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Psychosomatic Medicine

Lihua Chen, Xiaoming Li, Ledina Imami, Danhua Lin, Junfeng Zhao, Guoxiang Zhao, Samuele Zilioli
OBJECTIVES: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the most well-established social determinants of health. However, little is known about what can protect the health of individuals (especially children) living in low-SES circumstances. This study explored whether the psychological strategy of "shift-and-persist" protects low-SES children from stress-related physiological risks, as measured through blunted (unhealthy) diurnal cortisol profiles. METHODS: A sample of 645 children (aged 8-15) from low-SES backgrounds and having at least one HIV positive parent completed a battery of psychological scales...
December 7, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Ryan Smith, Karen L Weihs, Anna Alkozei, William D S Killgore, Richard D Lane
OBJECTIVE: Two distinct perspectives - typically referred to as the biopsychosocial and biomedical models - currently guide clinical practice. While the role of psychosocial factors in contributing to physical and mental health outcomes is widely recognized, the biomedical model remains dominant. This is due in part to 1) the largely non-mechanistic focus of biopsychosocial research, and 2) the lack of specificity it currently offers in guiding clinicians to focus on social, psychological, and/or biological factors in individual cases...
December 5, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Stefanie Stanzer, Elisabeth Andritsch, Silke Zloklikovits, Verena Ladinek, Clemens Farkas, Thomas Augustin, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Hellmut Samonigg, Thomas Bauernhofer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine a potential benefit of the specific psycho-educational intervention "Learning to Live with Cancer" (LTLWC) for patients with operated non-metastatic breast cancer, with respect to psychological variables and endocrine and immune parameters. METHODS: Fifty-two postmenopausal women with operated stage I - III breast cancer were randomized to either a breast cancer intervention group (BCIG, n=30) who immediately began participating in the LTLWC intervention program or to a breast cancer control group (BCCG, n=22)...
November 27, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Mark A Lumley, Howard Schubiner
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain is a significant health problem that is increasing in prevalence, and advances in treatment are needed. METHODS: We briefly review the leading evidence-based psychological therapies for chronic pain-cognitive-behavioral and acceptance / mindfulness-based therapies-and examine several limitations and missing perspectives of these approaches. We review six lesser-known interventions that address these limitations, and we describe our integrative model for psychological assessment and treatment of centralized pain...
November 19, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Karen A Matthews, J Richard Jennings, Laisze Lee, Dustin Pardini
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms and major depression predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors in adulthood. Evidence regarding the role of depression in the development of CVD risk in youth is minimal. The study evaluated the prospective relationship of depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence with adult CVD risk factors in black and white men. METHODS: Health behaviors and medical history were measured in 165 black and 146 white men (mean age = 32); a subset in the Pittsburgh area had a fasting blood draw to measure metabolic syndrome and inflammation...
November 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Mahwesh Saleem, Nathan Herrmann, Adam Dinoff, Graham Mazereeuw, Paul I Oh, Benjamin I Goldstein, Alex Kiss, Prathiba Shammi, Krista L Lanctôt
OBJECTIVE: Subtle cognitive deficits indicating early neural risk are common in the clinical presentation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although deterioration may be mitigated by exercise, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Vasculopathy including endothelial dysfunction, is a hallmark of CAD and may play an important role in impairing neural adaptation to exercise. This study aimed to assess peripheral measurements of endothelial function as predictors of cognitive performance in CAD participants undertaking cardiac rehabilitation (CR)...
October 28, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Gertrud L G Haverkamp, Wim L Loosman, Robbert W Schouten, Casper F M Franssen, Ido P Kema, Merel van Diepen, Friedo W Dekker, Prataap K Chandie Shaw, Yves F C Smets, Louis-Jean Vleming, Brigit C van Jaarsveld, Adriaan Honig, Carl E Siegert
OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing chronic dialysis often display sustained elevations of inflammation markers and also have a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. Although multiple studies demonstrated cross-sectional associations between inflammation markers and depressive symptoms in this patient group, longitudinal associations have not been examined. We therefore investigated whether longitudinal associations exist between inflammation markers and depressive symptoms in chronic dialysis patients...
October 26, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
In-Jae Oh, Kyu-Sik Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Jai-Young Park, Keun-Young Yoo, Sang-Hwan Do, Ryun-Sup Ahn
Patients with advanced cancer commonly experience multiple symptoms that present as groups or clusters. The present study aimed to examine whether hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction underlies the concurrent multiple symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: Patients' cortisol levels were determined in saliva samples collected after awakening (0, 30, and 60 min after awakening) and at nighttime (2100-2200 h) from 46 patients with lung cancer (15.2% women), with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 64...
October 26, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser, Stephanie J Wilson, Annelise Madison
Couples influence each other's mental and physical health. This review focuses on how couples' relationships, the partners' individual and joint vulnerabilities, and their health behaviors influence health through changes in the gut microbiota, metabolism, and immune function. Couples' shared stressors and emotions and their intertwined lifestyles and routines serve to promote common disease risks in part through parallel changes in their gut microbiotas. Marital discord, stress, and depression have strong bidirectional links, fueling one another...
