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Journal of Animal Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726288/hot-dogs-high-ambient-temperatures-impact-reproductive-success-in-a-tropical-carnivore
#1
Rosie Woodroffe, Rosemary Groom, J Weldon McNutt
Climate change imposes an urgent need to recognise and conserve the species likely to be worst affected. However, while ecologists have mostly explored indirect effects of rising ambient temperatures on temperate and polar species, physiologists have predicted direct impacts on tropical species. The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), a tropical species, exhibits few of the traits typically used to predict climate change vulnerability. Nevertheless, we predicted that wild dog populations might be sensitive to weather conditions, because the species shows strongly seasonal reproduction across most of its geographical range...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699246/a-potential-pitfall-in-studies-of-biological-shape-does-size-matter
#2
David Outomuro, Frank Johansson
The number of published studies using geometric morphometrics (GM) for analysing biological shape has increased steadily since the beginning of the 1990's, covering multiple research areas such as ecology, evolution, development, taxonomy and palaeontology. Unfortunately, we have observed that many published studies using GM do not evaluate the potential allometric effects of size on shape, which normally require consideration or assessment. This might lead to misinterpretations and flawed conclusions in certain cases, especially when size effects explain a large part of the shape variation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696537/fire-influences-the-structure-of-plant-bee-networks
#3
G Peralta, E L Stevani, N P Chacoff, J Dorado, D P Vázquez
1. Fire represents a frequent disturbance in many ecosystems, which can affect plant-pollinator assemblages and hence the services they provide. Furthermore, fire events could affect the architecture of plant-pollinator interaction networks, modifying the structure and function of communities. 2. Some pollinators, such as wood-nesting bees, may be particularly affected by fire events due to damage to nesting material and its long regeneration time. However, it remains unclear whether fire influences the structure of bee plant interactions...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692168/indirect-effects-of-ecosystem-engineering-combine-with-consumer-behavior-to-determine-the-spatial-distribution-of-herbivory
#4
Blaine D Griffen, Megan E Riley, Zachary J Cannizzo, Ilka C Feller
1.Ecosystem engineers alter environments by creating, modifying, or destroying habitats. The indirect impacts of ecosystem engineering on trophic interactions should depend on the combination of the spatial distribution of engineered structures and the foraging behavior of consumers that use these structures as refuges. 2.In this study, we assessed the indirect effects of ecosystem engineering by a wood-boring beetle in a neotropical mangrove forest system. We identified herbivory patterns in a dwarf mangrove forest on the archipelago of Twin Cays, Belize...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692130/the-index-case-is-not-enough-variation-among-individuals-groups-and-social-networks-modify-bacterial-transmission-dynamics
#5
Carl N Keiser, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Michael J Ziemba, Krishna S Kothamasu, Jonathan N Pruitt
1.The traits of the index case of an infectious disease outbreak, and the circumstances for their etiology, potentially influence the trajectory of transmission dynamics. However, these dynamics likely also depend on the traits of the individuals with whom the index case interacts. 2.We used the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola to test how the traits of the index case, group phenotypic composition, and group size interact to facilitate the transmission of a GFP-labeled cuticular bacterium. We also compared bacterial transmission across experimentally generated "daisy-chain" versus "star" networks of social interactions...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686298/predatory-birds-and-ants-partition-caterpillar-prey-by-body-size-and-diet-breadth
#6
M S Singer, R E Clark, I H Lichter-Marck, E R Johnson, K A Mooney
1.The effects of predator assemblages on herbivores are predicted to depend critically on predator-predator interactions and the extent to which predators partition prey resources. The role of prey heterogeneity in generating such multiple predator effects has received limited attention. 2.Vertebrate and arthropod insectivores constitute two co-dominant predatory taxa in many ecosystems, and the emergent properties of their joint effects on insect herbivores inform theory on multiple predator effects as well as biological control of insect herbivores...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682480/effects-of-host-species-and-environment-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-plethodontid-salamanders
#7
