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British Medical Bulletin

Lei Zhao, Z Varghese, J F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Background: CD36 is a multi-functional class B scavenger receptor, which acts as an important modulator of lipid homeostasis and immune responses. Sources of data: This review uses academic articles. Areas of agreement: CD36 is closely related to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Areas of controversy: Both persistent up-regulation of CD36 and deficiency of CD36 increase the risk for atherosclerosis...
March 9, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Neruban Kumaran, Michel Michaelides, Alexander J Smith, Robin R Ali, James W B Bainbridge
Introduction: Inherited retinal diseases are the leading cause of sight impairment in people of working age in England and Wales, and the second commonest in childhood. Gene therapy offers the potential for benefit. Sources of data: Pubmed and Areas of agreement: Gene therapy can improve vision in RPE65-associated Leber Congenital Amaurosis (RPE65-LCA). Potential benefit depends on efficient gene transfer and is limited by the extent of retinal degeneration...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Robert Preston
Background: Physician-administered euthanasia (PAE) was legalized, along with physician-assisted suicide (PAS), in The Netherlands in 2001. Sources of data: Annual reports of the Dutch Regional Euthanasia Review Committees, the committees' 2015 published Code of Practice and research studies. Areas of agreement: There is a general openness about the practice of PAE/PAS in The Netherlands and an avoidance of misleading euphemisms. The 2001 law also includes arrangements for post-event review of PAE/PAS decisions...
February 12, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Simon Capewell, Ffion Lloyd-Williams
Introduction: In this review, we highlight poor diet as the biggest risk factor for non-communicable diseases. We examine the denial tactics used by the food industry, how they reflect the tactics previously used by the tobacco industry, and how campaigners can use this knowledge to achieve future public health successes. Sources of data: Data sources are wide ranging, notably publications relating to public health, obesity and processed food, the effectiveness hierarchy and food industry denialism tactics...
February 9, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
S Stürup-Toft, E J O'Moore, E H Plugge
Introduction: There are more than 10 million people imprisoned worldwide. These individuals experience a higher burden of communicable and non-communicable disease, mental health and substance misuse problems than the general population and often come from marginalized and underserved groups in the community. Prisons offer an important opportunity for tackling health problems in a way that can deliver benefits to the individual and to the community. This paper focuses specifically on emerging health issues for prisons across the world...
January 31, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Stefano Petrillo, Rocco Papalia, Nicola Maffulli, Piero Volpi, Vincenzo Denaro
Background: Professional soccer (PS) players are at great risk of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Sources of data: Following the PRISMA guidelines, the key words 'osteoarthritis' and 'soccer' or 'football' were matched with 'players' or 'former' or 'retired' and with 'hip' or 'knee' on December 24, 2017 in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar, Embase and Ovid. Only comparative studies reporting the prevalence rate of OA of both hip and knee joint in former PS athletes (fPSa) and age and sex matched controls were considered...
January 29, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Yasir Parviz, Evan Shlofmitz, Khady N Fall, Maayan Konigstein, Akiko Maehara, Allen Jeremias, Richard A Shlofmitz, Gary S Mintz, Ziad A Ali
Background: Intracoronary imaging is an important tool for guiding decision making in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Sources of data: We have reviewed the latest available evidence in the field to highlight the various potential benefits of intravascular imaging. Areas of agreement: Coronary angiography has been considered the gold standard test to appropriately diagnose and manage patients with coronary artery disease, but it has the inherent limitation of being a 2-dimensional x-ray lumenogram of a complex 3-dimensional vascular structure...
January 19, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
John Gierula, Mark T Kearney, Klaus K Witte
Introduction/background: Implantable cardiac devices are widely used in chronic heart failure (CHF) therapy. This review covers current CHF treatment with electronic cardiac devices, areas of discussion and emerging technologies. Sources of data: A comprehensive search of available literature resources including Pubmed, MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed. National and international guidelines were accessed. Areas of agreement: Excessive right ventricular pacing is detrimental to cardiac function...
January 12, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
M C I van Schalkwyk, J S Mindell
Introduction or background: Transport affects health in many ways. Benefits include access to education, employment, goods, services and leisure, and opportunities for incorporating physical activity into daily living. There are major inequalities: benefits generally accrue to wealthier people and harms to the more deprived, nationally and globally. Sources of data: Health on the Move 2; Journal of Transport and Health. Areas of agreement: Benefits of travel for access and physical activity...
