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Public Health

H Sampasa-Kanyinga, H A Hamilton
OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and waterpipes are gaining in popularity among adolescents in tandem with the increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs). The objective of this study was to examine the associations between the use of SNSs and e-cigarette and waterpipe use among adolescents, and to test whether these associations are independent of tobacco cigarette smoking. STUDY DESIGN: A province-wide school-based cross-sectional study...
September 17, 2018: Public Health
Q Li, Le Cai, W Cui, G Wang, J He, A R Golden
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the economic burden of obesity and four obesity-related chronic diseases in rural Yunnan Province, China. STUDY DESIGN: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among rural residents in Yunnan Province. A multistage stratified random sampling approach was applied to collect a sample of the population aged ≥35 years in this region. METHODS: Questionnaires were conducted and measurements were taken from 5040 participants...
September 14, 2018: Public Health
Z Jorjoran Shushtari, S A Hosseini, H Sajjadi, Y Salimi, A Shahesmaeili, T A B Snijders
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a safe sex norm questionnaire as an appropriate instrument which would be adaptable to the female sex worker (FSW) population. STUDY DESIGN: A mixed method study. METHODS: Appropriate content was prepared through a literature review. Content validation indices were assessed using interviews with content experts and lay experts. A conservative approach was used to assess the inter-rater agreement among the participants about the instrument relevance and clarity...
September 12, 2018: Public Health
M Black, V Joseph, L Mott, R Maheswaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2018: Public Health
M R Campbell, K D Mann, S Moffatt, M Dave, M S Pearce
OBJECTIVES: Refugees are most vulnerable to mental health problems of all migrant groups, and an understanding of the role of postdisplacement social factors in refugee emotional well-being can help to shape the future interventions for this group. We aimed to investigate the effect of social determinants, such as employment, language ability and accommodation, on mental health in refugees in the UK. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective longitudinal cohort study was set in the UK...
September 10, 2018: Public Health
D A Adeyinka, B O Olakunde, M Morka, O Oladimeji, E A Agogo
OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to determine the trend in HIV treatment coverage among people living with HIV and to evaluate effectiveness of the national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in reducing new infections in a mixed HIV epidemic nation, Nigeria. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study utilized national HIV programme service data and National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS) data for 36 states and Federal Capital Territory from 2012 to 2015 in Nigeria...
September 7, 2018: Public Health
P Petrou, G Samoutis, C Lionis
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare systems worldwide are actively exploring new approaches for cost containment and efficient use of resources. Currently, in a number of countries, the critical decision to introduce a single-payer over a multipayer healthcare scheme poses significant challenges. Consequently, we have systematically explored the current scientific evidence about the impact of single-payer and multipayer systems on the areas of equity, efficiency and quality of health care, fund collection negotiation, contracting and budgeting health expenditure and social solidarity...
September 4, 2018: Public Health
N Hashemi, B Sebar, N Harris
OBJECTIVES: While the universal prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours is high, cultural capital as a non-material resource shaping individuals' tastes can provide a substantial insight into different lifestyle behaviour choices. The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the evidence on the association between the three forms of cultural capital and lifestyle health behaviours. STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
September 3, 2018: Public Health
D Chowdhury, P S Saravanamurthy, A Chakrabartty, S Purohit, S S Iyer, A Agarwal, K M Gopal, P Mishra
OBJECTIVES: To explore the vulnerabilities and risks of HIV infection among female migrants compared with male migrants in the Thane district of Maharashtra, India. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. METHODS: Data from 35,841 migrants (men 96.2% and women 3.8%) were collected using the web-based 'Migrant Service Delivery System.' The data were then analysed in SPSS, version 23.0. Statistical analysis, including Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression, was used to identify factors influencing HIV infection for both male and female migrants...
September 3, 2018: Public Health
G Alicandro, G Sebastiani, P Bertuccio, N Zengarini, G Costa, C La Vecchia, L Frova
OBJECTIVES: Monitoring socio-economic inequality has become a priority for many governments, especially after the socio-economic changes that followed the 2008 financial crisis. This study aimed at detecting the causes of death with the largest socio-economic inequality in relative and absolute terms in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: This is a historical cohort study. METHODS: We used two regression-based measures of socio-economic inequality, the relative index of inequality (RII) and the slope index of inequality (SII), to rank the causes of death with the highest relative and absolute socio-economic inequality...
