journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Animal Ecology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889916/precipitation-alters-interactions-in-a-grassland-ecological-community
#1
Nicolas Deguines, Justin S Brashares, Laura R Prugh
1.Climate change is transforming precipitation regimes worldwide. Changes in precipitation regimes are known to have powerful effects on plant productivity, but the consequences of these shifts for the dynamics of ecological communities are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders our ability to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. 2.Precipitation may affect fauna through direct effects on physiology, behavior or demography, through plant-mediated indirect effects, or by modifying interactions among species...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871118/earlier-nesting-by-generalist-predatory-bird-is-associated-with-human-responses-to-climate-change
#2
Shawn H Smith, Karen Steenhof, Christopher J W McClure, Julie A Heath
Warming temperatures cause temporal changes in growing seasons and prey abundance that drive earlier breeding by birds, especially dietary specialists within homogeneous habitat. Less is known about how generalists respond to climate-associated shifts in growing seasons or prey phenology, which may occur at different rates across land cover types. We studied whether breeding phenology of a generalist predator, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), was associated with shifts in growing seasons and, presumably, prey abundance, in a mosaic of non-irrigated shrub/grasslands and irrigated crops/pastures...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859289/correlational-selection-on-personality-and-social-plasticity-morphology-and-social-context-determine-behavioural-effects-on-mating-success
#3
Pierre-Olivier Montiglio, Tina W Wey, Ann T Chang, Sean Fogarty, Andrew Sih
1.Despite a central line of research aimed at quantifying relationships between mating success and sexually dimorphic traits (e.g., ornaments), individual variation in sexually selected traits often explains only a modest portion of the variation in mating success. 2.Another line of research suggests that a significant portion of the variation in mating success observed in animal populations could be explained by correlational selection, where the fitness advantage of a given trait depends on other components of an individual's phenotype and/or its environment...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859281/temporal-shifts-and-temperature-sensitivity-of-avian-spring-migratory-phenology-a-phylogenetic-meta-analysis
#4
T Usui, S H M Butchart, A B Phillimore
1.There are wide reports of advances in the timing of spring migration of birds over time and in relation to rising temperatures, though phenological responses vary substantially within and among species. An understanding of the ecological, life-history and geographic variables that predict this intra- and inter-specific variation can guide our projections of how populations and species are likely to respond to future climate change. 2.Here, we conduct phylogenetic meta-analyses addressing slope estimates of the timing of avian spring migration regressed on (i) year and (ii) temperature, representing a total of 413 species across five continents...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859273/seal-mothers-expend-more-on-offspring-under-favourable-conditions-and-less-when-resources-are-limited
#5
Clive R McMahon, Robert G Harcourt, Harry R Burton, Owen Daniel, Mark A Hindell
1.In mammals, maternal expenditure on offspring is a complex mix of several factors including the species' mating system, offspring sex and the condition and age of the mother. While theory suggests that in polygynous species mothers should wean larger male offspring than females when resources and maternal conditions allow, the evidence for this remains equivocal. 2.Southern elephant seals are highly dimorphic, polygynous capital breeders existing in an environment with highly variable resources and should therefore provide clear evidence to support the theoretical expectations of differential maternal expenditure in male and female pups...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859265/does-movement-behaviour-predict-population-densities-a-test-with-25-butterfly-species
#6
Cheryl B Schultz, B Guy Pe'er, Christine Damiani, Leone Brown, Elizabeth E Crone
Diffusion, which approximates a correlated random walk, has been used by ecologists to describe movement, and forms the basis for many theoretical models. However, it is often criticized as too simple a model to describe animal movement in real populations. We test a key prediction of diffusion models, namely, that animals should be more abundant in land cover classes through which they move more slowly. This relationship between density and diffusion has rarely been tested across multiple species within a given landscape...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861840/climatic-conditions-cause-spatially-dynamic-polygyny-thresholds-in-a-large-mammal
#7
Jeffrey A Manning, Philip D McLoughlin
1.The polygyny threshold (PT) is a critical transition point in the sexual selection process for many organisms in natural populations, characterizing when females choose to mate with an already mated male over an unmated one to improve fitness. Understanding its causes and consequences is therefore of high interest. While both theoretical and empirical work suggest that the degree of polygyny within a species is plastic and a function of male inequality, the functional relationship between underlying availability of resources occupied by breeding males under variable climatic conditions and the dynamics of PTs across space and time has received less attention...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861841/sexual-selection-can-both-increase-and-decrease-extinction-probability-reconciling-demographic-and-evolutionary-factors
