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Journal of Radiation Research

Sanziana R I Schiopu, Gregor Habl, Matthias Häfner, Sonja Katayama, Klaus Herfarth, Juergen Debus, Florian Sterzing
The aim of this study was to describe early and late toxicity, survival and local control in 45 patients with primary brain tumors treated with helical tomotherapy craniospinal irradiation (HT-CSI). From 2006 to 2014, 45 patients with central nervous system malignancies were treated with HT-CSI. The most common tumors were medulloblastoma in 20 patients, ependymoma in 10 patients, intracranial germinoma (ICG) in 7 patients, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor in 4 patients. Hematological toxicity during treatment included leukopenia Grades 1-4 (6...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Atiyeh Ebrahimi Khankook, Hashem Miri Hakimabad, Laleh Rafat Motavalli
Computational models of the human body have gradually become crucial in the evaluation of doses absorbed by organs. However, individuals may differ considerably in terms of organ size and shape. In this study, the authors sought to determine the energy-dependent standard deviations due to lung size of the dose absorbed by the lung during external photon and neutron beam exposures. One hundred lungs with different masses were prepared and located in an adult male International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantom...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Animal experimental studies indicate that acute or chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (≤100 mSv) or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (LDRIR) (<6 mSv/h) exposures may be harmful. It induces genetic and epigenetic changes and is associated with a range of physiological disturbances that includes altered immune system, abnormal brain development with resultant cognitive impairment, cataractogenesis, abnormal embryonic development, circulatory diseases, weight gain, premature menopause in female animals, tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Yu Ohkubo, Yoshihiro Saito, Hiroki Ushijima, Masahiro Onishi, Tomoko Kazumoto, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Nobuko Kubota, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Nobuo Maseki, Yu Nishimura, Masafumi Kurosumi
This study aimed to assess the long-term outcomes of radiotherapy in patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients with Stage I gastric MALT lymphoma were treated with radiotherapy from 1999 to 2010. The median age was 65 years (range: 31-84). Fifteen patients were Helicobacter pylori-negative. Thirteen patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone. The other 14 patients who had refractory or residual disease following a prior treatment received salvage radiotherapy...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Katsuya Maruyama, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takuma Nomiya, Hiroyuki Katoh, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Tadashi Kamada, Masaru Wakatsuki, Koichiro Akakura, Jun Shimazaki, Hidefumi Aoyama, Hirohiko Tsujii
The aim of this study was to prospectively assess 5-year health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for clinically localized prostate cancer. A total of 417 patients received carbon ion radiotherapy at a total dose of 63-66 Gray-equivalents (GyE) in 20 fractions over 5 weeks, and neoadjuvant and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were administered for intermediate and high-risk patients. A HRQOL assessment was performed at five time points (immediately before the initiation of C-ion RT, immediately after, and at 12, 36 and 60 months after completion of C-ion RT) using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) questionnaires...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Kensuke Naganawa, Masashi Koto, Ryo Takagi, Azusa Hasegawa, Hiroaki Ikawa, Kazuo Shimozato, Tadashi Kamada, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Oral mucosal malignant melanoma (OMM) is extremely rare and has a poor prognosis. Owing to its rarity, it has not yet been possible to establish an optimal treatment modality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for OMM. Between 1997 and 2013, 19 patients with OMM were treated with C-ion RT alone. Patient ages ranged from 44 to 84 years (median, 69 years). Nine men and 10 women were included. OMMs were restaged in accordance with the seventh edition of the tumour/node/metastasis (TNM) Staging System of the International Union Against Cancer...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Satoshi Tamada, Noriko Ninomiya, Koichiro Kitamoto, Minoru Kato, Takeshi Yamasaki, Taro Iguchi, Tetsuji Ohmachi, Tatsuya Nakatani
