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Journal of Clinical Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776972/improving-serum-calcium-test-ordering-according-to-a-decision-algorithm
#1
Daniel K Faria, Leandro U Taniguchi, Luiz A M Fonseca, Mario Ferreira-Junior, Francisco J B Aguiar, Arnaldo Lichtenstein, Nairo M Sumita, Alberto J S Duarte, Maria M Sales
AIM: To detect differences in the pattern of serum calcium tests ordering before and after the implementation of a decision algorithm. METHODS: We studied patients admitted to an internal medicine ward of a university hospital on April 2013 and April 2016. Patients were classified as critical or non-critical on the day when each test was performed. Adequacy of ordering was defined according to adherence to a decision algorithm implemented in 2014. RESULTS: Total and ionised calcium tests per patient-day of hospitalisation significantly decreased after the algorithm implementation; and duplication of tests (total and ionised calcium measured in the same blood sample) was reduced by 49%...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769234/a-multicolour-flow-cytometric-assay-for-c-myc-protein-in-b-cell-lymphoma
#2
Khaled Alayed, Karen Schweitzer, Amad Awadallah, Shashirekha Shetty, Samir Turakhia, Howard Meyerson
AIM: Develop an objective assay to detect c-MYC protein expression using multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) as an alternative to immunohistochemistry (IHC). METHODS: 57 patient samples and 11 cell line samples were evaluated. Cell suspensions were obtained and c-MYC staining was performed in combination with CD45 and CD19 and, in some samples, CD10. The percentage of c-MYC+ cells by FCM was correlated with the percentage determined by IHC. The relationship between c-MYC protein expression and the presence of a c-MYC gene rearrangement in aggressive and high-grade lymphomas was also assessed...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764932/distribution-of-mast-cell-subtypes-in-interstitial-cystitis-implications-for-novel-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#3
Shabana T Malik, Brian R Birch, David Voegeli, Mandy Fader, Vipul Foria, Alan J Cooper, Andrew F Walls, Bashir A Lwaleed
AIMS: To identify the presence and geographical distribution of mast cell (MC) subtypes: MCT (tryptase positive-chymase negative) and MCTC (tryptase positive-chymase positive) in bladder tissue. METHODS: Bladder tissue was obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (n=14) and normal histology from University Hospital Southampton tissue bank. Sequential tissue slices were immunohistochemically stained for MC subtypes using anti-MC tryptase (for MCT and MCTC ) and anti-MC chymase (for MCTC )...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764931/high-rates-of-variation-in-hla-dq2-dq8-testing-for-coeliac-disease-results-from-an-rcpaqap-pilot-program
#4
Martin Patrick Horan, Sze Yee Chai, Nalishia Munusamy, Kwang Hong Tay, Louise Wienholt, Jason A Tye-Din, James Daveson, Michael Varney, Tony Badrick
AIM: Coeliac disease(CD) is a highly prevalent, gluten-dependent, autoimmune enteropathy. While the diagnosis is based on serological and histological criteria, genotyping of the human leucocyte antigens (HLA) DQ2 and DQ8 has been shown to have substantial clinical utility, especially in excluding the diagnosis in patients who do not carry either antigen. As a result, HLA genotyping is now being performed by more laboratories and has recently become one of the most frequently requested genetic tests in Australia...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760015/novel-genomic-findings-in-multiple-myeloma-identified-through-routine-diagnostic-sequencing
#5
Georgina L Ryland, Kate Jones, Melody Chin, John Markham, Elle Aydogan, Yamuna Kankanige, Marisa Caruso, Jerick Guinto, Michael Dickinson, H Miles Prince, Kwee Yong, Piers Blombery
AIMS: Multiple myeloma is a genomically complex haematological malignancy with many genomic alterations recognised as important in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decision making. Here, we provide a summary of genomic findings identified through routine diagnostic next-generation sequencing at our centre. METHODS: A cohort of 86 patients with multiple myeloma underwent diagnostic sequencing using a custom hybridisation-based panel targeting 104 genes. Sequence variants, genome-wide copy number changes and structural rearrangements were detected using an inhouse-developed bioinformatics pipeline...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730611/performance-of-point-of-care-assays-for-hepatitis-b-and-c-viruses-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#6
Jakeline Ribeiro Barbosa, Vanessa Faria Cortes, Moyra Machado Portilho, Juliana Custódio Miguel, Vanessa Alves Marques, Cristianne Sousa Bezerra, Natalia Vasconcelos de Souza, Danielle Malta Lima, Jeová Keny Baima Colares, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
AIMS: Point of care testing (POCT) has been used for hepatitis B and C diagnosis in general population, but little is known about the influence of clinical conditions in the accuracy of these assays. This study aims to evaluate the performance of POCTs for detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV) in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. METHODS: A total of 286 subjects were included in this study. HBsAg and anti-HCV were detected using commercial EIAs and four POCTs: HBsAg (WAMA Imuno-Rápido HBsAg and VIKIA HBsAg) and anti-HCV (DOLES HCV teste rápido and WAMA Imuno-Rápido anti-HCV) in serum and whole blood...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720407/diagnostic-potential-of-stored-dried-blood-spots-for-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-a-metabolic-autopsy-of-medium-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#7
