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Journal of Animal Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211052/life-history-strategy-determines-constraints-on-immune-function
#1
Benjamin J Parker, Seth M Barribeau, Alice M Laughton, Lynn H Griffin, Nicole M Gerardo
1)Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2)Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring in response to high population densities and deteriorating conditions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207932/detecting-signals-of-chronic-shedding-to-explain-pathogen-persistence-leptospira-interrogans-in-california-sea-lions
#2
M G Buhnerkempe, K C Prager, C C Strelioff, D J Greig, J L Laake, S R Melin, R L DeLong, F M D Gulland, J O Lloyd-Smith
Identifying mechanisms driving pathogen persistence is a vital component of wildlife disease ecology and control. Asymptomatic, chronically infected individuals are an oft-cited potential reservoir of infection but demonstrations of the importance of chronic shedding to pathogen persistence at the population level remain scarce. Studying chronic shedding using commonly collected disease data is hampered by numerous challenges, including short-term surveillance that focuses on single epidemics and acutely ill individuals, the subtle dynamical influence of chronic shedding relative to more obvious epidemic drivers, and poor ability to differentiate between the effects of population prevalence of chronic shedding versus intensity and duration of chronic shedding in individuals...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191630/complex-inter-kingdom-interactions-carnivorous-plants-affect-growth-of-an-aquatic-vertebrate
#3
Jon M Davenport, Alex W Riley
1.Coexistence of organisms in nature is more likely when phenotypic similarities of individuals are reduced. Despite the lack of similarity, distantly related taxa still compete intensely for shared resources. No larger difference between organisms that share a common prey could exist than between carnivorous plants and animals. However, few studies have considered inter-Kingdom competition among carnivorous plants and animals. 2.In order to evaluate interactions between a carnivorous plant (greater bladderwort, Utricularia vulgaris) and a vertebrate (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus) on a shared prey (zooplankton), we conducted a mesocosm experiment...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191629/functional-and-phylogenetic-structure-of-island-bird-communities
#4
Xingfeng Si, Marc W Cadotte, Di Zeng, Andrés Baselga, Yuhao Zhao, Jiaqi Li, Yiru Wu, Siyu Wang, Ping Ding
1. Biodiversity change in anthropogenically transformed habitats is often nonrandom, yet the nature and importance of the different mechanisms shaping community structure are unclear. Here, we extend the classic Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) to account for nonrandom processes by incorporating species traits and phylogenetic relationships into a study of faunal relaxation following habitat loss and fragmentation. 2. Two possible mechanisms can create nonrandom community patterns on fragment islands. First, small and isolated islands might consist of similar or closely related species because they are environmentally homogeneous or select for certain shared traits, such as dispersal ability...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191628/to-graze-or-gorge-consistency-and-flexibility-of-individual-foraging-tactics-in-tits
#5
Nicole D Milligan, Reinder Radersma, Ella F Cole, Ben C Sheldon
An individual's foraging behaviour and time allocated to feeding have direct consequences for its fitness. Despite much research on population-level foraging decisions, few studies have investigated individual differences in fine-scale daily foraging patterns amongst wild animals. Here, we explore the consistency and plasticity of feeding tactics of individual great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), using a grid of 65 automated feeding stations in a 385-ha woodland, during three winters...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186336/social-and-environmental-factors-affect-tuberculosis-related-mortality-in-wild-meerkats
#6
Stuart Patterson, Julian A Drewe, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Tim H Clutton-Brock
1.Tuberculosis (TB) is an important and widespread disease of wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, but long-term empirical datasets describing this condition are rare. A population of meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in South Africa's Kalahari Desert have been diagnosed with Mycobacterium suricattae, a novel strain of TB, causing fatal disease in this group-living species. 2.This study aimed to find characteristics associated with clinical TB in meerkats. These characteristics could subsequently be used to identify "at risk" animals within a population, and target these individuals for control measures...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164299/habitat-connectivity-and-local-conditions-shape-taxonomic-and-functional-diversity-of-arthropods-on-green-roofs
