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Journal of Animal Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326539/isotopic-niche-partitioning-between-two-apex-predators-over-time
#1
M Drago, L Cardona, V Franco-Trecu, E A Crespo, D Vales, F Borella, L Zenteno, E M Gonzáles, P Inchausti
1.Stable isotope analyses have become an important tool in reconstructing diets, analyzing resource use patterns, elucidating trophic relations among predators and understanding the structure of food webs. 2.Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in bone collagen to reconstruct and compare the isotopic niches of adult South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis; n = 86) and sea lions (Otaria flavescens; n = 49) -two otariid species with marked morphological differences- in the Río de la Plata estuary (Argentina - Uruguay) and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean during the second half of the 20(th) century and the beginning of the 21(st) century...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326538/integrating-lipid-storage-into-general-representations-of-fish-energetics
#2
Benjamin T Martin, Ron Heintz, Eric M Danner, Roger M Nisbet
1.Fish, even of the same species, can exhibit substantial variation in energy density (energy per unit wet weight). Most of this variation is due to differences in the amount of storage lipids. In addition to their importance as energy reserves for reproduction and for survival during unfavorable conditions, the accumulation of lipids represents a large energetic flux for many species, so figuring out how this energy flux is integrated with other major energy fluxes (growth, reproduction) is critical for any general theory of organismal energetics...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317105/the-benefits-of-coinfection-trematodes-alter-disease-outcomes-associated-with-virus-infection
#3
Vanessa P Wuerthner, Jessica Hua, Jason T Hoverman
1.Coinfections are increasingly recognized as important drivers of disease dynamics. Consequently, greater emphasis has been placed on integrating principles from community ecology with disease ecology to understand within-host interactions among parasites. Using larval amphibians and two amphibian parasites (ranaviruses and the trematode Echinoparyphium sp.), we examined the influence of coinfection on disease outcomes. 2.Our first objective was to examine how priority effects (the timing and sequence of parasite exposure) influence infection and disease outcomes in the laboratory...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317104/contact-and-contagion-bighorn-sheep-demographic-states-vary-in-probability-of-transmission-given-contact
#4
Kezia R Manlove, E Frances Cassirer, Raina K Plowright, Paul C Cross, Peter J Hudson
1.Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here we present a first step toward empirically investigating probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife. 2.We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295318/understanding-how-mammalian-scavengers-use-information-from-avian-scavengers-cue-from-above
#5
Adam Kane, Corinne J Kendall
Interspecific social information transfer can play a key role in many aspects of animal ecology from foraging to habitat selection to predator avoidance. Within scavenging communities, avian scavengers often act as producers and mammalian scavengers act as scroungers, but we predict that species-specific cueing will allow for mammalian scavengers to utilize particular avian scavenger species using preferred food sources similar to their own preferences. We use empirical and theoretic approaches to assess interactions between mammalian and avian scavengers in one of the most diverse scavenging guilds in Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240356/density-dependent-selection-on-mate-search-and-evolution-of-allee-effects
#6
Luděk Berec, Andrew M Kramer, Veronika Bernhauerová, John M Drake
Sexually reproducing organisms require males and females to find each other. Increased difficulty of females finding mates as male density declines is the most frequently reported mechanism of Allee effects in animals. Evolving more effective mate search may alleviate Allee effects, but may depend on density regimes a population experiences. In particular, high density populations may evolve mechanisms that induce Allee effects which become detrimental when populations are reduced and maintained at a low density...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239855/immune-priming-specificity-within-and-across-generations-reveals-the-range-of-pathogens-affecting-evolution-of-immunity-in-an-insect
#7
Julien Dhinaut, Manon Chogne, Yannick Moret
