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Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡

I A Olovnikov, V V Morgunova, A A Mironova, M Y Kordyukova, E I Radion, O M Olenkina, N V Akulenko, A I Kalmykova
The telomere is a nucleoprotein complex at the ends of linear chromosomes that protects them from fusion and degradation. The telomere consists of telomeric DNA, a protective protein complex and telomeric RNA. Biogenesis of telomeric transcripts in development is still far from being understood. Drosophila telomeres are elongated by a transposition of specialized telomeric retrotransposons that encode proteins. Using transgenic constructs encoding tagged telomeric protein, we found that transcripts of Drosophila telomeric element HeT-A bind Gag-HeT-A protein encoded by these transcripts...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
O A Akimova, L V Kapilevich, S N Orlov, O D Lopina
Prolonged exposure of different epithelial cells (canine renal epithelial cells (MDCK), vascular endothelial cells from porcine aorta (PAEC), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), as well as epithelial cells from colon carcinoma (Caco-2)) with ouabain or with other cardiotonic steroids was shown earlier to result in the death of these cells. Intermediates in the cell death signal cascade remain unknown. In the present study, we used proteomics methods for identification of proteins whose interaction with Na+,K+-ATPase is triggered by ouabain...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
G M Streshinskaya, A S Sashkov, E M Tul'skaya, S N Senchenkova, A S Dmitrenok, N F Piskunkova, O V Bueva, L I Evtushenko
The structures of cell wall glycopolymers from the type strains of three Actinoplanes species were investigated using chemical methods, NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Actinoplanes digitatis VKM Ac-649(T) contains two phosphate-containing glycopolymers: poly(diglycosyl-1-phosphate) →6)-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1-P-6)-α-D-GlcpN-(1→ and teichoic acid →1)-sn-Gro-(3-P-3)-β-[β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→2]-D-Galp-(1→. Two glycopolymers were identified in A. auranticolor VKM Ac-648(T) and A. cyaneus VKM Ac-1095(T): minor polymer - unsubstituted 2,3-poly(glycerol phosphate), widely abundant in actinobacteria (Ac-648(T)), and mannan with trisaccharide repeating unit →2)-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-α-D-Manp-(1→ (Ac-1095(T))...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
I P Solyanikova, O V Borzova, E V Emelyanova, E S Shumkova, N V Prisyazhnaya, E G Plotnikova, L A Golovleva
Dioxygenases induced during benzoate degradation by the actinobacterium Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 strain degrading haloaromatic compounds were studied. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 completely degraded 2 g/liter benzoate during 30 h and 10 g/liter during 200 h. Washed cells grown on benzoate retained respiration activity for more than 90 days, and a high activity of benzoate dioxygenase was recorded for 10 days. Compared to the enzyme activities with benzoate, the activity of benzoate dioxygenases was 10-30% with 13 of 35 substituted benzoate analogs...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
T H Samigullin, M D Logacheva, E I Terenteva, G V Degtjareva, C M Vallejo-Roman
This work reports the complete plastid (pt) DNA sequence of Seseli montanum L. of the Apiaceae family, determined using next-generation sequencing technology. The complete genome sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession No. KM035851. The S. montanum plastome is 147,823 bp in length. The plastid genome has a typical structure for angiosperms and contains a large single-copy region (LSC) of 92,620 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 17,481 bp separated by a pair of 18,861 bp inverted repeats (IRa and IRb)...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
N B Petrov, I P Vladychenskaya, A L Drozdov, O S Kedrova
A fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene from isolates of several echinoderm species was sequenced. The isolates were from three species of starfish from the Asteriidae family (Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica collected in the Sea of Japan and Asterias rubens collected in the White Sea) and from the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (family Loveniidae) collected in the Sea of Japan. Additionally, regions including internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA (ITS1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS2) were sequenced for the three studied starfish species...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
T V Shevchuk, N S Zakharchenko, S V Tarlachkov, O V Furs, O V Dyachenko, Y I Buryanov