We sought to investigate the long-term outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) and external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for the treatment of localized prostate cancer in Japanese patients. RP and radiation therapy are curative treatments for localized prostate cancer. However, there is controversy around which treatment is superior in Japanese patients. The aim of our retrospective study was to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of each treatment. We retrospectively evaluated the overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and biochemical failure-free survival (BFS) for patients who had been diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and treated with RP (n = 248) or conventional 2D or 3D-CRT EBRT (n = 182) between 1995 and 2009...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Tatsuya Ohno, Shin-Ei Noda, Noriyuki Okonogi, Kazutoshi Murata, Kei Shibuya, Hiroki Kiyohara, Tomoaki Tamaki, Ken Ando, Takahiro Oike, Yu Ohkubo, Masaru Wakatsuki, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Takashi Nakano
Herein, we investigate the long-term clinical outcomes for cervical cancer patients treated with in-room computed tomography-based brachytherapy. Eighty patients with Stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer, who had undergone treatment with combined 3D high-dose rate brachytherapy and conformal radiotherapy between October 2008 and May 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. External beam radiotherapy (50 Gy) with central shielding after 20-40 Gy was performed for each patient. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered concurrently to advanced-stage patients aged ≤75 years...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Yusuke Matsuya, Kaori Tsutsumi, Kohei Sasaki, Yuji Yoshii, Takaaki Kimura, Hiroyuki Date
Hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) is a well-known bioresponse under low-dose or low-dose-rate exposures. Although disorder of the DNA repair function, non-targeted effects and accumulation of cells in G2 have been experimentally observed, the mechanism for inducing HRS by long-term irradiation is still unclear. On the basis of biological experiments and a theoretical study, we have shown that change in the amount of DNA associated with accumulation of cells in G2 enhances radiosensitivity. To demonstrate continuous irradiation with 250 kVp X-rays, we adopted a fractionated regimen of 0...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu, Toshiyuki Okumura, Daichi Takizawa, Haruko Numajiri, Kayoko Ohnishi, Masashi Mizumoto, Teruhito Aihara, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Koji Tsuboi, Hideyuki Sakurai
Liver metastases from gastric cancer (LMGC) is a non-curable, fatal disease with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. Although various local treatments have been applied, their clinical utility has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of proton beam therapy (PBT) for the treatment of patients with LMGC. A total of nine patients (seven men, two women; aged 56-78 years) with LMGC who received PBT between 2002 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had tumors confined to the liver were investigated, and patients who had extrahepatic tumors were excluded...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Ryosuke Takenaka, Akihiro Haga, Hideomi Yamashita, Keiichi Nakagawa
Recently, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been used for total-body irradiation (TBI). Since the planning target volume (PTV) for TBI includes the surrounding air, a dose prescription to the PTV provides high fluence to the body surface. Thus with just a small set-up error, the body might be exposed to a high-fluence beam. This study aims to assess which target volume should be prescribed the dose, such as a clinical target volume (CTV) with a margin, or a CTV that excludes the surface area of the skin...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Ghulam Murtaza, Stefania Cora, Ehsan Ullah Khan
Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is an efficient form of radiotherapy used to deliver intensity-modulated radiotherapy beams. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative insensitivity of VMAT plan quality to gantry angle spacing (GS). Most previous VMAT planning and dosimetric work for GS resolution has been conducted for single arc VMAT. In this work, a quantitative comparison of dose-volume indices (DIs) was made for partial-, single- and double-arc VMAT plans optimized at 2°, 3° and 4° GS, representing a large variation in deliverable multileaf collimator segments...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Lucian Beer, Lucas Nemec, Tanja Wagner, Robin Ristl, Lukas M Altenburger, Hendrik Jan Ankersmit, Michael Mildner
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts that modulate mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression, thereby controlling multiple cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation of gene expression, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Ionizing radiation (IR), a strong cellular stressor, is known to influence gene expression of irradiated cells, mainly by activation of oxidative processes. Whether and how IR also affects lncRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is still poorly understood...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Daisuke Iizuka, Susumu Yoshioka, Hidehiko Kawai, Shunsuke Izumi, Fumio Suzuki, Kenji Kamiya
