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Quarterly Review of Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562121/competition-for-vitamin-b1-thiamin-structures-numerous-ecological-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Clifford E Kraft, Esther R Angert
Thiamin (vitamin B1) is a cofactor required for essential biochemical reactions in all living organisms, yet free thiamin is scarce in the environment. The diversity of biochemical pathways involved in the acquisition, degradation, and synthesis of thiamin indicates that organisms have evolved numerous ecological strategies for meeting this nutritional requirement. In this review we synthesize information from multiple disciplines to show how the complex biochemistry of thiamin influences ecological outcomes of interactions between organisms in environments ranging from the open ocean and the Australian outback to the gastrointestinal tract of animals...
June 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562120/new-weapons-in-the-toad-toolkit-a-review-of-methods-to-control-and-mitigate-the-biodiversity-impacts-of-invasive-cane-toads-rhinella-marina
#2
Reid Tingley, Georgia Ward-Fear, Lin Schwarzkopf, Matthew J Greenlees, Benjamin L Phillips, Gregory Brown, Simon Clulow, Jonathan Webb, Robert Capon, Andy Sheppard, Tanja Strive, Mark Tizard, Richard Shine
Our best hope of developing innovative methods to combat invasive species is likely to come from the study of high-profile invaders that have attracted intensive research not only into control, but also basic biology. Here we illustrate that point by reviewing current thinking about novel ways to control one of the world’s most well-studied invasions: that of the cane toad in Australia. Recently developed methods for population suppression include more effective traps based on the toad’s acoustic and pheromonal biology...
June 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558609/the-role-of-brood-in-eusocial-hymenoptera
#3
Eva Schultner, Jan Oettler, Heikki Helanterä
Study of social traits in offspring traditionally reflects on interactions in simple family groups, with famous examples including parent-offspring conflict and sibling rivalry in birds and mammals. In contrast, studies of complex social groups such as the societies of ants, bees, and wasps focus mainly on adults and, in particular, on traits and interests of queens and workers. The social role of developing individuals in complex societies remains poorly understood. We attempt to fill this gap by illustrating that development in social Hymenoptera constitutes a crucial life stage with important consequences for the individual as well as the colony...
March 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558608/polydactyly-in-development-inheritance-and-evolution
#4
Axel Lange, Gerd B Müller
The occurrence of supernumerary digits or toes in humans and other tetrapods has attracted general interest since antiquity and later influenced scientific theories of development, inheritance, and evolution. Seventeenth-century genealogical studies of polydactyly were at the beginning of an understanding of the rules of inheritance. Features of polydactyly were also part of the classical disputes on the nature of development, including the preformation-versus-epigenesis and the atavism-versus-malformation debates...
March 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562119/landscape-demography-population-change-and-its-drivers-across-spatial-scales
#5
Jessica Gurevitch, Gordon A Fox, Norma L Fowler, Catherine H Graham
Demographic studies of plants and animals have a rich history and literature in ecology, and are important for both fundamental and applied ecology and conservation biology. Almost all demographic work has focused on intensive studies in which births, deaths, growth of individuals, and related measures are quantified in a single population or a few populations. This has been for practical reasons due to the high demands of labor required for this work, and because the questions addressed in these studies have been asked at the level of individual populations, with implicit assumptions about generalizing from the results...
December 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562118/reverse-engineering-the-febrile-system
#6
Alexander M Shepard, Aadil Bharwani, Zachary Durisko, Paul W Andrews
Fever, the elevation of core body temperature by behavioral or physiological means, is one of the most salient aspects of human sickness, yet there is debate regarding its functional role. In this paper, we demonstrate that the febrile system is an evolved adaptation shaped by natural selection to coordinate the immune system to fight pathogens. First, we show that previous arguments in favor of fever being an adaptation are epistemologically inadequate, and we describe how an adaptationist strategy addresses this issue more effectively...
December 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562117/patterns-and-processes-in-nocturnal-and-crepuscular-pollination-services
#7
Renee M Borges, Hema Somanathan, Almut Kelber
Night, dawn, and dusk have abiotic features that differ from the day. Illumination, wind speeds, turbulence, and temperatures are lower while humidity may be higher at night. Nocturnal pollination occurred in 30% of angiosperm families across 68% of orders, 97% of families with C3, two-thirds of families with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), and 71% dicot families with C4 photosynthesis. Despite its widespread occurence, nocturnal pollination occurs in more families with xerophytic adaptations than helophytes or mesophytes, suggesting that nocturnal flowering is primarily an adaptation to water stress since flowering is a water-intensive process...
December 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558615/from-the-neutral-theory-to-a-comprehensive-and-multiscale-theory-of-ecological-equivalence
#8
François Munoz, Philippe Huneman
The neutral theory of biodiversity assumes that coexisting organisms are equally able to survive, reproduce, and disperse (ecological equivalence), but predicts that stochastic fluctuations of these abilities drive diversity dynamics. It predicts remarkably well many biodiversity patterns, although substantial evidence for the role of niche variation across organisms seems contradictory. Here, we discuss this apparent paradox by exploring the meaning and implications of ecological equivalence. We address the question whether neutral theory provides an explanation for biodiversity patterns and acknowledges causal processes...
