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Journal of Radiation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423138/radiation-resistance-of-normal-human-astrocytes-the-role-of-non-homologous-end-joining-dna-repair-activity
#1
Michelle A Bylicky, Gregory P Mueller, Regina M Day
Radiotherapy is a common modality for treatment of brain cancers, but it can induce long-term physiological and cognitive deficits. The responses of normal human brain cells to radiation is not well understood. Astrocytes have been shown to have a variety of protective mechanisms against oxidative stress and have been shown to protect neurons. We investigated the response of cultured normal human astrocytes (NHAs) to X-ray irradiation. Following exposure to 10 Gy X-irradiation, NHAs exhibited DNA damage as indicated by the formation of γ-H2AX foci...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407560/development-of-a-markerless-tumor-tracking-algorithm-using-prior-four-dimensional-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#2
Ritu Bhusal Chhatkuli, Kazuyuki Demachi, Mitsuru Uesaka, Keiichi Nakagawa, Akihiro Haga
Respiratory motion management is a huge challenge in radiation therapy. Respiratory motion induces temporal anatomic changes that distort the tumor volume and its position. In this study, a markerless tumor-tracking algorithm was investigated by performing phase recognition during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using four-dimensional cone-beam computer tomography (4D-CBCT) obtained at patient registration, and in-treatment cone-beam projection images. The data for 20 treatment sessions (five lung cancer patients) were selected for this study...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407546/monte-carlo-modeling-of-a-60co-mri-guided-radiotherapy-system-on-geant4-and-experimental-verification-of-dose-calculation-under-a-magnetic-field-of-0-35-t
#3
Hiroyuki Okamoto, Shie Nishioka, Kotaro Iijima, Satoshi Nakamura, Tatsuya Sakasai, Yuki Miura, Mihiro Takemori, Hiroki Nakayama, Yuichiro Morishita, Morihito Shimizu, Yoshihisa Abe, Hiroshi Igaki, Yuko Nakayama, Jun Itami
Our purpose was to establish the commissioning procedure of Monte Carlo modeling on a magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiotherapy system (MRIdian, Viewray Inc.) under a magnetic field of 0.345 T through experimental measurements. To do this, we sought (i) to assess the depth-dose and lateral profiles generated by the Geant4 using either EBT3 film or the BJR-25 data; (ii) to assess the calculation accuracy under a magnetic field of 0.345 T. The radius of the electron trajectory caused by the electron return effect (ERE) in a vacuum was obtained both by the Geant4 and the theoretical methods...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395295/seven-years-post-fukushima-long-term-measurement-of-exposure-doses-in-tomioka-town
#4
Akira Tsukazaki, Yasuyuki Taira, Makiko Orita, Noboru Takamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395286/proposal-for-determining-absolute-biological-effectiveness-of-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-the-effect-of-10b-n-%C3%AE-7li-dose-can-be-predicted-from-the-nucleocytoplasmic-ratio-or-the-cell-size
#5
Koji Ono, Hiroki Tanaka, Yuki Tamari, Tsubasa Watanabe, Minoru Suzuki, Shin-Ichiro Masunaga
The relationship between the radiation dose delivered to a tumor and its effect is not completely predictable. Uncertainty in the estimation of the boron concentration in a tumor, variation in the radiation sensitivity of the tumor cells, and the complexity of the interactions between the four types of radiation comprising the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) dose contribute to this uncertainty. We reanalyzed the data of our previous papers to investigate the variation in radiosensitivity of tumor cells to the 10B(n,α)7Li dose: the dose generated by the reaction of thermal neutrons and 10B, hereafter the 'boron-neutron dose'...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358876/evaluation-of-the-radioprotective-effects-of-thymoquinone-on-dynamic-thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-during-total-body-irradiation-in-rats
#6
Cigdem Damla Deniz, Meryem Aktan, Ozcan Erel, Mehmet Gurbilek, Mehmet Koc
Ionizing radiation-induced free radicals cause functional and structural harmful effects. Thiol, an important antioxidant, plays a major role in the eradication of reactive oxygen molecules. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis is a marker of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to assess the potential radioprotective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on the dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis of rats receiving total-body irradiation (IR). Twenty-two rats were divided into three groups to test the radioprotective effectiveness of TQ...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339232/erratum
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321392/controversial-issues-in-radiotherapy-after-breast-conserving-surgery-for-early-breast-cancer-in-older-patients-a-systematic-review
#8
Liuwei Tang, Haruo Matsushita, Keiichi Jingu
Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease among older women, and the number of new older patients per year is increasing year by year. Radiotherapy has been confirmed as an important treatment after breast conservation for the reduction of local recurrence and mortality for all patients, including node-positive cases. However, there are fewer clinical trials evaluating the toxicity and benefits of radiotherapy for older patients. Whether radiotherapy can provide substantial benefit for older patients after breast-conserving surgery is controversial...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260398/the-healing-effect-of-hydrogen-rich-water-on-acute-radiation-induced-skin-injury-in-rats
#9
Ping Zhou, Bing Lin, Peng Wang, Tao Pan, Shun Wang, Weisi Chen, Shaowen Cheng, Sha Liu
This study aimed to determine the healing effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on radiotherapy-induced skin injury. Rats were irradiated with a 6 MeV electron beam from a Varian linear accelerator. After skin wound formation, rats were individually administrated with distilled water, HRW (1.0 ppm) or HRW (2.0 ppm). We measured the healing time and observed the healing rate of the wounded surface. After irradiation, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the wounded tissues were evaluated, as determined using an MDA and SOD assay kit...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247685/effect-of-metallic-tools-on-scattered-radiation-dose-during-the-use-of-c-arm-fluoroscopy-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#10
Ki Hyuk Sung, Young-Jun Jung, Hyemi Cha, Chin Youb Chung, Kisung Lee, Moon Seok Park
This study investigated the effect of metallic tools on the scattered radiation dose delivered to surgeons' radiosensitive organs while simulating hip surgery using C-arm fluoroscopy. Two phantoms, a pelvis and a Rando phantom, were used to simulate a patient and a surgeon in this study. Photoluminescence dosimeters were inserted into the Rando phantom in the positions of the eye, thyroid and gonad. A drill was positioned above the hip of the pelvis phantom or beside the pelvis phantom of the same height. For each drill location, the scattered radiation dose was measured when the angle to the operator phantom was 45°; this was repeated when the angle was 90°...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247674/effect-of-metal-containing-topical-agents-on-surface-doses-received-during-external-irradiation
#11
Ayumi Iyama, Tomohiko Matsuyama, Eriko Matsumoto, Takafumi Araki, Satoshi Inokuchi, Mizuki Yamashita, Noritoshi Honda, Taiga Miyake, Tetsuo Saito, Ryo Toya, Yudai Kai, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Natsuo Oya
The ability of topical metal-containing agents (MCAs) to enhance radiation dermatitis remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated increases in surface doses associated with topical agents at different application thicknesses and with MCAs versus non-metal containing agents (NMCAs). We assessed two clinically available MCAs, zinc oxide ointment (ZOO) and silver sulfadiazine cream (SSDC), and eight NMCAs. Surface doses were measured using a Markus chamber placed on a polystyrene phantom. To evaluate the role of application thickness, each agent was applied to the chamber in oil-slick (<0...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247662/radiomics-with-artificial-intelligence-for-precision-medicine-in-radiation-therapy
#12
Hidetaka Arimura, Mazen Soufi, Kamezawa, Kenta Ninomiya, Masahiro Yamada
Recently, the concept of radiomics has emerged from radiation oncology. It is a novel approach for solving the issues of precision medicine and how it can be performed, based on multimodality medical images that are non-invasive, fast and low in cost. Radiomics is the comprehensive analysis of massive numbers of medical images in order to extract a large number of phenotypic features (radiomic biomarkers) reflecting cancer traits, and it explores the associations between the features and patients' prognoses in order to improve decision-making in precision medicine...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247656/purified-pegylated-human-glucagon-like-peptide-2-reduces-the-severity-of-irradiation-induced-acute-radiation-enteritis-in-rats
#13
Tian Zhang, Lei Shi, Yuan Xu, Yang Li, Shicao Li, Bo Guan, Zhihua Qi, Ye Zhang, Linna Liu
Radiation-induced acute intestinal injury after abdominal and pelvic irradiation is a common and serious problem in the clinical setting. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a 33-amino acid peptide, exerts diverse effects related to the regulation of gastrointestinal growth and function. However, GLP-2 is relatively unstable in vivo. The aim of the present study was to improve GLP-2 stability in vivo and to evaluate its therapeutic effect on acute radiation enteritis. We generated long-lasting intestinal protection peptides by conjugating human GLP-2 (hGLP-2) peptides to polyethyleneglycol (PEG) to produce mPEGylation hGLP-2 (Mono-PEG-hGLP-2) through an enzymatic site-specific transglutamination reaction...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247651/thirty-two-years-post-chernobyl-risk-perception-about-radiation-and-health-effects-among-the-young-generation-in-gomel-republic-of-belarus
#14
