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Public Health

S V Gentry, E F J Powers, N Azim, M Maidrag
OBJECTIVES: Voluntary befriending schemes operate in many countries, promoting public health by supporting vulnerable individuals and families. Use of third sector and voluntary services to complement health and social care provision is increasingly important globally in the context of economic and demographic challenges, but the evidence base around such collaborations is limited. This article reports the results of operational evaluation research seeking to use robust routine work to generate transferable findings for use by those commissioning and providing services...
May 21, 2018: Public Health
L Jing, Q Lu, Y Cui, H Yu, T Wang
OBJECTIVES: Recall bias, barrier effects, transmission error, and response bias affecting the network scale-up method (NSUM) led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the World Health Organization to designate NSUM as a developing method for estimating the size of high-risk populations in 2010. The method has subsequently been adjusted for three of these biases. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore the combination of the randomized response technique (RRT) and NSUM to adjust the last remaining bias...
May 18, 2018: Public Health
E S Hall, M Lee, E A DeFranco
OBJECTIVES: Although US-born Hispanics experience infant mortality rates (IMRs) which are lower than the national rate, within the Hispanic population, infants of Puerto Rican origin experience higher IMRs than other Hispanics. We aimed to describe the contribution of deaths among previable live-born infants to disparity in IMRs comparing Puerto Rican infants to infants of other Hispanic origins. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive analysis. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER online database representing linked US live births and infant deaths from 2005 to 2014...
May 18, 2018: Public Health
F de'Donato, M Scortichini, M De Sario, A de Martino, P Michelozzi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the article is to evaluate the temporal change in the effect of heat on mortality in Italy in the last 12 years after the introduction of the national heat plan. STUDY DESIGN: Time series analysis. METHODS: Distributed lag non-linear models were used to estimate the association between maximum apparent temperature and mortality in 23 Italian cities included in the national heat plan in four study periods (before the introduction of the heat plan and three periods after the plan was in place between 2005 and 2016)...
May 8, 2018: Public Health
S Abdin, R K Welch, J Byron-Daniel, J Meyrick
OBJECTIVES: Although the benefits of regular physical activity (PA) are widely accepted, most of the population fails to meet the recommended levels of activity. Public health bodies such as the World Health Organisation emphasise promoting PA within workplaces as a key intervention setting to reach the health and well-being of the working population. Given the importance of well-being in workplace settings, it seems worthwhile to explore the evidence of effectiveness in the literature...
May 8, 2018: Public Health
C Buunaaisie, A M Manyara, H Annett, E L Bird, I Bray, J Ige, M Jones, J Orme, P Pilkington, D Evans
OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the public health career experiences of international graduates of a Master of Science in Public Health (MSc PH) programme and to contribute to developing the evidence base on international public health workforce capacity development. STUDY DESIGN: A sequential mixed methods study was conducted between January 2017 and April 2017. METHODS: Ninety-seven international graduates of one UK university's MSc PH programme were invited to take part in an online survey followed by semistructured interviews, for respondents who consented to be interviewed...
May 8, 2018: Public Health
W Madsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Public Health
Hansoo Ko, Hwajun Kim, Chang-Gyo Yoon, Chang-Yup Kim
OBJECTIVES: Although community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been considered as an intermediate stage to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) in low-resource settings, there is a knowledge gap on ways to make it better. STUDY DESIGN: More than 4000 Nepalese households were randomly selected and surveyed. METHODS: Logistic and multivariate multinomial regressions were estimated. RESULTS: Overall, 88% of included household heads were willing to join CBHI, 61% were willing to pay annual premium less than 600 Nepalese rupees (US$5...
May 4, 2018: Public Health
H Vehof, J Sanders, A van Dooren, E Heerdink, E Das
OBJECTIVES: Researchers have discussed that journalistic reporting of medical developments is often characterised by exaggeration or lack of context, but additional quantitative evidence to support this claim is needed. This study introduces a quantitative approach to assessing coverage of medical innovations, by aiming at provided references to observed clinical effects. Although observed clinical effects reflect increased chances for future medical applications, it is unknown to which extent newspaper articles refer to it when spreading health information...
May 4, 2018: Public Health
J E Drehmer
OBJECTIVES: To examine the cross-sectional relationship between measures of countries' happiness and countries' prevalence of tobacco smoking. Since smoking prevalence differs widely based on sex in some countries and is similar in other countries, it was examined if there was a sex difference in the relationship between smoking prevalence and country-specific happiness ratings. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological study design. METHODS: Countries' age-standardized prevalence estimates of smoking any tobacco product among persons aged 15 years and older (%) for 2015 were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Observatory...
