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Journal of Radiation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541506/differences-in-responses-to-x-ray-exposure-between-osteoclast-and-osteoblast-cells
#1
Jian Zhang, Ziyang Wang, Anqing Wu, Jing Nie, Hailong Pei, Wentao Hu, Bing Wang, Peng Shang, Bingyan Li, Guangming Zhou
Radiation-induced bone loss is a potential health concern for cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Enhanced bone resorption by osteoclasts and decreased bone formation by osteoblasts were thought to be the main reasons. In this study, we showed that both pre-differentiating and differentiating osteoclasts were relatively sensitive to X-rays compared with osteoblasts. X-rays decreased cell viability to a greater degree in RAW264.7 cells and in differentiating cells than than in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510700/enhanced-biological-activities-of-gamma-irradiated-persimmon-leaf-extract
#2
Byoung-Ok Cho, Denis Nchang Che, Hong-Hua Yin, Seon-Il Jang
The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498931/protective-effects-of-hot-spring-water-drinking-and-radon-inhalation-on-ethanol-induced-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-mice
#3
Reo Etani, Takahiro Kataoka, Norie Kanzaki, Akihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yuu Ishimori, Fumihiro Mitsunobu, Takehito Taguchi, Kiyonori Yamaoka
Radon therapy using radon (222Rn) gas is classified into two types of treatment: inhalation of radon gas and drinking water containing radon. Although short- or long-term intake of spa water is effective in increasing gastric mucosal blood flow, and spa water therapy is useful for treating chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer, the underlying mechanisms for and precise effects of radon protection against mucosal injury are unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482074/carbon-ion-irradiation-abrogates-lin28b-induced-x-ray-resistance-in-melanoma-cells
#4
Seong-Joon Park, Kyu Heo, Chulwon Choi, Kwangmo Yang, Akiko Adachi, Hiroko Okada, Yukari Yoshida, Tatsuya Ohno, Takashi Nakano, Akihisa Takahashi
The Lin28/let-7 axis plays an important role in tumor initiation and developmental processes. Lin28B is upregulated in a variety of cancers, and its overexpression enhances cancer cell proliferation and radioresistance through the suppression of let-7 micro RNA expression. In this study, we investigated the role of the Lin28/let7 axis as a target for radiosensitization of melanoma cancer cells. The overexpression of Lin28B reduced mature let-7 microRNA expression in melanoma cell lines, and enhanced the sphere-forming ability of melanoma cell lines, which is a characteristic of cancer stem cell (CSC) populations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472381/a-simulation-study-on-the-dosimetric-benefit-of-real-time-motion-compensation-in-spot-scanning-proton-therapy-for-prostate
#5
Yusuke Fujii, Taeko Matsuura, Seishin Takao, Yuka Matsuzaki, Takaaki Fujii, Naoki Miyamoto, Kikuo Umegaki, Kentaro Nishioka, Shinichi Shimizu, Hiroki Shirato
For proton spot scanning, use of a real-time-image gating technique incorporating an implanted marker and dual fluoroscopy facilitates mitigation of the dose distribution deterioration caused by interplay effects. This study explored the advantages of using a real-time-image gating technique, with a focus on prostate cancer. Two patient-positioning methods using fiducial markers were compared: (i) patient positioning only before beam delivery, and (ii) patient positioning both before and during beam delivery using a real-time-gating technique...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444359/realistic-dosimetry-for-studies-on-biological-responses-to-x-rays-and-%C3%AE-rays
#6
Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni, Dragana Krstic, Dragoslav Nikezic, Kwan Ngok Yu
A calibration coefficient R (= DA/DE) for photons was employed to characterize the photon dose in radiobiological experiments, where DA was the actual dose delivered to cells and DE was the dose recorded by an ionization chamber. R was determined using the Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP-5) code. Photons with (i) discrete energies, and (ii) continuous-energy distributions under different beam conditioning were considered. The four studied monoenergetic photons had energies E = 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 2 MeV...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444207/characterization-of-relative-biological-effectiveness-for-conventional-radiation-therapy-a-comparison-of-clinical-6-mv-x-rays-and-137cs
#7
Michelle Howard, Chris Beltran, Jann Sarkaria, Michael G Herman
Various types of radiation are utilized in the treatment of cancer. Equal physical doses of different radiation types do not always result in the same amount of biological damage. In order to account for these differences, a scaling factor known as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) can be used. 137Cesium (137Cs) has been used as a source of radiation in a significant body of radiation therapy research. However, high-energy X-rays, such as 6 MV X-rays, are currently used clinically to treat patients...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430990/three-dimensional-dose-prediction-and-validation-with-the-radiobiological-gamma-index-based-on-a-relative-seriality-model-for-head-and-neck-imrt
#8
Noriaki Hamatani, Iori Sumida, Yutaka Takahashi, Michio Oda, Yuji Seo, Fumiaki Isohashi, Keisuke Tamari, Kazuhiko Ogawa
