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Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208836/effects-of-the-linear-fragments-of-beta-1%C3%A2-3-glucans-on-cytokine-production-in-vitro
#1
I G Akhapkina, A B Antropova, E A Akhmatov, T M Zheltikova
Beta-glucans, homopolysaccharides composed of 3,6-branching β-(1→3)-D-glucan chains, attract great interest as inducers of cytokine synthesis. In this work, we studied the ability of linear fragments of beta-glucan chains to activate cytokine synthesis. Synthetic nona-β-(1→3)-D-glucoside (SO) representing a linear fragment of beta-glucan chain, endotoxin (ED), and natural β-(1→3)-D-glucan (GL) were tested for their role as inducers of cytokines in whole peripheral blood cultures collected from 17 individuals...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208835/laccase-catalyzed-heterocoupling-of-dihydroquercetin-and-p-aminobenzoic-acid-effect-of-the-reaction-product-on-cultured-cells
#2
M E Khlupova, O V Morozova, I S Vasil'eva, G P Shumakovich, N V Pashintseva, L I Kovalev, S S Shishkin, V A Chertkov, A K Shestakova, A V Kisin, A I Yaropolov
Derivatization of the natural flavonoid dihydroquercetin with p-aminobenzoic acid was carried out in an ethyl acetate/citric buffer biphasic system using laccase from the fungus Trametes hirsuta. The main reaction product yield was ~68 mol %. The product was characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, and its structure was elucidated. The reaction product affected viability of cultured human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cell line) in a dose-dependent manner and, therefore, can be of interest to pharmaceutical industry...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208834/amphipathic-crac-containing-peptides-derived-from-the-influenza-virus-a-m1-protein-modulate-cholesterol-dependent-activity-of-cultured-ic-21-macrophages
#3
A Ya Dunina-Barkovskaya, Kh S Vishnyakova, A O Golovko, A M Arutyunyan, L A Baratova, O V Bathishchev, V A Radyukhin
Entry of many viral and bacterial pathogens into host cells depends on cholesterol and/or cholesterol-enriched domains (lipid rafts) in the cell membrane. Earlier, we showed that influenza virus A matrix protein M1 contains amphipathic α-helices with exposed cholesterol-recognizing amino acid consensus (CRAC) motifs. In order to test possible functional activity of these motifs, we studied the effects of three synthetic peptides corresponding to the CRAC-containing α-helices of the viral M1 protein on the phagocytic activity of cultured mouse IC-21 macrophages...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208833/glutathionylation-of-na-k-atpase-alpha-subunit-alters-enzyme-conformation-and-sensitivity-to-trypsinolysis
#4
E A Dergousova, Y M Poluektov, E A Klimanova, I Y Petrushanko, V A Mitkevich, A A Makarov, O D Lopina
We found earlier that Na,K-ATPase is purified from duck salt glands in partially glutathionylated state (up to 13 of the 23 cysteine residues of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic α-subunit can be S-glutathionylated). To determine the effect of glutathionylation on the enzyme conformation, we have analyzed the products of trypsinolysis of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit in different conformations with different extent of glutathionylation. Incubation of the protein in the E1 conformation with trypsin produced a large fragment with a molecular mass (MM) of 80 kDa with the following formation of smaller fragments with MM 40, 35...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208832/inorganic-polyphosphate-and-cancer
#5
REVIEW
E V Kulakovskaya, M Yu Zemskova, T V Kulakovskaya
This review presents data on the relationship between inorganic polyphosphate metabolism and carcinogenesis including participation of polyphosphates in the regulation of activity of mTOR and other proteins involved in carcinogenesis, the role of h-prune protein (human polyphosphatase) in cell migration and metastasis formation, the prospects for using polyphosphates and inhibitors of polyphosphate metabolism enzymes as agents for controlling cell proliferation and migration.
