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Public Health

M Rahman, M N Haque, M M Rahman, M G Mostofa, M S Zahan, S M Mahmudul Hasan, M D Huda, M K Ahmed, H M Miraz Mahmud
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine socio-economic disparities in mother-child pairs' self-reported and cotinine-measured secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh from May to July 2017. A total of 541 mother-child pairs were interviewed for self-reported measured SHS; cotinine-measured saliva test was performed on 263 mothers and 236 children...
July 12, 2018: Public Health
I Pérez-Urdiales, M San Sebastián, I Goicolea
OBJECTIVES: Policies restricting healthcare access for immigrants were applied in times of reduced public funding for welfare in Spain. This study aimed to assess the impact of the implementation of a more restrictive health policy in the Basque Country region, Decree 114/2012, on the number of consultations attended at a free clinic, where the majority of patients are undocumented immigrants. STUDY DESIGN: Interrupted time series. METHODS: A negative binomial regression model was applied in two phases to the number of healthcare consultations during the period 2007-2017 (n = 9272) to estimate the level and trend changes associated with the implementation of the policy...
July 12, 2018: Public Health
R Thompson, R Hornigold, L Page, T Waite
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the mental health effects of high ambient temperatures and heat waves, determine whether heat-related morbidity and mortality are increased among people with known mental disorders and identify knowledge gaps to inform targeting of future research. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. METHODS: A systematic review of published literature using MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO without geographical or temporal limits was conducted...
July 11, 2018: Public Health
Anna Maisa, Sarah Milligan, Alison Quinn, Denise Boulter, Jillian Johnston, Charlene Treanor, Declan T Bradley
OBJECTIVES: Influenza and pertussis vaccination programmes have been in place for pregnant women in the UK since 2009 and 2012, respectively. In 2015, vaccine uptake rates were 55% for influenza and 63% for pertussis in Northern Ireland. We conducted a qualitative study with the aim of learning about the views of pregnant women and identifying potential barriers to vaccination in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups and in-depth interviews...
July 11, 2018: Public Health
C A Dávila-Cervantes, A M Pardo-Montaño
OBJECTIVES: Colombia is considered one of the most violent countries in the world even though homicide mortality has decreased since 2002. Mexico's homicide rate has tripled since 2008, after a period of decreasing mortality; this fact has been compared with Colombia in the 1990s and defined as a 'Colombianization' of violence in Mexico. We analyzed and compared the trend and impact of homicide mortality in Colombia and Mexico between 1998 and 2015. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study...
July 10, 2018: Public Health
Charalambos Hadjigeorgiou, Antonia Solea, Sara Estecha Querol, Anna Keski-Rahkonen, Nathalie Michels, Paola Russo, Barbara Franziska Thumann, Valeria Pala, Unna Danner
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate disordered eating behaviours (DEBs) in different age groups in a Cypriot non-clinical population sample. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional study. METHOD: A total of 1716 participants from the Cyprus component of the I.Family study completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26). The EAT-26 score ≥20 was used to define participants at risk for DEBs. Participants were divided according to age: adolescence (12-18 years old), young adulthood (25-45 years old) and middle adulthood (46-60 years old)...
July 9, 2018: Public Health
J L Y Yip, S Kapadia, A Ahmed, S Millership
OBJECTIVES: To examine the differences in outcomes related to variable provision of antivirals in care home respiratory outbreaks. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective observational study. METHODS: Routinely collected outbreak surveillance data reported from care home staff was recorded using a standard template and extracted from the Public Health England health protection electronic records. Data included numbers of people affected, provision of oseltamivir, hospitalization, and deaths during the outbreak in the care home...
July 7, 2018: Public Health
N Ismail, N de Viggiani
OBJECTIVES: In the two decades that have passed since the World Health Organisation established the Healthy Prisons Agenda, there has been no research conducted to investigate barriers and challenges prison managerial and operational staff encounter in implementing the Agenda in the English prison context. This article debates sectoral, institutional and occupational challenges perceived to hinder effective implementation of the Agenda, based on a qualitative study involving prison governors and operational staff...
July 7, 2018: Public Health
Wen-Ting Cao, Rui Li, Ju-Ying Ying, Xiao-Li Chi, Xiao-Dong Yu
OBJECTIVES: Gonorrhea remains a major public health concern worldwide. This study aims to explore the spatiotemporal distribution and sociodemographic determinants of gonorrhea rates during 2004-2014 in mainland China. STUDY DESIGN: Space-time scan statistics and spatial panel regression model. METHODS: The gonorrhea infection data and sociodemographic data during 2004-2014 at the provincial level in mainland China were extracted from the China Public Health Science Data Center and China Statistical Yearbooks, respectively...
July 6, 2018: Public Health
M Horne, S Tierney, S Henderson, A Wearden, D A Skelton
OBJECTIVES: To identify interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA) levels among South Asian (SA) adults and identify the specific changes in the content and delivery mode of interventions designed to increase PA levels among SA people aged ≥18 years. DESIGN: A systematic review of quantitative studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Extracted data were synthesized using a narrative approach. DATA SOURCES: ASSIA, CINHAL, EMBASE, Medline, SPORTDiscus and PsychINFO were searched...
