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Journal of Biochemistry

Kenichi Asano, Kenta Kikuchi, Masato Tanaka
Tissue macrophages comprise heterogeneous subsets that differ in localization, phenotype, and ontogeny. They acquire tissue-specific phenotype in order to maintain normal tissue physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the functions of CD169-positive macrophage subset residing in the lymphoid organs and intestinal tract. Strategically positioned at the interface between tissue and circulating fluid, CD169+ macrophages in the lymphoid organs capture blood- and lymph-borne particulate materials...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Jung-Wei Chang, Yusuke Sato, Tetsuhiro Ogawa, Takatoshi Arakawa, Shuya Fukai, Shinya Fushinobu, Haruhiko Masaki
Colicins are protein toxins produced by and toxic to Escherichia coli strains. Colicin D consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD), central domain (CD), and C-terminal RNase domain (CRD). The cognate immunity protein, ImmD, is co-synthesized in producer cells to block the toxic tRNase activity of the CRD. Previous studies have reported the crystal structure of CRD/ImmD complex. Colicin D hijacks the surface receptor FepA and the energy transducer TonB system using the NTD for translocation across the outer membrane of the target cells...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Yuan Li, Anna Rita Cappello, Luigina Muto, Emanuela Martello, Marianna Madeo, Rosita Curcio, Paola Lunetti, Susanna Raho, Francesco Zaffino, Luca Frattaruolo, Rosamaria Lappano, Rocco Malivindi, Marcello Maggiolini, Donatella Aiello, Carmela Piazzolla, Loredana Capobianco, Giuseppe Fiermonte, Vincenza Dolce
Several ATP-depending reactions take place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ER the existence of a Sac1p-dependent ATP transport system was already known, its direct involvement in ATP transport was excluded. Here we report an extensive biochemical characterization of a partially purified adenine nucleotide transport system (ANTS) not dependent on Sac1p. Highly purified ER membranes from the wild-type and Δsac1 yeast strains reconstituted into liposomes transported ATP with the same efficiency...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Seaim Lwin Aye, Kei Fujiwara, Nobuhide Doi
Engineering and design of genetic circuit in living cell is critical in accessing the beneficial application of synthetic biology. Directed evolution can avoid the complicated rational design of such circuit by screening or selecting functional circuit from non-functional one. Here we proposed a positive-negative selection system for selecting a transcription factor that activates gene expression in response to arsenic in solution. First, we developed a whole cell biosensor for sensing arsenite in liquid using a regulator (ArsR) and a reporter (GFP), and evaluated its performance...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Takuma Kozono, Kazuko Tadahira, Wataru Okumura, Nao Itai, Miwa Tamura-Nakano, Taeko Dohi, Takashi Tonozuka, Atsushi Nishikawa
Jaw1/LRMP is characterized as a type II integral membrane protein that is localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), however, its physiological functions have been poorly understood. An alignment of amino acid sequence of Jaw1 with KASH proteins, outer nuclear membrane proteins, revealed that Jaw1 has a partial homology to the KASH domain. Here, we show that the function of Jaw1 is to maintain nuclear shape in mouse melanoma cell line. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of Jaw1 caused a severe defect in nuclear shape, and the defect was rescued by ectopic expression of siRNA-resistant Jaw1...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Kei Sadakane, Islam M D Alrazi, Shinsaku Maruta
Mitotic kinesin Eg5 plays an important physiological role in cell division. Several small-molecule inhibitors of Eg5 are the focus of cancer therapies. Azobenzene is a photochromic compound exhibiting cis-trans isomerization upon ultraviolet (UV) and visible (VIS) light irradiation. Photochromic compounds of azobenzene derivatives, mimicking Eg5 specific inhibitors of STLC, indicated photoreversible inhibitory effects on Eg5 ATPase activity; however, the photoreversible switching efficiency was not significant...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Satoshi Inouye, Yuri Tomabechi, Takamitsu Hosoya, Shun-Ichi Sekine, Mikako Shirouzu
