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Public Health

N J Fox, P Alldred
OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews the sociology of environment and health and makes the case for a postanthropocentric approach based on new materialist theory. This perspective fully incorporates humans and their health into 'the environment', and in place of human-centred concerns considers the forces that constrain or enhance environmental capacities. STUDY DESIGN: This is not an empirical study. The paper uses a hypothetical vignette concerning child health and air pollution to explore the new materialist model advocated in the paper...
October 22, 2016: Public Health
S MacBride-Stewart, Y Gong, J Antell
OBJECTIVES: Public health has recognized that nature is good for health but there are calls for a review of its gendered aspects. This review attempts to develop and explore a broad analytical theme - the differing interconnections between gender, health and nature. The paper summarizes the interconnections that have been subject to extensive academic enquiry between gender and health, health and space, and gender and space. METHODS: A combination of key terms including place; gender; health; outdoor space; green space; natural environment; national parks; femininity; masculinity; recreation; physical activity; sustainability; ecofeminism; feminism; environmental degradation; and environmental justice were used to search the electronic databases Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and Scopus to identify relevant articles...
October 20, 2016: Public Health
J L Ang, M Y Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Public Health
A Rosi, M Dall'Asta, F Brighenti, D Del Rio, E Volta, I Baroni, M Nalin, M Coti Zelati, A Sanna, F Scazzina
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was evaluating if the presence of a humanoid robot could improve the efficacy of a game-based, nutritional education intervention. STUDY DESIGN: This was a controlled, school-based pilot intervention carried out on fourth-grade school children (8-10 years old). A total of 112 children underwent a game-based nutritional educational lesson on the importance of carbohydrates. For one group (n = 58), the lesson was carried out by a nutritional educator, the Master of Taste (MT), whereas for another group, (n = 54) the Master of Taste was supported by a humanoid robot (MT + NAO)...
October 15, 2016: Public Health
J Crowley, L Ball, C Wall
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is recognized as a strong factor influencing the health outcomes of patients with chronic disease. General practitioners (GPs) require nutrition knowledge and skills to support patients to have healthy dietary behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To investigate New Zealand GP registrars' provision of nutrition advice using patient scenarios. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design targeted GP registrars to investigate the nutrition care they provided to patients...
October 13, 2016: Public Health
R Perlstein, S McCoombe, C Shaw, C Nowson
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. RESULTS: A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire...
October 13, 2016: Public Health
C Laur, L Ball, A S Ahankari, M Avdagovska, J Crowley, D Deen, P Douglas, L Hark, M Kohlmeier, L Luzi, L McCotter, K Martyn, C Nowson, C Wall, S Ray
Medical Nutrition Education (MNE) has been identified as an area with potential public health impact. Despite countries having distinctive education systems, barriers and facilitators to effective MNE are consistent across borders, demanding a common platform to initiate global programmes. A shared approach to supporting greater MNE is ideal to support countries to work together. In an effort to initiate this process, the Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme group, in association with their strategic partners, hosted the inaugural International Summit on Medical Nutrition Education and Research on August 8, 2015 in Cambridge, UK...
October 7, 2016: Public Health
F Phillips, C H S Ruxton
This paper presents a report of a nutrition conference held at EXPO 2015 in Milan. Over the course of a day, seven speakers from four continents discussed the evidence and scientific processes that underpin the development of dietary guidelines, highlighting issues and challenges at each stage. These include the quality of studies associating disease outcomes with diet, specifically a reliance on observational studies, short duration of intervention trials, low statistical power and lack of follow-up. Concerns were raised over the oversimplification of dietary messages which promote carbohydrates in general without evidence of benefit, while restricting fats when meta-analyses suggests that different fatty acids have different effects on disease risk...
October 6, 2016: Public Health
C Laur, L Ball, J Crowley, H Bell, J Maddock, S Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Public Health
K Barnes, L Ball, B Desbrow
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the intention of fitness businesses to promote the provision of nutrition care from personal trainers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of webpage content. METHODS: Fitness businesses within two Australian federal electorates were identified using the Fitness Australia list of registered fitness businesses. Inductive content analysis of these fitness business websites and associated social media sites was undertaken to compare website content to the Fitness Australia Position Statement outlining the Roles and Responsibilities of Registered Fitness Professionals...
