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Journal of Radiation Research

Thomas J Whitaker, Charles S Mayo, Daniel J Ma, Michael G Haddock, Robert C Miller, Kimberly S Corbin, Michelle Neben-Wittich, James L Leenstra, Nadia N Laack, Mirek Fatyga, Steven E Schild, Carlos E Vargas, Katherine S Tzou, Austin R Hadley, Steven J Buskirk, Robert L Foote
Patient- and provider-reported outcomes are recognized as important in evaluating quality of care, guiding health care policy, comparative effectiveness research, and decision-making in radiation oncology. Combining patient and provider outcome data with a detailed description of disease and therapy is the basis for these analyses. We report on the combination of technical solutions and clinical process changes at our institution that were used in the collection and dissemination of this data. This initiative has resulted in the collection of treatment data for 23 541 patients, 20 465 patients with provider-based adverse event records, and patient-reported outcome surveys submitted by 5622 patients...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Keiji Kobashi, Anussara Prayongrat, Takuya Kimoto, Chie Toramatsu, Yasuhiro Dekura, Norio Katoh, Shinichi Shimizu, Yoichi M Ito, Hiroki Shirato
Modern radiotherapy technologies such as proton beam therapy (PBT) permit dose escalation to the tumour and minimize unnecessary doses to normal tissues. To achieve appropriate patient selection for PBT, a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model can be applied to estimate the risk of treatment-related toxicity relative to X-ray therapy (XRT). A methodology for estimating the difference in NTCP (∆NTCP), including its uncertainty as a function of dose to normal tissue, is described in this study using the Delta method, a statistical method for evaluating the variance of functions, considering the variance-covariance matrix...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Quynh-Thu Le, Hiroki Shirato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Lucyna Kepka, Joanna Socha
We greatly appreciate the recent publication of a Japan Lung Cancer Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology consensus-based computed tomographic atlas for defining regional lymph node stations (LNSs) for radiotherapy for lung cancer. This atlas is based on the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) consensus lymph node map, which resolved differences between the Japanese and American classification and was incorporated into the seventh edition of the TNM staging system. The authors must be commended for providing a very clear, comprehensive presentation of the borders of the mediastinal and hilar LNSs, using a multidisciplinary approach...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Naruhiro Matsufuji
Variation in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) within the irradiation field of a carbon beam makes carbon-ion radiotherapy unique and advantageous in delivering the therapeutic dose to a deep-seated tumor, while sparing surrounding normal tissues. However, it is crucial to consider the RBE, not only in designing the dose distribution during treatment planning, but also in analyzing the clinical response retrospectively. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, the RBE model was established based on the response of human salivary gland cells...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Tatsuo Miyamoto, Silvia Natsuko Akutsu, Hiroshi Tauchi, Yoshiki Kudo, Satoshi Tashiro, Takashi Yamamoto, Shinya Matsuura
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) are the initial and critical step in major alteration of genetic information and cell death. To prevent deleterious effects, DNA repair systems recognize and re-join DNA DSBs in human cells. It has been suggested that there are individual differences in radiosensitivity within human populations, and that variations in DNA repair genes might contribute to this heterogeneity. Because confounding factors, including age, gender, smoking, and diverse genetic backgrounds within human populations, also influence the cellular radiosensitivity, to accurately measure the effect of candidate genetic variations on radiosensitivity, it is necessary to use human cultured cells with a uniform genetic background...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Satoshi Suzuki, Michio Murakami, Tatsuhiro Nishikiori, Shigeki Harada
Fukushima residents' negative views on the safety of water and air environments have been a concern since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The objective of this study was to clarify the factors determining these negative views and their association with radiation risk perception using the opinion poll conducted by Fukushima Prefecture from 2010 to 2015. In a model, in which the objective variables were the views on the safety of water and air environments, and the explanatory variables were the regions constituting Fukushima and the age and sex of the residents, the odds ratio (OR) of the views on the safety of the water and air environments (reference region: the least affected region) was significantly low at 0...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Daisuke Irie, Noriyuki Okonogi, Masaru Wakatsuki, Shingo Kato, Tatsuya Ohno, Kumiko Karasawa, Hiroki Kiyohara, Daijiro Kobayashi, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada, Makio Shozu
