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Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738694/downregulation-of-linc00894-002-contributes-to-tamoxifen-resistance-by-enhancing-the-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#1
Xiulei Zhang, Meiting Wang, Huihui Sun, Tao Zhu, Xiangting Wang
Tamoxifen is a widely used personalized medicine for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, but approximately 30% of patients receiving the treatment relapse due to tamoxifen resistance (TamR). Recently, several reports have linked lncRNAs to cancer drug resistance. However, the role of lncRNAs in TamR is unclear. To identify TamR-related lncRNAs, we first used a bioinformatic approach to predict whether they have connection with known TamR-associated genes by starBase v2.0 and divided them into two groups...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738693/cytochrome-p450-1a1-cyp1a1-catalyzes-lipid-peroxidation-of-oleic-acid-induced-hepg2-cells
#2
B Huang, J Bao, Y-R Cao, H-F Gao, Y Jin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic hepatic disease associated with excessive accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes. As the disease progresses, oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of hepatic lipid peroxidation. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), a subtype of the cytochrome P450 family, has been shown to be a vital modulator in production of reactive oxygen species. However, the exact role of CYP1A1 in NAFLD is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CYP1A1 on lipid peroxidation in oleic acid (OA)-treated human hepatoma cells (HepG2)...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738692/an-inducible-damid-system-for-profiling-interactions-of-nuclear-lamina-protein-component-lamin-b1-with-chromosomes-in-mouse-cells
#3
E N Kozhevnikova, A E Leshchenko, A V Pindyurin
At the level of DNA organization into chromatin, there are mechanisms that define gene expression profiles in specialized cell types. Genes within chromatin regions that are located at the nuclear periphery are generally expressed at lower levels; however, the nature of this phenomenon remains unclear. These parts of chromatin interact with nuclear lamina proteins like Lamin B1 and, therefore, can be identified in a given cell type by chromatin profiling of these proteins. In this study, we created and tested a Dam Identification (DamID) system induced by Cre recombinase using Lamin B1 and mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738691/agonistic-and-antagonistic-effects-of-progesterone-derivatives-on-the-transcriptional-activity-of-nuclear-progesterone-receptor-b-in-yeast-model-system
#4
A O Michurina, A V Polikarpova, I S Levina, L E Kulikova, I V Zavarzin, A A Guseva, I A Morozov, P M Rubtsov, O V Smirnova, T A Shchelkunova
Identification of progesterone selective agonists and antagonists that act through one of the nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms is of particular importance for the development of tissue-specific drugs in gynecology and anticancer therapy. Fourteen pregna-D'6 - and pregna-D'3 -pentarane progesterone derivatives with 16α,17α-cycloalkane groups and two progesterone 3-deoxyderivatives were examined for their ability to regulate transcriptional activity of human nuclear progesterone receptor isoform B (nPR-B) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738690/recombinant-production-reconstruction-in-lipid-protein-nanodiscs-and-electron-microscopy-of-full-length-%C3%AE-subunit-of-human-potassium-channel-kv7-1
#5
Z O Shenkarev, M G Karlova, D S Kulbatskii, M P Kirpichnikov, E N Lyukmanova, O S Sokolova
Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.1 plays an important role in the excitability of cardiac muscle. The α-subunit of Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) is the main structural element of this channel. Tetramerization of KCNQ1 in the membrane results in formation of an ion channel, which comprises a pore and four voltage-sensing domains. Mutations in the human KCNQ1 gene are one of the major causes of inherited arrhythmias, long QT syndrome in particular. The construct encoding full-length human KCNQ1 protein was synthesized in this work, and an expression system in the Pichia pastoris yeast cells was developed...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738689/new-data-on-effects-of-skq1-and-skqt1-on-rat-liver-mitochondria-and-yeast-cells
#6
A G Rogov, T N Goleva, T A Trendeleva, A P Ovchenkova, D A Aliverdieva, R A Zvyagilskaya
Mitochondria are involved in many processes in eukaryotic cells. They play a central role in energy conservation and participate in cell metabolism and signaling pathways. Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species, excessive generation of which provokes numerous pathologies and cell death. One of the most promising approaches to the attenuation of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the use of targeted (i.e., transported exclusively into mitochondria) lipophilic cationic antioxidants. These compounds offer advantages over conventional water-soluble antioxidants because they induce the so-called "mild uncoupling" and can prevent collapse of the membrane potential in low, nontoxic concentrations...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738688/regulated-gene-expression-as-a-tool-for-analysis-of-heterochromatin-position-effect-in-drosophila
#7
A S Shatskikh, O M Olenkina, A A Solodovnikov, S A Lavrov