cf3-Aequorin is one of the semi-synthetic aequorins that was produced by replacing 2-peroxycoelenterazine (CTZ-OOH) in native aequorin with a 2-peroxycoelenterazine analog, and it was prepared using the C2-modified trifluoromethyl analog of coelenterazine (cf3-CTZ) and the histidine-tagged apoaequorin expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The purified cf3-aequorin showed a slow luminescence pattern with half-decay time of Imax of 5.0 s. This is much longer than that of 0.9 s for native aequorin, and its luminescence capacity was estimated to be 72...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Masafumi Noda, Sachiko Sugimoto, Ikue Hayashi, Narandalai Danshiitsoodol, Mitsuhiro Fukamachi, Masanori Sugiyama
A lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus paracasei IJH-SONE68, which was isolated from a fig leaf by our group, was found to produce both acidic and neutral exopolysaccharide (EPS). The NMR analysis demonstrates that the former EPS is composed primarily of mannose, and the latter one consists of the α-1,6-linked glycan chains made of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). The presence of α-1,6-linked GlcNAc polysaccharide is the first report in prokaryotes. Furthermore, to reveal the EPS-biosynthetic gene organization in the IJH-SONE68 strain, in the present study, we determined the whole genome sequence...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Masao Saitoh
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) provides an outstanding example of cellular plasticity during embryonic development and cancer progression. During EMT in embryonic development, epithelial cells lose all vestiges of their epithelial origin and acquire a fully mesenchymal phenotype, known as complete EMT, which is typically characterized by a so-called cadherin switch. Conversely, during EMT in cancer progression, cancer cells that originate from epithelial cells exhibit both mesenchymal and epithelial characteristics, i...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Kei Sadakane, Mao Takaichi, Shinsaku Maruta
In this study, we synthesized a novel photochromic inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin Eg5, which is composed of the photochromic compound spiropyran in order to photo-control the function of Eg5. The compound (S)-2,3-dispiropyran propionic acid (DSPPA) exhibits reversible spiropyran-merocyanine photoisomerization upon irradiation with visible or ultra-violet light. DSPPA induced reversible changes in the inhibitory effect on Eg5 ATPase and motor activities, which correlates with the spiropyran-merocyanine photoisomerization...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Fatemah A Alherz, Amal A El Daibani, Ahsan F Bairam, Maryam S Abunnaja, Mohammed I Rasool, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
Sulfated cholesterol, like its unsulfated counterpart, is known to be biologically active and serves a myriad of biochemical/physiological functions. Of the thirteen human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), SULT2B1b has been reported as the main enzyme responsible for the sulfation of cholesterol. As such, SULT2B1b may play the role as a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism. Variations in the sulfating activity of SULT2B1b may affect the sulfation of cholesterol and, consequently, the related physiological events...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Yuta Murakami, Yuka Matsumoto, Kyoka Hoshi, Hiromi Ito, Takashi J Fuwa, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Madoka Nakajima, Masakazu Miyajima, Hajime Arai, Kenneth Nollet, Naho Kato, Rie Nishikata, Naohito Kuroda, Takashi Honda, Jun Sakuma, Kiyoshi Saito, Yasuhiro Hashimoto
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a dementia-inducing disorder. Primary cause of iNPH is speculated to be a reduction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption, which secondarily induces hydrocephalus, compression of brain, and reduction of CSF production. Patients are treated by surgically inserting a shunt to deliver excess CSF to the abdominal cavity. The prognosis for cognitive improvement after shunt surgery has been difficult to predict. We therefore investigated various CSF proteins, hoping to find a biomarker predictive of cognitive performance one to two years after shunt surgery...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Yoko Kimata-Ariga, Shohei Yuasa, Takashi Saitoh, Haruka Fukuyama, Toshiharu Hase
The malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) possesses a plastid-derived, essential organelle called the apicoplast, which contains a redox system comprising plant-type ferredoxin (Fd) and Fd-NADP+ reductase (FNR). This system supplies reducing power for the crucial metabolic pathways in this organelle. Electron transfer between P. falciparum Fd (PfFd) and FNR (PfFNR) is performed with higher affinity and specificity than that of plant Fd and FNR. To investigate the mechanism for such superior protein-protein interaction, we searched for the Fd interaction sites on the surface of PfFNR...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Akira Kitamura, Hiroki Shimizu, Masataka Kinjo
