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Journal of Clinical Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228215/frequencies-and-patterns-of-laboratory-test-requests-from-general-practice-a-service-evaluation-to-inform-point-of-care-testing
#1
Thomas R Fanshawe, José M Ordóñez-Mena, Philip J Turner, Ann Van den Bruel, Brian Shine, Gail N Hayward
AIMS: The demand for test requests from general practice to laboratory services remains high. Tests performed at the point of care could reduce turnaround time and speed up clinical decision making. Replicating laboratory testing in the community would require panels of tests to be performed simultaneously, which is now approaching technological feasibility. We assessed frequencies and combinations of test requests from community settings to inform the potential future development of multiplex point-of-care panels...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228214/reagent-saving-immunohistochemistry-for-her2-using-non-contact-alternating-current-electric-field-mixing
#2
Iku Hoshino, Kazuhiro Imai, Hiroshi Nanjo, Ryuta Nakamura, Yoshitaro Saito, Satoshi Fujishima, Hajime Saito, Kaori Terata, Akiyuki Wakita, Yusuke Sato, Satoru Motoyama, Yoichi Akagami, Yoshihiro Minamiya
AIMS: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted agents are an effective approach to treating patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. However, the lack of survival benefit in HER2-negative patients, as well as the toxic effects and high cost of the drugs, highlight the need for accurate and prompt assessment of HER2 status. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of a novel reagent-saving immunohistochemistry method (AC-IHC) that saves HER2 antibody by taking advantage of the non-contact mixing effect in microdroplets subjected to an alternating current electric field...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228213/laboratory-assessment-of-folate-vitamin-b-9-status
#3
Agata Sobczyńska-Malefora, Dominic J Harrington
Folate (vitamin B9 ) plays a crucial role in fundamental cellular processes, including nucleic acid biosynthesis, methyl group biogenesis and amino acid metabolism. The detection and correction of folate deficiency prevents megaloblastic anaemia and reduces the risk of neural tube defects. Coexisting deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 are associated with cognitive decline, depression and neuropathy. Folate deficiency and excess has also been implicated in some cancers. Excessive exposure to folic acid, a synthetic compound used in supplements and fortified foods, has also been linked to adverse health effects...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228212/core-needle-biopsy-as-an-alternative-to-whole-section-in-ihc4-score-assessment-for-breast-cancer-prognostication
#4
Ming Liu, Shao-Xian Tang, Julia Y S Tsang, Yu-Jie Shi, Yun-Bi Ni, Bonita K B Law, Gary M K Tse
AIMS: IHC4 score, based on expression of four routine markers (oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation marker, Ki67), is a recently developed, cost-effective prognostic tool in breast cancer. Possibly, the score may be useful also in advanced diseases where only core needle biopsy (CNB) is available and neoadjuvant therapy. However, its studies on CNB are scant. This study examined whether IHC4 score assessment on CNB is comparable to that from whole section (WS)...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228211/clinical-utility-of-reflex-testing-using-focused-next-generation-sequencing-for-management-of-patients-with-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma
#5
Tyler E Miller, Michael Yang, David Bajor, Judah D Friedman, Richard Y C Chang, Afshin Dowlati, Joseph E Willis, Navid Sadri
AIMS: The growing number of genomically targeted therapies has made genomic testing an important part of the care for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. However, limited tissue availability, cost and long turnaround times can create barriers to efficient genomic testing and subsequent treatment. Effective approaches to reduce these barriers are needed. METHODS: 302 advanced lung adenocarcinomas from consecutive patients seen at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center (UHCMC) were tested inhouse using a hybrid DNA/RNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196274/assessors-and-trainees-perceptions-of-workplace-based-assessments-in-histopathology
#6
Daniel J Brierley, Paula M Farthing, Sandra Zijlstra-Shaw
AIM: Workplace-based assessments (WBAs) are an integral part of specialist medical and dental training in the UK. Histopathology represents a very different training environment to the surgical specialities so it is important to know that the current WBAs are fit for purpose. A literature search revealed very little evidence regarding the perception of WBAs in histopathology. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the current perception of WBAs in histopathology by assessors and trainees...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185534/reduced-expression-of-sirt1-and-sod-1-and-the-correlation-between-these-levels-in-various-regions-of-the-brains-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Kun Cao, Yang-Ting Dong, Jie Xiang, Yi Xu, Wei Hong, Hui Song, Zhi-Zhong Guan
