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Journal of Lipid Research

Juan Le, Teng-Fei Yuan, Yan Zhang, Shao-Ting Wang, Yan Li
Fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs), A, D, and E are components of prenatal vitamin care. Previously, limited evidence existed to explain on a molecular level how maternal FSV supplementation affects the fetus during pregnancy. We developed a simplified LC/MS/MS method to simultaneously detect FSVs in maternal plasma (MP) and amniotic fluid (AF); we used this approach to investigate the correlation between FSV levels in these two matrices. With this method, we circumvented frequently used liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction methods and instead used simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile for sample preparation...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Jihyun Kim, Min Sung Park, Kyoungsoo Ha, Chulhong Park, Jisu Lee, Randall L Mynatt, Ji Suk Chang
Transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and its splice variant NT-PGC-1α mediate transcriptional regulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in response to changes in ambient temperature. PGC-1α is dispensable for cold-induced BAT thermogenesis as long as NT-PGC-1α is present. However, the functional significance of NT-PGC-1α in BAT has not been determined. In the preset study, we generated NT-PGC-1α-/- mice to investigate the effect of NT-PGC-1α deficiency on adaptive BAT thermogenesis. At thermoneutrality, NT-PGC-1α-/- mice exhibited abnormal BAT phenotype with increased accumulation of large lipid droplets concomitant with marked downregulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO)-related genes...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Charlotte Cuerq, Emilie Henin, Lioara Restier, Emilie Blond, Jocelyne Drai, Christophe Marcais, Mathilde Di Filippo, Christian Laveille, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Pierre Poinsot, Cyrielle Caussy, Agnes Sassolas, Philippe Moulin, Emmanuelle Reboul, Sybil Charriere, Emile Levy, Alain Lachaux, Noel Peretti
Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) and chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) are extremely rare recessive forms of hypobetalipoproteinemia characterized by intestinal lipid malabsorption and severe vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E is often supplemented in the form of fat-soluble vitamin E acetate, but fat malabsorption considerably limits correction of the deficiency. In this crossover study, we administered two different forms of vitamin E - tocofersolan (a water-soluble derivative of RRR-α-tocopherol) and α-tocopherol acetate - to three patients with ABL and four with CMRD...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Byambaa Enkhmaa, Erdembileg Anuurad, Wei Zhang, Chin-Shang Li, Robert Kaplan, Jason Lazar, Dan Merenstein, Roksana Karim, Brad Aouizerat, Mardge Cohen, Kenneth Butler, Savita Pahwa, Igho Ofotokun, Adaora A Adimora, Elizabeth Golub, Lars Berglund
We previously demonstrated an association between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and atherosclerosis in HIV-seropositive women. The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on Lp(a) levels in relation to apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] size polymorphism remain unclear. ART effects on allele-specific apo(a) level (ASL), an Lp(a) level associated with individual apo(a) alleles within each allele-pair, were determined in 126 HIV-seropositive women. ART effects were tested by a mixed-effects model across pre-ART, post-ART 1st and 3rd visits...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Amy C Burke, Brian G Sutherland, Dawn E Telford, Marisa R Morrow, Cynthia G Sawyez, Jane Y Edwards, Maria Drangova, Murray W Huff
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk represent a leading cause of adult morbidity world-wide. Currently available pharmacological therapies for obesity have had limited success in reversing existing obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Previous prevention studies demonstrated that the citrus flavonoids, naringenin and nobiletin protect against obesity and metabolic dysfunction in Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-fat, cholesterol-containing (HFHC) diet. However, their effects in an intervention model are unknown...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
John P Kennelly, Jelske N van der Veen, Randal C Nelson, Kelly-Ann Leonard, Rick Havinga, Jean Buteau, Folkert Kuipers, Rene L Jacobs
De novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis via CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α (CTα) is required for very-low-density lipoprotein secretion. To determine the precise role of de novo PC synthesis in intestinal lipid metabolism, we deleted CTα exclusively in the intestinal epithelium of mice (CTαIKO mice). When fed a chow diet, CTαIKO mice showed normal fat absorption despite a ~30% decrease in intestinal PC concentrations relative to control mice, suggesting that biliary PC can fully support chylomicron secretion under these conditions...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Lukas Schwingshackl, Berit Bogensberger, Aleksander Bencic, Sven Knueppel, Heiner Boeing, Georg Hoffmann
