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Journal of Radiation Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136194/fast-skin-dose-estimation-system-for-interventional-radiology
#1
Takeshi Takata, Jun'ichi Kotoku, Hideyuki Maejima, Shinobu Kumagai, Norikazu Arai, Takenori Kobayashi, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kondo, Shigeru Furui
To minimise the radiation dermatitis related to interventional radiology (IR), rapid and accurate dose estimation has been sought for all procedures. We propose a technique for estimating the patient skin dose rapidly and accurately using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation with a graphical processing unit (GPU, GTX 1080; Nvidia Corp.). The skin dose distribution is simulated based on an individual patient's computed tomography (CT) dataset for fluoroscopic conditions after the CT dataset has been segmented into air, water and bone based on pixel values...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121251/protective-effect-of-fgf-2-and-low-molecular-weight-heparin-protamine-nanoparticles-on-radiation-induced-healing-impaired-wound-repair-in-rats
#2
Jun Kinoda, Masayuki Ishihara, Shingo Nakamura, Masanori Fujita, Koichi Fukuda, Yoko Sato, Hidetaka Yokoe
We examined the effectiveness of localized administration of fibroblast growth factor-2 containing low-molecular-weight heparin/protamine nanoparticles (FGF-2&LMWH/P NPs) on apoptosis in vivo and on healing of radiation-induced skin injury in a rat model. FGF-2 binds onto LMWH/P NPs, which can significantly enhance and stabilize FGF-2 as a local carrier. X-irradiation at a dose of 25 Gy was administered to the lower part of the back (using a lead sheet with two holes) 1 h before the administration of FGF-2&LMWH/P NPs...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095996/optimum-size-of-a-calibration-phantom-for-x-ray-ct-to-convert-the-hounsfield-units-to-stopping-power-ratios-in-charged-particle-therapy-treatment-planning
#3
T Inaniwa, H Tashima, N Kanematsu
In charged-particle therapy treatment planning, the volumetric distribution of stopping power ratios (SPRs) of body tissues relative to water is used for patient dose calculation. The distribution is conventionally obtained from computed tomography (CT) images of a patient using predetermined conversion functions from the CT numbers to the SPRs. One of the biggest uncertainty sources of patient SPR estimation is insufficient correction of beam hardening arising from the mismatch between the size of the patient cross section and the calibration phantom for producing the conversion functions...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087492/validation-of-the-physical-and-rbe-weighted-dose-estimator-based-on-phits-coupled-with-a-microdosimetric-kinetic-model-for-proton-therapy
#4
Kenta Takada, Tatsuhiko Sato, Hiroaki Kumada, Junichi Koketsu, Hideyuki Takei, Hideyuki Sakurai, Takeji Sakae
The microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) is widely used for estimating relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-weighted doses for various radiotherapies because it can determine the surviving fraction of irradiated cells based on only the lineal energy distribution, and it is independent of the radiation type and ion species. However, the applicability of the method to proton therapy has not yet been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we validated the RBE-weighted dose calculated by the MKM in tandem with the Monte Carlo code PHITS for proton therapy by considering the complete simulation geometry of the clinical proton beam line...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069502/predicting-prognosis-of-short-survival-time-after-palliative-whole-brain-radiotherapy
#5
Kazunari Miyazawa, Naoto Shikama, Shohei Okazaki, Tadaaki Koyama, Takao Takahashi, Shingo Kato
Using existing prognostic models, including the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), it is difficult to identify patients with brain metastases (BMs) who are not likely to survive 2 months after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The purpose of this study was to identify a subgroup of patients who would not benefit clinically from WBRT. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 111 patients with BMs who were ineligible for surgery or stereotactic irradiation and who underwent WBRT between March 2013 and April 2016...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069397/radiation-related-thyroid-autoimmunity-and-dysfunction
#6
Yuji Nagayama
