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British Medical Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334313/colour-vision-requirements-in-visually-demanding-occupations
#1
J L Barbur, M Rodriguez-Carmona
Normal trichromatic colour vision (CV) is often required as a condition for employment in visually demanding occupations. If this requirement could be enforced using current, colour assessment tests, a significant percentage of subjects with anomalous, congenital trichromacy who can perform the suprathreshold, colour-related tasks encountered in many occupations with the same accuracy as normal trichromats would fail. These applicants would therefore be discriminated against unfairly. One solution to this problem is to produce minimum, justifiable CV requirements that are specific to each occupation...
March 18, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334220/effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-developed-countries
#2
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Martin Hewison, Neil J Gittoes
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide with adverse effects on skeletal health. In recent years, there has been great interest in non-classical actions of vitamin D. Basic research has uncovered actions in a range of non-skeletal tissues, and observational studies have identified inverse relationships with risk of a number of disease states including sarcopenia, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Sources of data: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Systematic Reviews...
March 9, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334196/the-effectiveness-of-prolotherapy-in-treating-knee-osteoarthritis-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#3
Fadi Hassan, Suad Trebinjac, William D Murrell, Nicola Maffulli
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) often leads to symptoms such as pain, stiffness and decreased function. OA is treated with a wide range of modalities, both conservatively and surgically. Prolotherapy has been used to treat various musculoskeletal problems and has shown some promise. Sources of data: Searches of the electronic databases, PubMed, ISI web of science, PEDro and SPORTDiscus, were conducted for all Level 1-4 studies published from inception through to December 2016...
March 4, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334148/surgical-versus-conservative-management-of-type-iii-acromioclavicular-dislocation-a-systematic-review
#4
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Mauro Ciuffreda, Giacomo Rizzello, Nicholas Mannering, Nicola Maffulli, Vincenzo Denaro
Introduction: The management of Type III acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations is still controversial. We wished to compare the rate of recurrence and outcome scores of operative versus non-operative treatment of patients with Type III AC dislocations. Source of data: A systematic review of the literature was performed by applying the PRISMA guidelines according to the PRISMA checklist and algorithm. A search in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL was performed using combinations of the following keywords: 'dislocation', 'Rockwood', 'type three', 'treatment', 'acromioclavicular' and 'joint'...
February 27, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334154/ethical-issues-of-crispr-technology-and-gene-editing-through-the-lens-of-solidarity
#5
John J Mulvihill, Benjamin Capps, Yann Joly, Tamra Lysaght, Hub A E Zwart, Ruth Chadwick
Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations. Sources of data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016. Areas of agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients...
February 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334096/measuring-maternal-mortality-a-systematic-review-of-methods-used-to-obtain-estimates-of-the-maternal-mortality-ratio-mmr-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
Florence Mgawadere, Terry Kana, Nynke van den Broek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164211/stem-cell-therapy-for-ischemic-heart-diseases
#7
Hong Yu, Kai Lu, Jinyun Zhu, Jian'an Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108435/utilization-of-health-care-services-by-migrants-in-europe-a-systematic-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
V Graetz, B Rechel, W Groot, M Norredam, M Pavlova
INTRODUCTION: Our study reviewed the empirical evidence on the utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe, and on differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants across European countries. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic literature review was performed, searching the databases Medline, Cinahl and Embase and covering the period from January 2009 to April 2016. The final number of articles included was 39. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Utilization of accident and emergency services and hospitalizations were higher among migrants compared with non-migrants in most countries for which evidence was available...
January 20, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104631/the-ethics-of-reporting-all-the-results-of-clinical-trials
#9
REVIEW
Iain Brassington
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: The terms 'publication bias' and 'reporting bias' describe aspects of a phenomenon by which data from trials are not publicized, and so remain inaccessible. This may generate a false impression about the world; but those facts may have important implications for clinical decisions. Thus, the bias may leave patients worse off than they might be. SOURCES OF DATA: Published journal articles. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: There is general agreement that the phenomenon happens, and that to the extent that it happens, it is undesirable for moral rather than simply epistemic reasons...
January 18, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104630/measuring-maternal-mortality-a-systematic-review-of-methods-used-to-obtain-estimates-of-the-maternal-mortality-ratio-mmr-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
REVIEW
Florence Mgawadere, Terry Kana, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: The new global target for maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is a ratio below 70 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births by 2030. We undertook a systematic review of methods used to measure MMR in low- and middle-income countries. SOURCES OF DATA: Systematic review of the literature; 59 studies included. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Civil registration (5 studies), census (5) and surveys (16), Reproductive Age Mortality Studies (RAMOS) (4) and the sisterhood methods (11) have been used to measure MMR in a variety of settings...
January 18, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069617/ocular-oncology-advances-in-retinoblastoma-uveal-melanoma-and-conjunctival-melanoma
#11
REVIEW
Marina Vasalaki, Ido D Fabian, M Ashwin Reddy, Victoria M L Cohen, Mandeep S Sagoo
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma, uveal and conjunctival melanomas are important malignancies within the remit of ocular oncology. Outlined are the diagnostic features and management principles, as well as advancements in the field and current challenges. SOURCES OF DATA: Original papers, reviews and guidelines. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Most eyes with retinoblastoma (International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (IIRC) Group A-D) are salvaged, whereas advanced cases (Group E) remain a challenge...
