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Journal of Animal Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913925/a-cascade-of-destabilizations-combining-wolbachia-and-allee-effects-to-eradicate-insect-pests
#1
Julie C Blackwood, Roger Vargas, Xavier Fauvergue
1.The management of insect pests has long been dominated by the use of chemical insecticides, with the aim of instantaneously killing enough individuals to limit their damage. To minimize unwanted consequences, environmentally friendly approaches have been proposed that utilize biological control and take advantage of intrinsic demographic processes to reduce pest populations. 2.We address the feasibility of a novel pest management strategy based on the release of insects infected with Wolbachia, which causes cytoplasmic incompatibilities in its host population, into a population with a pre-existing Allee effect...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913869/fast-growing-oysters-show-reduced-capacity-to-provide-a-thermal-refuge-to-intertidal-biodiversity-at-high-temperatures
#2
Dominic McAfee, Wayne A O'Connor, Melanie J Bishop
1.Ecosystem engineers that modify the thermal environment experienced by associated organisms might assist in the climate change adaptation of species. This depends upon the ability of ecosystem engineers to persist and continue to ameliorate thermal stress under changing climatic conditions - traits that may display significant intraspecific variation. 2.In the physically stressful intertidal, the complex three-dimensional structure of oysters provides shading and traps moisture during aerial exposure at low tide...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892141/novel-insights-on-population-and-range-edge-dynamics-using-an-unparalleled-spatiotemporal-record-of-species-invasion
#3
Kristine Grayson, Derek M Johnson
Quantifying the complex spatial dynamics taking place at range edges is critical for understanding future distributions of species, yet very few systems have sufficient data or the spatial resolution to empirically test these dynamics. This paper reviews how data from a large-scale pest management program have provided important contributions to the fields of population dynamics and invasion biology. The invasion of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is well-documented from its introduction near Boston, Massachusetts USA in 1869 to its current extent of over 900,000 km(2) in Eastern North America...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892138/toward-a-geography-of-omnivory-omnivores-increase-carnivory-when-sodium-is-limiting
#4
Natalie A Clay, Richard J Lehrter, Michael Kaspari
Toward understanding the geography of omnivory, we tested three hypotheses that predict the proportion of animal tissue consumed: The Sodium Limitation Hypothesis predicts that omnivores increase animal consumption in Na-poor environments because Na bioaccumulates from plants to predators; thus, heterotrophs are Na-rich sources. The Nitrogen Limitation and Habitat Productivity Hypotheses use the same logic to predict more animal consumption in N-poor and productive environments respectively. Omnivory is a common trophic strategy, but what determines the balance of plant and animal tissue omnivores consume is relatively unexplored...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886208/interacting-effects-of-unobserved-heterogeneity-and-individual-stochasticity-in-the-life-history-of-the-southern-fulmar
#5
Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Lise M Aubry, Christophe Barbraud, Henri Weimerskirch, Hal Caswell
1.Individuals are heterogeneous in many ways. Some of these differences are incorporated as individual states (e.g., age, size, breeding status) in population models. However, substantial amounts of heterogeneity may remain unaccounted for, due to unmeasurable genetic, maternal, or environmental factors. 2.Such unobserved heterogeneity (UH) affects the behavior of heterogeneous cohorts via intra-cohort selection and contributes to inter-individual variance in demographic outcomes such as longevity and lifetime reproduction...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884827/linking-social-and-spatial-networks-to-viral-community-phylogenetics-reveal-subtype-specific-transmission-dynamics-in-african-lions
#6
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Craig Packer, Jennifer L Troyer, Kimberly VanderWaal, Stacie Robinson, Maude Jacquot, Meggan E Craft
1.Heterogeneity within pathogen species can have important consequences for how pathogens transmit across landscapes; however, discerning different transmission routes is challenging. 2.Here we apply both phylodynamic and phylogenetic community ecology techniques to examine the consequences of pathogen heterogeneity on transmission by assessing subtype specific transmission pathways in a social carnivore. 3.We use comprehensive social and spatial network data to examine transmission pathways for three subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle ) in African lions (Panthera leo) at multiple scales in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884826/an-experimental-test-of-the-physiological-consequences-of-avian-malaria-infection
#7
Laura A Schoenle, Meredith Kernbach, Mark F Haussmann, Frances Bonier, Ignacio T Moore
