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British Medical Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697749/how-to-talk-about-genome-editing
#1
Sandy Starr
Background: Human genome editing is an area of growing prominence, with many potential therapeutic applications. Sources of data: A project by two UK charities, whose participants included fertility sector patients and practitioners and also people affected by genetic disease and rare disease. Scientific research into, and wider discussion of, genomics and genome editing. Areas of agreement: There is a need for improved public and professional understanding of genome editing...
April 25, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684104/maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-during-pregnancy
#2
Elizabeth M Curtis, Rebecca J Moon, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper
Introduction: Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy has been linked to many health outcomes in mother and offspring. A wealth of observational studies have reported on both obstetric outcomes and complications, including pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, mode and timing of delivery. Many foetal and childhood outcomes are also linked to vitamin D status, including measures of foetal size, body composition and skeletal mineralization, in addition to later childhood outcomes, such as asthma...
April 19, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684103/common-mental-disorders-and-work
#3
Paul J Nicholson
Background: Governments and employers' organizations have sustained focus on common mental disorders (CMD), how they impact a person's ability to gain or continue work, the costs of sickness absence, presenteeism and job loss, and the positive impact of work on wellbeing. Sources of data: Scientific literature, mainly systematic reviews and grey literature, i.e. publications not accessible through medical databases. Areas of agreement: CMD are a major cause of disability, unemployment and dependency on welfare benefits...
April 19, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659715/the-cost-effectiveness-of-follow-up-strategies-after-cancer-treatment-a-systematic-literature-review
#4
M Barbieri, G Richardson, S Paisley
Introduction: The cost of treatment and follow-up of cancer patients in the UK is substantial. In a budget-constrained system such as the NHS, it is necessary to consider the cost-effectiveness of the range of management strategies at different points on cancer patients' care pathways to ensure that they provide adequate value for money. Sources of data: We conducted a systematic literature review to explore the cost-effectiveness of follow-up strategies of patients previously treated for cancer with the aim of informing UK policy...
April 12, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659726/dubious-space-for-artelon-joint-resurfacing-for-basal-thumb-trapeziometacarpal-joint-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review
#5
Francesco Smeraglia, Massimo Mariconda, Giovanni Balato, Sigismondo Luca Di Donato, Giovanni Criscuolo, Nicola Maffulli
Introduction: Trapeziometacarpal arthritis is a common and disabling condition. There is no evidence in the literature of superiority of one surgical procedure over others. Several prosthetic implants have been introduced to preserve joint mobility. Sourced of data: We searched the on Medline (PubMed), Web of Science and Scopus databases using the combined keywords 'artelon', 'thumb', 'carpometacarpal', 'trapeziometacarpal' and 'rhizoarthrosis'; 11 studies were identified...
April 6, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617718/genetic-counselling-in-the-era-of-genomic-medicine
#6
Christine Patch, Anna Middleton
Background: Genomic technology can now deliver cost effective, targeted diagnosis and treatment for patients. Genetic counselling is a communication process empowering patients and families to make autonomous decisions and effectively use new genetic information. The skills of genetic counselling and expertise of genetic counsellors are integral to the effective implementation of genomic medicine. Sources of data: Original papers, reviews, guidelines, policy papers and web-resources...
April 2, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608656/fortune-and-hindsight-gene-patents-muted-effect-on-medical-practice
#7
Jacob S Sherkow, Ryan Abbott
Introduction: Physicians have long worried about gene patents' potential to restrict their medical practices. Fortune and hindsight have proven these worries exaggerated both in the UK and elsewhere. Neither current nor future medical practices appear to be impinged by gene patents, although they may be subject to future intellectual property disputes. Sources of data: Qualitative and quantitative (survey) studies of gene patents' effects on medical practice; recent developments in patent law...
March 28, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608648/conscientious-objection-in-medicine-accommodation-versus-professionalism-and-the-public-good
#8
Udo Schuklenk
Introduction: In recent years questions have arisen about the moral justification for the accommodation of health care professionals who refuse, on conscience grounds as opposed to professional grounds, to provide particular professional services to eligible patients who request that kind of service. Source of data: Literature review. Areas of disagreement: Central to concerns about the accommodation claims of conscientious objectors is that health care professionals volunteer to join their professions that typically they are the monopoly providers of such services and that a health care professional's refusal to provide professional services on grounds that are not professional judgements amounts to unprofessional conduct...
March 28, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534172/cd36-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-evolution-of-atherosclerosis
#9
Lei Zhao, Z Varghese, J F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Background: CD36 is a multi-functional class B scavenger receptor, which acts as an important modulator of lipid homeostasis and immune responses. Sources of data: This review uses academic articles. Areas of agreement: CD36 is closely related to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Areas of controversy: Both persistent up-regulation of CD36 and deficiency of CD36 increase the risk for atherosclerosis...