May 2, 2018: Public Health
H I M Mahler
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether multiple viewings of one's ultraviolet (UV) facial photo differentially affects subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to a single viewing. STUDY DESIGN: Pretest-posttest control group. METHODS: Southern California college students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to be shown their UV facial photo one time, multiple times over the course of 2 weeks, or not at all. Emotional reactions, perceived susceptibility to skin damage, and sun protection intentions were assessed immediately, and sun protection behaviors were assessed during a surprise telephonic follow-up 1 month later...
May 2, 2018: Public Health
H-Y Yang, H-J Chen, Y-J Hsu, L J Cheskin, Y Wang
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) can help promote healthy eating and active living in patients. This study assessed the effects of weight-related advice from HCPs on change in body mass index (BMI) of patients in the USA. STUDY DESIGN: A 1-year follow-up study of 20,002 adults who participated in a nationally representative survey between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: Using the 2004-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, 1-year BMI and weight status changes were compared between patients who did and did not report receiving advice on exercise or on restricted intake of fat and cholesterol from their HCPs...
May 2, 2018: Public Health
Padmore Adusei Amoah, David R Phillips
OBJECTIVES: Health literacy (HL) is generally thought to be associated with positive health behaviour, appropriate health service utilisation and acceptance of interventions to maximise health outcomes. It is, therefore, increasingly suggested that evidence-based research should investigate how HL may operate in the context of universal health coverage (UHC). However, the role of HL in the relationships between elements of UHC such as access to health care and health insurance has not been widely explored...
May 2, 2018: Public Health
U K Saha, M B Alam, A K M F Rahman, A H M E Hussain, S R Mashreky, G Mandal, Q D Mohammad
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine the epidemiology of stroke in a rural population of Bangladesh. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed stroke patients. METHODS: The survey was conducted in a rural community of Bangladesh from January 2016 to June 2016. All community members 15 years and older in a surveillance system were included in this study. The Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status was used to screen stroke cases at household level which were again examined by the neurologist for confirmatory diagnosis...
April 27, 2018: Public Health
Q G To, D Gallegos, D V Do, H T M Tran, K G To, L Wharton, S G Trost
OBJECTIVES: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), a significant proportion of children do not meet physical activity guidelines (PAGs). However, most studies were among secondary-school-aged youth and relied on PA self-report. In addition, information regarding children's PA behaviors during specific segments of day/week is not usually collected. This study, therefore, investigated the level and pattern of PA among fifth-grade students in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. STUDY DESIGN: A complex cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 619 fifth-grade students in eight public schools in urban areas of HCMC in 2016...
April 26, 2018: Public Health
M Al-Thani, A Al-Thani, S Alyafei, M G Al-Kuwari, W Al-Chetachi, S E Khalifa, I Ibrahim, S Sayegh, B Vinodson, H Akram
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors among adolescents in Qatar by selected demographic characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 5862 students (2938 boys and 2924 girls) in the age group 12-17 years were included in the analyses. PA and sedentary-related measures were obtained from the self-reported survey questions. RESULTS: Only 35...
April 25, 2018: Public Health
M Al-Thani, A Al-Thani, S Alyafei, W Al-Chetachi, S E Khalifa, A Ahmed, A Ahmad, B Vinodson, H Akram
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity using World Health Organisation (WHO) cut-offs for the body mass index (BMI) among students of the general population living in Qatar in the period 2015-2016. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study includes 164,963 students aged 5-19 years. The body weight and height were measured to calculate the BMI. The WHO standard cut-offs were used to categorise the BMI into severe thinness (BMI z-score <-3), thinness (BMI z-score ≥-3 to <-2), normal (BMI z-score ≥-2 to <1), overweight (BMI z-score ≥+1 to <+2) and obese (BMI z-score >+2)...
April 25, 2018: Public Health
S Nghiem, X-B Vu, A Barnett
OBJECTIVES: Obesity has become a global issue with abundant evidence to indicate that the prevalence of obesity in many nations has increased over time. The literature also reports a strong association between obesity and economic development, but the trend that obesity growth rates may converge over time has not been examined. We propose a conceptual framework and conduct an ecological analysis on the relationship between economic development and weight gain. We also test the hypothesis that weight gain converges among countries over time and examine determinants of weight gains...
April 25, 2018: Public Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Public Health
F Caffaro, M Micheletti Cremasco, G Bagagiolo, L Vigoroso, E Cavallo
OBJECTIVES: Migrant farmworkers report higher rates of work-related illnesses, injuries and fatalities compared with local workers. Language and cultural barriers represent a relevant source of risk, which can be reduced by means of targeted training interventions. However, very little evidence is available about the effectiveness of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) training programmes addressing migrant farmworkers. STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a scoping review...
April 24, 2018: Public Health
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