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British Medical Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007287/biodiversity-and-human-health-mechanisms-and-evidence-of-the-positive-health-effects-of-diversity-in-nature-and-green-spaces
#1
Raf Aerts, Olivier Honnay, An Van Nieuwenhuyse
Introduction: Natural environments and green spaces provide ecosystem services that enhance human health and well-being. They improve mental health, mitigate allergies and reduce all-cause, respiratory, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. The presence, accessibility, proximity and greenness of green spaces determine the magnitude of their positive health effects, but the role of biodiversity (including species and ecosystem diversity) within green spaces remains underexplored. This review describes mechanisms and evidence of effects of biodiversity in nature and green spaces on human health...
July 10, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931253/sudden-cardiac-death-in-young-athletes-with-long-qt-syndrome-the-role-of-genetic-testing-and-cardiovascular-screening
#2
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Laura Risi Ambrogioni, Mauro Ciuffreda, Nicola Maffulli, Vincenzo Denaro
Introduction: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young athletes during competition or training is a tragic event. The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrythmogenic disorder characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization leading to torsade de pointes evident at electrocardiogram (ECG). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is an option to revert ventricular fibrillation to sinus rhythm, although the implantation may result in denial of sports participations to the athlete. The authors reviewed the current literature on LQTS in young athletes, to clarify the role of different screening technologies to prevent SCD...
June 20, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868901/cognitive-impairment-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-art-era-a-review
#3
K Alford, J H Vera
Background: Cognitive disorders are a common issue impacting those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Effective antiretroviral treatment has lessened the severity but not the frequency of these impairments. Such deficits reduce quality of life and present a significant challenge to clinicians in the context of an ageing HIV population with a growing number of comorbidities. Sources of data: This review is based on recent published literature in the field of HIV-associated cognitive impairment (HAND)...
June 2, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868786/colonoscopy-in-the-very-elderly
#4
L J Neilson, S Thirugnanasothy, C J Rees
Introduction: Colonoscopy is the gold standard test for investigating lower gastrointestinal symptoms and is an important therapeutic tool for colonic polypectomy. This paper is aimed at the general physician and examines the role of colonoscopy in very elderly patients by exploring the particular risks in this population, the yield of colonoscopy and potential alternative investigations. Sources of data: Original research and review articles were identified through selective PubMed searches...
June 2, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897499/treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-future-approaches
#5
Clifford J Bailey, Caroline Day
Introduction or background: Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for ~90% of all diabetes, is a heterogeneous and progressive disease with a variety of causative and potentiating factors. The hyperglycaemia of type 2 diabetes is often inadequately controlled, hence the need for a wider selection of glucose-lowering treatments. Sources of data: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Areas of agreement: Early, effective and sustained control of blood glucose defers the onset and reduces the severity of microvascular and neuropathic complications of type 2 diabetes and helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) complications...
June 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697749/how-to-talk-about-genome-editing
#6
Sandy Starr
Background: Human genome editing is an area of growing prominence, with many potential therapeutic applications. Sources of data: A project by two UK charities, whose participants included fertility sector patients and practitioners and also people affected by genetic disease and rare disease. Scientific research into, and wider discussion of, genomics and genome editing. Areas of agreement: There is a need for improved public and professional understanding of genome editing...
June 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684104/maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-during-pregnancy
#7
Elizabeth M Curtis, Rebecca J Moon, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper
Introduction: Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy has been linked to many health outcomes in mother and offspring. A wealth of observational studies have reported on both obstetric outcomes and complications, including pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, mode and timing of delivery. Many foetal and childhood outcomes are also linked to vitamin D status, including measures of foetal size, body composition and skeletal mineralization, in addition to later childhood outcomes, such as asthma...
June 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684103/common-mental-disorders-and-work
#8
Paul J Nicholson
Background: Governments and employers' organizations have sustained focus on common mental disorders (CMD), how they impact a person's ability to gain or continue work, the costs of sickness absence, presenteeism and job loss, and the positive impact of work on wellbeing. Sources of data: Scientific literature, mainly systematic reviews and grey literature, i.e. publications not accessible through medical databases. Areas of agreement: CMD are a major cause of disability, unemployment and dependency on welfare benefits...
June 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659715/the-cost-effectiveness-of-follow-up-strategies-after-cancer-treatment-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
M Barbieri, G Richardson, S Paisley
Introduction: The cost of treatment and follow-up of cancer patients in the UK is substantial. In a budget-constrained system such as the NHS, it is necessary to consider the cost-effectiveness of the range of management strategies at different points on cancer patients' care pathways to ensure that they provide adequate value for money. Sources of data: We conducted a systematic literature review to explore the cost-effectiveness of follow-up strategies of patients previously treated for cancer with the aim of informing UK policy...
April 12, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659726/dubious-space-for-artelon-joint-resurfacing-for-basal-thumb-trapeziometacarpal-joint-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review
#10
Francesco Smeraglia, Massimo Mariconda, Giovanni Balato, Sigismondo Luca Di Donato, Giovanni Criscuolo, Nicola Maffulli
Introduction: Trapeziometacarpal arthritis is a common and disabling condition. There is no evidence in the literature of superiority of one surgical procedure over others. Several prosthetic implants have been introduced to preserve joint mobility. Sourced of data: We searched the on Medline (PubMed), Web of Science and Scopus databases using the combined keywords 'artelon', 'thumb', 'carpometacarpal', 'trapeziometacarpal' and 'rhizoarthrosis'; 11 studies were identified...
