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Journal of Animal Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095615/the-long-term-population-dynamics-of-common-wasps-in-their-native-and-invaded-range
#1
Philip J Lester, John Haywood, Michael E Archer, Chris R Shortall
Populations of introduced species are often thought to perform differently, or experience different population dynamics, in their introduced range compared to their native habitat. Differences between habitats in climate, competition or natural enemies may result in populations with varying density dependence and population dynamics. We examined the long-term population dynamics of the invasive common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, in its native range in England and its invaded range in New Zealand. We used 39 years of wasp density data from four sites in England, and 23 years of data from six sites in New Zealand...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093769/low-migratory-connectivity-is-common-in-long-distance-migrant-birds
#2
Tom Finch, Simon Butler, Aldina Franco, Will Cresswell
1.Estimating how much long-distance migrant populations spread out and mix during the non-breeding season (migratory connectivity) is essential for understanding and predicting population dynamics in the face of global change. 2.We quantify variation in population spread and inter-population mixing in long-distance, terrestrial migrant land-bird populations (712 individuals from 98 populations of 45 species, from tagging studies in the Neotropic and Afro-Palearctic flyways). We evaluate the Mantel test as a metric of migratory connectivity, and explore the extent to which variance in population spread can be explained simply by geography...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075025/warmer-temperatures-reduce-the-influence-of-an-important-keystone-predator
#3
Chiara Bonaviri, Michael Graham, Paola Gianguzza, Nick T Shears
Predator-prey interactions may be strongly influenced by temperature variations in marine ecosystems. Consequently, climate change may alter the importance of predators with repercussions for ecosystem functioning and structure. In North-eastern Pacific kelp forests, the starfish Pycnopodia helianthoides is known to be an important predator of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Here we investigated the influence of water temperature on this predator-prey interaction by: (1) assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of both species across a temperature gradient in the northern Channel Islands, California, and (2) investigating how the feeding rate of P...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075017/intrapopulation-variability-in-the-timing-of-ontogenetic-habitat-shifts-in-sea-turtles-revealed-using-%C3%AE-15-n-values-from-bone-growth-rings
#4
Calandra N Turner Tomaszewicz, Jeffrey A Seminoff, S Hoyt Peckham, Larisa Avens, Carolyn M Kurle
Determining location and timing of ontogenetic shifts in the habitat use of highly migratory species, along with possible intrapopulation variation in these shifts, is essential for understanding mechanisms driving alternate life histories and assessing overall population trends. Measuring variations in multi-year habitat-use patterns is especially difficult for remote oceanic species. To investigate the potential for differential habitat use among migratory marine vertebrates, we measured the naturally occurring stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15) N) patterns that differentiate distinct ocean regions to create a 'regional isotope characterization', analysed the δ(15) N values from annual bone growth layer rings from dead-stranded animals, and then combined the bone and regional isotope data to track individual animal movement patterns over multiple years...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075011/the-changing-contribution-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-limitation-of-mesopredators-during-220-years-of-land-use-and-climate-change
#5
Marianne Pasanen-Mortensen, Bodil Elmhagen, Harto Lindén, Roger Bergström, Märtha Wallgren, Ype van der Velde, Sara A O Cousins
Apex predators may buffer bottom-up driven ecosystem change, as top-down suppression may dampen herbivore and mesopredator responses to increased resource availability. However, theory suggests that for this buffering capacity to be realized, the equilibrium abundance of apex predators must increase. This raises the question: will apex predators maintain herbivore/mesopredator limitation, if bottom-up change relaxes resource constraints? Here, we explore changes in mesopredator (red fox Vulpes vulpes) abundance over 220 years in response to eradication and recovery of an apex predator (Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx), and changes in land use and climate which are linked to resource availability...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075009/the-physiological-costs-of-prey-switching-reinforce-foraging-specialization
#6
Oliver E Hooker, Travis E Van Leeuwen, Colin E Adams
Sympatric speciation is thought to be strongly linked to resource specialization with alternative resource use acting as a fundamental agent driving divergence. However, sympatric speciation through niche expansion is dependent on foraging specialization being consistent over space and time. Standard metabolic rate is the minimal maintenance metabolic rate of an ectotherm in a post-absorptive and inactive state and can constitute a significant portion of an animal's energy budget; thus standard metabolic rate and growth rate are two measures frequently used as an indication of the physiological performance of individuals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027571/bottom-up-and-trait-mediated-effects-of-resource-quality-on-amphibian-parasitism