Carly R Muletz Wolz, Stephanie A Yarwood, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Karen R Lips
1.The amphibian skin microbiome is recognized for its role in defense against pathogens, including the deadly fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Yet, we have little understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes that structure these communities, especially for salamanders and closely related species. We investigated patterns in the distribution of bacterial communities on Plethodon salamander skin across host species and environments. 2.Quantifying salamander skin microbiome structure contributes to our understanding of how host-associated bacteria are distributed across the landscape, among host species, and their putative relationship with disease...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682460/strategies-for-managing-rival-bacterial-communities-lessons-from-burying-beetles
#8
Ana Duarte, Martin Welch, Chris Swannack, Josef Wagner, Rebecca M Kilner
1.The role of bacteria in animal development, ecology and evolution is increasingly well-understood, yet little is known of how animal behaviour affects bacterial communities. Animals that benefit from defending a key resource from microbial competitors are likely to evolve behaviours to control or manipulate the animal's associated external microbiota. 2.We describe four possible mechanisms by which animals could gain a competitive edge by disrupting a rival bacterial community: 'weeding', 'seeding', 'replanting' and 'preserving'...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657652/life-histories-and-conservation-of-long-lived-reptiles-an-illustration-with-the-american-crocodile-crocodylus-acutus
#9
Venetia Briggs-Gonzalez, Christophe Bonenfant, Mathieu Basille, Michael Cherkiss, Jeff Beauchamp, Frank Mazzotti
Successful species conservation is dependent on adequate estimates of population dynamics, but age-specific demographics are generally lacking for many long-lived iteroparous species such as large reptiles. Accurate demographic information allows estimation of population growth rate, as well as projection of future population sizes and quantitative analyses of fitness trade-offs involved in evolution of life-history strategies. Here, a long-term capture-recapture study was conducted from 1978-2014 on the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in southern Florida...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656732/niche-conservatism-and-the-invasive-potential-of-the-wild-boar
#10
Lilian Patrícia Sales, Bruno R Ribeiro, Matt Warrington Hayward, Adriano Paglia, Marcelo Passamani, Rafael Loyola
1.Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unraveling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. 2.Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modeling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs pooled (native plus invaded) species records...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646599/boldness-predicts-an-individual-s-position-along-an-exploration-exploitation-foraging-trade-off
#11
Samantha C Patrick, David Pinaud, Henri Weimerskirch
Individuals do not have complete information about the environment and therefore they face a trade-off between gathering information (exploration) and gathering resources (exploitation). Studies have shown individual differences in components of this trade-off but how stable these strategies are in a population and the intrinsic drivers of these differences is not well understood. Top marine predators are expected to experience a particularly strong trade-off as many species have large foraging ranges and their prey often have a patchy distribution...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636751/using-experimentation-to-understand-the-10-year-snowshoe-hare-cycle-in-the-boreal-forest-of-north-america
#12
C J Krebs, R Boonstra, S Boutin
Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation, and social behaviour...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636171/pulsed-food-resources-but-not-forest-cover-determines-lifetime-reproductive-success-in-a-forest-dwelling-rodent
#13
Katrine S Hoset, Alexandre Villers, Ralf Wistbacka, Vesa Selonen
1.The relative contributions of habitat and food availability on fitness may provide evidence for key habitat features needed to safeguard population persistence. However, defining habitat quality for a species can be a complex task, especially if knowledge on the relationship between individual performance and habitat quality is lacking. 2.Here, we determined the relative importance of availability of suitable forest habitat, body mass, and food from masting tree species on female lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of Siberian flying squirrels (Pteromys volans)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626934/thermal-physiology-a-new-dimension-of-the-pace-of-life-syndrome
#14
C T Goulet, M B Thompson, M Michelangeli, B B M Wong, D G Chapple
