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Psychosomatic Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221237/ptsd-orientation-to-pain-and-pain-perception-in-ex-prisoners-of-war-who-underwent-torture
#1
Noga Tsur, Ruth Defrin, Karni Ginzburg
OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that torture survivors often suffer long-term chronic pain and increased pain perception. However, it is unclear whether the actual experience of torture, or rather the subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), explains these pain problems. Furthermore, while catastrophic and fearful orientations to pain have been suggested to play a significant role in the association between trauma and pain, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study examined whether chronic pain and pain perception among torture survivors are associated with torture experience or PTSD and whether catastrophic and fearful orientations mediate or moderate these associations...
February 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207612/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-executive-function-performance-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Melanie M Broadley, Melanie J White, Brooke Andrew
OBJECTIVE: To examine the current evidence for executive function (EF) performance differences between groups with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and non-diabetic control groups during adolescence and early adulthood, and to explore the relationships between EF and diabetes-related risk factors. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature examining EF performance in groups with T1DM was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic database searches for published and unpublished literature yielded a final set of 26 articles after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 16, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207613/vagal-regulation-of-cardiac-function-in-early-childhood-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescence
#3
Meghan J Gangel, Lilly Shanahan, Jacek Kolacz, James A Janssen, Ashley Brown, Susan D Calkins, Susan P Keane, Laurie Wideman
OBJECTIVE: Poor behavioral self-regulation in the first two decades of life has been identified as an important precursor of disease risk in adulthood. However, physiological regulation has not been well-studied as a disease risk factor before adulthood. We tested whether physiological regulation at age two, in the form of vagal regulation of cardiac function (indexed by RSA change), would predict three indicators of cardiovascular risk at age 16 (diastolic and systolic blood pressure and body mass index)...
February 15, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178034/the-neurobiology-of-health-communication
#4
Peter A Hall, Kirk I Erickson, Peter J Gianaros
This issue of Psychosomatic Medicine describes findings from an innovative study by Kang et al. employing neuroimaging methods to quantify neural responses to health communications. Findings indicated that those sedentary individuals who hold self-transcendent values show attenuated limbic threat responses to communications about the benefits of physical activity. Furthermore, participants who were instructed to articulate such values showed some evidence of additional blunting of the same neural response. In this editorial we provide context for the interpretation of these findings within the existing research using the brain-as-predictor approach, and other recent trends within biobehavioral medicine involving the use of neuroscience methods in the service of health behavior change...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178033/social-influences-on-prevotella-and-the-gut-microbiome-of-young-monkeys
#5
Wellington Z Amaral, Gabriele R Lubach, Alexandra Proctor, Mark Lyte, Gregory J Phillips, Christopher L Coe
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the bacterial profiles of young monkeys as they were weaned into peer groups with a particular focus on Prevotella, an important taxon in both human and nonhuman primates. The weaning of infants and increased social contact with peers is a developmental stage that is likely to affect the gut microbiome. METHODS: Gut bacteria were assessed in 63 rhesus monkeys living in social groups comprised of 4-7 individuals. Two groups were assessed prospectively on Day 1 and 2 weeks after rehousing away from the mother and group formation...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178032/early-life-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-metabolic-health-disparities
#6
Camelia E Hostinar, Kharah M Ross, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller
OBJECTIVE: A quarter of the world's population suffers from metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS prevalence stratifies by socioeconomic status (SES), such that low SES is associated with higher MetS risk. The present study compared the associations between early-life SES and current SES with MetS. METHODS: Participants (N = 354, ages 15-55, M = 36.5 years, SD = 10.7; 55% female; 72.9% White, 16.9% Asian, 10.2% other) were evaluated for SES and MetS. All were in good health, defined as free of chronic medical illness and acute infectious disease...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157727/genetic-and-environment-influences-on-sleep-pain-and-depression-symptoms-in-a-community-sample-of-twins
#7
Marianna Gasperi, Matthew Herbert, Ellen Schur, Dedra Buchwald, Niloofar Afari
OBJECTIVE: We used quantitative genetic methods to evaluate whether sleep quality, pain, and depression symptoms share a common genetic diathesis, to estimate the genetic and environmental sources of covariance among these symptoms, and to test for possible causal relationships. METHODS: A community sample of 400 twins from the University of Washington Twin Registry completed standardized self-report questionnaires. We used biometric modeling to assess genetic and environmental contribution to the association between sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), pain measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and depression symptoms measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-dep)...
February 3, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121722/omega-3-supplementation-and-the-neural-correlates-of-negative-affect-and-impulsivity-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-in-midlife-adults
#8
Annie T Ginty, Matthew F Muldoon, Dora C H Kuan, Brittney Schirda, Thomas W Kamarck, J Richard Jennings, Stephen B Manuck, Peter J Gianaros
OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves symptoms in psychiatric disorders involving dysregulated mood and impulse control, yet it is unclear whether in healthy adults omega-3 fatty acid supplementation affects mood, impulse control and the brain systems supporting these processes. Accordingly, this study tested the hypotheses that eciosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid supplementation reduces negative affect and impulsive behaviors in healthy adults and that these changes correspond to alterations in corticolimbic and corticostriatal brain systems which support affective and impulsive processes...
