Yang, Ting Chen, Jinsheng Hong
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common complication of thoracic radiotherapy, but efficacious therapy for RILI is lacking. This study ascertained whether glycyrrhetinic acid (GA; a functional hydrolyzed product of glycyrrhizic acid, which is extracted from herb licorice) can protect against RILI and investigated its relationship to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smads signaling pathway. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a GA group and two irradiation (IR) groups...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Yudai Izumi, Kentaro Fujii, Satoshi Yamamoto, Koichi Matsuo, Hirofumi Namatame, Masaki Taniguchi, Akinari Yokoya
Synchrotron-radiation circular-dichroism spectroscopy was used to reveal that the DNA damage response induces a decrement of α-helix and an increment of β-strand contents of histone H3-H4 extracted from X-ray-irradiated human HeLa cells. The trend of the structural alteration was qualitatively opposite to that of our previously reported results for histone H2A-H2B. These results strongly suggest that histones share roles in DNA damage responses, particularly in DNA repair processes and chromatin remodeling, via a specific structural alteration of each histone...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Jeong Il Yu, Hee Chul Park, Yong Chan Ahn, Xian-Shu Gao, Jun-Jie Wang, Zhao-Chong Zeng, Yoshinori Ito, Tatsuya Ohno, Yasumasa Nishimura
This online survey of practising radiation oncologists from Korea, China and Japan was conducted to investigate the current practices in radiotherapy (RT) for spine metastasis and to compare these practices across the three countries. The questionnaire included nine general information questions and two clinical scenarios (representing 'typical' and 'good' prognosis spine metastasis), with seven questions for each scenario. An anonymous web-based survey using Google Docs® was undertaken from 2 September 2014 to 9 April 2015...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Tomoyuki Shirai, Jianqing Wang, Mayumi Kawabe, Kanako Wake, So-Ichi Watanabe, Satoru Takahashi, Osamu Fujiwara
In everyday life, people are exposed to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with multiple frequencies. To evaluate the possible adverse effects of multifrequency RF EMFs, we performed an experiment in which pregnant rats and their delivered offspring were simultaneously exposed to eight different communication signal EMFs (two of 800 MHz band, two of 2 GHz band, one of 2.4 GHz band, two of 2.5 GHz band and one of 5.2 GHz band). Thirty six pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) 10-week-old rats were divided into three groups of 12 rats: one control (sham exposure) group and two experimental (low- and high-level RF EMF exposure) groups...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Ling Zhou, Baoquan Wan, Xingfa Liu, Yemao Zhang, Jinsheng Lai, Guoran Ruan, Mengying He, Chen Chen, Dao Wen Wang
A 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) is a potential health-risk factor. Its effects on the cardiovascular system have not been fully investigated. This study was conducted to explore the effects of long-term exposure to a 50-Hz MF on the cardiovascular system. In the study, an exposure system was constructed, and the distribution of the 50-Hz MF was determined. Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to a 50-Hz MF at 100 μT for 24 weeks, 20 h per day, while another 64 rats were sham exposed. During the exposure, blood pressure was measured every 4 weeks...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Li-Hua Zhang, Jing-Yan Li, Qi Tian, Shuang Liu, Hong Zhang, Sheng Liu, Jiu-Gen Liang, Xian-Ping Lu, Ning-Yi Jiang
The aims of the present study were to analyze the outcomes of pregnancy, after (131)I treatment, in patients of reproductive age with Graves' hyperthyroidism and to investigate the effects, if any, of the (131)I treatment on the mothers and newborns. From 2009 to 2014, 257 pregnant female patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism in the outpatients at the Department of Nuclear Medicine and 166 healthy pregnant women from the Department of Obstetrics at Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital were included in our study. They were divided into a (131)I therapy group (n = 130) and an anti-thyroid drug (ATD) group (n = 127) according to their therapy before conception...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Masao S Sasaki, Satoru Endo, Masaharu Hoshi, Taisei Nomura
The calculated risk of cancer in humans due to radiation exposure is based primarily on long-term follow-up studies, e.g. the life-span study (LSS) on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since A-bomb radiation consists of a mixture of γ-rays and neutrons, it is essential that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons is adequately evaluated if a study is to serve as a reference for cancer risk. However, the relatively small neutron component hampered the direct estimation of RBE in LSS data...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Norie Kanzaki, Takahiro Kataoka, Reo Etani, Kaori Sasaoka, Akihiro Kanagawa, Kiyonori Yamaoka
