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Journal of Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637331/antioxidants-as-stabilizers-for-his6-oph-is-this-an-unusual-or-regular-role-for-them-with-enzymes
#1
Elena N Efremenko, Ilya V Lyagin, Le Huu Cuong, Le Mai Huong
HASH(0x48d3008)
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637250/use-of-spytag-spycatcher-to-construct-bispecific-antibodies-that-target-two-epitopes-of-a-single-antigen
#2
Kyohei Yumura, Hiroki Akiba, Satoru Nagatoishi, Osamu Kusano-Arai, Hiroko Iwanari, Takao Hamakubo, Kouhei Tsumoto
Bispecific antibody targeting of two different antigens is promising, but when fragment-based antibodies are used, homogeneous production is difficult. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a method using the SpyTag/SpyCatcher system in which a covalent bond is formed between the two polypeptides. Using this method, we constructed a bispecific antibody that simultaneously interacted with two different epitopes of ROBO1, a membrane protein associated with cancer progression. A bispecific tetravalent antibody with an additional functional moiety was also constructed by using a dimeric biotin-binding protein...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575453/quantitative-analysis-of-phagosome-formation-and-maturation-using-an-escherichia-coli-probe-expressing-a-tandem-fluorescent-protein
#3
Maya Morita, Kazumasa Sawaki, Daiki Kinoshita, Chiye Sakurai, Naohiro Hori, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa
Phagosome formation and maturation are essential innate immune mechanisms to engulf and digest foreign particles. To analyze these processes quantitatively, we established a specific Escherichia coli probe expressing a tandem fluorescent protein, comprising glutathione S-transferase fused with monomeric Cherry (mCherry) and monomeric Venus (mVenus). We demonstrated that mVenus was more susceptible to bleaching in an acidic environment than mCherry, and that the mVenus:mCherry fluorescence intensity ratio can be used to monitor phagosomal pH changes during maturation...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541399/assessment-of-direct-interaction-between-cd36-and-an-oxidized-glycerophospholipid-species
#4
Satoshi Tsuzuki, Masayuki Yamasaki, Yuki Kozai, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue, Tohru Fushiki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398483/function-of-nuclear-membrane-proteins-in-shaping-the-nuclear-envelope-integrity-during-closed-mitosis
#5
Hui-Ju Yang, Masaaki Iwamoto, Yasushi Hiraoka, Tokuko Haraguchi
The nuclear envelope (NE) not only protects the genome from being directly accessed by detrimental agents but also regulates genome organization. Breaches in NE integrity threaten genome stability and impede cellular function. Nonetheless, the NE constantly remodels, and NE integrity is endangered in dividing or differentiating cells. Specifically, in unicellular eukaryotes undergoing closed mitosis, the NE expands instead of breaking down during chromosome segregation. The newly assembling nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) penetrate the existing NE in interphase...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338847/paradigm-shift-from-diagnosing-patients-based-on-common-symptoms-to-categorizing-patients-into-subtypes-with-different-pathogenic-mechanisms-to-guide-treatment-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Keiro Shirotani, Masashi Asai, Nobuhisa Iwata
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major cause of dementia in the elderly, and the number of AD patients is rapidly growing as life expectancy increases. However, disease-modifying drugs are not yet available. According to the amyloid hypothesis, disease onset is triggered by aggregation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptide, followed by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, and synaptic loss/neuronal cell death leading to dementia. Based on this hypothesis, various clinical trials for treatment of AD have been conducted, but most were discontinued due to failure to achieve cognitive improvement or appearance of adverse effects...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158808/simultaneous-ablation-of-prmt-1-and-prmt-5-abolishes-asymmetric-and-symmetric-arginine-dimethylations-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Keiko Hirota, Chihiro Shigekawa, Sho Araoi, Liang Sha, Takayuki Inagawa, Akihiko Kanou, Koichiro Kako, Hiroaki Daitoku, Akiyoshi Fukamizu
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to arginine residues and are classified into two types: type I producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and type II producing symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). PRMTs have been shown to regulate many cellular processes, including signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. Since the loss-of-function mutation of PRMT1 and PRMT5, each of which is the predominant type I and II, respectively, causes embryonic lethality in mice, their physiological significance at the whole-body level remains largely unknown...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130416/crystal-structure-of-the-solute-binding-protein-bxle-from-streptomyces-thermoviolaceus-opc-520-complexed-with-xylobiose
#8
Koji Tomoo, Yasuhiro Miki, Hideaki Morioka, Kiho Seike, Toshimasa Ishida, Sadao Ikenishi, Katsushiro Miyamoto, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Akihito Yamano, Kensaku Hamada, Hiroshi Tsujibo