This is a pooled analysis to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for inoperable endometrial carcinoma. Eligible patients had previously untreated Stage I-III endometrial carcinoma without para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Total dose to the tumor was 62.4-74.4 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE)] in 20 fractions, and the dose to the gastrointestinal tract was limited to <60 Gy (RBE). Intracavitary brachytherapy was not combined in the present study. Fourteen patients with endometrial carcinoma were analyzed...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Ryo Nishikawa, Kenji Yoshida, Yasuhiko Ebina, Mayumi Omoteda, Daisuke Miyawaki, Takeaki Ishihara, Yasuo Ejima, Hiroaki Akasaka, Hitoaki Satoh, Katsusuke Kyotani, Satoru Takahashi, Ryohei Sasaki
This study aimed to compare dosimetric parameters between non-optimized and optimized treatment planning (NOP and OP, respectively) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -based intracavitary (IC) image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using the central shielding (CS) technique for cervical cancer. Fifty-three patients treated with external beam radiotherapy using CS and MRI-based IGABT with the IC approach alone were evaluated. The total high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 was aimed at >70 Gy equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Lin Shi, Satoshi Tashiro
X-rays are widely applied in the medical field for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Among the uses of X-rays in diagnosis, computed tomography (CT) has been established as one of the most informative diagnostic radiology examinations. Moreover, recent advances in CT scan technology have made this examination much easier and more informative and increased its application, especially in Japan. However, the radiation dose of CT scans is higher than that of simple X-ray examinations. Therefore, the health risk of a CT scan has been discussed in various studies, but is still controversial...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Young Shin Lee, Woong Heo, Jiho Nam, Young Hwa Jeung, Jaeho Bae
Bortezomib, which is a potent proteasome inhibitor, has been used as a first-line drugs to treat multiple myeloma for a few decades, and radiotherapy has frequently been applied to manage acute bone lesions in the patients. Therefore, it was necessary to investigate what the benefits might be if the two therapies were applied simultaneously in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Since it was known that radiotherapy and proteasome inhibitors could increase the expression of NKG2D ligands through induction of protein synthesis and suppression of protein degradation of NKG2D ligands, respectively, we supposed that the combined treatment might further enhance the expression of NKG2D ligands...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Nicholas Dainiak
A high-casualty incident may result in a significant human toll due to the inability of a community to meet the health care demands of the population. A successful medical response requires health care facilities to not only communicate and integrate medical services, meet surge capacity, protect health care workers and implement triage and treatment protocols, but also to provide the venue for clinical management of acute radiation injuries and their associated infections. Today, clinical management is primarily guided by the recommendations of a Consultancy that were made at the World Health Organization (WHO)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Anussara Prayongrat, Kikuo Umegaki, Arjen van der Schaaf, Albert C Koong, Steven H Lin, Thomas Whitaker, Todd McNutt, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Edward Graves, Masahiko Mizuta, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Hiroyuki Date, Kensuke Moriwaki, Yoichi M Ito, Keiji Kobashi, Yasuhiro Dekura, Shinichi Shimizu, Hiroki Shirato
Particle beam therapy (PBT), including proton and carbon ion therapy, is an emerging innovative treatment for cancer patients. Due to the high cost of and limited access to treatment, meticulous selection of patients who would benefit most from PBT, when compared with standard X-ray therapy (XRT), is necessary. Due to the cost and labor involved in randomized controlled trials, the model-based approach (MBA) is used as an alternative means of establishing scientific evidence in medicine, and it can be improved continuously...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Werner Rühm, Tamara Azizova, Simon Bouffler, Harry M Cullings, Bernd Grosche, Mark P Little, Roy S Shore, Linda Walsh, Gayle E Woloschak
