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British Medical Bulletin

Sarah J Jones
Introduction: Roads facilitate trade, development and communication, as well as spread illness and disease, but since mass car use began, the disbenefits, including injuries, pollution and physical inactivity have been significantly magnified. Electric cars are now being seen by many as the solution to the problems associated with internal combustion engine cars. Sources of data: This article reviews existing literature to determine the extent to which a switch to electrification can solve many of the problems that cars have wrought...
January 7, 2019: British Medical Bulletin
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Sherwin Criseno, Neil J L Gittoes
Introduction: The presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has shifted from a disease characterized by renal and skeletal complications to a mild or asymptomatic condition. Modern imaging allows localization of a surgical target in the majority of cases. Sources of data: Data were collected from literature searches of online databases including PUBMED, MEDLINE and Cochrane. A narrative review was performed. Areas of agreement: Parathyroidectomy is the only therapy with curative potential with good outcomes and low risk of complications in experienced hands...
December 20, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Charlotte C Heuvelings, Sabine Bélard, Mary A Familusi, Rene Spijker, Martin P Grobusch, Heather J Zar
Background: Chest ultrasound is an emerging imaging modality, for several paediatric pulmonary diseases. Sources of data: MEDLINE and EMBASE (1946-47 to 10 March 2017) were searched to collect evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasound, compared to other imaging modalities, for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases. Areas of agreement: Eighteen pneumonia studies, comprising 2031 children, were included for meta-analysis; the summary estimate sensitivity was 95...
December 17, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Samantha K Brooks, G James Rubin, Neil Greenberg
Background: Many people who experience a disaster will do so as part of an occupational group, either by chance or due to the nature of their role. Sources of data: This review is based on literature published in scientific journals. Areas of agreement: There are many social and occupational factors, which affect post-disaster mental health. In particular, effective social support-both during and post-disaster-appears to enhance psychological resilience...
December 13, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
César Palacios-González
Background: The first live birth following the use of a new reproductive technique, maternal spindle transfer (MST), which is a mitochondrial replacement technique (MRT), was accomplished by dividing the execution of the MST procedure between two countries, the USA and Mexico. This was done in order to avoid US legal restrictions on this technique. Sources of data: Academic articles, news articles, documents obtained through freedom of information requests, laws, regulations and national reports...
November 16, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Victoria Chico
Background: On the May 25, 2018 the General Data Protection Regulation (hereafter the GDPR or the Regulation) came into force, replacing the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC (upon which the Data Protection Act 1998 is based), and imposing new responsibilities on organizations which process the data of European Union citizens. Sources of data: This piece examines the impact of the Regulation on health research. Areas of agreement: The Regulation seeks to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all EU citizen's data privacy and to reshape the way that organizations approach data privacy (See the GDPR portal at: https://www...
November 16, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Pawel Zalewski, Joanna Slomko, Monika Zawadka-Kunikowska
Introduction: The majority of chronic diseases are accompanied by symptoms of more or less pronounced dysautonomia, which frequently and noticeably deteriorate the quality of patients' life. Sources of data: Pubmed. Areas of agreement: Functional disorders in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) require very precise diagnostics; frequently involving several specialists and a number of diagnostic tests. Areas of controversy: Dysautonomia symptoms are of a very discrete nature and may develop much earlier than symptoms specific for a given chronic disease, significantly influencing the treatment process itself...
November 9, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Yao Lu, Ruifang Chen, Jingjing Cai, Zhijun Huang, Hong Yuan
Introduction or background: Poorly-controlled hypertension in the first trimester significantly increases maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The majority of guidelines and clinical trials focus on the management and treatments for hypertension during pregnancy and breast-feeding, while limited evidence could be applied to the management for hypertension before pregnancy. In this review, we summarized the existing guidelines and treatments of pre-pregnancy treatment of hypertension...
October 29, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Simon J Crabb, James Douglas
Introduction: Bladder cancer carries a high healthcare burden and a poor prognosis once distant metastatic spread has occurred. Sources of data: We utilised a PubMed/MEDLINE literature search using the terms bladder cancer, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, intra-vesical therapy, surgery and radiotherapy, and current clinical management guidelines (Association of Cancer Physicians, British Association of Urological Surgeons, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, European Association of Urology)...
October 29, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Luca Chiapperino
Background: Epigenetics is a burgeoning field of contemporary biosciences, which has attracted a lot of interest both in biomedical and in social sciences. Sources of data: Unsystematic literature analysis and retrospective mapping of highly cited work (source: Web of Science core collection) in the social sciences and humanities engaging with epigenetics. Areas of agreement: Epigenetics poses no new ethical issue over and above those discussed in relation to genetics...