Noriyuki Kaku, Kenji Ihara, Yuichiro Hirata, Kenji Yamada, Sooyoung Lee, Hikaru Kanemasa, Yoshitomo Motomura, Haruhisa Baba, Tamami Tanaka, Yasunari Sakai, Yoshihiko Maehara, Shouichi Ohga
AIM: It is estimated that 1-5% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases might be caused by undiagnosed inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs); however, the postmortem identification of IEMs remains difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dried blood spots (DBSs) stored after newborn screening tests as a metabolic autopsy to determine the causes of death in infants and children who died suddenly and unexpectedly. METHODS: Infants or toddlers who had suddenly died without a definite diagnosis between July 2008 and December 2012 at Kyushu University Hospital in Japan were enrolled in this study...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720406/contemporary-prostate-biopsy-reporting-insights-from-a-survey-of-clinicians-use-of-pathology-data
#8
Murali Varma, Krishna Narahari, Malcolm Mason, Jon D Oxley, Daniel M Berney
AIM: To determine how clinicians use data in contemporary prostate biopsy reports. METHODS: A survey was circulated to members of the British Association of Urological Surgeons and the British Uro-oncology Group. RESULTS: Responses were received from 114 respondents (88 urologists, 26 oncologists). Ninety-seven (94%) use the number of positive cores from each side and 43 (42%) use the % number of positive cores. When determining the number and percentage of positive cores, 72 (71%) would not differentiate between targeted and non-targeted samples...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720405/-smad4-dpc4
#9
REVIEW
Aoife J McCarthy, Runjan Chetty
Smad4 or DPC4 belongs to a family of signal transduction proteins that are phosphorylated and activated by transmembrane serine-threonine receptor kinases in response to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling via several pathways. The gene acts as a tumour suppressor gene and inactivation of smad4/DPC4 is best recognised in pancreatic cancer. However, smad4/DPC4 is also mutated in other conditions and cancers such as juvenile polyposis syndrome with and without hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, colorectal and prostate cancers...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705737/chairing-an-academic-pathology-department-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Zu-Hua Gao
Understanding the heterogeneity of departmental structure, service model and job descriptions for different pathology chairs, this review highlights some common challenges and opportunities facing most pathology chairs in academic institutions. The review is divided into three sections: clinical service, academic development and administration. The views and insights from this review may provide guidance to new chairs and emerging leaders in pathology and other relevant specialties.
April 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703761/clonal-t-cell-receptor-gene-rearrangements-in-coeliac-disease-implications-for-diagnosing-refractory-coeliac-disease
#11
Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, Govind Bhagat
AIMS: Refractory coeliac disease type II (RCDII), a rare complication of coeliac disease (CD) associated with high morbidity, requires identification of a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) for diagnosis. However, data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII are limited. METHODS: We analysed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active CD, 172 CD on gluten-free diet (GFD), 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without CD...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703760/peribronchial-tertiary-lymphoid-structures-persist-after-rituximab-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
LETTER
Lucile Regard, Clémence Martin, Leila Zemoura, Virginie Geolier, Edouard Sage, Pierre-Régis Burgel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703759/evaluation-of-the-correlation-between-kras-mutated-allele-frequency-and-pathologist-tumorous-nuclei-percentage-assessment-in-colorectal-cancer-suggests-a-role-for-zygosity-status
#13
Louis Libbrecht, Pamela Baldin, Anne-France Dekairelle, Anne Jouret-Mourin
Evaluation of molecular tumour heterogeneity relies on the tumorous nuclei percentage (TNP) assessment by a pathologist, which has been criticised for being inaccurate and suffering from interobserver variability. Based on the 'Big Bang theory' which states that KRAS mutation in colorectal cancer is mostly homogeneous, we investigated this issue by performing a critical analysis of the correlation of the KRAS mutant allele fraction with the TNP in 99 colorectal tumour samples with a positive KRAS mutation status as determined by next-generation sequencing...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703758/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-induced-gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-injury-pathologists-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Dipti M Karamchandani, Runjan Chetty