1.Many organisms can improve their immune response as a function of their immunological experience or that of their parents. This phenomenon, called immune priming, has likely evolved from repetitive challenges by the same pathogens during the host lifetime or across generation. 2.All pathogens may not expose host to the same probability of re-infection and immune priming is expected to evolve from pathogens exposing the host to the greatest probability of re-infection. Under this hypothesis, the priming response to these pathogens should be specifically more efficient and less costly than to others...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224627/nitrogen-deposition-cancels-out-exotic-earthworm-effects-on-plant-feeding-nematode-communities
#8
Yuanhu Shao, Weixin Zhang, Nico Eisenhauer, Tao Liu, Yanmei Xiong, Chenfei Liang, Shenglei Fu
1.The activity and spread of exotic earthworms often are spatially correlated with N deposition because both arise from human activities. Exotic earthworms, in turn, can also greatly affect soil abiotic and biotic properties, as well as related ecological processes. Previous studies showed, for example, that earthworms can counteract the detrimental effects of plant-feeding nematodes on plant growth. However, potential interactive effects of N deposition and exotic earthworms on ecosystems are poorly understood...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220487/sex-differences-and-allee-effects-shape-the-dynamics-of-sex-structured-invasions
#9
Allison K Shaw, Hanna Kokko, Michael G Neubert
The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life history traits (e.g. growth, survival, dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217934/population-dynamics-of-wild-rodents-induce-stochastic-fadeouts-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen
#10
Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Tagliapietra, Sarah E Perkins, Heidi C Hauffe, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected intermittently since 2001, until an outbreak emerged in 2010. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of the recent outbreak using a computational model that accounts for seasonal changes of the host population and territorial behavior...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217865/caching-reduces-kleptoparasitism-in-a-solitary-large-felid
#11
Guy A Balme, Jennifer R B Miller, Ross T Pitman, Luke T B Hunter
Food caching is a common strategy used by a diversity of animals, including carnivores, to store and/or secure food. Despite its prevalence, the drivers of caching behaviour, and its impacts on individuals, remain poorly understood, particularly for short-term food cachers. Leopards Panthera pardus exhibit a unique form of short-term food caching, regularly hoisting, storing, and consuming prey in trees. We explored the factors motivating such behaviour among leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa, associated with four not mutually exclusive hypotheses: food-perishability, consumption-time, resource-pulse, and kleptoparasitism-avoidance...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217836/range-shifting-species-reduce-phylogenetic-diversity-in-high-latitude-communities-via-competition
#12
Robert Fitt, Lesley T Lancaster
Under anthropogenic climate change, many species are expanding their ranges to higher latitudes and altitudes, resulting in novel species interactions. The consequences of these range shifts for native species, patterns of local biodiversity, and community structure in high latitude ecosystems are largely unknown but critical to understand in light of widespread poleward expansions by many warm-adapted generalists. Using niche modelling, phylogenetic methods, and field and laboratory studies, we investigated how colonisation of Scotland by a range expanding damselfly, Ischnura elegans, influences patterns of competition and niche shifts in native damselfly species, and changes in phylogenetic community structure...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211052/life-history-strategy-determines-constraints-on-immune-function
#13
Benjamin J Parker, Seth M Barribeau, Alice M Laughton, Lynn H Griffin, Nicole M Gerardo
1)Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2)Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring in response to high population densities and deteriorating conditions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207932/detecting-signals-of-chronic-shedding-to-explain-pathogen-persistence-leptospira-interrogans-in-california-sea-lions
#14
M G Buhnerkempe, K C Prager, C C Strelioff, D J Greig, J L Laake, S R Melin, R L DeLong, F M D Gulland, J O Lloyd-Smith
Identifying mechanisms driving pathogen persistence is a vital component of wildlife disease ecology and control. Asymptomatic, chronically infected individuals are an oft-cited potential reservoir of infection but demonstrations of the importance of chronic shedding to pathogen persistence at the population level remain scarce. Studying chronic shedding using commonly collected disease data is hampered by numerous challenges, including short-term surveillance that focuses on single epidemics and acutely ill individuals, the subtle dynamical influence of chronic shedding relative to more obvious epidemic drivers, and poor ability to differentiate between the effects of population prevalence of chronic shedding versus intensity and duration of chronic shedding in individuals...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191630/complex-inter-kingdom-interactions-carnivorous-plants-affect-growth-of-an-aquatic-vertebrate
