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Journal of Lipid Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634192/a-new-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-system-for-human-serum-hepatic-triglyceride-lipase
#1
Kazuya Miyashita, Katsuyuki Nakajima, Isamu Fukamachi, Yuji Muraba, Takafumi Koga, Yohnosuke Shimomura, Tetsuyo Machida, Masami Murakami, Junji Kobayashi
There is no previously established method for measuring human hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) concentration in serum. In this study, we developed new monoclonal antibodies (MoAb mouse 9A1, MoAb rat 141A1) that react with both HTGL in serum and in post-heparin plasma (PHP) and established a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for measuring serum HTGL as well as PHP-HTGL concentrations. To confirm the specificity of MoAb, we performed an immunoprecipitation -immunoblotting analysis. Both MoAb mouse 9A1and MoAb rat 141 A1 were able to immunoprecipitate not only recombinant HTGL and PHP-HTGL but also serum HTGL, demonstrating that HTGL exists in serum obtained without heparin injection...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634191/cd36-knockout-mice-are-protected-against-lithogenic-diet-induced-gallstones
#2
Yan Xie, Vincenza Cifarelli, Terri Pietka, Elizabeth P Newberry, Susan M Kennedy, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Robin Clugston, Kamran Atabai, Nada A Abumrad, Nicholas O Davidson
The scavenger receptor and multiligand transporter CD36 functions to promote cellular free fatty acid uptake and regulates aspects of both hepatic and intestinal cholesterol metabolism. However, the role of CD36 in regulating canalicular and biliary cholesterol transport and secretion is unknown. Here we show that germline Cd36 knockout mice are protected against lithogenic diet (LD) induced gallstones compared to congenic (C57BL6/J) controls. Cd36 knockout mice crossed into congenic L-Fabp knockout mice (DKO mice) demonstrated protection against LD induced gallstones, reversing the susceptibility phenotype observed in L-Fabp knockout mice...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630261/anti-inflammatory-liaisons-t-regulatory-cells-and-hdl-apoa-i
#3
Mary G Sorci-Thomas, Michael J Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630260/cholesterol-auxotrophy-and-intolerance-to-ezetimibe-in-mice-with-srebp-2-deficiency-in-the-intestine
#4
Shunxing Rong, Jeffrey McDonald, Luke Engelking
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) activates transcription of all genes needed for cholesterol biosynthesis. To study SREBP-2 function in intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-BP2(-/-) ) in which Cre recombinase ablates SREBP-2 in intestinal epithelia. Intestines of Vil-BP2(-/-) mice had reduced expression of genes required for sterol synthesis, in vivo sterol synthesis rates, and epithelial cholesterol contents. On a cholesterol-free diet, they displayed chronic enteropathy with histological abnormalities of both villi and crypts, growth restriction, and reduced survival that was prevented by supplementation of cholesterol in the diet...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630259/triacylglycerol-mimetics-regulate-membrane-interactions-of-glycogen-branching-enzyme-implications-for-therapy
#5
Rafael Alvarez, Jesús Casas, David J López, Maitane Ibarguren, Ariadna Suari-Rivera, Silvia Terés, Francisca Guardiola-Serrano, Alexander Lossos, Xavier Busquets, Or Kakhlon, Pablo V Escribá
Adult Polyglucosan Body Disease (APBD) is a neurological disorder characterized by adult-onset neurogenic bladder, spasticity, weakness, and sensory loss. The disease is caused by aberrant glycogen branching enzyme (GBE1-Y329S) yielding less branched, globular and soluble glycogen which tends to aggregate. We explore here whether, despite being a soluble enzyme, GBE1 activity is regulated by protein-membrane interactions. Since soluble proteins can contact a wide variety of cell membranes, we investigated the interactions of purified wild-type and Y329S GBE1 proteins with different types of model membranes (liposomes)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626062/insights-into-the-function-of-n-3-pufas-in-fat-1-transgenic-cattle
#6
Xin-Feng Liu, Zhu-Ying Wei, Chun-Ling Bai, Xiang-Bin Ding, Xin Li, Guang-Hua Su, Lei Cheng, Li Zhang, Hong Guo, Guang-Peng Li