The aim of this network meta-analysis (NMA) is to compare the effects of different oils/solid fats on blood lipids. Literature searches were performed until March 2018. Inclusion criteria were as follows: i) Randomized trial (≥3 weeks study length) comparing at least two of the following oils/ solid fats: safflower-, sunflower-, rapeseed-, hempseed-, flaxseed-, corn-, olive-, soybean-, palm-, coconut-oil, lard, beef-fat, and butter; ii) LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacyglycerols (TG)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Anna Goetz, Maarit Lehti, Elizabeth Donelan, Cynthia Striese, Sebastian Cucuruz, Stephan Sachs, Chun-Xia Yi, Steven C Woods, Samuel D Wright, Matthias H Tschoep, Yuanqing Gao, Susanna M Hofmann
Meta-inflammation of hypothalamic areas governing energy homeostasis has recently emerged as a process of potential pathophysiological relevance for the development of obesity and its metabolic sequelae. The current model suggests that diet-induced neuronal injury triggers microgliosis and astrocytosis, conditions which ultimately may induce functional impairment of hypothalamic circuits governing feeding behavior, systemic metabolism and body weight. Epidemiological data indicate that low circulating HDL levels, besides conveying cardiovascular risk, also correlate strongly with obesity...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Trevor S Tippetts, William L Holland, Scott A Summers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Ana M Valdes, Srinivasarao Ravipati, Petros Pousinis, Cristina Menni, Massimo Mangino, Abhishek Abhishek, Victoria Chapman, David A Barrett, Michael Doherty
Omega-6 fatty acids are important inflammatory mediators increased in joints with osteoarthritis (OA) joints. To investigate the relationship between omega-6 fatty acids and knee OA 22 omega-6 lipids (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and 20 oxylipins) were measured using liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry in synovial fluid from 112 knees of 102 individuals (knee OA n=58; controls n=44). Thsese were tested for association with presence of knee OA adjusting for covariates and NSAID use. Validation was performed in samples from 10 individuals with unilateral knee OA comparing affected to unaffected knees...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Martin-Paul G Agbaga, Dana K Merriman, Richard S Brush, Todd A Lydic, Shannon M Conley, Muna I Naash, Shelley Jackson, Amina S Woods, Gavin E Reid, Julia V Busik, Robert E Anderson
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA; C20-C22) are highly enriched in vertebrate retina and testes, where they are further elongated to very long chain PUFA (VLC-PUFA; C≥28) by Elongation of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids-4 (ELOVL4). These fatty acids play essential roles in modulating neuronal function and health. To better understand the role of LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA in the retina, we investigated the lipid compositions of whole retinas or photoreceptor outer segment (OS) membranes of rod- and cone-dominant retinas...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Hye Jin Kim, Janet R Sparrow
Bisretinoids are a family of fluorophores that form in photoreceptor cells outer segments by nonenzymatic reaction of two vitamin A aldehyde (A2) with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Bisretinoids fluorophores are the major constituents of the lipofuscin of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that accumulates with age and contributes to some retinal diseases. Here, we report the identification of a previously unknown fluorescent bisretinoid. By ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography coupled to photodiode-array detection, fluorescence and electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-FLR-ESI-MS), we determined that this novel bisretinoid is 1-octadecyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero A2PE (alkyl ether lysoA2PE)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Luke W Johnston, Zhen Liu, Ravi Retnakaran, Bernard Zinman, Adria Giacca, Stewart B Harris, Richard P Bazinet, Anthony J Hanley
AIMS: Our aim was to examine longitudinal associations of triacylglyceride fatty acid (TGFA) composition with insulin sensitivity (IS) and beta-cell function. METHODS: Adults at-risk for T2D (n=477) had glucose and insulin measured from a glucose challenge at 3 time points over 6 years. The outcome variables Matsuda index (ISI), HOMA2-%S, Insulinogenic Index over HOMA-IR (IGI/IR), and Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 (ISSI-2) were computed from the glucose challenge...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Shinobu Miyazaki-Anzai, Masashi Masuda, Shohei Kohno, Moshe Levi, Yuji Shiozaki, Audrey L Keenan, Makoto Miyazaki
