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Journal of Animal Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119557/understanding-the-role-of-parasites-in-food-webs-using-the-group-model
#1
Matthew J Michalska-Smith, Elizabeth L Sander, Mercedes Pascual, Stefano Allesina
1.Parasites are ubiquitous and have been shown to influence macroscopic measures of ecological network structure, such as connectance and robustness, as well as local structure, such as subgraph frequencies. Nevertheless, they are often underrepresented in ecological studies due to their small size and often complex life cycles. 2.We consider whether or not parasites play structurally unique roles in ecological networks; that is, can we distinguish parasites from other species using network structure alone? 3...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111601/active-migration-is-associated-with-specific-and-consistent-changes-to-gut-microbiota-in-calidris-shorebirds
#2
Alice Risely, David Waite, Beata Ujvari, Bethany Hoye, Marcel Klaassen
1.Gut microbes are increasingly recognised for their role in regulating an animal's metabolism and immunity. However, identifying repeatable associations between host physiological processes and their gut microbiota has proved challenging, in part because microbial communities often respond stochastically to host physiological stress (e.g. fasting, forced exercise or infection). 2.Migratory birds provide a valuable system in which to test host-microbe interactions under physiological extremes because these hosts are adapted to predictable metabolic and immunological challenges as they undergo seasonal migrations, including temporary gut atrophy during long-distance flights...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111599/experimental-investigation-of-alternative-transmission-functions-quantitative-evidence-for-the-importance-of-non-linear-transmission-dynamics-in-host-parasite-systems
#3
Sarah A Orlofske, Samuel M Flaxman, Maxwell B Joseph, Andy Fenton, Brett A Melbourne, Pieter T J Johnson
1.Understanding pathogen transmission is crucial for predicting and managing disease. Nonetheless, experimental comparisons of alternative functional forms of transmission remain rare, and those experiments that are conducted are often not designed to test the full range of possible forms. 2.To differentiate among ten candidate transmission functions, we used a novel experimental design in which we independently varied four factors-duration of exposure, numbers of parasites, numbers of hosts, and parasite density-in laboratory infection experiments...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111567/a-computer-vision-for-animal-ecology
#4
REVIEW
Ben G Weinstein
1.A central goal of animal ecology is to observe species in the natural world. The cost and challenge of data collection often limit the breadth and scope of ecological study. Ecologists often use image capture to bolster data collection in time and space. However, the ability to process these images remains a bottleneck. 2.Computer vision can greatly increase the efficiency, repeatability, and accuracy of image review. Computer vision uses image features, such as color, shape, and texture to infer image content...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105758/why-are-tropical-mountain-passes-low-for-some-species-genetic-and-stable-isotope-tests-for-differentiation-migration-and-expansion-in-elevational-generalist-songbirds
#5
Chauncey R Gadek, Seth D Newsome, Elizabeth J Beckman, Andrea N Chavez, Spencer C Galen, Emil Bautista, Christopher C Witt
1.Most tropical bird species have narrow elevational ranges, likely reflecting climatic specialization. This is consistent with Janzen's Rule, the tendency for mountain passes to be effectively 'higher' in the tropics. Hence, those few tropical species that occur across broad elevational gradients (elevational generalists) represent a contradiction to Janzen's Rule. 2.Here we aim to address the following questions. Are elevational generalists being sundered by diversifying selection along the gradient? Does elevational movement cause these species to resist diversification or specialization? Have they recently expanded, suggesting that elevational generalism is short-lived in geological time? 3...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095486/critical-disease-windows-shaped-by-stress-exposure-alter-allocation-trade-offs-between-development-and-immunity
#6
Lucas J Kirschman, Erica J Crespi, Robin W Warne
1.Ubiquitous environmental stressors are often thought to alter animal susceptibility to pathogens and contribute to disease emergence. However, duration of exposure to a stressor is likely critical, because while chronic stress is often immunosuppressive, acute stress can temporarily enhance immune function. Furthermore, host susceptibility to stress and disease often varies with ontogeny; increasing during critical developmental windows. How the duration and timing of exposure to stressors interact to shape critical windows and influence disease processes is not well tested...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083030/a-practical-guide-for-inferring-reliable-dominance-hierarchies-and-estimating-their-uncertainty
#7
Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Julia Schroeder, Damien R Farine