#7
S Braaker, M K Obrist, J Ghazoul, M Moretti
1.Increasing development of urban environments creates high pressure on green spaces with potential negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. There is growing evidence that green roofs - rooftops covered with vegetation - can contribute mitigate the loss of urban green spaces by providing new habitats for numerous arthropod species. 2.Whether green roofs can contribute to enhance taxonomic and functional diversity and increase connectivity across urbanized areas remains, however, largely unknown...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146344/phylogenetic-composition-of-host-plant-communities-drives-plant-herbivore-food-web-structure
#8
M Volf, P Pyszko, T Abe, M Libra, N Kotásková, M Šigut, R Kumar, O Kaman, P T Butterill, J Šipoš, H Abe, H Fukushima, P Drozd, N Kamata, M Murakami, V Novotny
1.Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. 2.We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food webs. Further, we identify specific patterns in three insect guilds with different life histories and discuss the role of host plant phylogeny in maintaining their diversity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146328/many-places-called-home-the-adaptive-value-of-seasonal-adjustments-in-range-fidelity
#9
Alexandre Lafontaine, Pierre Drapeau, Daniel Fortin, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
1.The vast majority of animal species display range fidelity, a space-use behaviour enhancing familiarity with local habitat features. While the fitness benefits of this behaviour have been demonstrated in a variety of taxa, some species or populations rather display infidelity, displacing their home range over time. Others, such as many ungulate species, show seasonal adjustments in their range fidelity to accommodate changes in the dominance of limiting factors or in the distribution of resources. 2.Few empirical studies have explored the adaptive value of seasonal adjustments in range fidelity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146326/field-manipulations-of-resources-mediate-the-transition-from-intraspecific-competition-to-facilitation
#10
Karin Svanfeldt, Keyne Monro, Dustin J Marshall
1.Population density affects individual performance, though its effects are often mixed. For sessile species, increases in population density typically reduce performance. Still, cases of positive density dependence do occur in sessile systems and demand explanation. The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts that under stressful conditions, positive effects of facilitation may outweigh the negative effects of competition. 2.While some elements of the SGH are well studied, its potential to explain intraspecific facilitation has received little attention...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146325/organismal-responses-to-habitat-change-herbivore-performance-climate-and-leaf-traits-in-regenerating-tropical-dry-forests
#11
Salvatore J Agosta, Catherine M Hulshof, Ethan G Staats
1.The ecological effects of large-scale climate change have received much attention, but the effects of the more acute form of climate change that results from local habitat alteration have been less explored. When forest is fragmented, cut, thinned, cleared or otherwise altered in structure, local climates and microclimates change. Such changes can affect herbivores both directly (e.g., through changes in body temperature) and indirectly (e.g., through changes in host plant traits). 2.We advance an eco-physiological framework to understand the effects of changing forests on herbivorous insects...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138991/predators-regulate-prey-species-sorting-and-spatial-distribution-in-microbial-landscapes
#12
George Livingston, Kayoko Fukumori, Diogo B Provete, Masanobu Kawachi, Noriko Takamura, Mathew A Leibold
1.The role of predation in determining the metacommunity assembly model of prey communities is understudied relative to that of interspecific competition among prey. Previous work on metacommunity dynamics of competing species has shown that sorting by habitat patch type and spatial patterning can be affected by disturbances. 2.Microcosms offer a useful model system to test the effect of multi-trophic interactions and disturbance on metacommunity dynamics. Here, we investigated the potential role of predators in enhancing or disrupting sorting and spatial pattern among prey in experimental landscapes...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127765/hidden-survival-heterogeneity-of-three-common-eider-populations-in-response-to-climate-fluctuations
#13
L Guéry, S Descamps, R Pradel, S A Hanssen, K E Erikstad, G W Gabrielsen, H G Gilchrist, J Bêty