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have many beneficial effects on human health, including roles in immunity, neurodevelopment, and preventing cardiovascular disease. In this study, we established reliable model fat-1 transgenic cattle using transgenic technology and performed a systematic investigation to examine the function of n-3 PUFAs. Our results showed that expression of the fat-1 gene improved several biochemical parameters related to liver function and to plasma glucose and plasma lipid metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611100/ampk-activation-enhances-the-anti-atherogenic-effects-of-high-density-lipoproteins-in-apoe-mice
#7
Ang Ma, Jing Wang, Liu Yang, Yuanyuan An, Haibo Zhu
HDL plays crucial roles at multiple stages of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of AMPK activation on HDL functionality has not been established in vivo. We assessed the effects of pharmacological AMPK activation using A-769662, AICAR, metformin, and IMM-H007 on the atheroprotective functions of HDL in apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet. After administration, although there no changes in serum lipid levels among the groups...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611099/cell-based-bioluminescent-assay-for-monitoring-the-interaction-between-pcsk9-and-the-ldl-receptor
#8
Sarah J Duellman, Thomas Machleidt, James J Cali, Jolanta Vidugiriene
Monitoring the expression of cell-surface receptors, their interaction with extracellular ligands, and their fate upon ligand binding is important for understanding receptor function and developing new therapies. We describe a cell-based method that utilizes bioluminescent protein complementation technology to interrogate binding of a cellular receptor with its extracellular protein ligand, specifically LDLR and PCSK9. Purified, full-length tagged PCSK9 is added to assay wells containing cells that stably express LDLR with an extracellular complementary tag...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607008/the-dipole-potential-correlates-with-lipid-raft-markers-in-the-plasma-membrane-of-living-cells
#9
Tamás Kovács, Gyula Batta, Florina Zákány, János Szöllősi, Peter Nagy
The dipole potential generating an electric field much stronger than any other type of membrane potential influences a wide array of phenomena ranging from passive permeation to voltage-dependent conformational changes of membrane proteins. It is generated by the ordered orientation of lipid carbonyl and membrane-attached water dipole moments. Theoretical considerations and indirect experimental evidence obtained in model membranes suggest that the dipole potential is larger in liquid-ordered domains believed to correspond to lipid rafts in cell membranes...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601811/microsomal-triglyceride-transfer-protein-mtp-in-the-ectoparasitic-crustacean-salmon-louse-l-salmonis
#10
Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Sussie Dalvin, Frank Nilsen, Rune Male
The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a challenging ectoparasite for the salmon farming industry and wild salmonids. Salmon lice have a very high reproductive output, that require deposition of large amounts of lipids into growing oocytes as a major energy source, most probably mediated by lipoproteins. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the assembly of lipoproteins. Salmon lice have three LsMTP transcript variants encoding two different protein isoforms predicted to contain three β sheets (N, C and A) and a central helical domain, similar to MTP from other species...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600283/inhibition-of-pcsk9-does-not-improve-lipopolysaccharide-induced-mortality-in-mice
#11
Jean-Mathieu Berger, Angel Loza Valdes, Jesper Gromada, Norma Anderson, Jay D Horton
PCSK9 is a secreted protein that targets LDL receptors (LDLR) for degradation in liver. Blocking the interaction of PCSK9 with the LDLR potently reduces plasma LDL-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular events. Recently, it has been suggested that inhibition of PCSK9 might also improve outcomes in mice and humans with sepsis, possibly by increasing LDL receptor (LDLR)-mediated clearance of endotoxins. Sepsis is a complication of a severe microbial infection that has shared pathways with lipid metabolism. Here, we tested whether anti-PCSK9 antibodies prevent death from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596183/leptogenic-effects-of-n-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-nape-requires-activity-of-n-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing-phospholipase-d-nape-pld
