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Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601083/disruption-of-functional-activity-of-mitochondria-during-mtt-assay-of-viability-of-cultured-neurons
#1
A M Surin, R R Sharipov, I A Krasil'nikova, D P Boyarkin, O Yu Lisina, L R Gorbacheva, A V Avetisyan, V G Pinelis
The MTT assay based on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium in the cell cytoplasm to a strongly light absorbing formazan is among the most commonly used methods for determination of cell viability and activity of NAD-dependent oxidoreductases. In the present study, the effects of MTT (0.1 mg/ml) on mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm), intracellular NADH, and respiration of cultured rat cerebellum neurons and isolated rat liver mitochondria were investigated. MTT caused rapid quenching of NADH autofluorescence, fluorescence of MitoTracker Green (MTG) and ΔΨm-sensitive probes Rh123 (rhodamine 123) and TMRM (tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester)...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601082/thiamine-induces-long-term-changes-in-amino-acid-profiles-and-activities-of-2-oxoglutarate-and-2-oxoadipate-dehydrogenases-in-rat-brain
#2
P M Tsepkova, A V Artiukhov, A I Boyko, V A Aleshin, G V Mkrtchyan, M A Zvyagintseva, S I Ryabov, A L Ksenofontov, L A Baratova, A V Graf, V I Bunik
Molecular mechanisms of long-term changes in brain metabolism after thiamine administration (single i.p. injection, 400 mg/kg) were investigated. Protocols for discrimination of the activities of the thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenases were developed to characterize specific regulation of the multienzyme complexes of the 2-oxoglutarate (OGDHC) and 2-oxoadipate (OADHC) dehydrogenases by thiamine. The thiamine-induced changes depended on the brain-region-specific expression of the ThDP-dependent dehydrogenases...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601081/histone-modifications-on-the-promoters-of-human-oct4-and-nanog-genes-at-the-onset-of-neural-differentiation-of-nt2-d1-cells
#3
V Topalovic, M Schwirtlich, M Stevanovic, M Mojsin
Transcription factors OCT4 and NANOG are main constituents of a functional network that controls proliferation and pluripotency maintenance of stem cells as well as early lineage decisions. We investigated expression profiles of OCT4 and NANOG during the early phases of neural differentiation using NT2/D1 cells induced by retinoic acid as an in vitro model system of human neurogenesis. We demonstrated decrease in OCT4 and NANOG mRNA and protein levels following exposure to retinoic acid. Next, by employing chromatin immunoprecipitation, we investigated profiles of selected H3 and H2B histone marks deposited on the promoters of the OCT4 and NANOG genes...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601080/microrna-630-suppresses-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-by-regulating-foxm1-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#4
Jing Feng, Xiaojuan Wang, Weihua Zhu, Si Chen, Changwei Feng
In the present study, we investigated the functional role of microRNA (miR)-630 in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of gastric cancer (GC) cells, as well as the regulatory mechanism. Cells of human GC cell line SGC 7901 were transfected with miR-630 mimic or miR-630 inhibitor. The transfection efficiency was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Cell migration and invasion were determined by Transwell assay. Protein expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) was tested by Western blot...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601079/variability-of-methylation-profiles-of-cpg-sites-in-microrna-genes-in-leukocytes-and-vascular-tissues-of-patients-with-atherosclerosis
#5
A N Kucher, M S Nazarenko, A V Markov, I A Koroleva, O L Barbarash
In this study, we for the first time described the variability of methylation levels of 71 CpG sites in microRNA genes in leukocytes and blood vessels (coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques, intact internal thoracic arteries, and great saphenous veins) in patients with atherosclerosis using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip microarray. Most of the analyzed CpG sites were characterized by the low variability, and most of these low-variable sites were hypomethylated in all tissue samples. CpG sites in coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques and leukocytes were similar in their methylation status...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601078/an-alternative-pathway-of-light-induced-transmembrane-electron-transfer-in-photosynthetic-reaction-centers-of-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#6
R A Khatypov, A M Khristin, T Yu Fufina, V A Shuvalov
In the absorption spectrum of Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers, a minor absorption band was found with a maximum at 1053 nm. The amplitude of this band is ~10,000 times less and its half-width is comparable to that of the long-wavelength absorption band of the primary electron donor P870. When the primary electron donor is excited by femtosecond light pulses at 870 nm, the absorption band at 1053 nm is increased manifold during the earliest stages of charge separation. The growth of this absorption band in difference absorption spectra precedes the appearance of stimulated emission at 935 nm and the appearance of the absorption band of anion-radical BA(-) at 1020 nm, reported earlier by several researchers...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601077/structure-of-plastid-genomes-of-photosynthetic-eukaryotes
#7
REVIEW
N P Yurina, L S Sharapova, M S Odintsova
This review presents current views on the plastid genomes of higher plants and summarizes data on the size, structural organization, gene content, and other features of plastid DNAs. Special emphasis is placed on the properties of organization of land plant plastid genomes (nucleoids) that distinguish them from bacterial genomes. The prospects of genetic engineering of chloroplast genomes are discussed.