Optineurin (OPTN) plays an important role in membrane trafficking processes such as exocytosis and autophagy. The sizes and rate of formation of accumulated structures comprising OPTN, such as foci or inclusion bodies (IBs), are often disrupted by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and glaucoma-associated mutants of OPTN. Therefore, methods for the quantitative measurement of the size of the accumulated structure are necessary. Here, we show that, using spatial image correlation spectroscopy (ICS), the average diameter of accumulated structures of the wild type and disease-associated mutants in living cells may be easily determined...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Tokuhiro Chano, Sofia Avnet
RAB39A is a Rab small GTPase that localizes at distinct subcellular compartments and regulates intracellular membrane trafficking pathways in vertebrate cells. RAB39A interacts with various molecules and modulates vesicular trafficking that regulates multiple biological pathways such as neuronal differentiation and/or autophagy. Among these pathways are Hippo and Notch signalings, microtubular organization, and mitophagy/autophagy. Although RAB39A has never been studied in cancer biology, it has been recently shown to promote cancer stemness and tumorigenesis...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Takamichi Sato, Ryo Takano, Kazuhiro Tokunaka, Kan Saiga, Arihiro Tomura, Hidemitsu Sugihara, Toshihiko Hayashi, Yasutada Imamura, Makoto Morita
Expression of type IV collagen α1 chain in non-triple helical form, NTH α1(IV), is observed in cultured human cells, human placenta, and rabbit tissues. Biological functions of NTH α1(IV) are most likely to be distinct from type IV collagen, since their biochemical characteristics are quite different. To explore the biological functions of NTH α1(IV), we prepared some anti-NTH α1(IV) antibodies. In the course of characterization of these antibodies, one antibody, #141, bound to a polypeptide of 140 kDa in size in addition to NTH α1(IV)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Kar Yan Soh, Jacelyn Mei San Loh, Thomas Proft
Streptococcus pyogenes nuclease A (SpnA) and streptococcal 5' nucleosidase A (S5nA) are two recently described virulence factors from the human pathogen S. pyogenes. In-vitro studies have shown that SpnA is a nuclease that cleaves ssDNA and dsDNA, including the DNA backbone of neutrophil extracellular traps. S5nA was shown to hydrolyse AMP and ADP, but not ATP, to generate the immunomodulatory molecule adenosine. S5nA also generates the macrophage-toxic deoxyadenosine from dAMP. However, detailed in vivo studies of the two enzymes have been hampered by difficulties with using current animal models for this exclusive human pathogen...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Tomoya Uchida, Masaaki Kanemori
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) chaperone systems consist of Hsp70, Hsp40, and a nucleotide-exchange factor and function to help unfolded proteins achieve their native conformations. Typical Hsp40s assume a homodimeric structure and have both chaperone and cochaperone activity. The dimeric structure is critical for chaperone function, whereas the relationship between the dimeric structure and cochaperone function is hardly known. Here, we examined whether two intact protomers are required for cochaperone activity of Hsp40 using an Escherichia coli Hsp70 chaperone system consisting of DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Daisuke Saigusa, Norio Suzuki, Yotaro Matsumoto, Keiko Umeda, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Seizo Koshiba, Masayuki Yamamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Fengying Tang, Megan S Lord, William B Stallcup, John M Whitelock
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a cell surface proteoglycan highly expressed by tumour, perivascular and oligodendrocyte cells and known to be involved cell adhesion and migration. This study showed that CSPG4 was present as a proteoglycan on the cell surface of two melanoma cell lines, MM200 and Me1007, as well as shed into the conditioned medium. CSPG4 from the two melanoma cell lines differed in the amount of chondroitin sulphate (CS) decoration, as well as the way the protein core was fragmented...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
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