January 8, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069616/public-health-in-england-in-2016-the-health-of-the-public-and-the-public-health-system-a-review
#12
REVIEW
John Middleton
BACKGROUND: This article describes the current state of the health of the public in England and the state of the public health professional service and systems. SOURCES OF DATA: Data sources are wide ranging including the Global Burden of Disease, the Commonwealth Fund and Public Health England reports. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: There is a high burden of preventable disease and unacceptable inequalities in England. There is considerable expectation that there are gains to be made in preventing ill health and disability and so relieving demand on healthcare...
January 8, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069615/the-effect-of-economic-development-on-population-health-a-review-of-the-empirical-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Simon Lange, Sebastian Vollmer
BACKGROUND: Economic growth is considered an important determinant of population health. SOURCES OF DATA: Relevant studies investigating the effect of economic growth on health outcomes were identified from Google Scholar and PubMed searches in economics and medical journals. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Additional resources generated through economic growth are potentially useful for improving population health. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: The empirical evidence on the aggregate effect of economic growth on population health is rather mixed and inconclusive...
January 8, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043952/implementing-electronic-records-in-nhs-secondary-care-organizations-in-england-policy-and-progress-since-1998
#14
REVIEW
Arabella Clarke, Ian Watt, Laura Sheard, John Wright, Joy Adamson
BACKGROUND: A number of different policies have aimed to introduce electronic records into National Health Service (NHS) secondary care organizations in England over recent years. There has been little formal attempt to explore the overall impact of these policies (as opposed to evaluations of individual initiatives) and how they have developed and progressed over time. SOURCES OF DATA: National NHS IT policy documents and evaluations of national NHS IT policy between 1998 and 2015...
January 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989995/the-cancer-risk-related-to-meat-and-meat-products
#15
REVIEW
Ian T Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Meat has been classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic to humans. The evidence and the implications for health are reviewed. SOURCES OF DATA: Evidence was obtained from published reports and systematic reviews published before and since the IARC decision. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Epidemiology indicates that processed meat products are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Evidence for red meat and for other cancers remains tentative...
December 18, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989994/functional-assessment-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-the-future-of-risk-prediction
#16
REVIEW
Pouya Youssefi, Rajan Sharma, C Alberto Figueroa, Marjan Jahangiri
INTRODUCTION: Treatment guidelines for the thoracic aorta concentrate on size, yet acute aortic dissection or rupture can occur when aortic size is below intervention criteria. Functional imaging and computational techniques are a means of assessing haemodynamic parameters involved in aortic pathology. SOURCES OF DATA: Original articles, reviews, international guidelines. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Computational fluid dynamics and 4D flow MRI allow non-invasive assessment of blood flow parameters and aortic wall biomechanics...
December 17, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941042/apophyseal-injuries-in-children-s-and-youth-sports
#17
REVIEW
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Mauro Ciuffreda, Joel Locher, Nicola Maffulli, Vincenzo Denaro
INTRODUCTION: The authors reviewed the current English literature regarding apophyseal injuries affecting young athletes, to highlight the frequency and characteristics of these injuries, to clarify risk factors and specific prevention measures, and to identify future research objectives. SOURCES OF DATA: The authors performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature, using the Medline database, including all English articles. Various combinations of the Keywords 'injury', 'sports', 'athletic injuries', 'avulsion fractures', 'physeal', 'physis', 'apophysis', 'apophysitis', 'growth plate' were used...
December 2016: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941041/advances-in-the-recognition-and-management-of-hereditary-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Anju Kulkarni, Helena Carley
INTRODUCTION: Constitutional mutations in genes controlling DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and cell apoptosis can determine an individual's tendency to develop cancer. Hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes present with multiple cancers at a young age and underlie a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the recognition and management of hereditary cancer will be illustrated with specific examples of developments in diagnosis and treatment. SOURCES OF DATA: Key recent published literature...
December 2016: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941040/genetic-predisposition-to-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
S Benafif, R Eeles
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the commonest non-cutaneous cancer in men in the UK. Epidemiological evidence as well as twin studies points towards a genetic component contributing to aetiology. SOURCES OF DATA: Key recently published literature. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: A family history of PrCa doubles the risk of disease development in first-degree relatives. Linkage and genetic sequencing studies identified rare moderate-high-risk gene loci, which predispose to PrCa development when altered by mutation...
December 2016: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941039/targeted-response-an-exploration-of-why-ambulance-services-find-government-targets-particularly-challenging
#20
REVIEW
Mark Durham, Mark Faulkner, Charles Deakin
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: Ambulance services have historically found their targets particularly challenging. This article explores some areas of this multifaceted problem. SOURCES OF DATA: Research articles, government publications and published audit data. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Demand is increasing in many areas of healthcare, but whilst hospitals saw a 7% increase in demand in recent times, ambulance services saw nearly double that. The services ambulance trusts provide have evolved from that of a transport service to that of a mobile health provider, and they have become victims of their own success...
December 2016: British Medical Bulletin
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