The thyroid gland is vulnerable not only to external radiation but also to internal radiation, because the thyroid cells can incorporate radioactive iodine when synthesizing thyroid hormones. Since radiation-induction of thyroid neoplasia, including thyroid cancer, is well recognized, the data on radiation-related thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction are summarized and reviewed. High-dose irradiation, irrespective of being external or internal, is strongly associated with a risk of hypothyroidism (with the prevalence ranging from 2...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053826/induction-of-somatic-mutations-by-low-dose-x-rays-the-challenge-in-recognizing-radiation-induced-events
#7
Haruki Nagashima, Kumiko Shiraishi, Saori Ohkawa, Yuki Sakamoto, Kenshi Komatsu, Shinya Matsuura, Akira Tachibana, Hiroshi Tauchi
It is difficult to distinguish radiation-induced events from spontaneous events during induction of stochastic effects, especially in the case of low-dose or low-dose-rate exposures. By using a hypersensitive system for detecting somatic mutations at the HPRT1 locus, we investigated the frequency and spectrum of mutations induced by low-dose X-rays. The mutant frequencies induced by doses of >0.15 Gy were statistically significant when compared with the spontaneous frequency, and a clear dose dependency was also observed for mutant frequencies at doses of >0...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040682/dose-response-curves-for-analyzing-of-dicentric-chromosomes-and-chromosome-translocations-following-doses-of-1000-mgy-or-less-based-on-irradiated-peripheral-blood-samples-from-five-healthy-individuals
#8
Y Abe, Mitsuaki A Yoshida, Kurumi Fujioka, Yumiko Kurosu, Risa Ujiie, Aki Yanagi, Naohiro Tsuyama, Tomisato Miura, Toshiya Inaba, Kenji Kamiya, Akira Sakai
In terms of biological dosimetry at the time of radiation exposure, the dicentric chromosome (Dic) assay (DCA) is the gold standard for assessing for the acute phase and chromosome translocation (Tr) analysis is the gold standard for assessing the chronic phase. It is desirable to have individual dose-response curves (DRCs) for each laboratory because the analysis criteria differ between laboratories. We constructed the DRCs for radiation dose estimation (with three methods) using peripheral blood (PB) samples from five healthy individuals...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040655/effects-of-1950-mhz-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-fields-on-a%C3%AE-processing-in-human-neuroblastoma-and-mouse-hippocampal-neuronal-cells
#9
Jeongyeon Park, Jong Hwa Kwon, Nam Kim, Kiwon Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. One of the well-known pathological markers of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (Aβ), and its plaques, in the brain. Recent studies using Tg-5XFAD mice as a model of AD have reported that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from cellular phones reduced Aβ plaques in the brain and showed beneficial effects on AD. In this study, we examined whether exposure to 1950 MHz RF-EMF affects Aβ processing in neural cells...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036665/corrigendum
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036692/clinical-utility-of-texture-analysis-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-patients-with-stage-i-lung-cancer-treated-with-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#11
Kazuya Takeda, Kentaro Takanami, Yuko Shirata, Takaya Yamamoto, Noriyoshi Takahashi, Kengo Ito, Kei Takase, Keiichi Jingu
We evaluated the reproducibility and predictive value of texture parameters and existing parameters of 18F-FDG PET/CT images in Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Twenty-six patients with Stage I NSCLC (T1-2N0M0) were retrospectively analyzed. All of the patients underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan before treatment and were treated with SBRT. Each tumor was delineated using PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH), and texture parameters were calculated using open-source code CGITA...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036595/persistent-in-vivo-cytogenetic-effects-of-radioiodine-therapy-a-21-year-follow-up-study-using-multicolor-fish
#12
Gordon K Livingston, Maria Escalona, Alvis Foster, Adayabalam S Balajee
Our previous studies demonstrated the cytogenetic effects in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a 34-year-old male patient who received ablative radioactive 131iodine therapy (RIT) on two different occasions in 1992 and 1994. Assessment of RIT-induced chromosomal damage by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) showed the persistence of elevated micronucleus frequency in this patient for more than two decades since the first RIT. Subsequent cytogenetic analysis performed in 2012 revealed both stable and unstable aberrations, whose frequencies were higher than the baseline reported in the literature...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036510/cancer-mortality-in-residents-of-the-terrain-shielded-area-exposed-to-fallout-from-the-nagasaki-atomic-bombing
#13
Kenichi Yokota, Mariko Mine, Hisayoshi Kondo, Naoki Matsuda, Yoshisada Shibata, Noboru Takamura