April 6, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617718/genetic-counselling-in-the-era-of-genomic-medicine
#11
Christine Patch, Anna Middleton
Background: Genomic technology can now deliver cost effective, targeted diagnosis and treatment for patients. Genetic counselling is a communication process empowering patients and families to make autonomous decisions and effectively use new genetic information. The skills of genetic counselling and expertise of genetic counsellors are integral to the effective implementation of genomic medicine. Sources of data: Original papers, reviews, guidelines, policy papers and web-resources...
April 2, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608656/fortune-and-hindsight-gene-patents-muted-effect-on-medical-practice
#12
Jacob S Sherkow, Ryan Abbott
Introduction: Physicians have long worried about gene patents' potential to restrict their medical practices. Fortune and hindsight have proven these worries exaggerated both in the UK and elsewhere. Neither current nor future medical practices appear to be impinged by gene patents, although they may be subject to future intellectual property disputes. Sources of data: Qualitative and quantitative (survey) studies of gene patents' effects on medical practice; recent developments in patent law...
March 28, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608648/conscientious-objection-in-medicine-accommodation-versus-professionalism-and-the-public-good
#13
Udo Schuklenk
Introduction: In recent years questions have arisen about the moral justification for the accommodation of health care professionals who refuse, on conscience grounds as opposed to professional grounds, to provide particular professional services to eligible patients who request that kind of service. Source of data: Literature review. Areas of disagreement: Central to concerns about the accommodation claims of conscientious objectors is that health care professionals volunteer to join their professions that typically they are the monopoly providers of such services and that a health care professional's refusal to provide professional services on grounds that are not professional judgements amounts to unprofessional conduct...
March 28, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534172/cd36-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-evolution-of-atherosclerosis
#14
Lei Zhao, Z Varghese, J F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Background: CD36 is a multi-functional class B scavenger receptor, which acts as an important modulator of lipid homeostasis and immune responses. Sources of data: This review uses academic articles. Areas of agreement: CD36 is closely related to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Areas of controversy: Both persistent up-regulation of CD36 and deficiency of CD36 increase the risk for atherosclerosis...
March 9, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528367/past-present-and-future-of-nitrous-oxide
#15
V Lew, E McKay, M Maze
Introduction: For a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxide's (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: The analgesic and anaesthetic advantages of N2O remain despite a plethora of newer agents...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506236/retinal-gene-therapy
#16
Neruban Kumaran, Michel Michaelides, Alexander J Smith, Robin R Ali, James W B Bainbridge
Introduction: Inherited retinal diseases are the leading cause of sight impairment in people of working age in England and Wales, and the second commonest in childhood. Gene therapy offers the potential for benefit. Sources of data: Pubmed and clinicaltrials.gov. Areas of agreement: Gene therapy can improve vision in RPE65-associated Leber Congenital Amaurosis (RPE65-LCA). Potential benefit depends on efficient gene transfer and is limited by the extent of retinal degeneration...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444208/death-on-demand-an-analysis-of-physician-administered-euthanasia-in-the-netherlands
#17
Robert Preston
Background: Physician-administered euthanasia (PAE) was legalized, along with physician-assisted suicide (PAS), in The Netherlands in 2001. Sources of data: Annual reports of the Dutch Regional Euthanasia Review Committees, the committees' 2015 published Code of Practice and research studies. Areas of agreement: There is a general openness about the practice of PAE/PAS in The Netherlands and an avoidance of misleading euphemisms. The 2001 law also includes arrangements for post-event review of PAE/PAS decisions...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438486/the-role-of-the-food-industry-in-health-lessons-from-tobacco
#18
Simon Capewell, Ffion Lloyd-Williams
Introduction: In this review, we highlight poor diet as the biggest risk factor for non-communicable diseases. We examine the denial tactics used by the food industry, how they reflect the tactics previously used by the tobacco industry, and how campaigners can use this knowledge to achieve future public health successes. Sources of data: Data sources are wide ranging, notably publications relating to public health, obesity and processed food, the effectiveness hierarchy and food industry denialism tactics...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394343/looking-behind-the-bars-emerging-health-issues-for-people-in-prison
#19
S Stürup-Toft, E J O'Moore, E H Plugge
Introduction: There are more than 10 million people imprisoned worldwide. These individuals experience a higher burden of communicable and non-communicable disease, mental health and substance misuse problems than the general population and often come from marginalized and underserved groups in the community. Prisons offer an important opportunity for tackling health problems in a way that can deliver benefits to the individual and to the community. This paper focuses specifically on emerging health issues for prisons across the world...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385409/osteoarthritis-of-the-hip-and-knee-in-former-male-professional-soccer-players
#20
Stefano Petrillo, Rocco Papalia, Nicola Maffulli, Piero Volpi, Vincenzo Denaro
Background: Professional soccer (PS) players are at great risk of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Sources of data: Following the PRISMA guidelines, the key words 'osteoarthritis' and 'soccer' or 'football' were matched with 'players' or 'former' or 'retired' and with 'hip' or 'knee' on December 24, 2017 in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar, Embase and Ovid. Only comparative studies reporting the prevalence rate of OA of both hip and knee joint in former PS athletes (fPSa) and age and sex matched controls were considered...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
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