#7
Jeffrey P Stephens, Karie A Altman, Keith A Berven, Scott D Tiegs, Thomas R Raffel
Leaf litter subsidies are important resources for aquatic consumers like tadpoles and snails, causing bottom-up effects on wetland ecosystems. Recent studies have shown that variation in litter nutritional quality can be as important as litter quantity in driving these bottom-up effects. Resource subsidies likely also have indirect and trait-mediated effects on predation and parasitism, but these potential effects remain largely unexplored. We generated predictions for differential effects of litter nutrition and secondary polyphenolic compounds on tadpole (Lithobates sylvatica) exposure and susceptibility to Ribeiroia ondatrae, based on ecological stoichiometry and community-ecology theory...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004849/isotopic-niches-support-the-resource-breadth-hypothesis
#8
Jonathan A Rader, Seth D Newsome, Pablo Sabat, R Terry Chesser, Michael E Dillon, Carlos Martínez Del Rio
Because a broad spectrum of resource use allows species to persist in a wide range of habitat types, and thus permits them to occupy large geographical areas, and because broadly distributed species have access to more diverse resource bases, the resource breadth hypothesis posits that the diversity of resources used by organisms should be positively related with the extent of their geographic ranges. We investigated isotopic niche width in a small radiation of South American birds in the genus Cinclodes. We analyzed feathers of 12 species of Cinclodes to test the isotopic version of the resource breadth hypothesis and to examine the correlation between isotopic niche breadth and morphology...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004848/analysing-animal-social-network-dynamics-the-potential-of-stochastic-actor-orientated-models
#9
David N Fisher, Amiyaal Ilany, Matthew J Silk, Tom Tregenza
Animals are embedded in dynamically changing networks of relationships with conspecifics. These dynamic networks are fundamental aspects of their environment, creating selection on behaviours and other traits. However, most social network-based approaches in ecology are constrained to considering networks as static, despite several calls for such analyses to become more dynamic. There are a number of statistical analyses developed in the social sciences that are increasingly being applied to animal networks, of which stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) are a principal example...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000289/trait-demography-relationships-underlying-small-mammal-population-fluctuations
#10
Koen J van Benthem, Hannah Froy, Tim Coulson, Lowell L Getz, Madan K Oli, Arpat Ozgul
1.Large-scale fluctuations in abundance are a common feature of small mammal populations and have been the subject of extensive research. These demographic fluctuations are often associated with concurrent changes in the average body mass of individuals, sometimes referred to as the "Chitty effect". Despite the long-standing recognition of this phenomenon, an empirical investigation of the underlying coupled dynamics of body mass and population growth has been lacking. 2.Using long-term life-history data combined with a trait-based demographic approach, we examined the relationship between body mass and demography in a small mammal population that exhibits non-cyclic, large-scale fluctuations in abundance...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000219/sex-dependent-carry-over-effects-on-timing-of-reproduction-and-fecundity-of-a-migratory-bird
#11
Nicola Saino, Roberto Ambrosini, Manuela Caprioli, Andrea Romano, Maria Romano, Diego Rubolini, Chiara Scandolara, Felix Liechti
1.Life of many organisms flows as a sequence of annual cycles. Timing of cyclical events is shaped by natural selection also via the domino effects that any life-history stage has on the stages that follow. Such 'carry-over effects' have major consequences for evolutionary, ecological and demographic processes, but the causes that generate their individual-level variation, including the effect of sex, are poorly understood. 2.We used light-level geolocators to study carry-over effects on the year-round life-cycle of the long-distance migratory barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and sex-dependent variation in their strength...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000211/experimentally-reducing-species-abundance-indirectly-affects-food-web-structure-and-robustness
#12
Milton Barbosa, G Wilson Fernandes, Owen T Lewis, Rebecca J Morris
1.Studies on the robustness of ecological communities suggest that the loss or reduction in abundance of individual species can lead to secondary and cascading extinctions. However, most such studies have been simulation-based analyses of the effect of primary extinction on food web structure. 2.In a field experiment we tested the direct and indirect effects of reducing the abundance of a common species, focusing on the diverse and self-contained assemblage of arthropods associated with an abundant Brazilian shrub, Baccharis dracunculifolia D...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981576/combining-familiarity-and-landscape-features-helps-break-down-the-barriers-between-movements-and-home-ranges-in-a-non-territorial-large-herbivore
#13
Pascal Marchand, Mathieu Garel, Gilles Bourgoin, Antoine Duparc, Dominique Dubray, Daniel Maillard, Anne Loison