October 17, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Asim Afaq, Jamshed Bomanji
Introduction: There is an unmet clinical need for early, accurate imaging of recurrent prostate cancer to improve patient outcomes. Staging, by conventional bone scintigraphy and CT have become outdated. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging in this setting has developed rapidly, with widespread International adoption in line with evidence-based guidelines in this group of patients. Sources of data: A PubMed search of English language articles was performed using following keywords: PSMA, PET/CT, biochemical recurrence, prostate cancer...
September 29, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Matti Häyry
Background: Scientists have cloned animals since the late 19th century, but the crucial step for ethics was the cloning of the first mammal by somatic cell nuclear transfer in 1997. This suggested that scientists could also clone, and possibly enhance, human beings. Sources of data: This survey examines ethical literature on cloning since the 1960s. Areas of agreement: The one ethical area of agreement in this issue is that we should not try to create new human beings by somatic cell nuclear transfer now...
September 10, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Lisa Campisi, Nazish Imran, Ahsan Nazeer, Norbert Skokauskas, Muhammad Waqar Azeem
Sources of data: This article is based on key recent published literature including international guidelines and relevant reviews and meta-analyses. Authors have also supplemented this material with their own clinical experience. Areas of agreement: There is an agreement that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a strong hereditary component. There is also a consensus that the reported prevalence estimates have increased in the last 5 years. There is strong support for using the broader spectrum disorder conceptualization of the DSM-5...
September 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Andy Greenfield
Introduction or background: Genome editing facilitates alterations to DNA, large or subtle, in a precise fashion. In its most popular form it uses the programmable endonuclease system, CRISPR/Cas9. Edits can be made to any genome, including the human genome. This raises the possibility of genome editing in human embryos in both a research and reproductive context. Sources of data: All reports of genome editing in human embryos are included here, along with key papers examining the science and ethics of human genome editing...
September 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Mauro Ciuffreda, Joel Locher, Stefan Buchmann, Nicola Maffulli, Vincenzo Denaro
Introduction: Currently, no therapeutic intervention is universally accepted, and the most effective management for restoring motion and diminishing pain in patients with shoulder stiffness has yet to be defined. This systematic review analyses outcomes of conservative and surgical interventions to treat shoulder stiffness. Source of data: A systematic review of literature according to the PRISMA guidelines was performed. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, Ovid and Google Scholar databases using various combinations of the keywords 'shoulder', 'shoulder stiffness', 'stiff shoulder', 'conservative', since inception of databases to June 2018 was performed...
September 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
A Forrester, A Till, A Simpson, J Shaw
Introduction: Around 11 million people are held in prisons internationally, and criminal justice systems are overburdened with a high prevalence of multiple psychiatric disorders. In England and Wales over 200 000 people enter prisons each year, and in many cases, this facilitates their first contact with mental health services. Sources of data: Research, evaluations, government reports and independent reviews. Areas of agreement: Screening, Triage, Assessment, Intervention and Re-integration (STAIR) are necessary components of prison mental health provision, offering an opportunity to improve the wellbeing of a complex population...
September 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Richard A Anderson, Evelyn E Telfer
Introduction: Women are increasingly having children at a later age, but this can conflict with declining fertility in the later 30's and thereafter. Areas of agreement: Declining egg quality and quantity with age are well-established, although egg quality can only be surmised from reproductive success or failure. Areas of controversy: Whether increasing the number of eggs that can be obtained from ovarian stimulation is of value, and whether there are precursor cells within the adult ovary that could become mature eggs...
September 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Neda Farahi, Chrystalla Loutsios, Nicola Tregay, Charlotte Summers, Laurence S C Lok, Prina Ruparelia, Chandra K Solanki, Daniel Gillett, Edwin R Chilvers, A Michael Peters
Introduction: Radionuclides for leucocyte kinetic studies have progressed from non-gamma emitting cell-labelling radionuclides through gamma emitting nuclides that allow imaging of leucocyte kinetics, to the next goal of positron emission tomography (PET). Sources of data: Mostly the authors' own studies, following on from studies of the early pioneers. Areas of controversy: From early imaging studies, it appeared that the majority of the marginated granulocyte pool was located in the lungs...
September 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Andy Greenfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Raf Aerts, Olivier Honnay, An Van Nieuwenhuyse
Introduction: Natural environments and green spaces provide ecosystem services that enhance human health and well-being. They improve mental health, mitigate allergies and reduce all-cause, respiratory, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. The presence, accessibility, proximity and greenness of green spaces determine the magnitude of their positive health effects, but the role of biodiversity (including species and ecosystem diversity) within green spaces remains underexplored. This review describes mechanisms and evidence of effects of biodiversity in nature and green spaces on human health...
September 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
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