Position effect variegation (PEV) is a perturbation of genes expression resulting from the changes in their chromatin organization due to the abnormal juxtaposition with heterochromatin. The exact molecular mechanisms of PEV remain enigmatic in spite of the long history of PEV studies. Here, we developed a genetic model consisting of PEV-inducing chromosome rearrangement and a reporter gene under control of the UAS regulatory element. Expression of the reporter gene could be regulated by adjustment of the GAL4 transactivator activity...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738687/o-antigens-of-escherichia-coli-strains-o81-and-hs3-104-are-structurally-and-genetically-related-except-o-antigen-glucosylation-in-e-coli-hs3-104
#8
E L Zdorovenko, Y Wang, A S Shashkov, T Chen, O G Ovchinnikova, B Liu, A K Golomidova, V V Babenko, A V Letarov, Y A Knirel
Glycerophosphate-containing O-specific polysaccharides (OPSs) were obtained by mild acidic degradation of lipopolysaccharides isolated from Escherichia coli type strain O81 and E. coli strain HS3-104 from horse feces. The structures of both OPSs and of the oligosaccharide derived from the strain O81 OPS by treatment with 48% HF were studied by monosaccharide analysis and one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Both OPSs had similar structures and differed only in the presence of a side-chain glucose residue in the strain HS3-104 OPS...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738686/the-effect-of-experimental-hyperthyroidism-on-characteristics-of-actin-myosin-interaction-in-fast-and-slow-skeletal-muscles
#9
G V Kopylova, D V Shchepkin, S Y Bershitsky
The molecular mechanism of the failure of contractile function of skeletal muscles caused by oxidative damage to myosin in hyperthyroidism is not fully understood. Using an in vitro motility assay, we studied the effect of myosin damage caused by oxidative stress in experimental hyperthyroidism on the actin-myosin interaction and its regulation by calcium. We found that hyperthyroidism-induced oxidation of myosin is accompanied by a decrease in the sliding velocity of the regulated thin filaments in the in vitro motility assay, and this effect is increased with the duration of the pathological process...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738685/blood-derived-rna-and-microrna-hydrolyzing-igg-antibodies-in-schizophrenia-patients
#10
E A Ermakov, S A Ivanova, V N Buneva, G A Nevinsky
Abzymes with various catalytic activities are the earliest statistically significant markers of existing and developing autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Currently, schizophrenia (SCZD) is not considered to be a typical AID. It was demonstrated recently that antibodies from SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze DNA and myelin basic protein. Here, we showed for the first time that autoantibodies from 35 SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze RNA (cCMP > poly(C) > poly(A) > yeast RNA) and analyzed site-specific hydrolysis of microRNAs involved in the regulation of several genes in SCZD (miR-137, miR-9-5p, miR-219-2-3p, and miR-219a-5p)...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738684/interleukin-4-restores-insulin-sensitivity-in-lipid-induced-insulin-resistant-adipocytes
#11
I S Stafeev, S S Michurina, N V Podkuychenko, A V Vorotnikov, M Yu Menshikov, Ye V Parfyonova
Obesity and latent inflammation in adipose tissue significantly contribute to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Here we studied whether the antiinflammatory interleukin-4 (IL-4) can restore insulin sensitivity in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The activity of key components of the insulin signaling cascade was assessed by immunoblotting using phospho-specific antibodies to insulin receptor substrate IRS1 (Tyr612), Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), and AS160 (Ser318) protein that regulates translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738683/argonaute-proteins-and-mechanisms-of-rna-interference-in-eukaryotes-and-prokaryotes
#12
REVIEW
A V Olina, A V Kulbachinskiy, A A Aravin, D M Esyunina
Noncoding RNAs play essential roles in genetic regulation in all organisms. In eukaryotic cells, many small noncoding RNAs act in complex with Argonaute proteins and regulate gene expression by recognizing complementary RNA targets. The complexes of Argonaute proteins with small RNAs also play a key role in silencing of mobile genetic elements and, in some cases, viruses. These processes are collectively called RNA interference. RNA interference is a powerful tool for specific gene silencing in both basic research and therapeutic applications...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738682/spatial-structure-of-glycogen-molecules-in-cells
#13
REVIEW
N N Bezborodkina, A Yu Chestnova, M L Vorobev, B N Kudryavtsev
Glycogen is a strongly branched polymer of α-D-glucose, with glucose residues in the linear chains linked by 1→4-bonds (~93% of the total number of bonds) and with branching after every 4-8 residues formed by 1→6-glycosidic bonds (~7% of the total number of bonds). It is thought currently that a fully formed glycogen molecule (β-particle) with the self-glycosylating protein glycogenin in the center has a spherical shape with diameter of ~42 nm and contains ~ 55,000 glucose residues. The glycogen molecule also includes numerous proteins involved in its synthesis and degradation, as well as proteins performing a carcass function...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626931/who-needs-this-junk-or-genomic-dark-matter