1.Recent advances in animal ecology have enabled identification of certain mechanisms that lead to the emergence of territories and home ranges from movements considered as unbounded. Among them, memory and familiarity have been identified as key parameters in cognitive maps driving animal navigation, but have been only recently used in empirical analyses of animal movements. 2.At the same time, the influence of landscape features on movements of numerous species and on space division in territorial animals has been highlighted...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973737/a-quantitative-framework-to-estimate-the-relative-importance-of-environment-spatial-variation-and-patch-connectivity-in-driving-community-composition
#14
Viviane F Monteiro, Paulo C Paiva, Pedro R Peres-Neto
Perhaps the most widely used quantitative approach in metacommunity ecology is the estimation of the importance of local environment versus spatial structuring using the variation partitioning framework. Contrary to metapopulation models, however, current empirical studies of metacommunity structure using variation partitioning assume a space-for-dispersal substitution due to the lack of analytical frameworks that incorporate patch connectivity predictors of dispersal dynamics. Here, a method is presented that allows estimating the relative importance of environment, spatial variation and patch connectivity in driving community composition variation within metacommunities...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973732/projected-changes-in-prevailing-winds-for-transatlantic-migratory-birds-under-global-warming
#15
Frank A La Sorte, Daniel Fink
1.A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. 2.We used occurrence information from eBird (1950 to 2015) to estimate the geographic location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for ten transatlantic migratory bird species...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973712/experimental-evidence-for-sexual-selection-against-inbred-males
#16
Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L Head, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
(1)The detrimental effects of matings between relatives are well known. However, few studies determine the extent to which inbreeding depression in males is due to natural or sexual selection. Importantly, measuring fitness or key fitness components, rather than phenotypic traits allows more accurate estimation of inbreeding depression. (2)We investigate how differences in inbreeding and juvenile diet (i.e. early stressful environment) influence a key component of male fitness, namely their reproductive success...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973683/climatic-conditions-produce-contrasting-influences-on-demographic-traits-in-a-long-distance-arctic-migrant
#17
Ian R Cleasby, Thomas W Bodey, Freydis Vigfusdottir, Jenni L McDonald, Graham McElwaine, Kerry Mackie, Kendrew Colhoun, Stuart Bearhop
The manner in which patterns of variation and interactions among demographic rates contribute to population growth rate (λ) are key to understanding how animal populations will respond to changing climatic conditions. Migratory species are likely to be particularly sensitive to climatic conditions as they experience a range of different environments throughout their annual cycle. However, few studies have provided fully integrated demographic analyses of migratory populations in response to changing climatic conditions...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973682/repeatability-heritability-and-age-dependence-in-the-aggressiveness-reaction-norms-of-a-wild-passerine-bird
#18
Yimen G Araya-Ajoy, Niels J Dingemanse
1.Labile characters allow individuals to flexibly adjust their phenotype to changes in environmental conditions. There is growing evidence that individuals can differ both in average expression of and level of plasticity in this type of character. Both of these aspects are studied in conjunction within a reaction norm framework. 2.Theoreticians have investigated the factors promoting variation in reaction norm intercepts (average phenotype) and slopes (level of plasticity) of a key labile character: behaviour...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973681/dynamic-vs-static-social-networks-in-models-of-parasite-transmission-predicting-cryptosporidium-spread-in-wild-lemurs
#19
Andrea Springer, Peter M Kappeler, Charles L Nunn
1.Social networks provide an established tool to implement heterogeneous contact structures in epidemiological models. Dynamic temporal changes in contact structure and ranging behavior of wildlife may impact disease dynamics. A consensus has yet to emerge, however, concerning the conditions in which network dynamics impact model outcomes, as compared to static approximations that average contact rates over longer time periods. Furthermore, as many pathogens can be transmitted both environmentally and via close contact, it is important to investigate the relative influence of both transmission routes in real-world populations...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889916/precipitation-alters-interactions-in-a-grassland-ecological-community
#20
Nicolas Deguines, Justin S Brashares, Laura R Prugh
1.Climate change is transforming precipitation regimes worldwide. Changes in precipitation regimes are known to have powerful effects on plant productivity, but the consequences of these shifts for the dynamics of ecological communities are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders our ability to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. 2.Precipitation may affect fauna through direct effects on physiology, behavior or demography, through plant-mediated indirect effects, or by modifying interactions among species...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
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