1.Chronic, low-intensity parasite infections can reduce host fitness through negative impacts on reproduction and survival, even if they produce few overt symptoms. As a result, these parasites can influence the evolution of host morphology, behavior, and physiology. The physiological consequences of chronic infection can provide insight into the processes underlying parasite-driven natural selection. 2.Here, we evaluate the physiological consequences of natural, low-intensity infection in an avian host-parasite system: adult male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) infected with haemosporidian parasites...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857202/non-random-dispersal-mediates-invader-impacts-on-the-invertebrate-community
#8
Julien Cote, Tomas Brodin, Sean Fogarty, Andrew Sih
(1) Dispersers are often not a random draw from a population, dispersal propensity being conditional on individual phenotypic traits and local conditions. This non-randomness consequently results in phenotypic differences between dispersers and non-dispersers and, in the context of biological invasions, in an invasion front made of individuals with a biased phenotype. This bias of phenotypes at the front may subsequently modulate the strength of ecological effects of an invasive species on invaded communities...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833142/leaf-odour-cues-enable-non-random-foraging-by-mammalian-herbivores
#9
Patrick B Finnerty, Rebecca S Stutz, Catherine J Price, Peter B Banks, Clare McArthur
Searching for food is the first critical stage of foraging, and search efficiency is enhanced when foragers use cues from foods they seek. Yet we know little about food cues used by one major group of mammals, the herbivores, a highly-interactive component of most ecosystems. How herbivores forage and what disrupts this process both have significant ecological and evolutionary consequences beyond the animals themselves. Our aim was to investigate how free-ranging mammalian herbivores exploit leaf odour cues to find food plants amongst a natural and complex vegetation community...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833083/why-are-some-plant-pollinator-networks-more-nested-than-others
#10
Chuliang Song, Rudolf P Rohr, Serguei Saavedra
Empirical studies have found that the mutualistic interactions forming the structure of plant-pollinator networks are typically more nested than expected by chance alone. Additionally, theoretical studies have shown a positive association between the nested structure of mutualistic networks and community persistence. Yet, it has been shown that some plant-pollinator networks may be more nested than others, raising the interesting question of which factors are responsible for such enhanced nested structure. It has been argued that ordered network structures may increase the persistence of ecological communities under less predictable environments...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833132/foraging-traits-modulate-stingless-bee-community-disassembly-under-forest-loss
#11
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Chase D Mendenhall, Berry Brosi
1. Anthropogenic land use change is an important driver of impacts to biological communities and the ecosystem services they provide. Pollination is one ecosystem service that may be threatened by community disassembly. Relatively little is known about changes in bee community composition in the tropics, where pollination limitation is most severe and land use change is rapid. Understanding how anthropogenic changes alter community composition and functioning has been hampered by high variability in responses of individual species...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833089/life-stage-and-species-identity-affect-whether-habitat-subsidies-enhance-or-simply-redistribute-consumer-biomass
#12
Danielle A Keller, Rachel K Gittman, Rachel K Bouchillon, F Joel Fodrie
1.Quantifying the response of mobile consumers to changes in habitat availability is essential for determining the degree to which population-level productivity is habitat limited rather than regulated by other, potentially density-independent factors. 2.Over landscape scales, this can be explored by monitoring changes in density and foraging as habitat availability varies. As habitat availability increases, densities may: (1) decrease (unit-area production decreases; weak habitat limitation); (2) remain stable (unit-area production remains stable; habitat limitation); or (3) increase (unit-area production increases; strong habitat limitation)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833091/invasive-earthworms-erode-soil-biodiversity-a-meta-analysis
#13
Olga Ferlian, Nico Eisenhauer, Martin Aguirrebengoa, Mariama Camara, Irene Ramirez-Rojas, Fábio Santos, Krizler Tanalgo, Madhav P Thakur
1.Biological invasions pose a serious threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning across ecosystems. Invasions by ecosystem engineers, in particular, have been shown to have dramatic effects in recipient ecosystems. For instance, invasion by earthworms, a belowground invertebrate ecosystem engineer, in previously earthworm-free ecosystems dramatically alters the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. Studies have shown that such alterations in the soil can have far-reaching impacts on soil organisms, which form a major portion of terrestrial biodiversity...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815647/wildlife-disease-ecology-from-the-individual-to-the-population-insights-from-a-long-term-study-of-a-naturally-infected-european-badger-population
#14
Jenni L McDonald, Andrew Robertson, Matthew J Silk