#15
Jon M Davenport, Alex W Riley
1.Coexistence of organisms in nature is more likely when phenotypic similarities of individuals are reduced. Despite the lack of similarity, distantly related taxa still compete intensely for shared resources. No larger difference between organisms that share a common prey could exist than between carnivorous plants and animals. However, few studies have considered inter-Kingdom competition among carnivorous plants and animals. 2.In order to evaluate interactions between a carnivorous plant (greater bladderwort, Utricularia vulgaris) and a vertebrate (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus) on a shared prey (zooplankton), we conducted a mesocosm experiment...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191629/functional-and-phylogenetic-structure-of-island-bird-communities
#16
Xingfeng Si, Marc W Cadotte, Di Zeng, Andrés Baselga, Yuhao Zhao, Jiaqi Li, Yiru Wu, Siyu Wang, Ping Ding
1. Biodiversity change in anthropogenically transformed habitats is often nonrandom, yet the nature and importance of the different mechanisms shaping community structure are unclear. Here, we extend the classic Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) to account for nonrandom processes by incorporating species traits and phylogenetic relationships into a study of faunal relaxation following habitat loss and fragmentation. 2. Two possible mechanisms can create nonrandom community patterns on fragment islands. First, small and isolated islands might consist of similar or closely related species because they are environmentally homogeneous or select for certain shared traits, such as dispersal ability...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191628/to-graze-or-gorge-consistency-and-flexibility-of-individual-foraging-tactics-in-tits
#17
Nicole D Milligan, Reinder Radersma, Ella F Cole, Ben C Sheldon
An individual's foraging behaviour and time allocated to feeding have direct consequences for its fitness. Despite much research on population-level foraging decisions, few studies have investigated individual differences in fine-scale daily foraging patterns amongst wild animals. Here, we explore the consistency and plasticity of feeding tactics of individual great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), using a grid of 65 automated feeding stations in a 385-ha woodland, during three winters...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186336/social-and-environmental-factors-affect-tuberculosis-related-mortality-in-wild-meerkats
#18
Stuart Patterson, Julian A Drewe, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Tim H Clutton-Brock
1.Tuberculosis (TB) is an important and widespread disease of wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, but long-term empirical datasets describing this condition are rare. A population of meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in South Africa's Kalahari Desert have been diagnosed with Mycobacterium suricattae, a novel strain of TB, causing fatal disease in this group-living species. 2.This study aimed to find characteristics associated with clinical TB in meerkats. These characteristics could subsequently be used to identify "at risk" animals within a population, and target these individuals for control measures...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164299/habitat-connectivity-and-local-conditions-shape-taxonomic-and-functional-diversity-of-arthropods-on-green-roofs
#19
S Braaker, M K Obrist, J Ghazoul, M Moretti
1.Increasing development of urban environments creates high pressure on green spaces with potential negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. There is growing evidence that green roofs - rooftops covered with vegetation - can contribute mitigate the loss of urban green spaces by providing new habitats for numerous arthropod species. 2.Whether green roofs can contribute to enhance taxonomic and functional diversity and increase connectivity across urbanized areas remains, however, largely unknown...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146344/phylogenetic-composition-of-host-plant-communities-drives-plant-herbivore-food-web-structure
#20
M Volf, P Pyszko, T Abe, M Libra, N Kotásková, M Šigut, R Kumar, O Kaman, P T Butterill, J Šipoš, H Abe, H Fukushima, P Drozd, N Kamata, M Murakami, V Novotny
1.Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. 2.We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food webs. Further, we identify specific patterns in three insect guilds with different life histories and discuss the role of host plant phylogeny in maintaining their diversity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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