Rei Ohkuma, Jumpei Takahashi, Tamara Sharshakova, Anastasiya Sachkouskaya, Anatoly Lyzikov, Evgenii Voropaev, Dmitrii Ruzanov, Makiko Orita, Yasuyuki Taira, Noboru Takamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247612/in-cellulo-phosphorylation-of-dna-double-strand-break-repair-protein-xrcc4-on-ser260-by-dna-pk
#15
Ali Reza Amiri Moghani, Mukesh Kumar Sharma, Yoshihisa Matsumoto
XRCC4 is one of the core factors for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). XRCC4 is phosphorylated by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), with Ser260 and Ser320 (Ser318 in the alternatively spliced form) being the major phosphorylation sites in vitro. It was recently reported that Ser320 is phosphorylated by DNA-PK in response to DNA damage; however, it is currently unclear whether Ser260 is phosphorylated in cellulo in response to DNA damage. Herein, we generated an antibody against XRCC4 phosphorylated on Ser260 and examined its phosphorylation status via Western blotting...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239765/influence-of-risk-organ-based-tube-current-modulation-on-ct-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-a-biological-phantom-model
#16
Michael Brand, Wolfgang Wuest, Matthias May, Michael Uder, Matthias Sommer
Techniques for dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) are receiving increasing attention. Lowering the tube current in front of the patient, known as risk-organ-based tube current modulation (RTM), represents a new approach. Physical dose parameters can determine the exposure but are not able to assess the biological-X-ray interactions. The purpose of this study was to establish a biological phantom model to evaluate the effect of RTM on X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In breast phantoms and in the location of the spine in an Alderson phantom, isolated human blood lymphocytes were irradiated using a 128-slice CT scanner...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169853/cytokines-and-radiation-induced-pulmonary-injuries
#17
Anna Lierova, Marcela Jelicova, Marketa Nemcova, Magdalena Proksova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Lenka Zarybnicka, Zuzana Sinkorova
Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatment strategies for thorax malignancies. One of the considerable limitations of this therapy is its toxicity to normal tissue. The lung is the major dose-limiting organ for radiotherapy. That is because ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that induce lesions, and not only is tumor tissue damaged, but overwhelming inflammatory lung damage can occur in the alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium. This damage may result in radiation-induced pneumonitis and/or fibrosis...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165446/high-susceptibility-of-mouse-newborns-to-delayed-appearance-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#18
Kenta Sakaguchi, Kazunori Shiraishi, Seiji Kodama
Fetal brains are known to be extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation, which can induce structural and functional defects in the developing brain. However, there is less data on the effects of radiation on newborn brains. To determine the radiation sensitivity in newborn brains, we determined the number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) appearing at later stage post-irradiation in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) of mouse newborns <3 days old, and compared it with the numbers of DSBs of fetal, 1-week-neonate, 2-week-neonate, and adult mice...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165406/determining-survival-fractions-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-response-to-ionizing-radiation-in-liquid-culture
#19
Xiaopeng Guo, Miaomiao Zhang, Yue Gao, Wenjian Li, Dong Lu
Saccharomyces cerevisiae survival fractions (SFs) in response to X-ray radiation were determined by two new methods: an OD600-based method and a 96-well method. For the OD600-based method, cells were exposed to various X-ray doses and inoculated into fresh medium: a lower biomass accumulated, indicating fewer surviving cells within the investigated dose range (0-100 Gy). For the 96-well method, diluent containing ~0-100 cells was equally divided into 96 droplets and respectively inoculated into 96 wells containing 200 μl of broth: fewer wells without S...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137391/japanese-structure-survey-of-radiation-oncology-in-2010
#20
Hodaka Numasaki, Teruki Teshima, Tetsuo Nishimura, Keizo Akuta, Yutaka Ando, Hiroshi Ikeda, Norihiko Kamikonya, Masahiko Koizumi, Tomonari Sasaki, Kenji Sekiguchi, Masao Tago, Atsuro Terahara, Katsumasa Nakamura, Masamichi Nishio, Masao Murakami, Yoshimasa Mori, Kazuhiko Ogawa
We evaluated the evolving structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and overcome any existing limitations. From March 2011 to June 2013, the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology conducted a questionnaire based on the Japanese national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2010. Data were analyzed based on the institutional stratification by the annual number of new patients treated with radiotherapy per institution...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
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