1.Current syndrome research focuses primarily on behavior with few incorporating components of physiology. One such syndrome is the Pace-of-Life Syndrome (POLS) which describes covariation between behaviour, metabolism immunity, hormonal response, and life history traits. Despite the strong effect temperature has on behavior, thermal physiology has yet to be considered within this syndrome framework. 2.We proposed the POLS to be extended to include a new dimension, the cold-hot axis. Under this premise, it is predicted that thermal physiology and behavior would covary whereby individual positioning along the thermal continuum would coincide with that of the behavioral continuum...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727138/partial-diel-migration-a-facultative-migration-underpinned-by-long-term-inter-individual-variation
#15
Philip M Harrison, Lee F G Gutowsky, Eduardo G Martins, David A Patterson, Steven J Cooke, Michael Power
The variations in migration that comprise partial diel migrations, putatively occur entirely as a consequence of behavioural flexibility. However, seasonal partial migrations are increasingly recognised to be mediated by a combination of reversible plasticity in response to environmental variation and individual variation due to genetic and environmental effects. Here, we test the hypothesis that while partial diel migration heterogeneity occurs primarily due to short-term within-individual flexibility in behaviour, long-term individual differences in migratory behaviour also underpin this migration variation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609555/carnivore-carcasses-are-avoided-by-carnivores
#16
Marcos Moleón, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco, Oliver C Muellerklein, Wayne M Getz, Carlos Muñoz-Lozano, José A Sánchez-Zapata
1. Ecologists have traditionally focused on herbivore carcasses as study models in scavenging research. However, some observations of scavengers avoiding feeding on carnivore carrion suggest that different types of carrion may lead to differential pressures. Untested assumptions about carrion produced at different trophic levels could therefore lead ecologists to overlook important evolutionary processes and their ecological consequences. 2. Our general goal was to investigate the use of mammalian carnivore carrion by vertebrate scavengers...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605018/contrasting-drivers-of-reproductive-ageing-in-albatrosses
#17
Hannah Froy, Sue Lewis, Daniel H Nussey, Andrew G Wood, Richard A Phillips
1.Age-related variation in reproductive performance is ubiquitous in wild vertebrate populations and has important consequences for population and evolutionary dynamics. 2.The ageing trajectory is shaped by both within-individual processes, such as improvement and senescence, and by the among-individual effects of selective appearance and disappearance. To date, few studies have compared the role of these different drivers among species or populations. 3.In this study, we use nearly 40 years of longitudinal monitoring data to contrast the within- and among-individual processes contributing to the reproductive ageing patterns in three albatross species (two biennial and one annual breeder), and test whether these can be explained by differences in life-histories...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605016/flexibility-in-the-duration-of-parental-care-female-leopards-prioritise-cub-survival-over-reproductive-output
#18
Guy A Balme, Hugh S Robinson, Ross T Pitman, Luke T B Hunter
1.Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. 2.We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605012/advancing-research-on-animal-transported-subsidies-by-integrating-animal-movement-and-ecosystem-modeling
#19
Julia E Earl, Patrick A Zollner
1.Connections between ecosystems via animals (active subsidies) support ecosystem services and contribute to numerous ecological effects. Thus, the ability to predict the spatial distribution of active subsidies would be useful for ecology and conservation. 2.Previous work modeling active subsidies focused on implicit space or static distributions, which treat passive and active subsidies similarly. Active subsidies are fundamentally different from passive subsidies, because animals can respond to the process of subsidy deposition and ecosystem changes caused by subsidy deposition...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556189/reorganization-of-interaction-networks-modulates-the-persistence-of-species-in-late-successional-stages
#20
Serguei Saavedra, Simone Cenci, Ek Del-Val, Karina Boege, Rudolf P Rohr
1.Ecological interaction networks constantly reorganize as interspecific interactions change across successional stages and environmental gradients. This reorganization can also be associated with the extent to which species change their preference for types of niches available in their local sites. Despite the pervasiveness of these interaction changes, previous studies have revealed that network reorganizations have a minimal or insignificant effect on global descriptors of network architecture, such as: connectance, modularity, and nestedness...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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