In order to quantify radiation risks at exposure scenarios relevant for radiation protection, often extrapolation of data obtained at high doses and high dose rates down to low doses and low dose rates is needed. Task Group TG91 on 'Radiation Risk Inference at Low-dose and Low-dose Rate Exposure for Radiological Protection Purposes' of the International Commission on Radiological Protection is currently reviewing the relevant cellular, animal and human studies that could be used for that purpose. This paper provides an overview of dose rates and doses typically used or present in those studies, and compares them with doses and dose rates typical of those received by the A-bomb survivors in Japan...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Diego A S Toesca, Bulat Ibragimov, Amanda J Koong, Lei Xing, Albert C Koong, Daniel T Chang
Although well described in the 1960s, liver toxicity secondary to radiation therapy, commonly known as radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), remains a major challenge. RILD encompasses two distinct clinical entities, a 'classic' form, composed of anicteric hepatomegaly, ascites and elevated alkaline phosphatase; and a 'non-classic' form, with liver transaminases elevated to more than five times the reference value, or worsening of liver metabolic function represented as an increase of 2 or more points in the Child-Pugh score classification...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Erqi L Pollom, Dylann K Fujimoto, Summer S Han, Jeremy P Harris, Suzanne A Tharin, Scott G Soltys
The optimal time for starting radiation in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is controversial. We aimed to evaluate postoperative radiotherapy treatment patterns and the impact of timing of radiotherapy on survival outcomes in patients with GBM using a large, national hospital-based registry in the era of Stupp chemoradiation. We performed a retrospective cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base and identified adults with GBM diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 and treated with chemoradiation. We classified time from surgery/biopsy to radiation start into the following categories: <15 days, 15-21 days, 22-28 days, 29-35 days, 36-42 days and >42 days...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Vladimir Uyba, Alexander Samoylov, Sergey Shinkarev
In the case of a severe radiation accident at a nuclear power station, the most important radiation hazard for the public is internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine. The purposes of this paper were (i) to compare countermeasures conducted (following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents) aimed at mitigation of exposure to the thyroid for the public, (ii) to present comparative estimates of doses to the thyroid and (iii) to derive lessons from the two accidents. The scale and time of countermeasures applied in the early phase of the accidents (sheltering, evacuation, and intake of stable iodine to block the thyroid) and at a later time (control of 131I concentration in foodstuffs) have been described...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Kasumi Kawamura, Fei Qi, Junya Kobayashi
Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) induces various types of DNA damage, of which DNA double-strand breaks are the most severe, leading to genomic instability, tumorigenesis, and cell death. Hence, cells have developed DNA damage responses and repair mechanisms. IR also causes the accumulation of endogenous reactive oxidative species (ROS) in the irradiated cells. Upon exposure to low-dose irradiation, the IR-induced biological effects mediated by ROS were relatively more significant than those mediated by DNA damage...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Lanxiao Shen, Shan Chen, Xiaoyang Zhu, Ce Han, Xiaomin Zheng, Zhenxiang Deng, Yongqiang Zhou, Changfei Gong, Congying Xie, Xiance Jin
A multidimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), was applied to evaluate the impact of complexity parameters on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and to determine parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Canonical correlations among complexity, quality and deliverability parameters of VMAT, as well as the contribution weights of different parameters were investigated with 71 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients, and further verified with 28 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Hisashi Sato, Junko Ebi, Tomoaki Tamaki, Ami Yukawa, Masaru Nakajima, Tohru Ohtake, Yoshiyuki Suzuki
Radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (OP) reportedly occurs in ~2% of patients who receive whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT). Though there are several reported risk factors, they remain unclear and controversial. We analyzed the incidence of and risk factors for OP after WBRT at our institution. We analyzed 665 breast cancer patients (with WBRT of 679 breasts) who underwent WBRT from October 2007 to September 2012 at our institution and were followed up for more than 1 year after completion of WBRT. Factors included in the analysis were age, the side affected, central lung distance (CLD), radiation dose, concurrent endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
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