September 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558614/evolution-of-sex-biased-dispersal
#9
Audrey Trochet, Elodie A Courtois, Virginie M Stevens, Michel Baguette, Alexis Chaine, Dirk S Schmeller, Jean Clobert
Dispersal is central in ecology and evolution because it influences population regulation, adaptation, and speciation. In many species, dispersal is different between genders, leading to sex-biased dispersal. Several theoretical hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of this bias: the resource competition hypothesis proposed by Greenwood, the local mate competition hypothesis, and the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis. Those hypotheses argued that the mating system should be the major factor explaining the direction of such bias...
September 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558613/four-commentaries-on-the-pope%C3%A2-s-message-on-climate-change-and-income-inequality-iv-pope-francis%C3%A2-encyclical-letter-laudato-si%C3%A2-global-environmental-risks-and-the-future-of-humanity
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558612/four-commentaries-on-the-pope%C3%A2-s-message-on-climate-change-and-income-inequality-iii-earth-stewardship-and-laudato-si%C3%A2
#11
Calvin B DeWitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558611/four-commentaries-on-the-pope%C3%A2-s-message-on-climate-change-and-income-inequality-ii-integrating-ecology-and-justice-the-papal-encyclical
#12
Mary Evelyn Tucker, John Grim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558610/four-commentaries-on-the-pope%C3%A2-s-message-on-climate-change-and-income-inequality-i-our-world-and-pope-francis%C3%A2-encyclical-laudato-si%C3%A2
#13
Peter H Raven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405223/do-symptoms-of-illness-serve-signaling-functions-hint-yes
#14
REVIEW
Leonid Tiokhin
Symptoms of illness provide information about an organism's underlying state. This notion has inspired a burgeoning body of research on organisms' adaptations for detecting and changing behavior toward ill individuals. However, little attention has been paid to a likely outcome of these dynamics. Once an organism's fitness is affected by others' responses to symptoms of illness, natural selection can favor individuals who alter symptom expression to influence the behavior of others. That is, many symptoms may originate as cues, but will evolve into signals...
June 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405222/resilience-to-droughts-in-mammals-a-conceptual-framework-for-estimating-vulnerability-of-a-single-species
#15
REVIEW
Tasmin L Rymer, Neville Pillay, Carsten Schradin
ABSTRACT The frequency and severity of droughts in certain areas is increasing as a consequence of climate change. The associated environmental challenges, including high temperatures, low food, and water availability, have affected, and will affect, many populations. Our aims are to review the behavioral, physiological, and morphological adaptations of mammals to arid environments, and to aid research- ers and nature conservationists about which traits they should study to assess whether or not their study species will be able to cope with droughts...
June 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405221/yes-there-are-resilient-generalizations-or-laws-in-ecology
#16
REVIEW
Stefan Linquist, T Ryan Gregory, Tyler A Elliott, Brent Saylor, Stefan C Kremer, Karl Cottenie
ABSTRACT It is often argued that ecological communities admit of no useful generalizations or "laws" because these systems are especially prone to contingent historical events. Detractors respond that this argument assumes an overly stringent definition of laws of nature. Under a more relaxed conception, it is argued that ecological laws emerge at the level of communities and elsewhere. A brief review of this debate reveals an issue with deep philosophical roots that is unlikely to be resolved by a better understanding of generalizations in ecology...
June 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192779/how-mate-availability-influences-filial-cannibalism
#17
REVIEW
Nicholas D S Deal, Bob B M Wong
Parents sometimes eat their young to reduce the consequences of brood overcrowding, for nutritional gain, and/or to redirect investment toward future reproduction. It has been predicted that filial cannibalism should be more prevalent when mate availability is high as parents can more easily replace consumed young. Reviewing the available evidence--which comes almost exclusively from studies of paternal caring fish--we find support in some species, but not others. To explain this, we hypothesize that sexual selection against filial cannibalism and/or the tendency to acquire larger broods under conditions of high mate availability discourages filial cannibalism...
March 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192778/insurmountable-heat-the-evolution-and-persistence-of-defensive-hyperthermia
#18
REVIEW
Edward Clint, Daniel M T Fessler
Fever, the rise in body temperature set point in response to infection or injury, is a highly conserved trait among vertebrates, and documented in many arthropods. Fever is known to reduce illness duration and mortality. These observations present an evolutionary puzzle: why has fever continued to be an effective response to fast-evolving pathogenic microbes across diverse phyla, and probably over countless millions of years? Framing fever as part of a more general thermal manipulation strategy that we term defensive hyperthermia, we hypothesize that the solution lies in the independent contributions to pathogen fitness played by virulence and infectivity...
March 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192777/collective-vortex-behaviors-diversity-proximate-and-ultimate-causes-of-circular-animal-group-movements
#19
REVIEW
Johann Delcourt, Nikolai W F Bode, Mathieu Denoël
Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These "collective vortex behaviors" occur at different group sizes from pairs to several million individuals and have been reported in a large number of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, including humans. However, to date, no comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on vortex behaviors has been conducted...
March 2016: Quarterly Review of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714351/the-genetics-of-epigenetic-inheritance-modes-molecules-and-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Sabine Schaefer, Joseph H Nadeau
Organisms adapt developmental and physiological features to local and transient conditions in part by modulating transcription, translation, and protein functions, usually without changing DNA sequences. Remarkably, these epigenetic changes sometimes endure through meiosis and gametogenesis, thereby affecting phenotypic variation across generations, long after epigenetic changes were triggered. Transgenerational effects challenge our traditional understanding of inheritance. In this review, we focus on patterns of inheritance, molecular features, mechanisms that lead from environmental and genetic perturbations to phenotypic variation in later generations, and issues about study design and replication...
December 2015: Quarterly Review of Biology
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