March 9, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506236/retinal-gene-therapy
#10
Neruban Kumaran, Michel Michaelides, Alexander J Smith, Robin R Ali, James W B Bainbridge
Introduction: Inherited retinal diseases are the leading cause of sight impairment in people of working age in England and Wales, and the second commonest in childhood. Gene therapy offers the potential for benefit. Sources of data: Pubmed and clinicaltrials.gov. Areas of agreement: Gene therapy can improve vision in RPE65-associated Leber Congenital Amaurosis (RPE65-LCA). Potential benefit depends on efficient gene transfer and is limited by the extent of retinal degeneration...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528367/past-present-and-future-of-nitrous-oxide
#11
V Lew, E McKay, M Maze
Introduction: For a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxide's (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: The analgesic and anaesthetic advantages of N2O remain despite a plethora of newer agents...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444208/death-on-demand-an-analysis-of-physician-administered-euthanasia-in-the-netherlands
#12
Robert Preston
Background: Physician-administered euthanasia (PAE) was legalized, along with physician-assisted suicide (PAS), in The Netherlands in 2001. Sources of data: Annual reports of the Dutch Regional Euthanasia Review Committees, the committees' 2015 published Code of Practice and research studies. Areas of agreement: There is a general openness about the practice of PAE/PAS in The Netherlands and an avoidance of misleading euphemisms. The 2001 law also includes arrangements for post-event review of PAE/PAS decisions...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438486/the-role-of-the-food-industry-in-health-lessons-from-tobacco
#13
Simon Capewell, Ffion Lloyd-Williams
Introduction: In this review, we highlight poor diet as the biggest risk factor for non-communicable diseases. We examine the denial tactics used by the food industry, how they reflect the tactics previously used by the tobacco industry, and how campaigners can use this knowledge to achieve future public health successes. Sources of data: Data sources are wide ranging, notably publications relating to public health, obesity and processed food, the effectiveness hierarchy and food industry denialism tactics...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394343/looking-behind-the-bars-emerging-health-issues-for-people-in-prison
#14
S Stürup-Toft, E J O'Moore, E H Plugge
Introduction: There are more than 10 million people imprisoned worldwide. These individuals experience a higher burden of communicable and non-communicable disease, mental health and substance misuse problems than the general population and often come from marginalized and underserved groups in the community. Prisons offer an important opportunity for tackling health problems in a way that can deliver benefits to the individual and to the community. This paper focuses specifically on emerging health issues for prisons across the world...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385409/osteoarthritis-of-the-hip-and-knee-in-former-male-professional-soccer-players
#15
Stefano Petrillo, Rocco Papalia, Nicola Maffulli, Piero Volpi, Vincenzo Denaro
Background: Professional soccer (PS) players are at great risk of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Sources of data: Following the PRISMA guidelines, the key words 'osteoarthritis' and 'soccer' or 'football' were matched with 'players' or 'former' or 'retired' and with 'hip' or 'knee' on December 24, 2017 in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar, Embase and Ovid. Only comparative studies reporting the prevalence rate of OA of both hip and knee joint in former PS athletes (fPSa) and age and sex matched controls were considered...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360941/utility-of-intracoronary-imaging-in-the-cardiac-catheterization-laboratory-comprehensive-evaluation-with-intravascular-ultrasound-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#16
Yasir Parviz, Evan Shlofmitz, Khady N Fall, Maayan Konigstein, Akiko Maehara, Allen Jeremias, Richard A Shlofmitz, Gary S Mintz, Ziad A Ali
Background: Intracoronary imaging is an important tool for guiding decision making in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Sources of data: We have reviewed the latest available evidence in the field to highlight the various potential benefits of intravascular imaging. Areas of agreement: Coronary angiography has been considered the gold standard test to appropriately diagnose and manage patients with coronary artery disease, but it has the inherent limitation of being a 2-dimensional x-ray lumenogram of a complex 3-dimensional vascular structure...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342243/devices-in-heart-failure-diagnosis-detection-and-disease-modification
#17
John Gierula, Mark T Kearney, Klaus K Witte
Introduction/background: Implantable cardiac devices are widely used in chronic heart failure (CHF) therapy. This review covers current CHF treatment with electronic cardiac devices, areas of discussion and emerging technologies. Sources of data: A comprehensive search of available literature resources including Pubmed, MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed. National and international guidelines were accessed. Areas of agreement: Excessive right ventricular pacing is detrimental to cardiac function...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309529/current-issues-in-the-impacts-of-transport-on-health
#18
M C I van Schalkwyk, J S Mindell
Introduction or background: Transport affects health in many ways. Benefits include access to education, employment, goods, services and leisure, and opportunities for incorporating physical activity into daily living. There are major inequalities: benefits generally accrue to wealthier people and harms to the more deprived, nationally and globally. Sources of data: Health on the Move 2; Journal of Transport and Health. Areas of agreement: Benefits of travel for access and physical activity...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216336/managing-diabetic-kidney-disease
#19
Sagen Zac-Varghese, Peter Winocour
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) including (1) early diagnosis, (2) improved glycaemic control, (3) treatment of hypertension, (4) identification and treatment of associated metabolic bone disease and (5) identification and effective management of dyslipidaemia and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Sources of data: We searched PubMed for articles using search terms: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190327/control-of-healthcare-and-community-associated-mrsa-recent-progress-and-persisting-challenges
#20
Andrew Henderson, Graeme R Nimmo
Background: Healthcare adapted meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread to hospitals around the world over 50 years. More recently, other strains of MRSA have emerged with the ability to spread in the community and infect otherwise healthy individuals. Morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA remains high and its control in both the healthcare and community setting has proven challenging. Sources of data: Pubmed (Medline). Areas of agreement: The use of targeted screening and decolonization, hand hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship is supported by the most robust studies, though many studies have implemented bundles for effective healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA control...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
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