#8
Carlos Martínez-Ruiz, Robert J Knell
Previous theoretical models of the effect of sexual selection on average individual fitness in a population have mostly predicted that sexually selected populations should adapt faster and clear deleterious mutations more quickly than populations where sexual selection is not operating. While some laboratory studies have supported these predictions, others have not and studies of field systems have tended to find negative effects of sexual selection, or no effect. The negative effects of sexual selection found in field and other studies are usually ascribed to the costs associated with strong sexual selection acting on the population...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796048/sensitivity-of-uk-butterflies-to-local-climatic-extremes-which-life-stages-are-most-at-risk
#9
Osgur McDermott Long, Rachel Warren, Jeff Price, Tom M Brereton, Marc S Botham, Aldina M A Franco
There is growing recognition as to the importance of extreme climatic events (ECEs) in determining changes in species populations. In fact, it is often the extent of climate variability that determines a population's ability to persist at a given site. This study examined the impact of ECEs on the resident UK butterfly species (n = 41) over a 37-year period. The study investigated the sensitivity of butterflies to four extremes (drought, extreme precipitation, extreme heat and extreme cold), identified at the site level, across each species' life stages...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779740/intra-specific-priority-effects-modify-compensatory-responses-to-changes-in-hatching-phenology-in-an-amphibian
#10
Andrea Murillo, Nora A Kolter, Anssi Laurila, Germán Orizaola
1.In seasonal environments, modifications in the phenology of life-history events can alter the strength of time-constraints experienced by organisms. Offspring can compensate for a change in timing of hatching by modifying their growth and development trajectories. However, intra- and inter -specific interactions may affect these compensatory responses, in particular if differences in phenology between cohorts lead to significant priority effects (i.e. the competitive advantage that early hatching individuals have over late hatching ones)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757959/seasonal-detours-by-soaring-migrants-shaped-by-wind-regimes-along-the-east-atlantic-flyway
#11
Wouter M G Vansteelant, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Willem van Manen, Jan van Diermen, Willem Bouten
Avian migrants often make substantial detours between their seasonal destinations. It is likely some species do this to make the most of predictable wind regimes along their respective flyways. We test this hypothesis by studying orientation behaviour of a long-distance soaring migrant in relation to prevailing winds along the East Atlantic Flyway. We tracked 62 migratory journeys of 12 adult European Honey Buzzards Pernis apivorus with GPS loggers. Hourly fixes were annotated with local wind vectors from a global atmospheric model to determine orientation behaviours with respect to the buzzards' seasonal goal destinations...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748952/fast-slow-life-history-is-correlated-with-individual-differences-in-movements-and-prey-selection-in-an-aquatic-predator-in-the-wild
#12
Shinnosuke Nakayama, Tobias Rapp, Robert Arlinghaus
Fast and slow life histories are proposed to covary with consistent individual differences in behaviour, but little is known whether it holds in the wild, where individuals experience natural fluctuations of the environment. We investigated whether individual differences in behaviour, such as movement traits and prey selection, are linked to variation in life-history traits in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in the wild. Using high-resolution acoustic telemetry, we collected the positional data of fish in a whole natural lake and estimated individual movement traits by fitting a 2-state correlated random walk model...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740686/decoupled-diversity-dynamics-in-green-and-brown-webs-during-primary-succession-in-a-salt-marsh
#13
Maarten Schrama, Fons van der Plas, Matty P Berg, Han Olff
1.Terrestrial ecosystems are characterised by a strong functional connection between the green (plant-herbivore-based) and brown (detritus-detritivore-based) parts of the food web, which both develop over successional time. However, the interlinked changes in green and brown food web diversity patterns in relation to key ecosystem processes are rarely studied. 2.Here, we demonstrate changes in species richness, diversity and evenness over a wide range of invertebrate green and brown trophic groups during 100 years of primary succession in a salt marsh ecosystem, using a well-calibrated chronosequence...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731502/accounting-for-genetic-differences-among-unknown-parents-in-microevolutionary-studies-how-to-include-genetic-groups-in-quantitative-genetic-animal-models
#14
Matthew E Wolak, Jane M Reid