The health effects of radiation exposure from the atomic bomb fallout remain unclear. The objective of the present study is to elucidate the association between low-dose radiation exposure from the atomic bomb fallout and cancer mortality among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Of 77 884 members in the Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivors Cohort, 610 residents in the terrain-shielded area with fallout were selected for this analysis; 1443 residents in the terrain-shielded area without fallout were selected as a control group; and 3194 residents in the direct exposure area were also selected for study...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992052/dose-rate-effect-of-ultrashort-electron-beam-radiation-on-dna-damage-and-repair-in-vitro
#14
Nelly Babayan, Galina Hovhannisyan, Bagrat Grigoryan, Ruzanna Grigoryan, Natalia Sarkisyan, Gohar Tsakanova, Samvel Haroutiunian, Rouben Aroutiounian
Laser-generated electron beams are distinguished from conventional accelerated particles by ultrashort beam pulses in the femtoseconds to picoseconds duration range, and their application may elucidate primary radiobiological effects. The aim of the present study was to determine the dose-rate effect of laser-generated ultrashort pulses of 4 MeV electron beam radiation on DNA damage and repair in human cells. The dose rate was increased via changing the pulse repetition frequency, without increasing the electron energy...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992050/clinical-outcomes-of-125i-brachytherapy-with-and-without-external-beam-radiation-therapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer-results-from-300-patients-at-a-single-institution-in-japan
#15
Sayo Maki, Yoshiyuki Itoh, Seiji Kubota, Tohru Okada, Rie Nakahara, Junji Ito, Mariko Kawamura, Shinji Naganawa, Yasushi Yoshino, Takashi Fujita, Masashi Kato, Momokazu Gotoh, Mitsuru Ikeda
The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes and adverse events for 300 men with prostate cancer treated with 125iodine (125I) brachytherapy with and without external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at a single institution in Japan. Between February 2005 and November 2011, 300 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 125I brachytherapy at the Nagoya University Hospital. A total of 271 men were treated with implants with doses of 145 Gy, and 29 men were treated with implants with doses of 110 Gy combined with EBRT (40-50 Gy/20-25 fractions)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992350/radon-inhalation-induces-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-in-mouse-brain-via-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#16
Takahiro Kataoka, Reo Etani, Norie Kanzaki, Yusuke Kobashi, Yuto Yunoki, Tsuyoshi Ishida, Akihiro Sakoda, Yuu Ishimori, Kiyonori Yamaoka
Although radon inhalation increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in mouse organs, the mechanisms and pathways have not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the details of SOD activation in mouse brain tissue following the inhalation of radon at concentrations of 500 or 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h. After inhalation, brains were removed quickly for analysis. Radon inhalation increased the manganese (Mn)-SOD level and mitochondrial SOD activity. However, the differences were not significant...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992248/region-specific-irradiation-system-with-heavy-ion-microbeam-for-active-individuals-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Michiyo Suzuki, Yuya Hattori, Tetsuya Sakashita, Yuichiro Yokota, Yasuhiko Kobayashi, Tomoo Funayama
Radiation may affect essential functions and behaviors such as locomotion, feeding, learning and memory. Although whole-body irradiation has been shown to reduce motility in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the detailed mechanism responsible for this effect remains unknown. Targeted irradiation of the nerve ring responsible for sensory integration and information processing would allow us to determine whether the reduction of motility following whole-body irradiation reflects effects on the central nervous system or on the muscle cells themselves...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088450/commemorating-professor-takeo-ohnishi
#18
Hiroshi Utsumi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088449/rediscovery-of-an-old-article-reporting-that-the-area-around-the-epicenter-in-hiroshima-was-heavily-contaminated-with-residual-radiation-indicating-that-exposure-doses-of-a-bomb-survivors-were-largely-underestimated
#19
Shizuyo Sutou
The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040690/in-memory-of-professor-takeo-ohnishi
#20
Kenji Kamiya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
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