BxlE from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520 is a xylo-oligosaccharide (mainly xylobiose)-binding protein that serves as the initial receptor for the bacterial ABC-type xylo-oligosaccharide transport system. To determine the ligand-binding mechanism of BxlE, X-ray structures of ligand-free (open form) and ligand (xylobiose)-bound (closed form) BxlE were determined at 1.85 Å resolution. BxlE consists of two globular domains that are linked by two β-strands, with the cleft at the interface of the two domains creating the ligand-binding pocket...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096454/mitochondrial-function-is-required-for-extracellular-atp-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#9
Daichi Sadatomi, Kazutaka Nakashioya, Sayaka Mamiya, Shino Honda, Yuka Kameyama, Yasuo Yamamura, Susumu Tanimura, Kohsuke Takeda
The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a critical role in the processing and release of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondria are common mediators of NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by a wide range of inflammatory stimuli; however, the precise role of mitochondria is still not fully understood. Here, we show that mitochondrial function is required for extracellular ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Extracellular ATP induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial fragmentation in a different manner than other stimuli in primary mouse macrophages...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082720/enzymatic-kinetics-of-the-quinol-peroxidase-of-an-aggressive-periodontopathic-bacterium
#10
Tasuku Abe, Taketo Kawarai, Yukihiro Takahashi, Kiyoshi Konishi
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral pathogen for aggressive periodontitis, and encodes a triheme c-containing membrane-bound enzyme, quinol peroxidase (QPO) that catalyzes peroxidase activity using quinol in the respiratory chain. In the previous work, we have characterized recombinant QPO purified from the membrane fraction of Escherichia coli harboring a plasmid containing QPO gene. Irreversible inactivation of QPO by high concentration of H2O2 exhibited pseudo-first order kinetics. Analysis of initial-rate kinetics of QPO may suggest that enzyme catalytic mechanism is explained by a Ping Pong Bi Bi system rather than sequential systems...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011817/a-mechanism-for-evasion-of-ctl-immunity-by-altered-o-glycosylation-of-hla-class-i
#11
Mihoko Sutoh Yoneyama, Yuki Tobisawa, Shingo Hatakeyama, Misaki Sato, Kiyoshi Tone, Yota Tatara, Ikuko Kakizaki, Tomihisa Funyu, Minoru Fukuda, Senji Hoshi, Chikara Ohyama, Shigeru Tsuboi
Anti-tumour immunity by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) is essential to suppress tumour progression. Cancer cells that evade CTL immunity proliferate in the host, promoting metastasis, but mechanisms underlying this capacity remain unknown. Here we report that bladder cancer cells metastasized to lymph nodes evade CTL immunity by a new mechanism via altered glycosylation. CTLs normally recognize and kill cancer cells presenting antigenic peptides on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. We show bladder cancer cells expressing the O-glycan processing enzyme, core2 β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) exhibit HLA class I O-glycan modified with poly-N-acetyllactosamine and are highly susceptible to CTL...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510655/mir-145-promoted-anoikis-resistance-in-tumor-endothelial-cells
#12
Kyoko Hida, Taisuke Kawamoto, Nako Maishi, Masahiro Morimoto, Kosuke Akiyama, Noritaka Ohga, Masanobu Shindoh, Nobuo Shinohara, Yasuhiro Hida
Tumor progression is dependent on tumor angiogenesis. We previously reported that the phenotype of tumor endothelial cells (TECs) is distinct from normal endothelial cells (NECs). Herein, we conducted a pathway analysis using a public TEC microarray database and identified several putative TEC-specific miRNAs. We found that miR-145 expression was upregulated in TECs and that miR-145 enhanced cell adhesion and anoikis resistance and upregulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl via ERK1/2in human microvascular endothelial cells...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486685/inhibition-of-ser-thr-phosphatase-ppm1d-induces-neutrophil-differentiation-in-hl-60-cells
#13
Rui Kamada, Fuki Kudoh, Fumihiko Yoshimura, Keiji Tanino, Kazuyasu Sakaguchi
Protein phosphatase Magnesium-dependent 1, Delta (PPM1D) is a wild-type p53-inducible Ser/Thr phosphatase that acts as a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor. Gene amplification and overexpression of PPM1D have been reported in various cancers including leukemia and neuroblastoma. Therefore, PPM1D is a promising target in cancer therapy. It has been reported that PPM1D knockout mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and show a defective immune response. Here, we found that inhibition of PPM1D induced neutrophil differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338957/regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-microrna-27
#14
Hiroshi I Suzuki, Akihiro Katsura, Hajime Mihira, Masafumi Horie, Akira Saito, Kohei Miyazono
Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Here we report that microRNA-27b (miR-27b) positively regulates transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced EndMT of MS-1 mouse pancreatic microvascular endothelial cells. TGF-β induced miR-23b/24-1/27b expression, and inhibition of miR-27 suppressed TGF-β-mediated induction of mesenchymal genes. Genome-wide miRNA target analysis revealed that miR-27 targets Elk1, which acts as a competitive inhibitor of myocardin-related transcription factor-serum response factor signalling and as a myogenic repressor...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338836/a-novel-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-the-perspective-of-glyco-immunology
