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A A Noegel, J E Luna
New avenues of cytoskeleton research in Dictyostelium discoideum have opened up with the cloning of the alpha- and beta-tubulin genes and the characterization of kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein. Much research, however, continues to focus on the actin cytoskeleton and its dynamics during chemotaxis, morphogenesis, and other motile processes. New actin-associated proteins are being identified and characterized by biochemical means and through isolation of mutants lacking individual components. This work is shedding light on the roles of specific actin assemblies in various biological processes...
December 18, 1995: Experientia
A Kuspa, T Dingermann, W Nellen
Over the past ten years, powerful molecular genetic techniques have been developed to analyze gene function in Dictyostelium. DNA-mediated transformation using a variety of selections and vectors has allowed the introduction of wild-type or modified genes that are under various forms of transcriptional control. Homologous recombination is efficient and can be used to modify the genome in precise ways. In addition, it is now possible to clone genes based on their mutant phenotype alone, either by insertional mutagenesis, or by screening antisense expression cDNA libraries...
December 18, 1995: Experientia
S J Won, Y C Chuang, W T Huang, H S Liu, M T Lin
The effects of dopaminergic receptor inhibitors such as thiothixine (D1/D2), fluphenazine (D1/D2), trifluoperazine (D1/D2), pimozide (D2), flupenthixol (D1/D2), (+/-)-SKF 83566 (D1), and spiperone (D2) on splenic natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activities were assessed in vitro using mouse spleen lymphocytes or enriched NK cells. Both the activities of the splenic NK cell cytotoxicity and the effector-target cell conjugation were suppressed by thiothixine, fluphenazine, and trifluoperazine at concentrations from 2...
April 15, 1995: Experientia
S F De Cabo, M J Hazen, M L Molero, J Fernández-Piqueras
The cytotoxic effect caused by the hypomethylating agent S-adenosyl-L- homocysteine (SAH) was compared with that of two drugs commonly used to induce DNA hypomethylation, 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Two in vitro cytotoxicity tests, the tetrazolium MTT assay and the intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity test, suggest that SAH induces hypomethylation without causing any cytotoxic effect. We propose the use of SAH as a non-cytotoxic agent which may be more suitable for inducing experimental DNA hypomethylation...
July 15, 1994: Experientia
R Keller
In this article, an attempt is made to review the presently known, completely identified crustacean neuropeptides with regard to structure, function and distribution. Probably the most important progress has been made in the elucidation of a novel family of large peptides from the X-organ-sinus gland system which includes crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), putative molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and vitellogenesis (= gonad)-inhibiting hormone (VIH). These peptides have so far only been found in crustaceans...
May 15, 1992: Experientia
M Kaloyianni
Various concentrations of 6-phosphogluconate inhibit rat liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. 0.04 mM 6-phosphogluconate, which is the concentration found in vivo, caused a 50% inhibition of 6-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. 6-Phosphogluconate lowered the Vmax of the enzyme and increased the concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate required to achieve one-half of the maximum velocity. The role of 6-phosphogluconate as a regulator of the coordination of fluxes through three metabolic pathways is discussed...
March 15, 1991: Experientia
S R Sanders-Sanchez, D Malsbury, A T Tsin
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were collected from bovine eyes using a new method. The cells were harvested by vortexing the RPE and underlying choroid in 0.05 M citrate phosphate buffer, pH 5. RPE cells recovered by this method were compared to a standard method by microscopic examination of cell integrity, estimation of total protein, and assay of 11-cis and all-trans retinyl ester hydrolase (REH) activities. Results suggest that this method collects RPE cells of good integrity and with a significantly higher protein yield than the conventional method...
May 15, 1990: Experientia
J S Karliner, T Kagiya, P C Simpson
In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes pretreatment with pertussis toxin did not affect 1 microM (-)-norepinephrine stimulation of inositol phosphates or myocardial cell hypertrophy as measured either by protein radiolabelling or by myocardial cell protein content. Thus guanine nucleotide protein(s) ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin do not play a role in two alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated processes, phosphatidylinositide turnover and induction of myocardial cell hypertrophy.
January 15, 1990: Experientia
W B Kristan, G Wittenberg, M P Nusbaum, W Stern-Tomlinson
We are using the medicinal leech to study the neuronal basis of behavioral choice. In particular, we are recording from neurons, both extracellularly and intracellularly, in preparations that can express three different behaviors: the shortening reflex, crawling and swimming. We have found that particular mechanosensory neurons can elicit any of the behaviors, and that the movements are produced by just four sets of muscles, each controlled by a small number of motor neurons. Hence, there must be three different pattern-generating neuronal circuits, each of which can be activated by the same set of sensory neurons...