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208831/essential-light-chains-of-myosin-and-their-role-in-functioning-of-the-myosin-motor
#6
REVIEW
D S Logvinova, D I Levitsky
This review summarizes current data on the structure and functions of myosin essential light chains (ELCs) and on their role in functioning of the myosin head as a molecular motor. The data on structural and functional features of the N-terminal extension of myosin ELC from skeletal and cardiac muscles are analyzed; the role of this extension in the ATP-dependent interaction of myosin heads with actin in the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction is discussed. The data on possible interactions of the ELC N-terminal extension with the myosin head motor domain in the myosin ATPase cycle are presented, including the results of the authors' studies that are in favor of such interactions...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208830/structural-alterations-in-human-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptors-in-carcinogenesis
#7
REVIEW
D S Mikhaylenko, B Y Alekseev, D V Zaletaev, R I Goncharova, M V Nemtsova
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays an important role in human embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Carcinogenesis is accompanied by aberrant constitutive activation of FGF receptors (FGFRs) resulting from missense mutation in the FGFR1-4 genes, generation of chimeric oncogenes, FGFR1-4 gene amplification, alternative splicing shift toward formation of mesenchymal FGFR isoforms, and FGFR overexpression. Altogether, these alterations contribute to auto- and paracrine stimulation of cancer cells and neoangiogenesis...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208829/structure-and-function-of-multidrug-resistance-protein-1
#8
REVIEW
E N Yakusheva, D S Titov
This review considers one of the most clinically relevant representatives of the ABC transporters - multidrug resistance protein 1 (P-glycoprotein 1 or Pgp). Data on the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of the protein, its synthesis and degradation, and roles of its fragments in transporter activity are presented. Particular attention is given to the mechanism of functioning of Pgp. In view of the absence of a generally recognized mechanism of action of Pgp, several existing models of the protein transport cycle are discussed...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208828/biochemistry-of-direct-cell-cell-interactions-signaling-factors-regulating-orchestration-of-cell-populations
#9
REVIEW
V Y Brodsky
Biochemical mechanisms for the orchestration of cell populations are discussed in view of direct cell-cell interactions and composition of the intercellular medium. In our works of the last 20 years, we used circahoralian (ultradian) rhythm of protein synthesis as a marker of cell interactions. Experiments in cell cultures are described; some influences on the organism native medium were performed. Information is presented on the signaling membrane factors that trigger a cascade of processes in the cytoplasm and lead to the orchestration of cell activity in vitro and in vivo...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208827/immunotropic-effects-and-proposed-mechanism-of-action-for-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-a-reductase-inhibitors-statins
#10
REVIEW
T I Arefieva, A Yu Filatova, A V Potekhina, A M Shchinova
Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins) are the major group of lipid-lowering drugs. Along with hypocholesterolemic activity, statins exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties that expand their clinical use, particularly, in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In this review, we critically analyze the data of statin effects on immune cells (e.g., monocytes and T cells) involved in the development of atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. We (i) discuss the properties of statins and routes of cell entry, as well as their major intracellular targets; (ii) evaluate the data on the effects of statins on the subset composition of circulatory monocytes, ability of monocytes to migrate to the site of inflammation (cell motility and expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors), production of cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and reactive oxygen species by monocytes/macrophages, and antigen-presenting activity in peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells; and (iii) summarize the data on the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of various CD4+ T cell subsets (type 1/2/17 helper T cells and regulatory T cells) by statins...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208826/translation-factor-eif5a-modification-with-hypusine-and-role-in-regulation-of-gene-expression-eif5a-as-a-target-for-pharmacological-interventions
#11
REVIEW
K T Turpaev
Translation factor eIF5A participates in protein synthesis at the stage of polypeptide chain elongation. Two eIF5A isoforms are known that are encoded by related genes whose expression varies significantly in different tissues. The eIF5A1 isoform is a constitutively and ubiquitously expressed gene, while the eIF5A2 isoform is expressed in few normal tissues and is an oncogene by a number of parameters. Unique feature of eIF5A isoforms is that they are the only two proteins that contain amino acid hypusine. Modification with hypusine is critical requirement for eIF5A activity...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200871/erratum-to-rhamnose-containing-cell-wall-glycopolymers-from-rathayibacter-toxicus-vkm-ac-1600-and-rathayibacter-tanaceti-vkm-ac-2596-biochemistry-moscow-83-717-2018
#12
A S Shashkov, E M Tul'skaya, A S Dmitrenok, G M Streshinskaya, N V Potekhina, S N Senchenkova, N F Piskunkova, L V Dorofeeva, L I Evtushenko
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1134/S0006297918060093.
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200870/a-novel-fluorescent-gfp-chromophore-analog-based-dye-for-quantitative-pcr
#13
A A Stakheev, D Yu Ryazantsev, Yu K Zvezdina, M S Baranov, S K Zavriev
This is the first report describing the possibility of using a green fluorescent protein chromophore synthetic analog, P-HOBDI-BF2 , as a fluorescent dye for a linear hydrolysis probe used in qPCR. The study was carried out on a system for detection of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium avenaceum using a plasmid containing translation elongation factor 1α fragment as a template. To estimate fluorogenic properties of P-HOBDI-BF2 , 6-FAM- and BDP-FL-labeled probes were used. It was demonstrated that a synthetic dye based on the P-HOBDI-BF2 chromophore can be used for labeling hydrolysis probes for qPCR, but fluorescence increase levels for P-HOBDI-BF2 -labeled probes were slightly lower than those for 6-FAM-labeled ones...