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601076/the-centrosome-as-the-main-integrator-of-endothelial-cell-functional-activity
#8
REVIEW
A S Shakhov, I B Alieva
The centrosome is an intracellular structure of the animal cell responsible for organization of cytoplasmic microtubules. According to modern concepts, the centrosome is a very important integral element of the living cell whose functions are not limited to its ability to polymerize microtubules. The centrosome localization in the geometric center of the interphase cell, the high concentration of various regulatory proteins in this area, the centrosome-organized radial system of microtubules for intracellular transport by motor proteins, the centrosome involvement in the perception of external signals and their transmission - all these features make this cellular structure a unique regulation and distribution center managing dynamic morphology of the animal cell...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601075/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-a-carrier-platform-for-intracellular-delivery-of-nucleic-acids
#9
REVIEW
N A Keasberry, C W Yapp, A Idris
Virus-mediated gene delivery has been, to date, the most successful and efficient method for gene therapy. However, this method has been challenged because of serious safety concerns. Over the past decade, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have attracted much attention for intracellular delivery of nucleic acids. Delivery of cellular plasmid DNA (pDNA) is designed to replace the function of a defective gene and restore its normal function in the cell. Delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can selectively knockdown genes by targeting specific mRNAs...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601074/role-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-in-dna-repair
#10
REVIEW
A A Kosova, S N Khodyreva, O I Lavrik
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is widely known as a glycolytic enzyme. Nevertheless, various functions of GAPDH have been found that are unrelated to glycolysis. Some of these functions presume interaction of GAPDH with DNA, but the mechanism of its translocation to the nucleus is not fully understood. When in the nucleus, GAPDH participates in the initiation of apoptosis and transcription of genes involved in antiapoptotic pathways and cell proliferation and plays a role in the regulation of telomere length...
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601073/role-of-na-k-atpase-in-natriuretic-effect-of-prolactin-in-a-model-of-cholestasis-of-pregnancy
#11
P A Abramicheva, T A Balakina, O A Bulaeva, A A Guseva, O D Lopina, O V Smirnova
Participation of Na+/K+-ATPase in the natriuretic effect of prolactin in a cholestasis of pregnancy model was investigated. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity in rat kidney medulla, where active sodium reabsorption occurs, decreased in the model of cholestasis of pregnancy and other hyperprolactinemia types compared with intact animals. This effect was not connected with the protein level of α1- and β-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase measured by Western blotting in the kidney medulla. Decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the kidney cortex was not significant, as well as decrease in the quantity of mRNA and proteins of the α1- and β-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601072/intermediate-states-of-apomyoglobin-are-they-parts-of-the-same-area-of-conformations-diagram
#12
V A Balobanov, N S Katina, A V Finkelstein, V E Bychkova
Several research teams have reported detection and characterization of various apomyoglobin intermediate states different in their accumulation mode, thus putting a natural question as to proportions of these intermediates. The current report presents spectral properties of sperm whale apomyoglobin studied over a wide range of conditions with the use of circular dichroism and fluorescence techniques. Based on the experimental data, a diagram of apomyoglobin conformational states has been constructed. It shows that though induced by various denaturants, all the observed intermediates belong to one and the same area in the diagram...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601071/two-variants-of-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-rhbmp-2-with-additional-protein-domains-synthesis-in-an-escherichia-coli-heterologous-expression-system
#13
A S Karyagina, I S Boksha, T M Grunina, A V Demidenko, M S Poponova, O V Sergienko, A M Lyashchuk, Z M Galushkina, L A Soboleva, E O Osidak, M S Bartov, A V Gromov, V G Lunin
Two variants of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with additional N-terminal protein domains were obtained by expression in E. coli. The N-terminal domains were s-tag (15-a.a. oligopeptide from bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A) and lz (leucine zipper dimerization domain from yeast transcription factor GCN4). The s-tag-BMP-2 and lz-BMP-2 were purified by a procedure that excluded a long refolding stage. The resulting dimeric proteins displayed higher solubility compared to rhBMP-2 without additional protein domains...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601070/sox9-protects-against-human-lung-fibroblast-cell-apoptosis-induced-by-lps-through-activation-of-the-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-pathway
