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Public Health

M Black, J Karki, A C K Lee, P Makai, Y R Baral, E I Kritsotakis, A Bernier, A Fossier Heckmann
OBJECTIVE: To describe the health and occupational risks of informal waste workers (IWWs) in the Kathmandu Valley and explore the factors associated with not using personal protective equipment (PPE). STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional survey of IWWs. METHODS: Data were collected on the health and occupational risks of adult IWWs working on waste sites in the Kathmandu Valley and in the adjacent Nuwakot district, Nepal, in November 2017, through convenience sampling...
November 9, 2018: Public Health
B Kc, S Heydon, P Norris
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to investigate trekkers' changing demographics, travel patterns and experience of illness in the Annapurna region. STUDY DESIGN: A mixed method study comprising a cross-sectional survey was carried out with trekkers who had completed trekking in the Annapurna region. METHODS: Interviews were carried out with trekkers using a standardised questionnaire from September to December (main trekking season) 2014 and 2016...
November 8, 2018: Public Health
Carla J Berg
OBJECTIVES: A range of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDSs; e.g. e-cigarettes, e-hookahs) have emerged in the US market, with rapid increases in use. While ENDSs may facilitate harm reduction in smokers, they may represent risks to health and addiction in the nicotine naïve. Vape shops account for a substantial proportion of ENDS sales/distribution. STUDY DESIGN: Brief summary of the relevant literature. METHODS: This communication provides a brief summary of relevant literature derived from traditional tobacco retail and point-of-sale marketing and synthesizes issues regarding how the Food and Drug Administration regulation might impact the ENDS market, specifically the vape shop industry, a nuanced tobacco retail environment...
November 8, 2018: Public Health
A Donaldson, J L Reimers, K T Brophy, M Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: Energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and drink ('junk food') brands sponsoring sport is a growing public health concern. This study explored sports administrators' perceptions of the barriers to rejecting junk food sponsorship. STUDY DESIGN: This study used concept mapping. METHODS: The Concept Systems Global MAX™ web platform was used to collect and analyse data from 29 sports administrators across all levels of sport in Victoria, Australia...
November 7, 2018: Public Health
M Bovill, Y Bar-Zeev, M Gruppetta, M Clarke, K Nicholls, P O'Mara, B Bonevski, J Reath, G Gould
OBJECTIVES: To engage with health providers and Aboriginal women to understand what educational resources they want and need to support quit smoking attempts during pregnancy in order to develop a comprehensive evidence-based intervention. STUDY DESIGN: Resources were developed in partnership with Aboriginal people, communities and academics with the aim to be inclusive of diverse communities. We then recruited Aboriginal women of various ages for yarning circles (focus groups) held in three Australian states to explore the acceptability of the resources and seeking further guidance as to the needs of Aboriginal women to support smoking cessation during pregnancy...
November 1, 2018: Public Health
M Abualhasan, A Basim, A Salahat, S Sofan, M Al-Atrash
OBJECTIVES: Worldwide, hemodialysis (HD) patients are increasing every year, including Palestine. Dialysis fluid contamination due to the use of unpurified water is a common problem worldwide. Chemical and microbiological contaminants in the dialysis fluid could cross the dialyzer membrane and cause harm to dialysis patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the water quality used in centers in the West Bank, Palestine. The outcomes of this study will reflect the water purification system situation and come up with valuable recommendations to health decision makers...
October 31, 2018: Public Health
O O Aluko, E O Oloruntoba, U A Chukwunenye, E U Henry, E Ojogun
OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the behavioural contexts of household shared sanitation (SS), the factors that could enhance its cleanliness and sustainable maintenance in the study area. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was cross-sectional in nature. METHODS: A pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire with 113 questions provided information on knowledge, attitude and SS maintenance practices from 312 respondents selected through a four-stage sampling technique...
October 31, 2018: Public Health
C S Carneiro
OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to study the relationship between the incidence of hospitalisations of ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) in small geographic areas and characteristics of the primary care delivery system that are associated with access to care such as travel time to the provider, volume of resources and patient-doctor ties. We try to assess the relative importance of access barriers and draw useful implications for healthcare planning policy. STUDY DESIGN: This work combines the approach of ACSC rates by Billings et al...
October 31, 2018: Public Health
K Hardcastle, M A Bellis, K Ford, K Hughes, J Garner, G Ramos Rodriguez
OBJECTIVES: Educational and employment outcomes are critical elements in determining the life course of individuals, yet through health and other mechanisms, those who suffer adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may experience barriers to achieve in these domains. This study examines the association between ACEs and poor educational outcomes, before considering the impact of ACEs and education on employment in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional surveys were conducted in England and Wales using a random stratified sampling methodology...
October 30, 2018: Public Health
D Wu, T Yang, F A Stillman, W Guo, H Zhou, X Feng
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the outcomes of a tobacco control advocacy behavioural capacity (ABC)-building programme among public health faculty and students in China. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cluster intervention study with subjects matching in the different stages of the intervention and observation. METHODS: Public health students (n = 1046) and faculty (n = 199) were recruited in the intervention group. The intervention included a series of tobacco control advocacy curriculum and activities that were developed and implemented at schools or departments of public health in 22 universities across China...