This study proposes a quality assurance (QA) method incorporating radiobiological factors based on the QUANTEC-determined tumor control probability and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy (HN-IMRT). Per-beam measurements were conducted for 20 cases using a 2D detector array. Three-dimensional predicted dose distributions within targets and organs at risk were reconstructed based on the per-beam QA results derived from differences between planned and measured doses...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419319/influence-of-concentration-nanoparticle-size-beam-energy-and-material-on-dose-enhancement-in-radiation-therapy
#9
Chulhwan Hwang, Ja Mee Kim, JungHoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of the type, concentration, and nanoparticle diameter of dose enhancement materials on the dose enhancement of low- and high-energy megavoltage (MV) X-rays acquired from a medical linear accelerator using Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulation was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNPX) code, using the energy spectrum of the linear accelerator and a mathematical Snyder head phantom. A 5-cm-diameter virtual tumour was defined in the centre of the phantom...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402443/effect-of-radiation-induced-endothelial-cell-injury-on-platelet-regeneration-by-megakaryocytes
#10
Fang Chen, Mingqiang Shen, Dongfeng Zeng, Cheng Wang, Song Wang, Shilei Chen, Yong Tang, Mengjia Hu, Mo Chen, Yongping Su, Xinze Ran, Yang Xu, Junping Wang
Thrombocytopenia is an important cause of hemorrhage and death after radiation injury, but the pathogenesis of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia has not been fully characterized. Here, we investigated the influence of radiation-induced endothelial cell injury on platelet regeneration. We found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) underwent a high rate of apoptosis, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 96 h after radiation. Subsequent investigations revealed that radiation injury lowered the ability of HUVECs to attract migrating megakaryocytes (MKs)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402432/educational-outcomes-of-a-medical-physicist-program-over-the-past-10%C3%A2-years-in-japan
#11
Noriyuki Kadoya, Kumiko Karasawa, Iori Sumida, Hidetaka Arimura, Yasumasa Kakinohana, Shigeto Kabuki, Hajime Monzen, Teiji Nishio, Hiroki Shirato, Syogo Yamada
The promotion plan for the Platform of Human Resource Development for Cancer (Ganpro) was initiated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan in 2007, establishing a curriculum for medical physicists. In this study, we surveyed the educational outcomes of the medical physicist program over the past 10 years since the initiation of Ganpro. The Japan Society of Medical Physics mailing list was used to announce this survey. The questionnaire was created by members of the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification, and was intended for the collection of information regarding the characteristics and career paths of medical physics students...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369631/microfabrication-of-a-gadolinium-derived-solid-state-sensor-for-thermal-neutrons
#12
Kent B Pfeifer, Komandoor E Achyuthan, Matthew Allen, Michele L B Denton, Michael P Siegal, Ronald P Manginell
Neutron sensing is critical in civilian and military applications. Conventional neutron sensors are limited by size, weight, cost, portability and helium supply. Here the microfabrication of gadolinium (Gd) conversion material-based heterojunction diodes for detecting thermal neutrons using electrical signals produced by internal conversion electrons (ICEs) is described. Films with negligible stress were produced at the tensile-compressive crossover point, enabling Gd coatings of any desired thickness by controlling the radiofrequency sputtering power and using the zero-point near p(Ar) of 50 mTorr at 100 W...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369600/involvement-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-ionizing-radiation-induced-upregulation-of-cell-surface-toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-expression-in-human-monocytic-cells
#13
Hironori Yoshino, Ikuo Kashiwakura
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are indispensable for antibacterial and antiviral immunity. Our previous report showed that ionizing radiation increases the cell surface expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 and enhances their responses to agonists in human monocytic THP1 cells. The present study investigated how ionizing radiation increases the cell surface expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in THP1 cells. The THP1 cells treated or not treated with pharmaceutical agents such as cycloheximide and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) were exposed to X-ray irradiation, following which the expressions of TLRs and mitogen-activated protein kinase were analyzed...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369536/the-influence-of-physique-on-dose-conversion-coefficients-for-idealised-external-photon-exposures-a-comparison-of-doses-for-chinese-male-phantoms-with-10th-50th-and-90th-percentile-anthropometric-parameters
#14
Wei Lv, Hengda He, Qian Liu
For evaluating radiation risk, the construction of anthropomorphic computational phantoms with a variety of physiques can help reduce the uncertainty that is due to anatomical variation. In our previous work, three deformable Chinese reference male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile body mass indexes and body circumference physiques (DCRM-10, DCRM-50 and DCRM-90) were constructed to represent underweight, normal weight and overweight Chinese adult males, respectively. In the present study, the phantoms were updated by correcting the fat percentage to improve the precision of radiological dosimetry evaluations...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369484/nbs1-is-regulated-by-two-kind-of-mechanisms-atm-dependent-complex-formation-with-mre11-and-rad50-and-cell-cycle-dependent-degradation-of-protein
