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Public Health

P Mackie, F Sim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Public Health
G Mocciaro, N Ziauddeen, S Nicholson, S Almoosawi, S Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Public Health
H Graham, P C L White
OBJECTIVE: Industrialization and urbanization have been associated with an epidemiological transition, from communicable to non-communicable disease, and a geological transition that is moving the planet beyond the stable Holocene epoch in which human societies have prospered. The lifestyles of high-income countries are major drivers of these twin processes. Our objective is to highlight the common causes of chronic disease and environmental change and, thereby, contribute to shared perspectives across public health and the environment...
November 1, 2016: Public Health
D H Brewster, C M Fischbacher, J Nolan, S Nowell, D Redpath, G Nabi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of hospitalization and death following prostate biopsy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Our study population comprised 10,285 patients with a record of first ever prostate biopsy between 2009 and 2013 on computerized acute hospital discharge or outpatient records covering Scotland. Using the general population as a comparison group, expected numbers of admissions/deaths were derived by applying age-, sex-, deprivation category-, and calendar year-specific rates of hospital admissions/deaths to the study population...
October 31, 2016: Public Health
N J Fox, P Alldred
OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews the sociology of environment and health and makes the case for a postanthropocentric approach based on new materialist theory. This perspective fully incorporates humans and their health into 'the environment', and in place of human-centred concerns considers the forces that constrain or enhance environmental capacities. STUDY DESIGN: This is not an empirical study. The paper uses a hypothetical vignette concerning child health and air pollution to explore the new materialist model advocated in the paper...
October 22, 2016: Public Health
S MacBride-Stewart, Y Gong, J Antell
OBJECTIVES: Public health has recognized that nature is good for health but there are calls for a review of its gendered aspects. This review attempts to develop and explore a broad analytical theme - the differing interconnections between gender, health and nature. The paper summarizes the interconnections that have been subject to extensive academic enquiry between gender and health, health and space, and gender and space. METHODS: A combination of key terms including place; gender; health; outdoor space; green space; natural environment; national parks; femininity; masculinity; recreation; physical activity; sustainability; ecofeminism; feminism; environmental degradation; and environmental justice were used to search the electronic databases Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and Scopus to identify relevant articles...
October 20, 2016: Public Health
K Barnes, J Crowley, C Laur, L Ball, S Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Public Health
S Ray, L Ball, C Laur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Public Health
J L Ang, M Y Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Public Health
A Rosi, M Dall'Asta, F Brighenti, D Del Rio, E Volta, I Baroni, M Nalin, M Coti Zelati, A Sanna, F Scazzina
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was evaluating if the presence of a humanoid robot could improve the efficacy of a game-based, nutritional education intervention. STUDY DESIGN: This was a controlled, school-based pilot intervention carried out on fourth-grade school children (8-10 years old). A total of 112 children underwent a game-based nutritional educational lesson on the importance of carbohydrates. For one group (n = 58), the lesson was carried out by a nutritional educator, the Master of Taste (MT), whereas for another group, (n = 54) the Master of Taste was supported by a humanoid robot (MT + NAO)...
November 2016: Public Health
J Crowley, L Ball, C Wall
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is recognized as a strong factor influencing the health outcomes of patients with chronic disease. General practitioners (GPs) require nutrition knowledge and skills to support patients to have healthy dietary behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To investigate New Zealand GP registrars' provision of nutrition advice using patient scenarios. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design targeted GP registrars to investigate the nutrition care they provided to patients...
November 2016: Public Health
R Perlstein, S McCoombe, C Shaw, C Nowson
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. RESULTS: A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire...
November 2016: Public Health
C Laur, L Ball, A S Ahankari, M Avdagovska, J Crowley, D Deen, P Douglas, L Hark, M Kohlmeier, L Luzi, L McCotter, K Martyn, C Nowson, C Wall, S Ray
Medical Nutrition Education (MNE) has been identified as an area with potential public health impact. Despite countries having distinctive education systems, barriers and facilitators to effective MNE are consistent across borders, demanding a common platform to initiate global programmes. A shared approach to supporting greater MNE is ideal to support countries to work together. In an effort to initiate this process, the Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme group, in association with their strategic partners, hosted the inaugural International Summit on Medical Nutrition Education and Research on August 8, 2015 in Cambridge, UK...
November 2016: Public Health
F Phillips, C H S Ruxton
This paper presents a report of a nutrition conference held at EXPO 2015 in Milan. Over the course of a day, seven speakers from four continents discussed the evidence and scientific processes that underpin the development of dietary guidelines, highlighting issues and challenges at each stage. These include the quality of studies associating disease outcomes with diet, specifically a reliance on observational studies, short duration of intervention trials, low statistical power and lack of follow-up. Concerns were raised over the oversimplification of dietary messages which promote carbohydrates in general without evidence of benefit, while restricting fats when meta-analyses suggests that different fatty acids have different effects on disease risk...
November 2016: Public Health
C Laur, L Ball, J Crowley, H Bell, J Maddock, S Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Public Health
K Barnes, L Ball, B Desbrow
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the intention of fitness businesses to promote the provision of nutrition care from personal trainers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of webpage content. METHODS: Fitness businesses within two Australian federal electorates were identified using the Fitness Australia list of registered fitness businesses. Inductive content analysis of these fitness business websites and associated social media sites was undertaken to compare website content to the Fitness Australia Position Statement outlining the Roles and Responsibilities of Registered Fitness Professionals...
November 2016: Public Health
J Crowley, S O'Connell, A Kavka, L Ball, C A Nowson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic disease is considerable, and dietary behaviours influence the progression of many chronic diseases. Practice guidelines recommend that general practitioners (GPs) promote healthy dietary behaviours in relevant consultations with patients in order to improve health outcomes at a population level. OBJECTIVE: To describe GPs' perceived interest, confidence and barriers to support patients to have a healthy diet. METHOD: A 24-item online and written survey was distributed in a national weekly newsletter to GPs in Australia...
November 2016: Public Health
K Barnes, B Desbrow, L Ball
OBJECTIVE: To measure the self-perceived competence of Australian personal trainers in providing nutrition care. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. METHODS: A validated survey was used to measure confidence in the ability to provide nutrition care among a snowball sample of 142 Australian-based personal trainers. The survey used 5-point Likert scale statements across four nutrition related constructs: knowledge; skills; communication and counselling; and attitudes...
November 2016: Public Health
A Valente, D Silva, E Neves, F Almeida, J L Cruz, C C Dias, A da Costa-Pereira, A Caldas-Afonso, A Guerra
OBJECTIVE: Undernutrition is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and their predictors in children from 0 to 5 years of age in São Tomé. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in São Tomé Island. METHODS: A total of 1285 individuals were enrolled between January and May 2011. Children were measured, and height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and body mass index (BAZ) Z-score were computed...
November 2016: Public Health
M J Hamlin, E Yule, C A Elliot, L Stoner, Y Kathiravel
OBJECTIVES: The rising incidence of non-communicable diseases in western countries is being driven by poor lifestyle choices, including increasingly inadequate physical activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of a physical activity primary care intervention named the 'Green Prescription' on changes in physical activity levels 2-3 year's following original prescription. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study design using a telephone interview...
November 2016: Public Health
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