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British Medical Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342243/devices-in-heart-failure-diagnosis-detection-and-disease-modification
#1
John Gierula, Mark T Kearney, Klaus K Witte
Introduction/background: Implantable cardiac devices are widely used in chronic heart failure (CHF) therapy. This review covers current CHF treatment with electronic cardiac devices, areas of discussion and emerging technologies. Sources of data: A comprehensive search of available literature resources including Pubmed, MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed. National and international guidelines were accessed. Areas of agreement: Excessive right ventricular pacing is detrimental to cardiac function...
January 12, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309529/current-issues-in-the-impacts-of-transport-on-health
#2
M C I van Schalkwyk, J S Mindell
Introduction or background: Transport affects health in many ways. Benefits include access to education, employment, goods, services and leisure, and opportunities for incorporating physical activity into daily living. There are major inequalities: benefits generally accrue to wealthier people and harms to the more deprived, nationally and globally. Sources of data: Health on the Move 2; Journal of Transport and Health. Areas of agreement: Benefits of travel for access and physical activity...
January 4, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228112/xenotransplantation-the-current-status-and-prospects
#3
D K C Cooper, R Gaston, D Eckhoff, J Ladowski, T Yamamoto, L Wang, H Iwase, H Hara, M Tector, A J Tector
Introduction: There is a continuing worldwide shortage of organs from deceased human donors for transplantation into patients with end-stage organ failure. Genetically engineered pigs could resolve this problem, and could also provide tissues and cells for the treatment of conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease and corneal blindness. Sources of data: The current literature has been reviewed. Areas of agreement: The pathobiologic barriers are now largely defined...
December 8, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216336/managing-diabetic-kidney-disease
#4
Sagen Zac-Varghese, Peter Winocour
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) including (1) early diagnosis, (2) improved glycaemic control, (3) treatment of hypertension, (4) identification and treatment of associated metabolic bone disease and (5) identification and effective management of dyslipidaemia and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Sources of data: We searched PubMed for articles using search terms: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease...
December 5, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190327/control-of-healthcare-and-community-associated-mrsa-recent-progress-and-persisting-challenges
#5
Andrew Henderson, Graeme R Nimmo
Background: Healthcare adapted meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread to hospitals around the world over 50 years. More recently, other strains of MRSA have emerged with the ability to spread in the community and infect otherwise healthy individuals. Morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA remains high and its control in both the healthcare and community setting has proven challenging. Sources of data: Pubmed (Medline). Areas of agreement: The use of targeted screening and decolonization, hand hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship is supported by the most robust studies, though many studies have implemented bundles for effective healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA control...
November 28, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190323/a-review-of-systemic-anticancer-therapy-in-disease-palliation
#6
C M Usborne, A P Mullard
Background: Systemic anticancer therapy (SACT) is a collective term to describe the growing number of differing therapies used in malignancy to achieve palliation. Improving symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and where possible quantity of life are the goals of these treatments. Sources of data: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane database. Areas of agreement: The use of palliative SACT can lead to increases in symptom control, QOL and survival...
November 28, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186357/outcome-of-ankle-arthrodesis-and-ankle-prosthesis-a-review-of-the-current-status
#7
Nicola Maffulli, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Joel Locher, Giovanni Romeo, Giuseppe Salvatore, Vincenzo Denaro
Introduction: In advanced stages of ankle osteoarthritis (OA), ankle arthrodesis (AA) or total ankle arthroplasty (TAR) may be necessary. Our purpose is to compare AA and total ankle replacement for the surgical management of end stage ankle OA. Sources of data: We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase and Google Scholar databases using the terms 'ankle' in combination with 'OA', 'arthrodesis', 'arthroplasty', 'joint fusion', 'joint replacement'...
November 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140453/faecal-transplantation-for-ibd-management-pitfalls-and-promises
#8
M N Quraishi, T Critchlow, N Bhala, N Sharma, T Iqbal
Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active current research, having been stimulated by the remarkable efficacy of FMT in treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Sources of data: This review is based on data from numerous case series on FMT in IBD since 1989 and results of four RCTs in ulcerative colitis (UC); three fully published. Areas of agreement: Early signals of short to medium-term efficacy of FMT for UC are promising...
November 13, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140418/perioperative-management-of-the-obese-surgical-patient
#9
L H Lang, K Parekh, B Y K Tsui, M Maze
Introduction: The escalation in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world has led to an upsurge in the number of obese surgical patients to whom perioperative care needs to be delivered. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: There were no controversies regarding preoperative management and the intraoperative care of the obese surgical patient...
November 13, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096005/management-of-zika-virus-in-pregnancy-a-review
#10
Helen Perry, Asma Khalil, Emma Aarons, Katherine Russell, Patrick O'Brien
Introduction/background: Since 2015, an epidemic of Zika virus spread across the Americas. This coincided with an increased incidence of microcephaly reported at birth in Brazil, with subsequent evidence of a causal association. Sources of data: Systemic reviews, observational studies, public health organizations. Areas of agreement: Zika virus causes microcephaly and brain abnormalities in infants born to mothers infected during or shortly before pregnancy...