#15
Shinichiro Shinzaki, Hideki Iijima, Hironobu Fujii, Yoshihiro Kamada, Tetsuji Naka, Tetsuo Takehara, Eiji Miyoshi
Oligosaccharide modifications play an essential role in various inflammatory diseases and cancers, but their pathophysiologic roles, especially in inflammation, are not clear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable chronic inflammatory disorder with an unknown aetiology, and the number of patients with IBD is increasing throughout the world. Certain types of immunosuppressant drugs, such as corticosteroids, are effective for IBD, suggesting that immune function is closely associated with the pathophysiology of IBD...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338801/evolutionary-origin-of-mitochondrial-cytochrome-p450
#16
Tsuneo Omura, Osamu Gotoh
Different molecular species of cytochrome P450 (P450) are distributed between endoplasmic reticulum (microsomes) and mitochondria in animal cells. Plants and fungi have many microsomal P450s, but no mitochondrial P450 has so far been reported. To elucidate the evolutionary origin of mitochondrial P450s in animal cells, available evidence is examined, and the virtual absence of mitochondrial P450 in plants and fungi is confirmed. It is also suggested that a microsomal P450 is the ancestor of animal mitochondrial P450s...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130419/the-retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptor-%C3%AE-positively-regulates-tight-junction-protein-claudin-domain-containing-1-mrna-expression-in-human-brain-endothelial-cells
#17
Hiroshi Matsuoka, Akiho Shima, Arisa Uda, Hirotaka Ezaki, Akihiro Michihara
Members of the claudin family play important roles in the formation of tight junctions (TJs) in several tissues. Claudin domain containing 1 (CLDND1) is homologous to this family and localizes to TJs and the cytoplasm when exogenously expressed in cultured epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, serum antibody levels of CLDND1-derived peptides are elevated in patients with cerebral infection, cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus as compared to healthy controls. However, CLDND1 transcriptional regulation remains poorly analyzed and most regional transcription factor binding sites remain to be defined...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096453/programmable-formation-of-catalytic-rna-triangles-and-squares-by-assembling-modular-rna-enzymes
#18
Hiroki Oi, Daisuke Fujita, Yuki Suzuki, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Masayuki Endo, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya Ikawa
RNA is a biopolymer that is attractive for constructing nano-scale objects with complex structures. Three-dimensional (3D) structures of naturally occurring RNAs often have modular architectures. The 3D structure of a group I (GI) ribozyme from Tetrahymena has a typical modular architecture, which can be separated into two structural modules (ΔP5 and P5abc). The fully active ribozyme can be reconstructed by assembling the two separately prepared modules through highly specific and strong assembly between ΔP5 ribozyme and P5abc RNA...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069865/interleukin-22-restored-mitochondrial-damage-and-impaired-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-through-down-regulation-of-uncoupling-protein-2-in-ins-1-cells
#19
Minling Hu, Hanxiao Lin, Li Yang, Yanzhen Cheng, Hua Zhang
Defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) induced by chronic exposure to fatty acids is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Interleukin-22 (IL-22) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin secretion and to protect pancreatic β-cells from stress. Moreover, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) plays a central role in the regulation of GSIS and β-cell dysfunction, whereas the role of UCP-2 in IL-22-enhanced glycemic control under conditions of lipotoxicity remains unclear. In this present study, we investigated the effects of IL-22 on rat insulin-secreting cells (INS-1 cells) and the mechanisms that underlie IL-22 and lipotoxicity-impaired GSIS in vitro...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039392/molecular-characterization-of-tomato-%C3%AE-1-3-4-fucosidase-a-member-of-glycosyl-hydrolase-family-29-involved-in-the-degradation-of-plant-complex-type-n-glycans
#20
Md Ziaur Rahman, Megumi Maeda, Satsuki Itano, Md Anowar Hossain, Takeshi Ishimizu, Yoshinobu Kimura
In this study, we identified a gene in tomato that encodes an acidic α-fucosidase (LOC101254568 or Solyc03g006980, α-Fuc'ase S1-1), which may be involved in the turnover of plant complex-type N-glycans. Recombinant α-Fuc'ase S1-1 (rFuc'ase S1-1) was expressed using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system. rFuc'ase Sl-1 is 55 kDa in size and has an optimum pH around 4.5. It substantially hydrolyzed the non-reducing terminal α1,3-fucose residue on LNFP III and α1,4-fucose residues of Lea epitopes on plant complex-type N-glycans, but not the α1,2-fucose residue on LNFP I or the α1,3-fucose residue on pyridylaminated Fucα1-3GlcNAc...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
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