1.Quantifying and predicting microevolutionary responses to environmental change requires unbiased estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in wild populations. 'Animal models', which utilise pedigree data to separate genetic and environmental effects on phenotypes, provide powerful means to estimate key parameters and have revolutionised quantitative genetic analyses of wild populations. 2.However, pedigrees collected in wild populations commonly contain many individuals with unknown parents. When unknown parents are non-randomly associated with genetic values for focal traits, animal model parameter estimates can be severely biased...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730641/genetic-allee-effects-and-their-interaction-with-ecological-allee-effects
#15
Meike J Wittmann, Hanna Stuis, Dirk Metzler
It is now widely accepted that genetic processes such as inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variation can increase the extinction risk of small populations. However, it is generally unclear whether extinction risk from genetic causes gradually increases with decreasing population size or whether there is a sharp transition around a specific threshold population size. In the ecological literature, such threshold phenomena are called 'strong Allee effects' and they can arise for example from mate limitation in small populations...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726147/african-departure-rather-than-migration-speed-determines-variation-in-spring-arrival-in-pied-flycatchers
#16
Janne Ouwehand, Christiaan Both
Properly timed spring migration enhances reproduction and survival. Climate change requires organisms to respond to changes such as advanced spring phenology. Pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca have become a model species to study such phenological adaptations of long-distance migratory songbirds to climate change, but data on individuals' time schedules outside the breeding season are still lacking. Using light-level geolocators, we studied variation in migration schedules across the year in a pied flycatcher population in the Netherlands, which sheds light on the ability for individual adjustments in spring arrival timing to track environmental changes at their breeding grounds...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677529/forbidden-fruit-human-settlement-and-abundant-fruit-create-an-ecological-trap-for-an-apex-omnivore
#17
Clayton T Lamb, Garth Mowat, Bruce N McLellan, Scott E Nielsen, Stan Boutin
Habitat choice is an evolutionary product of animals experiencing increased fitness when preferentially occupying high-quality habitat. However, an ecological trap (ET) can occur when an animal is presented with novel conditions and the animal's assessment of habitat quality is poorly matched to its resulting fitness. We tested for an ET for grizzly (brown) bears using demographic and movement data collected in an area with rich food resources and concentrated human settlement. We derived measures of habitat attractiveness from occurrence models of bear food resources and estimated demographic parameters using DNA mark-recapture information collected over 8 years (2006-2013)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642032/how-individual-montagu-s-harriers-cope-with-moreau-s-paradox-during-the-sahelian-winter
#18
Almut Ellinor Schlaich, Raymond H G Klaassen, Willem Bouten, Vincent Bretagnolle, Ben Johannes Koks, Alexandre Villers, Christiaan Both
Hundreds of millions of Afro-Palaearctic migrants winter in the Sahel, a semi-arid belt south of the Sahara desert, where they experience deteriorating ecological conditions during their overwintering stay and have to prepare for spring migration when conditions are worst. This well-known phenomenon was first described by R.E. Moreau and is known ever since as Moreau's Paradox. However, empirical evidence of the deteriorating seasonal ecological conditions is limited and little is known on how birds respond...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625075/modelling-effects-of-nonbreeders-on-population-growth-estimates
#19
Aline M Lee, Jane M Reid, Steven R Beissinger
Adult individuals that do not breed in a given year occur in a wide range of natural populations. However, such nonbreeders are often ignored in theoretical and empirical population studies, limiting our knowledge of how nonbreeders affect realized and estimated population dynamics and potentially impeding projection of deterministic and stochastic population growth rates. We present and analyse a general modelling framework for systems where breeders and nonbreeders differ in key demographic rates, incorporating different forms of nonbreeding, different life histories and frequency-dependent effects of nonbreeders on demographic rates of breeders...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624973/intraspecific-competition-not-predation-drives-lizard-tail-loss-on-islands
#20
Yuval Itescu, Rachel Schwarz, Shai Meiri, Panayiotis Pafilis
Tail autotomy is mainly considered an antipredator mechanism. Theory suggests that predation pressure relaxes on islands, subsequently reducing autotomy rates. Intraspecific aggression, which may also cause tail loss, probably intensifies on islands due to the higher abundance. We studied whether tail autotomy is mostly affected by predation pressure or by intraspecific competition. We further studied whether predator abundance or predator richness is more important in this context. To test our predictions, we examined multiple populations of two gecko species: Kotschy's gecko (Mediodactylus kotschyi; mainland and 41 islands) and the Mediterranean house gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus; mainland and 17 islands), and estimated their abundance together with five indices of predation...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
journal
journal
23968
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"