October 31, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088319/the-rise-and-potential-fall-of-pancreas-transplantation
#11
S Dholakia, E Royston, I Quiroga, S Sinha, S Reddy, J Gilbert, P J Friend
Background: The aim of this review is to bring pancreatic transplantation out of the specialist realm, informing practitioners about this important procedure, so that they feel better equipped to refer suitable patients for transplantation and manage, counsel and support when encountering them within their own speciality. Sources of data: Narrative review conducted in May 2017. OVID interface searching EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, using Timeframe: Inception to June 1, 2017...
October 27, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069332/sustainable-development-goals-sdgs-and-their-implementation-a-national-global-framework-for-health-development-and-equity-needs-a-systems-approach-at-every-level
#12
Stephen Morton, David Pencheon, Neil Squires
Introduction: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of global goals for fair and sustainable health at every level: from planetary biosphere to local community. The aim is to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity, now and in the future. Sources of data: The UN has established web-sites to inform the implementation of the SDGs and an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on an Indicator Framework. We have searched for independent commentaries and analysis...
October 24, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253151/management-of-zika-virus-in-pregnancy-a-review
#13
Helen Perry, Asma Khalil, Emma Aarons, Katherine Russell, Patrick O'Brien
Introduction/background: Since 2015, an epidemic of Zika virus spread across the Americas. This coincided with an increased incidence of microcephaly reported at birth in Brazil, with subsequent evidence of a causal association. Sources of data: Systemic reviews, observational studies, public health organizations. Areas of agreement: Zika virus causes microcephaly and brain abnormalities in infants born to mothers infected during or shortly before pregnancy...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253150/immunology-of-cystic-echinococcosis-hydatid-disease
#14
Álvaro Díaz
Background: The neglected disease cystic echinococcosis is caused by larval Echinococcus granulosus flatworms, which form bladder-like hydatid cysts in liver, lungs, and other organs. Sources of data: Published literature. Areas of agreement: Establishing larvae are susceptible to antibody-dependent killing, as attested by successful animal vaccination, whereas once established they are partially protected by the so-called laminated layer...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253149/adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-orthopaedic-pathologies
#15
Federico Giuseppe Usuelli, Riccardo D'Ambrosi, Camilla Maccario, Cristian Indino, Luigi Manzi, Nicola Maffulli
Introduction: To examine the current literature regarding the clinical application of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the management of orthopaedic pathologies. Sources of data: MEDLINE,SCOPUS, CINAHL and EMBASE (1950 to April 14, 2017) were searched by two independent investigators for articles published in English. Reviews, meta-analyses, expert opinions, case reports, mini case series and editorials were excluded. Furthermore, we excluded animal studies, cadaveric studies and in vitro studies...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069327/the-role-of-complement-inhibition-in-kidney-transplantation
#16
C Legendre, R Sberro-Soussan, J Zuber, V Frémeaux-Bacchi
Introduction and background: The complement system which belongs to the innate immune system acts both as a first line of defence against various pathogens and as a guardian of host homeostasis. The role of complement has been recently highlighted in several aspects of kidney transplantation: ischaemia-reperfusion, antibody-mediated rejection and native kidney disease recurrence. Sources of data: Experimental data, availability of complement-blocking molecules (mainly the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, eculizumab) and several trials in human kidney transplant recipients has led to some areas of agreement and some disappointment...
October 21, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053830/friedreich-s-ataxia-clinical-features-pathogenesis-and-management
#17
A Cook, P Giunti
Introduction: Friedreich's ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia. Sources of data: Literature search using PubMed with keywords Friedreich's ataxia together with published papers known to the authors. Areas of agreement: The last decade has seen important advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of disease. In particular, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the disease now offer promising novel therapeutic targets...
October 19, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053776/who-bears-the-cost-of-nice-public-health-recommendations
#18
Sebastian Hinde, Anggie Wiyani, Susan Griffin, Simon Walker
Background: In the UK, NICE issues guidance on public health initiatives. Failure to report which sectors of the economy are affected by their implementation precludes the appropriate accounting for the full opportunity costs, and has the potential to result in erroneous decision making and inefficient budgetary planning. Sources of data: We reviewed all NICE public health guidances available at the time of research, categorizing the sector on which the cost burden of the public health initiatives fall and the extent to which this burden was estimated...
October 19, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040422/pharmacogenetics-a-general-review-on-progress-to-date
#19
Ann K Daly
Background: Pharmacogenetics is not a new subject area but its relevance to drug prescribing has become clearer in recent years due to developments in gene cloning and DNA genotyping and sequencing. Sources of data: There is a very extensive published literature concerned with a variety of different genes and drugs. Areas of agreement: There is general agreement that pharmacogenetic testing is essential for the safe use of drugs such as the thiopurines and abacavir...
October 11, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927228/management-of-chronic-pain-through-pain-management-programmes
#20
I R Wilson
Introduction: Chronic pain carries significant impact and is difficult to treat with limited success. Pain management programmes (PMPs) use cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based multidisciplinary rehabilitative approaches to drive functional improvement. Sources of data: A search was conducted using Medline and the Cochrane Library to identify published literature about PMPs or CBT to treat chronic pain. Areas of agreement: PMPs have significant benefit on functioning for some patients but relatively little impact on the pain...
September 13, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
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