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British Medical Bulletin

Kelvin K F Tsoi, Hoyee W Hirai, Felix C H Chan, Sian Griffiths, Joseph J Y Sung
BACKGROUND: China is facing the challenges of an expanding ageing population and the impact of rapid urbanization, cancer rates are subsequently increasing. This study focuses on the changes of the ageing population and projects the incidence of common ageing-related cancers in the urban regions in China up to 2030. SOURCES OF DATA: Cancer incidence data and population statistics in China were extracted from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Due to improving longevity in China, continuous and remarkable increasing trends for the lung, colorectal and prostate cancers are expected...
December 1, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Zhuo Xing, Yichen Li, Annie Pao, Abigail S Bennett, Benjamin Tycko, William C Mobley, Y Eugene Yu
INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS), caused by human trisomy 21 (Ts21), can be considered as a prototypical model for understanding the effects of chromosomal aneuploidies in other diseases. Human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) is syntenically conserved with three regions in the mouse genome. SOURCES OF DATA: A review of recent advances in genetic modeling and analysis of DS. Using Cre/loxP-mediated chromosome engineering, a substantial number of new mouse models of DS have recently been generated, which facilitates better understanding of disease mechanisms in DS...
October 27, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Florian Hintringer
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 1-2% of the population, and its prevalence is estimated to at least double in the next 50 years as the population ages. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: AF results in impaired quality of life and even increased mortality. Drugs frequently fail to stabilize sinus rhythm. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: Catheter ablation is a valuable treatment alternative, even as a first-line therapy in selected cases. However, catheter ablation of AF is challenging, even for experienced operators...
October 26, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
O F Ahmad, A Akbar
INTRODUCTION: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Increasing evidence implicates the GI microbiota in IBS pathogenesis and its modulation represents an emerging therapeutic strategy. SOURCES OF DATA: Original and review articles were identified through selective searches performed on PubMed and Google Scholar. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: The role of gut microbiota in IBS is supported by evidence from animal and human studies...
October 13, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Michael E J Lean, Lisa Te Morenga
BACKGROUND: Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). SOURCES OF DATA: Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM...
October 5, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Ismaheel Lawal, Mike Sathekge
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation forms an important core of the aetiopathogenic process involved in many diseases affecting the heart and the blood vessels. These diseases include infections as well as inflammatory non-infectious cardiovascular conditions. The common feature of this is invasion of the heart or blood vessel by inflammatory cells. F-18 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-D glucose (FDG) is an analogue of glucose and like glucose it is taken up by activated inflammatory cells that accumulate at the site of infection...
September 10, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Christopher K Y Chan, Alice Mason, Cyrus Cooper, Elaine Dennison
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a significant public health issue affecting over half of women aged over 50. With an aging population, its importance is set to increase further over time. Prevention of fragility fractures avoids significant mortality and morbidity as well as saving significant direct and indirect costs to the economy. In this review, we discuss existing treatments to contextualize the treatment landscape, and demonstrate how our understanding of bone pathophysiology has led to novel therapies-in the form of combinations and altered durations of existing treatments, as well as newer drug therapies...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Norman Vetter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Lucy Frith
INTRODUCTION: One significant change in the English National Health Service (NHS) has been the introduction of market mechanisms. This review will explore the following questions: should we have markets in healthcare? What is the underlying philosophy of introducing more market mechanisms into the NHS? What are the effects of this and does it change the NHS beyond anything Bevan might have imagined in 1948? SOURCES OF DATA: The review will use empirical studies, philosophical literature, bioethics discussion, policy and NHS documents...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Francesco Smeraglia, Angelo Del Buono, Nicola Maffulli
INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the distal radius account for 15% of all fractures. The use of arthroscopy is increasingly popular in the last years, with the goal to achieve a better anatomical reduction of the articular fragments. SOURCES OF DATA: We searched the literature on Medline (PubMed), Web of Science and Scopus databases using the combined keywords 'wrist', 'distal radial fracture', 'distal radius fracture' and 'arthroscopy'. Twenty-eight studies were identified...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
G A J Robertson, A M Wood
INTRODUCTION: This review aims to provide information on the return rates and return times to sport following clavicle fractures. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHAL, Cochrane, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and Google Scholar was performed using the keywords 'clavicle', 'clavicular', 'fractures', 'athletes', 'sports', 'non-operative', 'conservative', 'operative', 'return to sport'. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Twenty-three studies were included: 10 reported on mid-shaft fractures, 14 on lateral fractures...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
S A Townsend, Philip N Newsome
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the commonest cause of liver disease worldwide, and is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. SOURCES OF DATA: Original articles, reviews and meta-analyses, guidelines. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: NAFLD strongly correlates with obesity and insulin resistance; currently, the best management strategy is weight loss and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: Recent data suggest that the presence of fibrosis and not non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the predictor of clinical outcome...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Vijay Tailor, Manuela Bossi, John A Greenwood, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: With a prevalence of 2-5%, amblyopia is the most common vision deficit in children in the UK and the second most common cause of functional low vision in children in low-income countries. SOURCES OF DATA: Pubmed, Cochrane library and clinical trial registries (, ISRCTN, UKCRN portfolio database). AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Screening and treatment at the age of 4-5 years are cost efficient and clinically effective...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
John Burn, Harsh Sheth
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the developed world and is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the UK and USA. Regular use of aspirin can reduce cancer incidence, recurrence, metastasis and cancer-related mortality. SOURCES OF DATA: Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: There is a wide body of evidence from observational studies and randomized trials that aspirin reduces risk of CRC...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Sarah Morgan, Richard W Orrell
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The primary involvement is of motor neurons in the brain, spinal cord and peripherally. There is secondary weakness of muscles and primary involvement of other brain regions, especially involving cognition. SOURCES OF DATA: Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: The pathogenesis of ALS remains largely unknown...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Hans-Josef Feistritzer, Gert Klug, Sebastian J Reinstadler, Martin Reindl, Agnes Mayr, Johannes Mair, Bernhard Metzler
BACKGROUND: Measurement of biomarkers provides a cost-effective and widely available method to estimate cardiac dysfunction and clinical outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). SOURCES OF DATA: PubMed entries with terms 'myocardial infarction' and the respective biomarker. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides are closely related to left ventricular dysfunction and the occurrence of adverse clinical events following AMI...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Alison Hammond, Yeliz Prior
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) commonly reduces hand function. We systematically reviewed trials to investigate effects of home hand exercise programmes on hand symptoms and function in RA. SOURCES OF DATA: We searched: Medline (1946-), AMED, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, OT Seeker, the Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science from inception to January 2016. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Nineteen trials were evaluated. Only three were randomized controlled trials with a low risk of bias (n = 665)...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Adam Nabeebaccus, Sean Zheng, Ajay M Shah
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review covers current heart failure treatment guidelines, emerging therapies that are undergoing clinical trial, and potential new therapeutic targets arising from basic science advances. SOURCES OF DATA: A non-systematic search of MEDLINE was carried out. International guidelines and relevant reviews were searched for additional articles. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers are first line treatments for chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular function...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Ourania Romanidou, Martina Imbimbo, Giannis Mountzios, Aidalena Abidin, Floriana Morgillo, Raffaele Califano
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents ~15% of all cases of lung cancer and is characterized by a rapid tumour doubling time, early onset disease dissemination and high sensitivity to chemotherapy. SOURCES OF DATA: We searched MEDLINE and OVID databases for articles in English published from January 1980 to February 2015. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Platinum-based chemotherapy, thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation are standard of care...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Yin Mo, Brenda Mae Alferez Salada, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
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