AIMS: This study was designed to explore the expression and distribution of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) in various regions of the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as to assess potential correlations between the levels of these proteins and also between these proteins and the Braak stage of AD. METHODS: In the temporal and frontal cortices, hippocampus and cerebellum of 10 patients with AD and 10 age-matched control subjects, expression of SIRT1 and SOD-1, together with histopathology, were assessed by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent stainings...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171088/immunophenotypic-dysplasia-and-aberrant-t-cell-antigen-expression-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-with-complex-karyotype-and-tp53-mutations
#8
Katelyn C Dannheim, Olga Pozdnyakova, Paola Dal Cin, Olga K Weinberg
AIMS: Cytogenetic and molecular aberrations are the strongest factors in determining outcome in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). AML with complex karyotype confers a particularly poor prognosis and is associated with morphologic dysplasia. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) has been investigated in defining dysplasia within myelodysplastic syndromes, but little is known about immunophenotypic dysplasia in AML and correlation with genetic abnormalities. This study aimed to explore differences in antigen expression by FCI in AML with complex karyotype (AML-CK) and AML with complex karyotype and TP53 mutations (AML-TP53) compared with AML with normal karyotype (AML-NK)...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171087/specific-tcr-gene-rearrangements-in-mycosis-fungoides-does-advanced-clinical-stage-show-a-preference
#9
Etan Marks, Yanhua Wang, Yang Shi, Joseph Susa, Mark Jacobson, D Yitzchak Goldstein
AIMS: The relationship between the presence of specific T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides (MF) has not been studied. We analysed a cohort of patients with a diagnosis of MF to determine the different types of specific TCR gene rearrangements present and their relationship to disease stage. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was used to select patients with a diagnosis of MF who had a skin biopsy and a positive TCR gene rearrangement study in either blood or tissue and at least 2 years of clinical follow-up...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171086/claudin-1-is-linked-to-presence-of-implants-and-micropapillary-pattern-in-serous-borderline-epithelial-tumours-of-the-ovary
#10
Ahmed El-Balat, Iryna Schmeil, Khayal Gasimli, Nicole Sänger, Thomas Karn, Andre Ahr, Sven Becker, Ruza Arsenic, Uwe Holtrich, Knut Engels
AIMS: Expression of Claudin-1 has been associated with prognosis in several cancers. Here we investigated the expression pattern of Claudin-1 in borderline tumours of the ovary (BOT). METHODS: We analysed a cohort of 114 cases of borderline tumour (BOT). Claudin-1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody and was compared with clinical and histopathological characteristics. RESULTS: Strong Claudin-1 expression was found in 30 cases (26...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171085/spectrum-of-elane-mutations-in-congenital-neutropenia-a-single-centre-study-in-patients-of-indian-origin
#11
A Kumar Arun, Anandan Senthamizhselvi, Suresh Hemamalini, Eunice S Edison, Anu Korula, N A Fouzia, Biju George, Vikram Mathews, Poonkuzhali Balasubramanian
AIMS: Congenital and cyclical neutropenia are rare inherited diseases that result in recurrent life-threatening bacterial infections due to a deficiency of mature neutrophils. Cyclical neutropenia is usually caused by heterozygous ELANE mutations while congenital neutropenia is genetically heterogeneous with mutations in genes like ELANE, HAX-1, G6PC3 and GFI1. The presence of ELANE mutation aids in the establishment of diagnosis and rules out other secondary causes of neutropenia such as autoimmune cytopenia and evolving aplasia...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30154130/atypical-carcinoid-of-the-uterine-cervix-accompanying-adenocarcinoma-in-situ
#12
Chen Ling, Yangmei Shen
CLINICAL QUESTION: A 45-year-old woman presented with painless vaginal bleeding for 2 months. A biopsy was taken from the uterine cervix, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was suspected. After three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment, the patient underwent radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.Review the high quality, interactive digital Aperio slide at http://virtualacp.com/JCPCases/jclinpath-2018-205081-1/ and consider your diagnosis...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131326/rare-morphological-appearance-of-breast-carcinoma
#13
Maiar Elghobashy, Abeer M Shaaban
CLINICAL QUESTION: This is a case of an elderly woman who presented symptomatically and on examination was found to have a multifocal breast cancer. An ultrasound-guided axillary node biopsy was carried out. Review the high-quality, interactive digital Aperio slide at http://virtualacp.com/JCPCases/jclinpath-2018-205079/ and consider your diagnosis. WHAT IS YOUR DIAGNOSIS?: DCIS in axillary breast tissue with dense lymphocytic infiltrateMetastatic carcinoma of the breast with DCIS-like morphologyPrimary carcinoma in axillary tail breast tissuePrimary carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue in the axillary nodePrimary invasive carcinoma with DCIS and lymphocytic infiltrateThe correct answer is after the discussion...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104286/cdk12-an-emerging-therapeutic-target-for-cancer