January 4, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
V Lew, E McKay, M Maze
Introduction: For a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxide's (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: The analgesic and anaesthetic advantages of N2O remain despite a plethora of newer agents...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
D K C Cooper, R Gaston, D Eckhoff, J Ladowski, T Yamamoto, L Wang, H Iwase, H Hara, M Tector, A J Tector
Introduction: There is a continuing worldwide shortage of organs from deceased human donors for transplantation into patients with end-stage organ failure. Genetically engineered pigs could resolve this problem, and could also provide tissues and cells for the treatment of conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease and corneal blindness. Sources of data: The current literature has been reviewed. Areas of agreement: The pathobiologic barriers are now largely defined...
December 8, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
Sagen Zac-Varghese, Peter Winocour
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) including (1) early diagnosis, (2) improved glycaemic control, (3) treatment of hypertension, (4) identification and treatment of associated metabolic bone disease and (5) identification and effective management of dyslipidaemia and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Sources of data: We searched PubMed for articles using search terms: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease...
December 5, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
Helen Perry, Asma Khalil, Emma Aarons, Katherine Russell, Patrick O'Brien
Introduction/background: Since 2015, an epidemic of Zika virus spread across the Americas. This coincided with an increased incidence of microcephaly reported at birth in Brazil, with subsequent evidence of a causal association. Sources of data: Systemic reviews, observational studies, public health organizations. Areas of agreement: Zika virus causes microcephaly and brain abnormalities in infants born to mothers infected during or shortly before pregnancy...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
Álvaro Díaz
Background: The neglected disease cystic echinococcosis is caused by larval Echinococcus granulosus flatworms, which form bladder-like hydatid cysts in liver, lungs, and other organs. Sources of data: Published literature. Areas of agreement: Establishing larvae are susceptible to antibody-dependent killing, as attested by successful animal vaccination, whereas once established they are partially protected by the so-called laminated layer...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
Federico Giuseppe Usuelli, Riccardo D'Ambrosi, Camilla Maccario, Cristian Indino, Luigi Manzi, Nicola Maffulli
Introduction: To examine the current literature regarding the clinical application of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the management of orthopaedic pathologies. Sources of data: MEDLINE,SCOPUS, CINAHL and EMBASE (1950 to April 14, 2017) were searched by two independent investigators for articles published in English. Reviews, meta-analyses, expert opinions, case reports, mini case series and editorials were excluded. Furthermore, we excluded animal studies, cadaveric studies and in vitro studies...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
Nicola Maffulli, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Joel Locher, Giovanni Romeo, Giuseppe Salvatore, Vincenzo Denaro
Introduction: In advanced stages of ankle osteoarthritis (OA), ankle arthrodesis (AA) or total ankle arthroplasty (TAR) may be necessary. Our purpose is to compare AA and total ankle replacement for the surgical management of end stage ankle OA. Sources of data: We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase and Google Scholar databases using the terms 'ankle' in combination with 'OA', 'arthrodesis', 'arthroplasty', 'joint fusion', 'joint replacement'...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
M N Quraishi, T Critchlow, N Bhala, N Sharma, T Iqbal
Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active current research, having been stimulated by the remarkable efficacy of FMT in treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Sources of data: This review is based on data from numerous case series on FMT in IBD since 1989 and results of four RCTs in ulcerative colitis (UC); three fully published. Areas of agreement: Early signals of short to medium-term efficacy of FMT for UC are promising...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
L H Lang, K Parekh, B Y K Tsui, M Maze
Introduction: The escalation in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world has led to an upsurge in the number of obese surgical patients to whom perioperative care needs to be delivered. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: There were no controversies regarding preoperative management and the intraoperative care of the obese surgical patient...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
A Cook, P Giunti
Introduction: Friedreich's ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia. Sources of data: Literature search using PubMed with keywords Friedreich's ataxia together with published papers known to the authors. Areas of agreement: The last decade has seen important advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of disease. In particular, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the disease now offer promising novel therapeutic targets...
December 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
Andrew Henderson, Graeme R Nimmo
Background: Healthcare adapted meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread to hospitals around the world over 50 years. More recently, other strains of MRSA have emerged with the ability to spread in the community and infect otherwise healthy individuals. Morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA remains high and its control in both the healthcare and community setting has proven challenging. Sources of data: Pubmed (Medline). Areas of agreement: The use of targeted screening and decolonization, hand hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship is supported by the most robust studies, though many studies have implemented bundles for effective healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA control...
November 28, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
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