1. Long-term individual-based datasets on host-pathogen systems are a rare and valuable resource for understanding the infectious disease dynamics in wildlife. A study of European badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire (UK) has produced a unique dataset, facilitating investigation of a diverse range of epidemiological and ecological questions with implications for disease management. 2. Since the 1970s this badger population has been monitored with a systematic mark-recapture regime yielding a dataset of >15,000 captures of >3000 individuals, providing detailed individual life-history, morphometric, genetic, reproductive and disease data...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815592/sexual-selection-on-male-body-size-genital-length-and-heterozygosity-consistency-across-habitats-and-social-settings
#15
Megan L Head, Andrew T Kahn, Jonathan M Henshaw, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
1. Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). 2. How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also unclear how sexual selection is affected by interactions between the OSR and environmental factors, such as habitat complexity, that alter key male-female interactions such as mate encounter rates...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815585/mammal-induced-trophic-cascades-in-invertebrate-food-webs-are-modulated-by-grazing-intensity-in-subalpine-grassland
#16
Martijn L Vandegehuchte, Martin Schütz, Frederic de Schaetzen, Anita C Risch
1. Even though mammalian herbivores can exert strong indirect effects on other animals by altering the vegetation, the study of trophic cascades retains a focus on apex predators and their top-down forces. Bottom-up trophic interaction chains induced by mammalian herbivores, particularly in invertebrate food webs, remain largely unexplored. 2. We tested whether effects of mammalian herbivores on the vegetation ricochet back up several trophic levels of the invertebrate food web. We further tested two alternative hypotheses: the strength of herbivore-induced indirect interactions either increases with plant productivity because of a concurrent higher grazing intensity, or it decreases because of a higher plant tolerance to grazing...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796909/temperature-drives-abundance-fluctuations-but-spatial-dynamics-is-constrained-by-landscape-configuration-implications-for-climate-driven-range-shift-in-a-butterfly
#17
Yoan Fourcade, Thomas Ranius, Erik Öckinger
Prediction of species distributions in an altered climate requires knowledge on how global- and local-scale factors interact to limit their current distributions. Such knowledge can be gained through studies of spatial population dynamics at climatic range margins. Here, using a butterfly (Pyrgus armoricanus) as model species, we first predicted based on species distribution modelling that its climatically suitable habitats currently extend north of its realized range. Projecting the model into scenarios of future climate, we showed that the distribution of climatically suitable habitats may shift northward by an additional 400 km in the future...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796906/physiology-at-near-critical-temperatures-but-not-critical-limits-varies-between-two-lizard-species-that-partition-the-thermal-environment
#18
Rory S Telemeco, Eric J Gangloff, Gerardo A Cordero, Rebecca L Polich, Anne M Bronikowski, Fredric J Janzen
The mechanisms that mediate the interaction between the thermal environment and species' ranges are generally uncertain. Thermal environments may directly restrict species when environments exceed tolerance limits (i.e. the fundamental niche). However, thermal environments might also differentially affect relative performance among species prior to fundamental tolerances being met (i.e. the realized niche). We examined stress physiology (plasma glucose and corticosterone), mitochondrial performance, and the muscle metabolome of congeneric lizards that naturally partition the thermal niche, Elgaria multicarinata (southern alligator lizards; SAL) and E...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796902/spatio-temporal-variation-in-lifelong-telomere-dynamics-in-a-long-term-ecological-study
#19
Lewis G Spurgin, Kat Bebbington, Eleanor A Fairfield, Martijn Hammers, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke, Hannah L Dugdale, David S Richardson
Understanding individual-level variation in response to the environment is fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics. Telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, shorten in response to oxidative stress, and telomere shortening is correlated with reduced survival and lifespan. Investigating telomere dynamics may help us quantify individual variation in the costs experienced from social and ecological factors, and enhance our understanding of the dynamics of natural populations...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796893/singing-from-north-to-south-latitudinal-variation-in-timing-of-dawn-singing-under-natural-and-artificial-light-conditions
#20
Arnaud Da Silva, Bart Kempenaers
1. Animals breeding at northern latitudes experience drastic changes in daily light conditions during the breeding season with decreasing periods of darkness, whereas those living at lower latitudes are exposed to naturally dark nights throughout the year. Nowadays, many animals are also exposed to artificial night lighting (often referred to as light pollution). 2. Animals strongly rely on variation in light levels to time their daily and seasonal behaviour. Previous work on passerine birds showed that artificial night lighting leads to earlier onset of dawn song...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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