September 30, 2016: Public Health
J Crowley, S O'Connell, A Kavka, L Ball, C A Nowson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic disease is considerable, and dietary behaviours influence the progression of many chronic diseases. Practice guidelines recommend that general practitioners (GPs) promote healthy dietary behaviours in relevant consultations with patients in order to improve health outcomes at a population level. OBJECTIVE: To describe GPs' perceived interest, confidence and barriers to support patients to have a healthy diet. METHOD: A 24-item online and written survey was distributed in a national weekly newsletter to GPs in Australia...
September 28, 2016: Public Health
K Barnes, B Desbrow, L Ball
OBJECTIVE: To measure the self-perceived competence of Australian personal trainers in providing nutrition care. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. METHODS: A validated survey was used to measure confidence in the ability to provide nutrition care among a snowball sample of 142 Australian-based personal trainers. The survey used 5-point Likert scale statements across four nutrition related constructs: knowledge; skills; communication and counselling; and attitudes...
September 27, 2016: Public Health
I Ba, R S Bhopal
OBJECTIVES: To identify the health outcomes of sexual violence on civilians in conflict zones between 1981 and 2014. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: For the purpose of this study, we defined sexual violence as sexual torture including, individual rape, gang rape, and sexual slavery. All types of conflicts were included (intrastate, interstate, and internationalized intrastate). Quantitative and mixed-method studies, reporting any physical, mental, and social consequences, were retrieved from Medline, Embase, Global Health, Global Health Library, WHOLIS, Popline, and Web of Sciences (n = 3075) and from checking reference lists and personal communications (n = 359)...
September 9, 2016: Public Health
N N Ambadekar, S P Zodpey
OBJECTIVES: The present study was planned to identify some of the risk factors of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in under-five children in a rural part of India. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: The study was carried out in rural areas of Yavatmal district. A total of 737 cases (under-five SAM children) and an equal number of normal controls were included in the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis using a hierarchical model...
September 6, 2016: Public Health
Y Joo
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern and spatial diffusion of elderly suicide by age cohort, in Korea. STUDY DESIGN: The research investigated the elderly suicide rates of the 232 municipal units in South Korea between 2001 and 2011. METHODS: The Gi* score, which is a spatially weighted indicator of area attributes, was used to identify hot spots and the spatiotemporal pattern of elderly suicide in the nation during the last 10 years...
September 6, 2016: Public Health
T Rebmann, C R Baskin, T M Loux, M Wakefield
OBJECTIVES: Study objectives were to assess parents' and childcare agency staff's uptake of and attitudes/beliefs related to hepatitis A vaccine. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Questionnaires were administered to parents and staff in 23 St. Louis childcare agencies between September and December 2014. Categorical data were compared using Chi-squared test. Multivariate logistic regression, stratified by staff vs parents, was used to find predictors of hepatitis A vaccine uptake...
September 5, 2016: Public Health
S Bazzo, D Black, K Mitchell, F Marini, G Moino, P Riscica, G Fattori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2016: Public Health
H R Han, J E Lee, K Kim, Y Chung, M T Kim, C Robinson, M Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Public Health
A S Ahankari, P R Myles, A W Fogarty, J V Dixit, L J Tata
OBJECTIVE: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional disorder observed in adolescent girls in India. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with IDA in rural Maharashtra, India, to address current evidence gaps. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The study recruited 13- to 17-year-old adolescent girls living in 34 villages of Osmanabad district. Data were collected on individual health, dietary, sociodemographic factors, and anthropometric measurements were taken...
August 31, 2016: Public Health
Amy M Burdette, Noah S Webb, Terrence D Hill, Hanna Jokinen-Gordon
OBJECTIVES: Although racial and ethnic differences in HPV vaccination initiation are well established, it is unclear whether these disparities have changed over time. The role of health provider recommendations in reducing any racial and ethnic inequalities is also uncertain. This study addresses these gaps in the literature. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional design. METHODS: Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013), we estimated a series of binary logistic regressions to model race-specific trends in (1) provider recommendations to vaccinate against HPV and (2) HPV vaccine initiation for males (n = 56,632) and females (n = 77,389)...
August 31, 2016: Public Health
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