July 6, 2018: Public Health
Q Wu, T Ge, A Emond, K Foster, J M Gatt, K Hadfield, A J Mason-Jones, S Reid, L Theron, M Ungar, T A Wouldes
OBJECTIVES: Using data from an international collaborative research project on youth resilience in the context of migration, this study aims to investigate how different acculturation patterns (i.e. integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) influence the mental health of migrant youth, and whether resilience might function as a mediator in the association between acculturation and mental health. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional pilot study conducted in six countries employing a common survey questionnaire...
July 2, 2018: Public Health
G A Kennedy, K M Klein, P K Keel
OBJECTIVES: Public health initiatives to increase parental awareness about children's obesity have become more prominent in the past decade. These initiatives may contribute to increased concern in parents for their children's weight, even if their children are at a healthy weight. The aim of the present study was to document trends in parental (N = 365; 67.9% female) concern for their children's weight from 2002 to 2012 using surveys on health and eating behaviors. STUDY DESIGN: Participants (N = 365) were parents who completed surveys in 2002 and were followed up in 2012 as part of a longitudinal epidemiological study of eating attitudes and behavior...
June 30, 2018: Public Health
C Schafferer, C-Y Yeh, S-H Chen, J-M Lee, C-J Hsieh
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of a simulated 10% tax-induced cigarette price increase on licit and illicit consumption and tax revenues in 36 European countries. METHODS: Employing panel data for licit and illicit cigarette consumption, fixed effects regression models were applied for different income clusters. RESULTS: Total cigarette consumption dropped by about 3.1% as a result of the simulated tax-induced price increase. Annual illicit cigarette consumption increased by 1...
June 28, 2018: Public Health
Perry E Sheffield, M Teresa Herrera, Ellen J Kinnee, Jane E Clougherty
OBJECTIVES: High ambient temperatures are associated with significant health risk in the United States. The risk to children has been minimally explored, and often young children are considered as a single age group despite marked physiologic and social variation among this population from infancy through preschool. This study explored the heterogeneity of risk of heat among young children. STUDY DESIGN: Using a time-stratified, case-crossover design, we evaluated associations between maximum daily temperature (Tmax) and ED visits (n = 1,002,951) to New York City (NYC) metropolitan area hospitals for children aged 0-4 years in May-September, 2005-2011...
June 27, 2018: Public Health
M Ben Khelil, A Zgarni, M Bellali, W Thaljaoui, M Zhioua, M Hamdoun
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the victims profile related to death among homeless people. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive, retrospective, and cross-sectional study. METHODS: We included all deaths among homeless people that occurred during a 10-year period (2005-2014) that were autopsied in the Department of Legal Medicine of the Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis. Causes of death were classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision...
June 26, 2018: Public Health
L Pimenta, V G P Dutra, A L B de Castro, R M Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: To analyze trends in expansion of coverage of the family health strategy and hospitalization for conditions sensitive to primary care (CSPC) in a successful experience of primary healthcare expansion in Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study with data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. METHODS: CSPC were analyzed between 1998 and 2015 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by cause groups. Trends, variation, and correlation between indicators in the period were evaluated...
June 25, 2018: Public Health
A Bhimjiyani, J Neuburger, T Jones, Y Ben-Shlomo, C L Gregson
OBJECTIVES: Hip fracture risk varies by geography and by levels of deprivation. We examined the effect of local area-level deprivation on hip fracture incidence across nine regions in England, using 14 years of hospital data, to determine whether inequalities in hip fracture incidence rates vary across geographic regions in England. STUDY DESIGN: Sequential annual cross-sectional studies over 14 years. METHODS: We used English Hospital Episodes Statistics (2001/02-2014/15) to identify hip fractures in adults aged 50+ years and mid-year population estimates (2001-2014) from the Office for National Statistics...
June 23, 2018: Public Health
Emma Garnett, Juan Baeza, Susan Trenholm, Martin Gulliford, Judith Green
OBJECTIVES: To explore the contribution of social enterprises to publicly commissioned public health improvement and assess the risks and benefits of their role. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative case study of four south London boroughs. METHODS: Documentary research; in-depth interviews with 19 key informants. RESULTS: This study identified 24 social enterprises that were currently commissioned to contribute to public health improvement...
June 22, 2018: Public Health
S Nematollahi, E Ayubi, A Almasi-Hashiani, K Mansori, Y Moradi, Y Veisani, E Jenabi, B Gholamaliei, S Khazaei
OBJECTIVES: Determination of the true burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among high-risk groups relies heavily on occurrence measures such as prevalence, which are vital for implementation of preventive action plans. Nevertheless, up-to-date data on the prevalence of HCV infection remain scarce in Iran. This study aimed to review the relevant literature systematically and determine the pooled prevalence of HCV infection among high-risk groups in Iran. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review & meta-analysis...
June 20, 2018: Public Health
A Stevens, M E Gilder, P Moo, A Hashmi, S E T Toe, B B Doh, S Nosten, K Chotivanich, Shawn Somerset, Rose McGready
OBJECTIVES: Preconception folic acid (PFA) taken at least 3 months before conception can decrease the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) by approximately 46%. NTDs contribute significantly to neonatal morbidity and mortality in migrant and refugee populations on the Thailand-Myanmar border (incidence 1.57/1000 live births). This audit aimed to assess uptake of PFA among migrant and refugee women, evaluate knowledge about PFA among local healthcare workers and implement a participatory community intervention to increase PFA uptake and decrease NTD incidence in this population...
June 20, 2018: Public Health
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