1.Understanding how individuals and populations respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions is critical to explain and anticipate changes in ecological systems. Most such studies focus on climate impacts on single populations without considering inter- and intra-population heterogeneity. However, comparing geographically dispersed populations limits the risk of faulty generalizations and helps to improve ecological and demographic models. 2.We aimed to determine whether differences in migration tactics among and within populations would induce inter- or intra-population heterogeneity in survival in relation to winter climate fluctuations...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127759/parasites-and-a-host-s-sense-of-smell-reduced-chemosensory-performance-of-fathead-minnows-pimephales-promelas-infected-with-a-monogenean-parasite
#14
Ebrahim Lari, Cameron P Goater, David K Cone, Greg G Pyle
1.Parasites residing within the central nervous system of their hosts have the potential to reduce various components of host performance, but such effects are rarely evaluated. 2.We assessed the olfactory acuity of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) infected experimentally with the monogenean Dactylogyrus olfactorius, the adults of which live within the host's olfactory chambers. 3.Olfactory acuity was compared between infected and uninfected hosts by assessing electro-olfactography (EOG) neural responses to chemical stimuli that indicate the presence of food (L-alanine) or the presence of conspecifics (taurocholic acid)...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118484/land-use-type-and-intensity-differentially-filter-traits-in-above-and-belowground-arthropod-communities
#15
Klaus Birkhofer, Martin M Gossner, Tim Diekötter, Claudia Drees, Olga Ferlian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu, Wolfgang W Weisser, Volkmar Wolters, Susanne Wurst, Andrey S Zaitsev, Henrik G Smith
1.Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Belowground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than aboveground arthropods. 2.Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118482/competitor-phenology-as-a-social-cue-in-breeding-site-selection
#16
Jelmer M Samplonius, Christiaan Both
Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in animal breeding phenology is often correlated with variation in habitat quality. Generally, animals breed earlier in high quality habitats that allow them to reach a nutritional threshold required for breeding earlier or avoid nest predation...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117897/reproductive-success-is-driven-by-local-site-fidelity-despite-stronger-specialisation-by-individuals-for-large-scale-habitat-preference
#17
Samantha Clare Patrick, Henri Weimerskirch
1.There is widespread evidence that within populations, specialists and generalists can coexist and this is particularly prevalent in marine ecosystems, where foraging specialisations are evident. 2.While individuals may limit niche overlap by consistently foraging in specific areas, site fidelity may also emerge as an artefact of habitat choice but both drivers and fitness consequences of site fidelity are poorly understood. 3.Here we examine an individual metric of site and habitat fidelity, using tracking data collected over 11 years for black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophris)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102900/metabolic-theory-predicts-animal-self-thinning
#18
Tomas Jonsson
1.The Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE's quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level. 2.Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning slope for animal populations might be, or if it exists...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099761/size-structuring-and-allometric-scaling-relationships-in-coral-reef-fishes
#19
Jillian C Dunic, Julia K Baum
Temperate marine fish communities are often size structured, with predators consuming increasingly larger prey and feeding at higher trophic levels as they grow. Gape limitation and ontogenetic diet shifts are key mechanisms by which size structuring arises in these communities. Little is known, however, about size structuring in coral reef fishes. Here, we aimed to advance understanding of size structuring in coral reef food webs by examining the evidence for these mechanisms in two groups of reef predators...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095615/the-long-term-population-dynamics-of-common-wasps-in-their-native-and-invaded-range
#20
Philip J Lester, John Haywood, Michael E Archer, Chris R Shortall
Populations of introduced species are often thought to perform differently, or experience different population dynamics, in their introduced range compared to their native habitat. Differences between habitats in climate, competition or natural enemies may result in populations with varying density dependence and population dynamics. We examined the long-term population dynamics of the invasive common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, in its native range in England and its invaded range in New Zealand. We used 39 years of wasp density data from four sites in England, and 23 years of data from six sites in New Zealand...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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