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) are a relatively new class of 'miracle' dugs that have revolutionised the treatment and prognosis of some advanced-stage malignancies, and have increased the survival rates significantly. This class of drugs includes cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors such as ipilimumab; programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab and avelumab; and programmed cell death protein ligand-1 inhibitors such as atezolizumab. These drugs stimulate the immune system by blocking the coinhibitory receptors on the T cells and lead to antitumoural response...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703757/telomerase-promoter-mutations-and-copy-number-alterations-in-solitary-fibrous-tumours
#15
Yingbo Lin, Nelly Seger, Panagiotis Tsagkozis, Asle C Hesla, Mehran Ghaderi, Yi Chen, Monika Ehnman, Dudi Warsito, Johan Wejde, Olle Larsson, Felix Haglund
AIMS: Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is an infrequently metastasising mesenchymal tumour defined by the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene. Activating mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase ( hTERT ) gene promoter has been reported to associate with adverse patient outcome in SFTs. METHODS: We analysed the hTERT gene for promoter mutations and copy number alterations in 43 primary extrameningeal SFTs (9 malignant and 34 benign tumours according to WHO 2013 criteria), six local recurrences and three metastatic lesions...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695486/-kras-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridisation-testing-for-the-detection-and-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#16
Noriyuki Shiroma, Koji Arihiro, Miyo Oda, Makoto Orita
AIMS: The aim of our study was to analyse correlations between KRAS mutation status, chromosomal changes that affect KRAS status in cells from pancreatic tumours. METHODS: We collected 69 cases of surgically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and seven cases of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Chromosomal abnormalities of KRAS and CEP12 were detected using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). RESULTS: The number of CEP12 signals per cell ranged from 1...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666157/cd30-expression-and-its-correlation-with-myc-and-bcl2-in-de-novo-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#17
Qi-Xing Gong, Zhen Wang, Chong Liu, Xiao Li, Ting-Xun Lu, Jin-Hua Liang, Wei Xu, Jian-Yong Li, Zhi-Hong Zhang
AIM: CD30+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has emerged as a new immunophenotypic variant of de novo DLBCLs. However, the prevalence of CD30 positivity is variable according to different studies, and the prognostic significance of CD30 is also controversial. This study aimed to investigate the positive expression rate and prognostic impact of CD30 in de novo DLBCLs and try to find the correlated influences. METHODS: A total of 241 patients with de novo DLBCL in east China from 2008 to 2015 were included to investigate the prevalence, clinicopathological features and outcomes of CD30+ de novo DLBCLs...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636372/role-of-high-throughput-sequencing-in-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#18
Bryan Rea, Paul Haun, Ryan Emerson, Marissa Vignali, Midhat Farooqi, Sara Samimi, Rosalie Elenitsas, Ilan Kirsch, Adam Bagg
AIMS: Substantial clinicopathological overlap exists between cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and benign conditions, leading to diagnostic difficulties. We sought to delineate the utility of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) across a spectrum of histological findings in CTCL and reactive mimics. METHODS: One hundred skin biopsies obtained for clinical concern for CTCL were identified, comprising 25 cases each from four histological categories: 'definitive CTCL', 'atypical lymphoid infiltrate, concerning for CTCL', 'atypical lymphoid infiltrate, favour reactive' or 'reactive lymphoid infiltrate'...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599396/diagnostic-concordance-of-reporting-lymphovascular-invasion-in-breast-cancer
#19
Emad A Rakha, Areeg Abbas, Pablo Pinto Ahumada, Maysa E ElSayed, Derek Colman, Sarah E Pinder, Ian O Ellis
AIMS: This study aims to assess the diagnostic agreement of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: Data on LVI were collected from the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme pathology external quality assurance scheme database. 101 BCs assessed over a 10-year period (2004-2014) were included. Cases were scored by an average of 600 pathologists. Three H&E stained slides from each case were reviewed by three pathologists and additional variables were evaluated...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593062/novel-selective-medium-for-the-isolation-of-corynebacterium-kroppenstedtii-from-heavily-colonised-clinical-specimens
#20
Sally Cheuk Ying Wong, Rosana W S Poon, Chuen-Hing Foo, Antonio H Y Ngan, Herman Tse, Vivian C M Lam, Tiffany H Y Leung, Chun-Pong Wong, Vincent C C Cheng, Jonathan H K Chen, Kwok-Yung Yuen
AIMS: Granulomatous mastitis due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is an increasingly recognised cause of an indolent and distressing mastitis in non-lactating females. This slow-growing lipophilic organism is not reliably isolated using routine culture methods. A novel selective culture medium (CKSM) is designed to optimise the isolation of this organism from clinical specimens. METHODS: CKSM contains 10% galactose and Tween 80 (10%) to enhance the growth of C...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
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