May 15, 1988: Experientia
E E Bittar, J Nwoga
Single muscle fibers from the barnacle Balanus nubilus have been used as a preparation to see if a synthetic 20-residue PKI (5-24)-peptide is able to block or reverse the stimulatory response of the ouabain-insensitive Na efflux to injected cAMP. The results obtained show that this peptide behaves as a powerful inhibitor of the cAMP-mediated response and is also able to partially reverse the sustained stimulation of the Na efflux observed in ouabain-poisoned fibers following the injection of subunit A of cholera toxin...
September 15, 1987: Experientia
E Solcia, L Usellini, R Buffa, G Rindi, L Villani, C Zampatti, E Silini
Recent data on the immunolocalization of regulatory peptides and related propeptide sequences in endocrine cells and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lung, thyroid, pituitary (ACTH and opioids), adrenals and paraganglia have been revised and discussed. Gastrin, xenopsin, cholecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin, motilin, secretin, GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide), neurotensin, glicentin/glucagon-37 and PYY (peptide tyrosine tyrosine) are the main products of gastrointestinal endocrine cells; glucagon, CRF (corticotropin releasing factor), somatostatin, PP (pancreatic polypeptide) and GRF (growth hormone releasing factor), in addition to insulin, are produced in pancreatic islet cells; bombesin-related peptides are the main markers of pulmonary endocrine cells; calcitonin and CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) occur in thyroid and extrathyroid C cells; ACTH and endorphins in anterior and intermediate lobe pituitary cells, alpha-MSH and CLIP (corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide) in intermediate lobe cells; met- and leu-enkephalins and related peptides in adrenal medullary and paraganglionic cells as well as in some gut (enterochromaffin) cells; NPY (neuropeptide Y) in adrenaline-type adrenal medullary cells, etc...
July 15, 1987: Experientia
M Papp, I Dobronyi, G Varga, C Scarpignato
UNLABELLED: The pancreatic growth promoting effect of long term administration of bombesin was investigated in suckling rats. The authors showed that bombesin given in 10 micrograms/kg b.wt doses s.c. every 8 h for 10 days from the day of parturition stimulated pancreatic growth: it increased pancreatic weight, protein and DNA content, trypsin and amylase activity and trypsin/DNA ratio. CONCLUSION: Bombesin is an effective stimulator of pancreatic growth in suckling rats...
February 15, 1987: Experientia
N S Latman
There appears to be ample evidence to conclude that various meteorological factors do exert a significant impact on some people with various rheumatic diseases. The data is, however, crude relative to our general understanding. Most of this research on RA has dealt with the primary signs and symptoms of inflammation. We know, however, many of the chemical mediators of inflammation. It seems like a logical progression of research to determine the effects of the meteorological/atmospheric factors of concern on these specific intrinsic mediators of inflammation...
January 15, 1987: Experientia
B P Poschel, P M Ho, F W Ninteman, M J Callahan
Following oral or intravenous administration, a representative cognition activator drug, pramiracetam sulfate, is shown to have a pharmacologic therapeutic window at three different levels of study: learned behavior, gross EEG activity of the frontal cortex and hippocampus, and firing rate of single hippocampal neurons.
September 15, 1985: Experientia
R A Wever
The period of freerunning circadian rhythms is significantly shorter and the fraction of sleep is significantly larger in human females than in males, as long as the rhythms run internally synchronized. The sex difference in the period could be a property either of the whole circadian system or of only one of the oscillators in a multi-oscillator system. The sex difference in the sleep fraction could be a fixed property of the sleep-wake rhythm or could depend on interactions in the multi-oscillator system...
November 15, 1984: Experientia
W Myers, K Ng, G Singer
Peripherally self-injected acetaldehyde in interaction with environmental and nutritional variables significantly enhances alcohol drinking in rats and suggests an involvement of acetaldehyde in voluntary alcohol intake.
September 15, 1984: Experientia
G Preiswerk, K Breitenfeld
Only 1 of 7 dogs with long-standing renovascular hypertension showed clear changes in the fundus. No distinct retinopathy was seen in the others. Ophthalmoscopy alone is thus of limited value in assessing the progress of benign hypertension in the dog.
May 15, 1984: Experientia
F K Adham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 1982: Experientia
T J Crow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 1982: Experientia
E J Corey
The family of eicasanoids, biologically active metabolites of polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, has recently been enlarged by the recognition of a new biosynthetic pathway leading to the leukotrienes, including the compounds described two decades ago as 'slow reacting substances'. These biologically potent substances are involved in regulation of the immune response and also as mediators in various disease states. This account presents a brief history of this field, an overview of the biological relevance of leukotrienes, and a discussion of the investigations which led to the clarification of the molecular structures, pathway of biosynthesis and total chemical synthesis of the leukotrienes, including leukotrienes A, B, C, D and E (LTA-LTE)...
November 15, 1982: Experientia
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