1.Many animal social structures are organized hierarchically, with dominant individuals monopolizing resources. Dominance hierarchies have received great attention from behavioural and evolutionary ecologists. 2.There are many methods for inferring hierarchies from social interactions. Yet, there are no clear guidelines about how many observed dominance interactions (i.e. sampling effort) are necessary for inferring reliable dominance hierarchies, nor are there any established tools for quantifying their uncertainty...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063588/optimising-lifetime-reproductive-output-intermittent-breeding-as-a-tactic-for-females-in-a-long-lived-multiparous-mammal
#8
Marine Desprez, Olivier Gimenez, Clive R McMahon, Mark A Hindell, Robert G Harcourt
1.In iteroparous species, intermittent breeding is an important life-history tactic that can greatly affect animal population growth and viability. Despite its importance, few studies have quantified the consequences of breeding pauses on lifetime reproductive output, principally because calculating lifetime reproductive output requires knowledge of each individual's entire reproductive history. This information is extremely difficult to obtain in wild populations. 2.We applied novel statistical approaches that account for uncertainty in state assessment and individual heterogeneity to an 18-year capture-recapture dataset of 6 631 female southern elephant seals from Macquarie Island...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055094/divergent-migration-within-lake-sturgeon-acipenser-fulvescens-populations-multiple-distinct-patterns-exist-across-an-unrestricted-migration-corridor
#9
S T Kessel, D W Hondorp, C M Holbrook, J C Boase, J A Chiotti, M V Thomas, T C Wills, E F Roseman, R Drouin, C C Krueger
1.Population structure, distribution, abundance, and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations is an important aspect of the ecology of highly-mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially- or temporally-distributed food and space resources. 2.This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055050/an-evolutionary-framework-outlining-the-integration-of-individual-social-and-spatial-ecology
#10
REVIEW
Quinn M R Webber, Eric Vander Wal
1.Behaviour is the interface between an organism and its environment, and behavioural plasticity is important for organisms to cope with environmental change. Social behaviour is particularly important because sociality is a dynamic process, where environmental variation influences group dynamics and social plasticity can mediate resource acquisition. Heterogeneity in the ecological environment can therefore influence the social environment. The combination of the ecological and social environments may be interpreted collectively as the 'socioecological' environment', which could explain variation in fitness...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048758/phenological-synchrony-between-a-butterfly-and-its-host-plants-experimental-test-of-effects-of-spring-temperature
#11
D Posledovich, T Toftegaard, C Wiklund, J Ehrlén, K Gotthard
1.Climate-driven changes in the relative phenologies of interacting species may potentially alter the outcome of species interactions. 2.Phenotypic plasticity is expected to be important for short-term response to new climate conditions, and differences between species in plasticity are likely to influence their temporal overlap and interaction patterns. As reaction norms of interacting species may be locally adapted, any such climate-induced change in interaction patterns may vary among localities. However, consequences of spatial variation in plastic responses for species interactions are understudied...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048750/isotopic-niche-variation-from-the-holocene-to-today-reveals-minimal-partitioning-and-individualistic-dynamics-among-four-sympatric-desert-mice
#12
Rebecca C Terry
1.Species interact with each other and their environment over a range of temporal scales, yet our understanding of resource partitioning and the mechanisms of species coexistence is largely restricted to modern time-scales of years to decades. Furthermore, the relative magnitudes of inter- versus intraspecific variation in resource use are rarely considered, despite the potential for the latter to influence a species' ability to cope with changing environmental conditions. 2.Modern desert rodent communities are thought to be strongly structured by competitive interactions, with niche partitioning of food resources hypothesized to explain the coexistence of multiple sympatric granivores...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030867/do-host-associated-gut-microbiota-mediate-the-effect-of-an-herbicide-on-disease-risk-in-frogs
#13
Sarah A Knutie, Caitlin Gabor, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
1.Environmental stressors, such as pollutants, can increase disease risk in wildlife. For example, the herbicide atrazine affects host defenses (e.g. resistance and tolerance) of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but the mechanisms for these associations are not always clear. Given that pollutants can alter the gut microbiota of hosts, which in turn can affect their health and immune systems, one potential mechanism by which pollutants could increase infection risk is by influencing host-associated microbiota...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023693/host-effects-on-microbiota-community-assembly
#14
Kathrin Näpflin, Paul Schmid-Hempel