#14
Goldie Y L Lui, Carla Grandori, Christopher J Kemp
Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) belongs to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes, thereby modulating multiple cellular functions. Early studies characterised CDK12 as a transcriptional CDK that complexes with cyclin K to mediate gene transcription by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II. CDK12 has been demonstrated to specifically upregulate the expression of genes involved in response to DNA damage, stress and heat shock...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099407/cd147-expression-is-associated-with-poor-overall-survival-in-chemotherapy-treated-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Ming Liu, Julia Y S Tsang, Michelle Lee, Yun-Bi Ni, Siu-Ki Chan, Sai-Yin Cheung, Jintao Hu, Hong Hu, Gary M K Tse
AIMS: In breast cancer models, the functional roles of CD147 in proliferation, invasion and treatment resistance have been widely reported. However, there are only a few studies examining the clinicopathological correlation and prognostic relevance of CD147 in breast cancer, especially in relation to breast cancer molecular subtypes. METHODS: In this study, we analysed CD147 expression in a large cohort of breast cancers, correlating with clinicopathological features and the expression of a comprehensive panel of biomarkers in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC subsets...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093508/many-faces-of-the-same-myeloid-neoplasm-a-case-of-leukaemia-cutis-with-mixed-histiocytic-and-langerhans-cell-differentiation
#16
Vignesh Shanmugam, Elizabeth A Morgan, Daniel J DeAngelo, Annette S Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093507/biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-venous-thromboembolism-d-dimer-thrombin-generation-procoagulant-phospholipid-and-soluble-p-selectin
#17
Nicoletta Riva, Kevin Vella, Kieron Hickey, Lorenza Bertù, Daniel Zammit, Silvana Spiteri, Steve Kitchen, Michael Makris, Walter Ageno, Alex Gatt
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic algorithm for venous thromboembolism (VTE) currently involves a composite of pre-test probability, D-dimer and imaging. Other laboratory tests, however, may assist in the identification of patients with VTE. AIM: To assess the accuracy of different coagulation tests (D-dimer, thrombin generation, phospholipid-dependent (PPL) clotting time, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin)) as biomarkers of acute VTE. METHODS: Random samples arriving at the Coagulation Laboratory at Mater Dei Hospital (Msida, Malta) from the Accident and Emergency Department with a request for D-dimer measurement were collected between August 2015 and February 2016...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068638/review-of-diagnostic-error-in-anatomical-pathology-and-the-role-and-value-of-second-opinions-in-error-prevention
#18
Martyn Peck, David Moffat, Bruce Latham, Tony Badrick
AIMS: Diagnostic/interpretative accuracy can be challenging in anatomical pathology due to the subjective element of the diagnostic process. This can lead to false-negative or false-positive diagnoses of malignancy, variations in grading and diagnostic misclassification of a condition.It is imperative that an accurate diagnosis is achieved so that an appropriate and timely treatment is administered to the patient, for example, the success of targeted molecular therapeutic options for treatment of cancer is dependent on accurate anatomical pathology diagnoses being issued...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054375/analysis-of-a-large-cohort-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-submitted-for-somatic-variant-analysis-demonstrates-that-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-is-fit-for-purpose-as-a-molecular-diagnostic-assay-in-routine-practice
#19
David Allan Moore, Kevin Balbi, Alexander Ingham, Hendrik-Tobias Arkenau, Philip Bennett
AIMS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) is increasingly being adopted as an alternative to single gene testing in some centres. Our aim was to assess the overall fitness and utility of tNGS as a routine clinical test in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: All NSCLC cases submitted to a single laboratory for tNGS analysis over a 3-year period were included. Rejection/failure rates and turnaround times were calculated. For reportable cases, data relating to observed genetic changes likely to be driving tumour growth and/or contributing to therapeutic resistance were extracted...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049817/eighth-edition-cancer-staging-manual-of-breast-cancer-by-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-are-the-new-changes-to-improve-staging-or-a-treatment-decision-tool
#20
Cecily Quinn, Emad A Rakha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
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