#15
Hui Zhou, Kasumi Kawamura, Hiromi Yanagihara, Junya Kobayashi, Qiu-Mei Zhang-Akiyama
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a condition similar to Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T), is a radiation-hypersensitive genetic disorder showing chromosomal instability, radio-resistant DNA synthesis, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to malignances. The product of the responsible gene, NBS1, forms a complex with MRE11 and RAD50 (MRN complex). The MRN complex is necessary for the DNA damage-induced activation of ATM. However, the regulation of MRN complex formation is still unclear. Here, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of MRN complex formation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369556/the-effects-of-50-hz-magnetic-field-exposure-on-dna-damage-and-cellular-functions-in-various-neurogenic-cells
#16
Liling Su, Aziguli Yimaer, Xiaoxia Wei, Zhengping Xu, Guangdi Chen
Epidemiological studies have indicated a possible association between extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure and the risk of nervous system diseases. However, laboratory studies have not provided consistent results for clarifying this association, despite many years of studies. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of 50 Hz MF exposure on DNA damage and cellular functions in both neurogenic tumor cell lines (U251, A172, SH-SY5Y) and primary cultured neurogenic cells from rats (astrocytes, microglia, cortical neurons)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340212/accelerated-senescence-in-skin-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-multi-organ-injury
#17
Elizabeth A McCart, Rajesh L Thangapazham, Eric D Lombardini, Steven R Mog, Ronald Allan M Panganiban, Kelley M Dickson, Rihab A Mansur, Vitaly Nagy, Sung-Yop Kim, Reed Selwyn, Michael R Landauer, Thomas N Darling, Regina M Day
Accidental high-dose radiation exposures can lead to multi-organ injuries, including radiation dermatitis. The types of cellular damage leading to radiation dermatitis are not completely understood. To identify the cellular mechanisms that underlie radiation-induced skin injury in vivo, we evaluated the time-course of cellular effects of radiation (14, 16 or 17 Gy X-rays; 0.5 Gy/min) in the skin of C57BL/6 mice. Irradiation of 14 Gy induced mild inflammation, observed histologically, but no visible hair loss or erythema...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340154/irradiation-strongly-reduces-tumorigenesis-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Shoki Inui, Kazumasa Minami, Emiko Ito, Hiromasa Imaizumi, Seiji Mori, Masahiko Koizumi, Satsuki Fukushima, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Nariaki Matsuura
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have demonstrated they can undergo self-renewal, attain pluripotency, and differentiate into various types of functional cells. In clinical transplantation of iPS cells, however, a major problem is the prevention of tumorigenesis. We speculated that tumor formation could be inhibited by means of irradiation. Since the main purpose of this study was to explore the prevention of tumor formation in human iPS (hiPS) cells, we tested the effects of irradiation on tumor-associated factors such as radiosensitivity, pluripotency and cell death in hiPS cells...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339918/can-clinically-relevant-dose-errors-in-patient-anatomy-be-detected-by-gamma-passing-rate-or-modulation-complexity-score-in-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-for-intracranial-tumors
#19
Shingo Ohira, Yoshihiro Ueda, Masaru Isono, Akira Masaoka, Misaki Hashimoto, Masayoshi Miyazaki, Masaaki Takashina, Masahiko Koizumi, Teruki Teshima
We investigated whether methods conventionally used to evaluate patient-specific QA in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for intracranial tumors detect clinically relevant dosimetric errors. VMAT plans with coplanar arcs were designed for 37 intracranial tumors. Dosimetric accuracy was validated by using a 3D array detector. Dose deviations between the measured and planned doses were evaluated by gamma analysis. In addition, modulation complexity score for VMAT (MCSv) for each plan was calculated. Three-dimensional dose distributions in patient anatomy were reconstructed using 3DVH software, and clinical deviations in dosimetric parameters between the 3DVH doses and planned doses were calculated...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339788/intravenous-dendritic-cell-administration-enhances-suppression-of-lung-metastasis-induced-by-carbon-ion-irradiation
#20
Ken Ando, Hidetoshi Fujita, Akihiro Hosoi, Liqiu Ma, Masaru Wakatsuki, Ken-Ichiro Seino, Kazuhiro Kakimi, Takashi Imai, Takashi Shimokawa, Takashi Nakano
Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is an advanced radiotherapy and has achieved good local control, even in tumors that are resistant to conventional photon beam radiotherapy (PBRT). However, distant metastasis control is an important issue. Recently, the combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy has attracted the attention. In immunotherapy, dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the anti-tumor immune system. However, the mechanisms underlying the combination therapy of DCs and radiotherapy have been unclear...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
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