1.To what extent host-associated microbiota assembly is driven by host selection or simply by happenstance remains an open question in microbiome research. 2.Here, we take a first step towards elucidating the relative importance of host selection on the establishing gut microbial community in an ecologically relevant organism. 3.We presented germ-free bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, workers from ten colonies with a "global" microbial species pool comprised of an equal mixture of the gut microbiota of all colonies...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023699/using-host-species-traits-to-understand-the-consequences-of-resource-provisioning-for-host-parasite-interactions
#15
Daniel J Becker, Daniel G Streicker, Sonia Altizer
1.Supplemental food provided to wildlife by human activities can be more abundant and predictable than natural resources, and subsequent changes to wildlife ecology can have profound impacts on host-parasite interactions. Identifying traits of species associated with increases or decreases in infection outcomes with resource provisioning could improve assessments of wildlife most prone to disease risks in changing environments. 2.We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 342 host-parasite interactions across 56 wildlife species and three broad taxonomic groups of parasites to identify host-level traits that influence whether provisioning is associated with increases or decreases in infection...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994103/migratory-animals-feel-the-cost-of-getting-sick-a-meta-analysis-across-species
#16
Alice Risely, Marcel Klaassen, Bethany Hoye
1.Migratory animals are widely assumed to play an important role in the long-distance dispersal of parasites, and are frequently implicated in the global spread of zoonotic pathogens such as avian influenzas in birds and ebolaviruses in bats. However, infection imposes physiological and behavioural constraints on hosts that may act to curtail parasite dispersal via changes to migratory timing ('migratory separation') and survival ('migratory culling'). 2.There remains little consensus regarding the frequency and extent to which migratory separation and migratory culling may operate, despite a growing recognition of the importance of these mechanisms in regulating transmission dynamics in migratory animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994099/sociodemographic-factors-modulate-the-spatial-response-of-brown-bears-to-vacancies-created-by-hunting
#17
Shane C Frank, Martin Leclerc, Fanie Pelletier, Frank Rosell, Jon E Swenson, Richard Bischof, Jonas Kindberg, Hans Geir Eiken, Snorre B Hagen, Andreas Zedrosser
1.There is a growing recognition of the importance of indirect effects from hunting on wildlife populations, e.g., social and behavioral changes due to harvest, which occur after the initial offtake. Nonetheless, little is known about how the removal of members of a population influences the spatial configuration of the survivors. 2.We studied how surviving brown bears (Ursus arctos) used former home ranges that had belonged to casualties of the annual bear hunting season in southcentral Sweden (2007-2015)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994101/when-to-choose-dynamic-versus-static-social-network-analysis
#18
Damien R Farine
1.There is increasing interest in using dynamic social networks in the study of animal sociality and its consequences. However, there is a general lack of guidance on the when and how such an approach will be valuable. 2.The aim of this paper is to provide a guide on when to choose dynamic versus static social network analysis, and how to choose the appropriate temporal scale for the dynamic network. 3.I first discuss the motivations for using dynamic animal social networks. I then provide guidance on how to choose between dynamic networks and the 'standard' approach of using static networks...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975615/resistance-and-tolerance-the-role-of-nutrients-on-pathogen-dynamics-and-infection-outcomes-in-an-insect-host
#19
C V L Miller, S C Cotter
1.Tolerance and resistance are the two ways in which hosts can lessen the effects of infection. Tolerance aims to minimise the fitness effects resulting from incumbent pathogen populations, whereas resistance aims to reduce the pathogen population size within the host. While environmental impacts on resistance have been extensively recorded their impacts on variation in tolerance are virtually unexplored. 2.Here we ask how the environment, namely the host diet, influences the capacity of an organism to tolerate and resist infection, using a model host-parasite system, the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides and the entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944457/dietary-niche-variation-and-its-relationship-to-lizard-population-density
#20
Maria Novosolov, Gordon H Rodda, Alison M Gainsbury, Shai Meiri
(1) Insular species are predicted to broaden their niches, in response to having fewer competitors. They can thus exploit a greater proportion of the resource spectrum. In turn, broader niches are hypothesized to facilitate (or be a consequence of) increased population densities. (2) We tested whether insular lizards have broader dietary niches than mainland species, how it relates to competitor and predator richness, and the nature of the relationship between population density and dietary niche breadth. (3) We collected population density and dietary niche breadth data for 36 insular and 59 mainland lizard species, and estimated competitor and predator richness at the localities where diet data were collected...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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