October 29, 2018: Public Health
S J Macdonald, J Nixon, L Deacon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to discover whether lower socio-economic status is associated with increased experiences of loneliness and isolation. The research subsequently determined whether this relationship impacted health inequalities. STUDY DESIGN: The study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey collecting information on loneliness, isolation and poor health (n = 680). The survey was administered through Sunderland District Council in 2016-2017, and data were analysed at The University of Sunderland...
October 27, 2018: Public Health
D H Dallaire, A Woodards, C Kelsey
OBJECTIVES: Parental incarceration (PI) is a prevalent adverse childhood experience (ACE) that has been linked to numerous social, emotional, and health problems in childhood and adulthood. A growing body of research has emphasized the importance of the timing of parent's incarceration on developmental outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: The present study uses case-control matching to examine the impact of recent PI on newborn health and home safety outcomes. METHODS: Neonatal health and newborn sleep and home safety data, including rates of premature birth, low birth weight (LBW), neonatal intensive care unit admittance, breastfeeding initiation, safe sleep, and home environment (e...
October 26, 2018: Public Health
L J Ahrenfeldt, Sören Möller, N C Hvidt, R Lindahl-Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: Religiousness is associated with longevity and better physical health, which may be due to lifestyle choices. Here, we examine associations between religiousness and health, explained by lifestyle. STUDY DESIGN: This is a longitudinal study. METHODS: Data came from 23,864 people aged 50 and above included in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe in 2004-2005 and followed up during 11 years. RESULTS: Praying and taking part in a religious organization were associated with lower odds of smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 0...
October 25, 2018: Public Health
T H Kim, Y Park, J Myung, E Han
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the relative time trends of prices of healthy versus unhealthy foods in South Korea for the 20 years from 1995 to 2015. STUDY DESIGN: Time series analysis was used. METHODS: We analyzed price trends of selected food items in the food groups of grains, vegetables, meats, sweets, spices, fast foods, and non-alcoholic beverages. We obtained nominal prices from the monthly reports of the 2006 Consumer Price Survey for representative items in each food group...
October 25, 2018: Public Health
J O Lee, T M Jones, R Kosterman, C Cambron, I C Rhew, T I Herrenkohl, K G Hill
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the (a) childhood neighborhood context predicts alcohol use disorder, nicotine dependence, and cannabis use disorder symptoms at the age of 39 years; and (b) socio-economic status during young adulthood mediates these relationships. Gender differences were also examined. STUDY DESIGN: The Seattle Social Development Project is a prospective longitudinal study of 808 individuals followed up from ages 10 to 39 years in Seattle, Washington, United States...
October 25, 2018: Public Health
J Dailey, L Rosman, E K Silbergeld
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to develop and test methods for accessing and evaluating information on the biological plausibility of observed associations between exposures or interventions and outcomes to generate scientific evidence for action consistent with practice in systematic reviews. STUDY DESIGN: To undertake this research, we used the example of the observed associations between antimicrobial use in food animals and increased risks of human exposures to antimicrobial-resistant pathogens of zoonotic origin...
October 24, 2018: Public Health
A Atiya, P Abdullah, L Ali-Hassan, H Tamim
OBJECTIVES: Cigarillo smoking has been associated with many adverse outcomes; however, little is known about its use in Canada. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of ever and the current use of cigarillo in Canada. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was a secondary data analysis of the 2012 cycle of the Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey collected by Statistics Canada, examining tobacco use among Canadians aged 15 years or older in all 10 provinces...
October 24, 2018: Public Health
A Milner, T L King, A J Scovelle, D Currier, M J Spittal
OBJECTIVES: Men are less likely to seek treatment for mental health problems than women; however, the structural employment-related factors influencing this relationship are unknown. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Using the Australian Ten to Men cohort (N = 6447), we examined the relationship between being in a male-dominated occupation and treatment seeking from a mental health professional compared to being in a gender-equal occupation...
October 22, 2018: Public Health
I Warbrick, H Came, A Dickson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to explore perceptions of weight and racism towards Māori, as an indigenous group, and the association between the two. We then propose indigenous solutions as pathways out of fat shaming. STUDY DESIGN: This is a conceptual article supported by a review of literature in the fields of weight stigma, racism and indigenous (Māori) health. METHODS: This article is taken from the perspective of three researchers involved in Māori health research, studies on institutional and societal racism and critical research on weight stigma and the weight loss industry...
October 20, 2018: Public Health
C Wou, B Silarova, S Griffin, J A Usher-Smith
OBJECTIVES: Many health promotion campaigns and interventions focussing on improving health-related behaviours have been based on targeting response efficacy. This is based on the assumption that response efficacy is an important modifiable determinant of behaviour change. This study aimed to quantify the association between response efficacy and objective and subjective measures of physical activity and diet. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial...
October 20, 2018: Public Health
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