#14
REVIEW
O I Podgornaya, D I Ostromyshenskii, N I Enukashvily
Centromeres (CEN), pericentromeric regions (periCEN), and subtelomeric regions (subTel) comprise the areas of constitutive heterochromatin (HChr). Tandem repeats (TRs or satellite DNA) are the main components of HChr forming no less than 10% of the mouse and human genome. HChr is assembled within distinct structures in the interphase nuclei of many species - chromocenters. In this review, the main classes of HChr repeat sequences are considered in the order of their number increase in the sequencing reads of the mouse chromocenters (ChrmC)...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626930/link-between-double-strand-dna-break-hotspots-and-transcription-regulation-forum-domains-50-250-kb-chromosome-regions-containing-coordinately-expressed-genes
#15
REVIEW
N A Tchurikov, Y V Kravatsky, O V Kretova
The data on forum domains formed by DNA double-strand break (DSB) hotspots are reviewed including forum domain identification by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, whole genome mapping of these domains using deep sequencing strategies, analysis of gene expression in forum domains, and binding of nuclear proteins to their boundaries. Earlier unpublished data by the authors are presented. The "piano playing" hypothesis is suggested based on coordinated active transcription in some of the forum domains and coordinated silencing in the majority of them...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626929/structure-and-functions-of-the-mediator-complex
#16
REVIEW
E V Putlyaev, A N Ibragimov, L A Lebedeva, P G Georgiev, Y V Shidlovskii
Mediator is a key factor in the regulation of expression of RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. Recent studies have shown that Mediator acts as a coordinator of transcription activation and participates in maintaining chromatin architecture in the cell nucleus. In this review, we present current concepts on the structure and functions of Mediator.
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626928/protein-protein-interactions-in-dna-base-excision-repair
#17
REVIEW
N A Moor, O I Lavrik
The system of base excision repair (BER) ensures correction of the most abundant DNA damages in mammalian cells and plays an important role in maintaining genome stability. Enzymes and protein factors participate in the multistage BER in a coordinated fashion, which ensures repair efficiency. The suggested coordination mechanisms are based on formation of protein complexes stabilized via either direct or indirect DNA-mediated interactions. The results of investigation of direct interactions of the proteins participating in BER with each other and with other proteins are outlined in this review...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626927/effect-of-environmental-factors-on-nuclear-organization-and-transformation-of-human-b-lymphocytes
#18
REVIEW
F B Sall, D Germini, A P Kovina, V Ribrag, J Wiels, A O Toure, O V Iarovaia, M Lipinski, Y Vassetzky
Chromosomal translocations have long been known for their association with malignant transformation, particularly in hematopoietic disorders such as B-cell lymphomas. In addition to the physiological process of maturation, which creates double strand breaks in immunoglobulin gene loci, environmental factors including the Epstein-Barr and human immunodeficiency viruses, malaria-causing parasites (Plasmodium falciparum), and plant components (Euphorbia tirucalli latex) can trigger a reorganization of the nuclear architecture and DNA damage that together will facilitate the occurrence of deleterious chromosomal rearrangements...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626926/interpreting-chromosomal-rearrangements-in-the-context-of-3-dimentional-genome-organization-a-practical-guide-for-medical-genetics
#19
REVIEW
V S Fishman, P A Salnikov, N R Battulin
In this exciting era of "next-gen cytogenetics", the use of novel molecular methods such as comparative genome hybridization and whole genome and whole exome sequencing becomes more and more common in clinics. This results in generation of large amounts of high-resolution patient-specific data and challenges the development of new approaches for interpretation of obtained information. Usually, interpretation of chromosomal rearrangements is focused on alterations of linear genome sequence, underestimating the role of spatial chromatin organization...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626925/genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-globin-gene-switching
#20
REVIEW
O V Iarovaia, A P Kovina, N V Petrova, S V Razin, E S Ioudinkova, Y S Vassetzky, S V Ulianov
Vertebrates have multiple forms of hemoglobin that differ in the composition of their polypeptide chains. During ontogenesis, the composition of these subunits changes. Genes encoding different α- and β-polypeptide chains are located in two multigene clusters on different chromosomes. Each cluster contains several genes that are expressed at different stages of ontogenesis. The phenomenon of stage-specific transcription of globin genes is referred to as globin gene switching. Mechanisms of expression switching, stage-specific activation, and repression of transcription of α- and β-globin genes are of interest from both theoretical and practical points of view...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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