#14
Zhankun Zhu, Jinhua Dai, Yufeng Liao, Tao Wang
Sex-determining region Y-box 9 (Sox9) is an important transcription factor that has been identified as a key regulator of several types of diseases. In this study, we explored the correlation of Sox9 with cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory factor expression, and the possible signaling pathway in human lung fibroblast cell line to investigate the possible mechanism of neonatal pneumonia. Therefore, in the present study, pc-Sox9 and si-Sox9 were transfected into MRC-5 (human fetal lung fibroblast cell line) to promote or inhibit expression of Sox-9...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601069/acetate-metabolism-in-the-purple-non-sulfur-bacterium-rhodobacter-capsulatus
#15
E P Petushkova, A A Tsygankov
The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10 can grow on acetate as the sole carbon source under photoheterotrophic conditions. It is known that the bacterium can use the glyoxylate cycle and, in addition to it, or alternatively to it, an unknown pathway for acetate assimilation. We analyzed the genetic potential for functioning of additional metabolic pathways of oxaloacetic acid (OAA) pool replenishment in R. capsulatus. Using published microarray data of more than 4000 transcripts of genes for R...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601068/prevalence-of-autoantibodies-against-3-dg-glycated-h2a-protein-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
J M Ashraf, S M S Abdullah, S Ahmad, S Fatma, M H Baig, J Iqbal, A M Madkhali, A B A Jerah
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been found to be critically involved in initiation or progression of diabetes secondary complications (nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and angiopathy). Various hyper-glycating carbonyl compounds such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) are produced in pathophysiological conditions that form AGEs in high quantity both in vivo and in vitro. In the first stage of this study, we glycated histone H2A protein by 3-DG, and the results showed the formation of various intermediates and AGEs as well as structural changes in the protein...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601067/minicircle-kinetoplast-genome-of-insect-trypanosomatid-leptomonas-pyrrhocoris
#17
E S Gerasimov, A A Gasparyan, I A Litus, M D Logacheva, A A Kolesnikov
We present here the structure of a minicircle population based on transcriptome sequencing of Leptomonas pyrrhocoris. We show that minicircle DNA molecules are dimeric. As in dixenous species, the entire molecule of minicircle DNA is transcribed. This is the first minicircle transcriptome of monoxenous trypanosomatid species determined using NGS technology.
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601066/induction-of-transposon-silencing-in-the-drosophila-germline
#18
REVIEW
S S Ryazansky, A D Stolyarenko, M S Klenov, V A Gvozdev
In this review we consider the role of the piRNA system in transposable element silencing in the Drosophila melanogaster germline. We focus on new data that demonstrate the mechanisms of initiation of piRNA biogenesis in ovarian germinal cells and the role of Piwi protein in this process, including our own results.
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601065/mazes-of-nrf2-regulation
#19
REVIEW
N K Zenkov, P M Kozhin, A V Chechushkov, G G Martinovich, N V Kandalintseva, E B Menshchikova
Nrf2 transcription factor plays a key role in maintaining cellular redox balance under stress and is a perspective target for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 transcriptional activity is low due to its rapid ubiquitination and degradation in the 26S proteasome, as well as through various modifications of amino acid residues of this transcription factor that regulate its transport to the nucleus and binding to DNA. Continuous activation of Nrf2 is possible due to autophagy and epigenetic regulation that may underlie the increased resistance of tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601064/types-of-immune-inflammatory-responses-as-a-reflection-of-cell-cell-interactions-under-conditions-of-tissue-regeneration-and-tumor-growth
#20
REVIEW
L A Tashireva, V M Perelmuter, V N Manskikh, E V Denisov, O E Savelieva, E V Kaygorodova, M V Zavyalova
Inflammatory infiltration of tumor stroma is an integral reflection of reactions that develop in response to any damage to tumor cells including immune responses to antigens or necrosis caused by vascular disorders. In this review, we use the term "immune-inflammatory response" (IIR) that allows us to give an integral assessment of the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment. Two main types of IIRs are discussed: type 1 and 2 T-helper reactions (Th1 and Th2), as well as their inducers: immunosuppressive responses and reactions mediated by Th22 and Th17 lymphocytes and capable of modifying the main types of IIRs...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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