August 30, 2018: Public Health
F Akrami, A Zali, M Abbasi, R Majdzadeh, A Karimi, M Fadavi, A Mehrabi Bahar
OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing threats of communicable and non-communicable diseases, it is necessary for policy-makers and public health (PH) professionals to address ethical issues in health policies and plans. This study aimed to develop a practical framework for the ethical evaluation of PH programs. STUDY DESIGN: A multidisciplinary team developed an ethical framework to evaluate PH plans from 2015 to 2017. METHODS: In this study, the multi-method approach was used...
August 28, 2018: Public Health
M Sonego, M Pichiule, A Gandarillas, C Polo, M Ordobás
OBJECTIVES: Children of abused women have a greater risk of mental health problems. This study assesses the association between women's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and the mental health of their children in the population of the Madrid Region. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Data were drawn from the '2014 Survey on Intimate Partner Violence against Women in the Madrid Region'. Women meeting the definition of IPV answered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on the mental health of one of their children aged 4-16 years...
August 27, 2018: Public Health
W Imran, F Abbas, S A Javed
OBJECTIVES: Although the antipolio drive is undertaken across Pakistan, there are still children who have not received any oral polio vaccine or are unable to complete recommended doses of polio vaccine. This study aims at empirically analyzing the associated factors with the no oral polio vaccination (OPV) and OPV dropout groups of children in Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were obtained from the three waves of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of children aged between 12 and 23 months (1990-1991: n = 1214; 2006-2007: n = 1522; 2012-2013: n = 2074)...
August 25, 2018: Public Health
R Ozdemir, G D Horasan, C Rao, M K Sozmen, B Unal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Public Health
C H Basch, J Fera, D Ethan, P Garcia, D Perin, C E Basch
OBJECTIVES: The key to reducing mortality from skin cancer depends on early detection and treatment, which, in many cases, means a patient should be informed and possess the self-efficacy necessary to seek expert opinion. The purpose of this study was to determine the readability of skin cancer materials on the Internet using the commonly used readability tests. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: A search was conducted using the key words 'skin cancer...
August 24, 2018: Public Health
D Piţigoi, O Săndulescu, T Ionescu, B Niţescu, M Niţescu, A Streinu-Cercel, A Streinu-Cercel
OBJECTIVES: The National Institute for Infectious Diseases 'Prof. Dr. Matei Balș' was the designated centre for managing Ebola alerts in Romania during the 2014 African outbreak. We surveyed Ebola knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) among the institute's healthcare workers. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The study consisted of a self-administered paper-based anonymous questionnaire that included 24 closed-item questions and two scales of personal concern...
August 24, 2018: Public Health
V Pergialiotis, A Pouliakis, C Parthenis, V Damaskou, C Chrelias, N Papantoniou, I Panayiotides
OBJECTIVE: Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and classification and regression trees (CARTs) have been previously used for the prediction of cancer in several fields. In our study, we aim to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of three different methodologies (i.e. logistic regression, ANNs and CARTs) for the prediction of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickness ≥5 mm, as determined by ultrasound examination. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective case-control study based on data from analysis of pathology reports of curettage specimens in postmenopausal women...
August 24, 2018: Public Health
S J Kim, K-T Han, H-G Kang, E-C Park
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prospective drug utilization review (DUR) system introduced in Korea in December 2010 as a real-time method to improve patient safety, in terms of changes in prescribing practices, adverse drug events (ADEs), and ADE-related healthcare expenditure, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their common ADEs as a guide. STUDY DESIGN: We used an interrupted time-series study design using generalized estimating equations to evaluate changes in prescription rate and ADE-related healthcare expenditure...
August 23, 2018: Public Health
S A Kidd, J Thistle, T Beaulieu, B O'Grady, S Gaetz
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to address the need for more detailed information about Indigenous homeless youth, a group overrepresented in the homeless population, using a national-level data set. STUDY DESIGN: The study used a cross-sectional, self-report survey design. METHODS: Surveys were used to gather demographic, mental health, and quality of life data from a sample of 1103 Canadian youth accessing homeless services with data collected in 2015...
August 21, 2018: Public Health
C Quercioli, F Nisticò, G Troiano, M Maccari, G Messina, M Barducci, G Carriero, D Golinelli, N Nante
OBJECTIVES: Risk adjustment is a widely used tool for health expenditure prediction and control. Early approaches for estimating health expenditure were based on patient demographic variables alone, whereas more recent models incorporate patient information, such as chronic medical conditions, clinical diagnoses, and self-reported health status. Many studies have investigated the health expenditure predictive capacity of single demographic, morbidity, or health-related quality of life measures, but the best models prove to be those that include them all...
August 21, 2018: Public Health
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