Simultaneous activation of bile acid receptors Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) by INT-767 significantly reduces atherosclerotic formation. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous inactivation of these bile acid receptors in atherosclerosis and which bile acid receptor mediates the anti-atherogenic effect of INT-767. To investigate the role of simultaneous inactivation of FXR and TGR5 in vivo, we generated LDL receptor (LDLR) knockout (KO) mice with FXR and TGR5 dual deficiency, which exhibited severe atherosclerosis and aortic inflammation through NF-kappaB activation...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Dahai Yu, Yamei Cai, Rui Qin, Jonathan Graffy, Daniel Holman, Zhanzheng Zhao, David Simmons
Total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL) is an important prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study used restricted cubic spline modelling to investigate the dose-response associations between TC/HDL and both CVD hospitalisation and CVD re-hospitalisation in two independent prospective cohorts. The East Cambridgeshire and Fenland (ECF) cohort includes 4,704 patients with type 2 diabetes from 18 general practices in Cambridgeshire. The RAndomised controlled trial of Peer Support In type 2 Diabetes (RAPSID) cohort comprises 1,121 patients with type 2 diabetes with post-trial follow-up data...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Norimitsu Ban, Tae Jun Lee, Abdoulaye Sene, Zhenyu Dong, Andrea Santeford, Jonathan B Lin, Daniel S Ory, Rajendra S Apte
Photoreceptors have high intrinsic metabolic demand and are exquisitely sensitive to metabolic perturbation. In addition, they shed a large portion of their outer segment lipid membranes in a circadian manner, increasing the metabolic burden on the outer retina associated with the re-synthesis of cell membranes and disposal of the cellular cargo. Here we demonstrate that deletion of both ABCA1 and ABCG1 in rod photoreceptors leads to age-related accumulation of cholesterol metabolites in the outer retina, photoreceptor dysfunction, degeneration of rod outer segments, and ultimately blindness...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
An Nguyen, Anabel Guedan, Aurelie Mousnier, Dawid Swieboda, Qifeng Zhang, Dorottya Horkai, Nicolas Le Novere, Roberto Solari, Michael J O Wakelam
In patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rhinovirus infections can provoke acute worsening of disease and limited treatment options exist. Viral replication in the host cell induces significant remodeling of intracellular membranes, but few studies have explored this mechanistically or as a therapeutic opportunity. We performed unbiased lipidomic analysis on human bronchial epithelial cells infected over a 6 hour period with the RV-A1b strain of rhinovirus to determine changes in 493 distinct lipid species...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, Andre J Tremblay, Jean-Charles Hogue, Valery Lemelin, Benoit Lamarche, Patrick Couture
Intestinal TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in insulin resistance (IR). We investigated the association of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) concentrations with apoB-48-containing TRL metabolism in 148 men displaying various degrees of IR by measuring in vivo kinetics of TRL apoB-48 during a constant-fed state after a primed-constant infusion of L-[5,5,5-D3]leucine. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations positively correlated with TRL apoB-48 pool size (r = 0...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Jayne F Martin Carli, Charles A LeDuc, Yiying Zhang, George Stratigopoulos, Rudolph L Leibel
SNPs in the first intron of FTO convey effects on adiposity by mechanisms that remain unclear, but appear to include modulation of expression of FTO itself, as well as other genes in cis. FTO expression is lower in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neurons of individuals segregating for FTO obesity risk alleles. We employed in vitro adipogenesis models to investigate molecular mechanisms by which Fto affects adipocyte development and function. Fto expression is upregulated during adipogenesis, and is required for the maintenance of CEBPB and Cebpd / CEBPD expression in murine and human adipocytes in vitro Fto knockdown decreases both the number of 3T3-L1 cells that differentiate into adipocytes as well as the amount of lipid per mature adipocyte...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Ursula A White, Mark D Fitch, Robbie A Beyl, Marc K Hellerstein, Eric Ravussin
The storage of lipids as triglycerides (TG) and the de novo synthesis (lipogenesis) of fatty acids from non-lipid precursors (DNL) are important functions of adipose tissue (AT) that influence whole body metabolism. Yet, few studies have reported in vivo estimates of adipose lipid kinetics in humans. Fifty-two women with obesity (27 African-Americans; 25 Caucasians; 29.7 ± 5.5 years; BMI 32.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2 ; 44.3 ± 4.0% body fat) were enrolled in the study. In vivo synthesis (or replacement) of triglycerides (fTG ) and the synthesis of the fatty acid palmitate (measure of adipose de novo lipogenesis (fDNL )) were assessed using an 8-week incorporation of deuterium (2 H) into lipids (glycerol and palmitate moieties of TGs) in subcutaneous abdominal (scABD) and femoral (scFEM) AT...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
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