In our previous studies, we found that low-dose radiation inhibits oxidative stress-induced diseases due to increased antioxidants. Although these effects of low-dose radiation were demonstrated, further research was needed to clarify the effects. However, the analysis of oxidative stress is challenging, especially that of low levels of oxidative stress, because antioxidative substances are intricately involved. Thus, we proposed an approach for analysing oxidative liver damage via use of a self-organizing map (SOM)-a novel and comprehensive technique for evaluating hepatic and antioxidative function...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Koujiro Ikushima, Hidetaka Arimura, Ze Jin, Hidetake Yabu-Uchi, Jumpei Kuwazuru, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Tomonari Sasaki, Hiroshi Honda, Masayuki Sasaki
We have proposed a computer-assisted framework for machine-learning-based delineation of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) following an optimum contour selection (OCS) method. The key idea of the proposed framework was to feed image features around GTV contours (determined based on the knowledge of radiation oncologists) into a machine-learning classifier during the training step, after which the classifier produces the 'degree of GTV' for each voxel in the testing step. Initial GTV regions were extracted using a support vector machine (SVM) that learned the image features inside and outside each tumor region (determined by radiation oncologists)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Tomoko Itazawa, Yukihisa Tamaki, Takafumi Komiyama, Yasumasa Nishimura, Yuko Nakayama, Hiroyuki Ito, Yasuhisa Ohde, Masahiko Kusumoto, Shuji Sakai, Kenji Suzuki, Hirokazu Watanabe, Hisao Asamura
The purpose of this study was to develop a consensus-based computed tomographic (CT) atlas that defines lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer based on the lymph node map of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). A project group in the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) initially prepared a draft of the atlas in which lymph node Stations 1-11 were illustrated on axial CT images. Subsequently, a joint committee of the Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS) and the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology (JASTRO) was formulated to revise this draft...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Hideya Yamazaki, Masato Fushiki, Takashi Mizowaki
The aim of this study was to survey the current status of reirradiation (Re-RT) and patterns of practice in Japan. An email questionnaire was sent to Kansai Cancer Therapist Group partner institutions, using questions similar to those in the Canadian radiation oncologist (RO) survey (2008). A total of 34 ROs from 28 institutions returned the survey. All 28 institutions experienced Re-RT cases in 2014. However, 26 of the 28 institutions (93%) reported difficulty in obtaining Re-RT case information from their respective databases...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Hiroyuki Okamoto, Akihisa Wakita, Satoshi Nakamura, Shie Nishioka, Ako Aikawa, Toru Kato, Yoshihisa Abe, Kazuma Kobayashi, Koji Inaba, Naoya Murakami, Jun Itami
The brachytherapy dose calculations used in treatment planning systems (TPSs) have conventionally been performed assuming homogeneous water. Using measurements and a Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluated the dosimetric impact of an air passage on brachytherapy for bronchus cancer. To obtain the geometrical characteristics of an air passage, we analyzed the anatomical information from CT images of patients who underwent intraluminal brachytherapy using a high-dose-rate (192)Ir source (MicroSelectron V2r®, Nucletron)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Iori Sumida, Hajime Yamaguchi, Indra J Das, Hisao Kizaki, Keiko Aboshi, Mari Tsujii, Yuji Yamada, Kiesuke Tamari, Osamu Suzuki, Yuji Seo, Fumiaki Isohashi, Yasuo Yoshioka, Kazuhiko Ogawa
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the motion interplay effect in early-stage left-sided breast cancer intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), incorporating the radiobiological gamma index (RGI). The IMRT dosimetry for various breathing amplitudes and cycles was investigated in 10 patients. The predicted dose was calculated using the convolution of segmented measured doses. The physical gamma index (PGI) of the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR) was calculated by comparing the original with the predicted dose distributions...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Claire Wen-Chi Yang, Chun-Wei Wang, Ruey-Long Hong, Chiao-Ling Tsai, Ming Yao, Jih-Luh Tang, Chung-Wu Lin, Ann-Lii Cheng, Sung-Hsin Kuo
Treatment strategies for nasal extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), including sequential chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (SCRT), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), or radiotherapy alone (RT), remain varied. The purpose of this study was to assess the treatment outcome, the toxicity, and the potential prognostic factors for patients with early-stage nasal ENKTL treated using definitive RT (minimum of 50 Gy) with or without chemotherapy. From 1998 to 2014, 37 patients were included in the study. Eight patients were treated with RT alone, 1 with CCRT, and 28 with SCRT...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
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