Transgenic kalanchoe plants (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) expressing the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 gene (cecP1) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and the selective neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene under the control of the nopaline synthase gene promoter were studied. The 35S promoter methylation and the cecropin P1 biosynthesis levels were compared in plants growing on media with and without kanamycin. The low level of active 35S promoter methylation further decreases upon cultivation on kanamycin-containing medium, while cecropin P1 synthesis increases...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
N S Dyrkheeva, N A Lebedeva, O I Lavrik
Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is one of the key participants in the DNA base excision repair system. APE1 hydrolyzes DNA adjacent to the 5'-end of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site to produce a nick with a 3'-hydroxyl group and a 5'-deoxyribose phosphate moiety. APE1 exhibits 3'-phosphodiesterase, 3'-5'-exonuclease, and 3'-phosphatase activities. APE1 was also identified as a redox factor (Ref-1). In this review, data on the role of APE1 in the DNA repair process and in other metabolic processes occurring in cells are analyzed as well as the interaction of this enzyme with DNA and other proteins participating in the repair system...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
M Y Shubina, Y R Musinova, E V Sheval
Fibrillarin is one of the most studied nucleolar proteins. Its main functions are methylation and processing of pre-rRNA. Fibrillarin is a highly conserved protein; however, in the course of evolution from archaea to eukaryotes, it acquired an additional N-terminal glycine and arginine-rich (GAR) domain. In this review, we discuss the evolution of fibrillarin structure and its relation to the functions of the protein in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
E G Govorunova, L A Koppel
Optogenetics technology (using light-sensitive microbial proteins to control animal cell physiology) is becoming increasingly popular in laboratories around the world. Among these proteins, particularly important are rhodopsins that transport ions across the membrane and are used in optogenetics to regulate membrane potential by light, mostly in neurons. Although rhodopsin ion pumps transport only one charge per captured photon, channelrhodopsins are capable of more efficient passive transport. In this review, we follow the history of channelrhodopsin discovery in flagellate algae and discuss the latest addition to the channelrhodopsin family, channels with anion, rather than cation, selectivity...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
D I Kuzmenko, T K Klimentyeva
This review presents data on the functional biochemistry of ceramide, one of the key sphingolipids with properties of a secondary messenger. Molecular mechanisms of the involvement of ceramide in apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells and its role in the formation of insulin resistance in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes are reviewed. One of the main predispositions for the development of insulin resistance and diabetes is obesity, which is associated with ectopic fat deposition and significant increase in intracellular concentrations of cytotoxic ceramides...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
A V Markov, E B Naimark, E U Yakovleva
The dynamics of aging is often described by survival curves that show the proportion of individuals surviving to a given age. The shape of the survival curve reflects the dependence of mortality on age, and it varies greatly for different organisms. In a recently published paper, Stroustrup and coauthors ((2016) Nature, 530, 103-107) showed that many factors affecting the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans do not change the shape of the survival curve, but only stretch or compress it in time. Apparently, this means that aging is a programmed process whose trajectory is difficult to change, although it is possible to speed it up or slow it down...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
E V Stelmashook, E E Genrikhs, O P Aleksandrova, G A Amelkina, E A Zelenova, N K Isaev
Rat cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were not sensitive to CuCl2 (1-10 µM, 24 h), whereas paraquat (150 µM) decreased neuronal survival to 79 ± 3% of control level. Simultaneous treatment of CGNs with paraquat and CuCl2 (2, 5, or 10 µM Cu2+/paraquat) caused significant copper dose-dependent death, lowering their survival to 56 ± 4, 37 ± 3, or 16 ± 2%, respectively, and stimulating elevated production of free radicals in CGNs. Introduction of vitamin E, a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors (MK-801), and also removal of glutamine from the incubation medium decreased toxicity of Cu2+/paraquat mixture...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
V Y Brodsky, L A Malchenko, D S Konchenko, N D Zvezdina, T K Dubovaya
Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were studied in serum-free media. Ultradian protein synthesis rhythm was used as a marker of cell synchronization in the population. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2 mg/ml) to the medium of nonsynchronous sparse cultures resulted in detection of a common protein synthesis rhythm, hence in synchronization of the cells. The antagonist of glutamic acid metabotropic receptors MCPG (0.01 mg/ml) added together with glutamic acid abolished the synchronization effect; in sparse cultures, no rhythm was detected...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
N L Rudakova, A R Sabirova, N P Balaban, A O Tikhonova, M R Sharipova
Features of gene expression of the secreted Bacillus pumilus metalloendopeptidase belonging to the adamalysin/reprolysin family were investigated. In the regulatory region of the gene, we identified hypothetical binding sites for transcription factors CcpA and TnrA. We found that the expression of the metalloendopeptidase gene is controlled by mechanisms of carbon and nitrogen catabolite repression. In experiments involving nitrogen metabolism regulatory protein mutant strains, we found that the control of the metalloendopeptidase gene expression involves proteins of ammonium transport GlnK and AmtB interacting with the TnrA-regulator...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
A M Tverskoi, S V Sidorenko, E A Klimanova, O A Akimova, L V Smolyaninova, O D Lopina, S N Orlov
Side-by-side with inhibition of the Na+,K+-ATPase ouabain and other cardiotonic steroids (CTS) can affect cell functions by mechanisms other than regulation of the intracellular Na+ and K+ ratio ([Na+]i/[K+]i). Thus, we compared the dose- and time-dependences of the effect of ouabain on intracellular [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio, Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Treatment of the cells with 1-3 nM ouabain for 24-72 h decreased the [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio and increased cell proliferation by 20-50%...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
E V Navolotskaya, D V Zinchenko, Y A Zolotarev, A A Kolobov, V M Lipkin
The synthetic peptide LKEKK corresponding to sequence 16-20 of human thymosin-α1 and 131-135 of human interferon-α2 was labeled with tritium to specific activity 28 Ci/mol. The [3H]LKEKK bound with high affinity (Kd = 3.7 ± 0.3 nM) to donor blood T-lymphocytes. Treatment of cells with trypsin or proteinase K did not abolish [3H]LKEKK binding, suggesting the non-protein nature of the peptide receptor. The binding was inhibited by thymosin-α1, interferon-α2, and cholera toxin B subunit (Ki = 2.0 ± 0.3, 2...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
O V Voloshina, Y V Bolychevtseva, F I Kuzminov, M Y Gorbunov, I V Elanskaya, V V Fadeev
To assess the role of redox state of photosystem II (PSII) acceptor side electron carriers in PSII photochemical activity, we studied sub-millisecond fluorescence kinetics of the wild type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its mutants with natural variability in the redox state of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. In cyanobacteria, dark adaptation tends to reduce PQ pool and induce a shift of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic apparatus to State 2, whereas illumination oxidizes PQ pool, leading to State 1 (Mullineaux, C...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Y L Dorokhov, E V Sheshukova, E N Kosobokova, A V Shindyapina, V S Kosorukov, T V Komarova
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (TMA) provide an important means for treating diseases that were previously considered untreatable. Currently more than 40 full-size TMAs created primarily based on immunoglobulin G1 are widely used for treating various illnesses. Glycosylation of TMA is among other numerous factors that affect their biological activity, effector functions, immunogenicity, and half-life in the patient's serum. The importance of carbohydrate residues for activity of human serum immunoglobulin and TMA produced in animal cells is considered in this review, with emphasis given to N-glycosylation of the Fc fragment of the antibody...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
J N Valitova, A G Sulkarnayeva, F V Minibayeva
Sterols, which are isoprenoid derivatives, are structural components of biological membranes. Special attention is now being given not only to their structure and function, but also to their regulatory roles in plants. Plant sterols have diverse composition; they exist as free sterols, sterol esters with higher fatty acids, sterol glycosides, and acylsterol glycosides, which are absent in animal cells. This diversity of types of phytosterols determines a wide spectrum of functions they play in plant life. Sterols are precursors of a group of plant hormones, the brassinosteroids, which regulate plant growth and development...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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