The demand for establishment of high-throughput biodosimetric methods is increasing. Our aim in this study was to identify low-molecular-weight urinary radiation-responsive molecules using electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FT MS), and our final goal was to develop a sensitive biodosimetry technique that can be applied in the early triage of a radiation emergency medical system. We identified nine metabolites by statistical comparison of mouse urine before and 8 h after irradiation...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Tohru Yamamori, Tomoya Sasagawa, Osamu Ichii, Mie Hiyoshi, Tomoki Bo, Hironobu Yasui, Yasuhiro Kon, Osamu Inanami
Mitochondria strongly contribute to the maintenance of cellular integrity through various mechanisms, including oxidative adenosine triphosphate production and calcium homeostasis regulation. Therefore, proper regulation of the abundance, distribution and activity of mitochondria is crucial for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that ionizing radiation (IR) alters mitochondrial functions, suggesting that mitochondria are likely to be an important target of IR. Though IR reportedly influences cellular mitochondrial abundance, the mechanism remains largely unknown...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Katsuya Yahara, Takayuki Ohguri, Hiroki Udono, Junkoh Yamamoto, Kyosuke Tomura, Toshihiro Onoda, Hajime Imada, Shigeru Nishizawa, Yukunori Korogi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) boosts after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy with chemotherapy in patients with glioblastoma. Twenty-four patients with glioblastoma were treated with the combined therapy, which was RT using IMRT boosts after HBO with chemotherapy, and were retrospectively analyzed. The RT protocol was as follows: first, 3D conformal RT [40 Gy/20 fractions (fr)] was delivered to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the surrounding edema, including an additional 1...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Hideyuki Mizuno, Shigekazu Fukuda, Akifumi Fukumura, Yuzuru-Kutsutani Nakamura, Cao Jianping, Chul-Koo Cho, Nana Supriana, To Anh Dung, Miriam Joy Calaguas, C R Beena Devi, Yaowalak Chansilpa, Parvin Akhter Banu, Masooma Riaz, Surya Esentayeva, Shingo Kato, Kumiko Karasawa, Hirohiko Tsujii
A dose audit of 16 facilities in 11 countries has been performed within the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) quality assurance program. The quality of radiation dosimetry varies because of the large variation in radiation therapy among the participating countries. One of the most important aspects of international multicentre clinical trials is uniformity of absolute dose between centres. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan has conducted a dose audit of participating countries since 2006 by using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters (RGDs)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Tiju Chacko, Aditya Menon, Teeju Majeed, Sivaprabha V Nair, Nithu Sara John, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair
Several phytoceuticals and extracts of medicinal plants are reported to mitigate deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. The potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of Clerodendron infortunatum (CIE) for providing protection to mice exposed to gamma radiation was investigated. Oral administration of CIE bestowed a survival advantage to mice exposed to lethal doses of gamma radiation. Radiation-induced depletion of the total blood count and bone marrow cellularity were prevented by treatment with CIE. Damage to the cellular DNA (as was evident from the comet assay and the micronucleus index) was also found to be decreased upon CIE administration...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Satoshi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Akihisa Wakita, Rei Umezawa, Kana Takahashi, Koji Inaba, Naoya Murakami, Toru Kato, Hiroshi Igaki, Yoshinori Ito, Yoshihisa Abe, Jun Itami
There are many reports concerning patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). However, reports about the statistical results of QA are lacking. Management methods for the results of the QA are needed, even though we have the ESTRO group recommendation that a tolerance limit of 1.96 standard deviation (SD) be established in each institution. The purpose of this study was to establish a management method for determining the tolerance limit and to report the statistical results of patient-specific QA...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Tatsuya Ohno, Masaru Wakatsuki, Takafumi Toita, Yuko Kaneyasu, Ken Yoshida, Shingo Kato, Noriko Li, Sunao Tokumaru, Hitoshi Ikushima, Takashi Uno, Shin-Ei Noda, Tomoko Kazumoto, Yoko Harima
Our purpose was to develop recommendations for contouring the computed tomography (CT)-based high-risk clinical target volume (CTVHR) for 3D image-guided brachytherapy (3D-IGBT) for cervical cancer. A 15-member Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) committee with expertise in gynecological radiation oncology initiated guideline development for CT-based CTVHR (based on a comprehensive literature review as well as clinical experience) in July 2014. Extensive discussions occurred during four face-to-face meetings and frequent email communication until a consensus was reached...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
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