October 10, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Diana A Chirinos, Jason C Ong, Luz M Garcini, Daisy Alvarado, Christopher Fagundes
OBJECTIVE: Spousal bereavement is linked to increased mortality and morbidity from inflammatory conditions. It also has a significant impact on sleep disturbances. Evidence from experimental studies indicates that chronic stress may prime individuals to have an exaggerated inflammatory response to acute stress. In this study, we examined the association between self-reported sleep disturbances and inflammation after adjusting for depressive symptoms, and determined whether this association varies by bereavement status (bereaved individuals vs...
October 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
David R Watson, Sarah N Garfinkel, Cassandra Gould van Praag, Daniel Willmott, Katherine Wong, Frances Meeten, Hugo D Critchley
OBJECTIVE: Spider phobia is a common form of anxiety disorder for which exposure therapy is an effective first-line treatment. Motivated by the observed modulation of threat processing by afferent cardiac signals; we tested the hypothesis that interoceptive information concerning cardiovascular arousal can influence the outcomes of computerised exposure therapy for spider phobia. METHOD: Fifty-three normal healthy participants with high spider phobia scores underwent one of three modified computerised exposure protocols, defined by the timing of exposure to brief spider stimuli within the cardiac cycle: Systole (during afferent baroreceptor firing); Diastole (during baroreceptor-quiescent interbeat interval); Random (non-contingent on cardiac cycle)...
October 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Fanny Söderquist, Isak Sundberg, Mia Ramklint, Rebecka Widerström, Per M Hellström, Janet L Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not completely understood, although we do know that patients with IBS have a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity (mainly depression and anxiety disorders). Melatonin, produced in the gastrointestinal tract, influences gut motility. Psychiatric conditions are associated with circadian disturbances in peripheral melatonin levels. This study aimed to investigate associations between daytime salivary melatonin and gastrointestinal symptoms in young adult psychiatric patients...
October 6, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Robert S Stawski, Eric S Cerino, Dakota D Witzel, Stuart W S MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that daily stress processes, including exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors, are associated with response time inconsistency (RTI), an indicator of processing efficiency and cognitive health. Furthermore, we considered daily stress-cognitive health associations at the level of individual differences and within-persons over time. METHODS: Participants were 111 older adults (Mean=80 years, Range=66-95) enrolled in a measurement burst study where assessments of response-time based cognitive performance, stressful experiences, and affect were administered on each of 6 days over a two-week period...
October 6, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Lauren Y Atlas, Mustafa alʼAbsi
Chronic pain is a major problem in clinical medicine and public health, affecting approximately one in five adults, and is associated with significant societal and familial burden. Early-life adversities, psychological, and biobehavioral factors are associated with an elevated risk of the subsequent development of chronic pain. In this special issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, articles address the neuroscientific, psychological, and biobehavioral processes involved in acute and chronic pain. We focus on the following themes that emerged in this special issue: (a) risk factors and early adversity as related to chronic pain; (b) the role of expectations in shaping pain perception; and (c) mechanisms of interventions targeting pain modulation...
November 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Richard D Lane, Frances Sommer Anderson, Ryan Smith
BACKGROUND: Early adversity predisposes to chronic pain, but a mechanistic explanation is lacking. Survivors of early adversity with chronic pain often seem impaired in their ability to be aware of, understand, and express distressing emotions such as anger and fear in social contexts. In this context, it has been proposed that pain may at times serve as a "psychic regulator" by preventing awareness of more intolerable emotions. METHOD: This narrative review builds on the premise that physical pain and emotional pain are conscious experiences that can compete for selective attention...
November 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Marina López-Solà, Leonie Koban, Tor D Wager
OBJECTIVE: Contextual factors can transform how we experience pain, particularly if pain is associated with other positive outcomes. Here, we test a novel meaning-based intervention. Participants were given the opportunity to choose to receive pain on behalf of their romantic partners, situating pain experience in a positive, prosocial meaning context. We predicted that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a key structure for pain regulation and generation of affective meaning, would mediate the transformation of pain experience by this prosocial interpersonal context...
November 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Valerie A Cotton, Lucie A Low, Chantal Villemure, M Catherine Bushnell
OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system activity is associated with neurobehavioral aspects of pain. Yogis use breathing, relaxation, and mindfulness to tolerate pain, which could influence autonomic responses. To evaluate how the link between autonomic responses and pain is altered by other factors, we compared perceptual and autonomic responses to pain between yogis and controls. METHODS: Nineteen yogis and 15 controls rated warm and painfully hot stimuli (1-cm thermode on calf), with visual anticipatory cues indicating certainly painful, certainly nonpainful, or uncertainly either painful or nonpainful...
November 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Lisa M May, Peter Kosek, Fadel Zeidan, Elliot T Berkman
OBJECTIVE: Studies have consistently shown that long-term meditation practice is associated with reduced pain, but the neural mechanisms by which long-term meditation practice reduces pain remain unclear. This study tested endogenous opioid involvement in meditation analgesia associated with long-term meditation practice. METHODS: Electrical pain was induced with randomized, double-blind, cross-over administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone (0.15-mg/kg bolus dose, then 0...
November 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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