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200869/in-vivo-proinflammatory-cytokine-production-by-cd-1-mice-in-response-to-equipotential-doses-of-rhodobacter-capsulatus-pg-and-salmonella-enterica-lipopolysaccharides
#14
D S Kabanov, V A Rykov, S V Prokhorenko, A N Murashev, I R Prokhorenko
The capacities of relatively nontoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Rhodobacter capsulatus PG and highly potent LPS from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to evoke proinflammatory cytokine production have been compared in vivo. Intravenous administration of S. enterica LPS at a relatively low dose (1 mg/kg body weight) led to upregulation of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ production by non-sensitized CD-1 mice. LPS from R. capsulatus PG used at a four-times higher dose than that from S. enterica elicited production of almost the same amount of systemic TNF-α; therefore, the doses of 4 mg/kg LPS from R...
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200868/reproducible-peak-clusters-on-differential-mouse-mortality-curves-and-their-relation-to-the-gompertz-model
#15
A G Malygin
It is shown that differentiation of mouse mortality curves (number of animals that died at a certain age plotted versus their lifespan) results in the appearance of eight clearly distinguished clusters of peaks corresponding to increased mortality rates. Smoothing of the original mortality curves and subsequent transformation of the differential mortality curves according to the Gompertz model makes the peaks and the corresponding clusters less pronounced and drives the logarithm of the force mortality curve toward a straight line...
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200867/structure-of-the-k82-capsular-polysaccharide-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-luh5534-containing-a-d-galactose-4-6-pyruvic-acid-acetal
#16
A A Kasimova, J J Kenyon, N P Arbatsky, A S Shashkov, A V Popova, Y A Knirel, R M Hall
Type K82 capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii LUH5534. The structure of a linear tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the CPS was established by sugar analysis along with one- and two-dimensional 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Proteins encoded by the KL82 capsule gene cluster in the genome of LUH5534 were assigned to roles in the synthesis of the K82 CPS. In particular, functions were assigned to two new glycosyltransferases (Gtr152 and Gtr153) and a novel pyruvyltransferase, Ptr5, responsible for the synthesis of d-galactose 4,6-(R)-pyruvic acid acetal...
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200866/involvement-of-mitochondria-in-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
M S Kozin, O G Kulakova, O O Favorova
Functional disruption and neuronal loss followed by progressive dysfunction of the nervous system underlies the pathogenesis of numerous disorders defined as "neurodegenerative diseases". Multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system resulting in serious neurological dysfunctions and disability, is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies suggest that disturbances in mitochondrial functioning are key factors leading to neurodegeneration...
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200865/the-regulatory-role-of-nad-in-human-and-animal-cells
#18
REVIEW
V A Kulikova, D V Gromyko, A A Nikiforov
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form NADP are the major coenzymes in the redox reactions of various essential metabolic pathways. NAD+ also serves as a substrate for several families of regulatory proteins, such as protein deacetylases (sirtuins), ADP-ribosyltransferases, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, that control vital cell processes including gene expression, DNA repair, apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, unfolded protein response, and many others. NAD+ is also a precursor for calcium-mobilizing secondary messengers...
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200864/why-threonine-is-an-essential-amino-acid-in-mammals-and-birds-studies-at-the-enzyme-level
#19
REVIEW
A V Malinovsky
The only pathway for the synthesis of essential amino acids in vertebrates is reversible transamination of their keto analogs with glutamic acid. At the same time, it is commonly accepted that such essential amino acids as lysine and threonine are not involved in transamination and, therefore, cannot be synthesized from their keto analogs. However, using radiolabeled isotopes, synthesis of threonine was demonstrated in rat liver and in a reaction mixture containing chicken liver threonine dehydrogenase. In the review, we discuss why threonine is an essential amino acid in mammals and birds based on the pathways of threonine biosynthesis in these two classes of vertebrates...
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200863/signaling-mechanisms-regulating-diverse-plant-cell-responses-to-uvb-radiation
#20
REVIEW
G Ya Fraikin
UVB radiation (290-320 nm) causes diverse effects in plant cells that vary with the fluence rate of exposure. High fluence rates of UVB radiation cause damage to DNA and formation of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and chloroplasts, which lead to oxidation of membrane proteins and lipids and inhibition of cellular functions. In response to oxidative stress, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipates, resulting in cytochrome c release and activation of metacaspases. This leads to the apoptosis-like cell death...
July 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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