#12
Zhongyi Chen, Yongqin Zhang, Lilu Guo, Noura Dosoky, Lorenzo De Ferra, Scott Peters, Kevin D Niswender, Sean S Davies
Food intake induces synthesis of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) in the intestinal tract. While NAPEs exert leptin-like (leptogenic) effects including reduced food intake and weight gain, the mechanisms by which NAPEs induce these leptogenic effects remain unclear. One key question is whether intestinal NAPEs act directly on cognate receptors or first require conversion to N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) by NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Previous studies using Nape-pld-/- mice were equivocal because intraperitoneal injection of NAPEs led to non-specific, aversive effects...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592401/transgenic-tomatoes-expressing-the-6f-peptide-and-ezetimibe-prevent-diet-induced-increases-of-interferon-%C3%AE-and-cholesterol-25-hydroxylase-in-jejunum
#13
Pallavi Mukherjee, Greg Hough, Arnab Chattopadhyay, Mohamad Navab, Hannah R Fogelman, David Meriwether, Kevin Williams, Steven Bensinger, Travis Moller, Kym F Faull, Aldons J Lusis, Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Kristina I Bostrom, Peter Tontonoz, Srinivasa T Reddy, Alan M Fogelman
Feeding LDLR-null mice a Western diet (WD) increased the expression of interferon beta (IFN-β) in jejunum as determined by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and by ELISA (all p <0.0001). WD also increased the expression of cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) as measured by RT-qPCR (p <0.0001), IHC (p = 0.0019), and ELISA (p <0.0001) resulting in increased levels of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) in jejunum as determined by LC-MS/MS (p <0.0001). Adding Ezetimibe at 10 mg/kg/day or adding a concentrate of transgenic tomatoes expressing the 6F peptide (Tg6F) at 0...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588048/the-sphingosine-1-phosphate-break-down-product-2e-hexadecenal-forms-protein-adducts-and-glutathione-conjugates-in-vitro
#14
Fabian Schumacher, Corinna Neuber, Hannah Finke, Kai Nieschalke, Jessica Baesler, Erich Gulbins, Burkhard Kleuser
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid involved in various physiological processes such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, can be irreversibly cleaved by the S1P lyase, yielding phosphoethanolamine and (2E)-hexadecenal (2EHD). The latter metabolite, an α,β-unsaturated fatty aldehyde, may be susceptible to nucleophilic attack by cellular biomolecules. Hence, we studied whether 2EHD forms reaction products with glutathione (GSH) and proteins in vitro Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and stable isotopically labeled reference material, we identified a total of nine novel reaction products of 2EHD in a cell-free approach: two GSH conjugates and seven L-amino acid adducts...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583918/gpr120-suppresses-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-synergizes-with-gpr40-in-anti-diabetic-efficacy
#15
Santhosh Satapati, Ying Qian, Margaret S Wu, Aleksandr Petrov, Ge Dai, Sheng-Ping Wang, Yonghua Zhu, Xiaolan Shen, Eric S Muise, Ying Chen, Emanuel Zycband, Adam Weinglass, Jerry Di Salvo, John S Debenham, Jason M Cox, Ping Lan, Vinit Shah, Stephen Previs, Mark Erion, David E Kelley, Liangsu Wang, Andrew D Howard, Jin Shang
GPR40 and GPR120 are fatty acid sensors that play important roles in glucose and energy homeostasis. GPR40 potentiates glucose-dependent insulin secretion and demonstrated in clinical studies robust glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. GPR120 improves insulin sensitivity in rodents, albeit its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Herein, we postulated that the anti-diabetic efficacy of GPR40 could be enhanced by co-activating GPR120. A combination of GPR40 and GPR120 agonists in db/db mice, as well as a single molecule with dual agonist activities, achieved superior glycemic control compared to either monotherapy...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576934/cholesteryl-esters-of-%C3%AF-o-acyl-hydroxy-fatty-acids-in-vernix-caseosa
#16
Aneta Kalužíková, Vladimír Vrkoslav, Eva Harazim, Michal Hoskovec, Richard Plavka, Miloš Buděšínský, Zuzana Bosáková, Josef Cvačka
Cholesteryl esters of ω-(O-acyl)-hydroxy fatty acids (Chl-ωOAHFAs) were identified for the first time in vernix caseosa and characterized using chromatography and mass spectrometry. Chl-ωOAHFAs were isolated using adsorption chromatography on silica gel and magnesium hydroxide. Their general structure was established using high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry of intact lipids, and products of their transesterification and derivatizations. Individual molecular species were characterized using non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572516/jaspine-b-induces-non-apoptotic-cell-death-in-gastric-cancer-cells-independently-of-its-inhibition-of-ceramide-synthase
#17
Francesca Cingolani, Fabio Simbari, Jose Luis Abad, Mireia Casasampere, Gemma Fabrias, Anthony H Futerman, Josefina Casas
Sphingolipids have been extensively investigated in biomedical research due to their role as bioactive molecules in cells. Here we describe the effect of a sphingolipid analogue, Jaspine B (JB), a cyclic anhydrophytosphingosine found in marine sponges, on the gastric cancer cell line HGC-27. JB induces alterations in the sphingolipidome, mainly the accumulation of dihydrosphingosine (dhSo) and sphingosine (So), and their phosphorylated forms, due to inhibition of ceramide synthases (CerS). Moreover, JB induces atypical cell death in HGC-27 cells, characterized by the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in a time and dose-dependent manner...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572515/an-allene-oxide-and-12-oxophytodienoic-acid-are-key-intermediates-in-jasmonic-acid-biosynthesis-by-fusarium-oxysporum
#18
Ernst H Oliw, Mats Hamberg
Fungi can produce jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate in large quantities, but little is known about the biosynthesis. Plants form JA from 18:3n-3 by 13S-lipoxygenase (13S-LOX), allene oxide synthase (AOS), and allene oxide cyclase (AOC). Shaking cultures of F. oxysporum f. sp. tulipae released over 200 mg jasmonates per liter. Nitrogen powder of the mycelia expressed 10R-dioxygenase-epoxy alcohol synthase activities, which was confirmed by comparison with the recombinant enzyme. 13S-LOX of F. oxysporum could not be detected in the cell-free preparations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554983/cyp2j2-metabolites-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acids-attenuate-angii-induced-cardiac-fibrotic-response-by-targeting-g%C3%AE-12-13
#19
Zuowen He, Yong Yang, Zheng Wen, Chen Chen, Xizhen Xu, Yanfang Zhu, Yan Wang, Dao Wen Wang
Arachidonic acid-cytochrome P450 2J2-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (AA-CYP2J2-EETs) metabolic pathway has been identified protective in cardiovascular system. This study explored effects of AA-CYP2J2-EETs metabolic pathway on cardiac fibrosis from perspective of cardiac fibroblast and underlying mechanisms. In vivo studies, eight-week-old male CYP2J2 transgenic mice (aMHC-CYP2J2-Tr) and littermates were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) or saline for 2 weeks. Results showed that CYP2J2 overexpression increased EETs production...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550076/high-throughput-analysis-of-sulfatides-in-cerebrospinal-spinal-fluid-using-automated-extraction-and-uplc-ms-ms
#20
Mara Blomqvist, Jan Borén, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jan-Erik Månsson, Marcus Ståhlman
Sulfatides are a group of glycosphingolipids that are highly expressed in brain. Due to their importance for normal brain function and their potential involvement in neurological diseases, development of accurate and sensitive methods for their determination are needed. Here we describe a high-throughput oriented and quantitative method for the determination of sulfatides in cerebrospinal fluid. The sulfatides are extracted using a fully automated liquid/liquid extraction method and quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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