January 24, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118208/from-vitality-to-vital-exhaustion-and-other-states-of-tense-tiredness-a-new-biopsychosocial-risk-domain
#9
Alan Rozanski, Randy Cohen
Fatigue is a common prodromal symptom for various medical conditions, including acute myocardial infarction. Fatigue is also the core component of vital exhaustion, which consists of a specific triad: excessive fatigue, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Frestad and Prescott present a meta-analysis of 16 studies, involving 53,337 participants, which found vital exhaustion to be associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and recurrent cardiac events among individuals with established CHD...
January 23, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114149/association-between-discrimination-and-objective-and-subjective-sleep-measures-in-the-midlife-in-the-united-states-study-adult-sample
#10
Sherry L Owens, Haslyn E R Hunte, Amanda Sterkel, Dayna A Johnson, Vicki Johnson-Lawrence
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that sleep quality is worse in nonwhite minorities compared with whites. Poor sleep is associated with higher levels of perceived interpersonal discrimination, which is consistently reported among minorities. However, the literature is limited in exploring discrimination with both objective and subjective sleep outcomes in the same sample. We examined the relationship between discrimination and markers of subjective and objective sleep in a racially diverse sample...
January 19, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098719/regional-gray-matter-volumes-as-related-to-psychomotor-slowing-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#11
Karen A Nunley, Christopher M Ryan, Howard J Aizenstein, Rebecca L MacCloud, Trevor J Orchard, Caterina Rosano
OBJECTIVE: Psychomotor slowing is a common cognitive complication in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but its neuroanatomical correlates and risk factors are unclear. In non-diabetic adults, smaller gray matter volume (GMV) and presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with psychomotor slowing. We hypothesize that smaller GMV in prefronto-parietal regions explains T1D-related psychomotor slowing. We also inspect the contribution of microvascular disease and hyperglycemia. METHODS: GMV, WMH, and glucose levels were measured concurrently with a test of psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test, DSST) in 95 adults with childhood-onset T1D (mean age/duration=49/41 years) and 135 similarly-aged non-T1D adults...
January 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098718/double-exposure-to-adverse-psychosocial-work-factors-and-high-family-responsibilities-as-related-to-ambulatory-blood-pressure-at-work-a-5-year-prospective-study-in-women-with-white-collar-jobs
#12
Mahée Gilbert-Ouimet, Chantal Brisson, Alain Milot, Michel Vézina
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence shows that psychosocial work factors of the demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models may contribute to increase blood pressure (BP). Women are more likely to be exposed to these psychosocial factors than men. Moreover, women spend twice as much time per week performing family responsibilities than men. This study aims to evaluate the longitudinal association of the double exposure to psychosocial work factors and high family responsibilities in women with BP over a 5-year follow-up...
January 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922565/a-perspective-on-brain-gut-communication-the-american-gastroenterology-association-and-american-psychosomatic-society-joint-symposium-on-brain-gut-interactions-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#13
Olga C Aroniadis, Douglas A Drossman, Magnus Simren
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain-gut communication and the intestinal microenvironment have been implicated in a variety of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Three central areas require basic and clinical research: (1) how the intestinal microenvironment interacts with the host immune system, central nervous system and enteric nervous system; (2) the role of the intestinal microenvironment in the pathogenesis of medical and neuropsychiatric disease; (3) the effects of diet, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation on the intestinal microenvironment and the treatment of disease...
January 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060138/diabetes-complications-and-depressive-symptoms-prospective-results-from-the-montreal-diabetes-health-and-well-being-study
#14
Sonya S Deschênes, Rachel J Burns, Frans Pouwer, Norbert Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies testing the potential impact of diabetes complications on depression are limited. The present study examined the longitudinal associations between diabetes complications and the risk and recurrence/persistence of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were from a prospective community cohort telephone survey of adults with diabetes (N= 1,314). Diabetes complications and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report (Diabetes Complications Index and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively) at baseline and annually for 5 years...
January 5, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033199/self-transcendent-values-and-neural-responses-to-threatening-health-messages
#15
Yoona Kang, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Victor J Strecher, Shelley E Taylor, Matthew D Lieberman, Emily B Falk
OBJECTIVE: Prioritizing self-transcendent values such as family and friends, over non-transcendent values such as wealth and privilege, is associated with lower stress response. In this study, we tested whether having self-transcendent values can reduce specific responses in the brain in the context of potentially threatening health communications. METHODS: Sedentary adults (n=67) who would likely feel threatened by health messages that highlight the risk of sedentary behavior were recruited...
December 28, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033198/assessment-of-biopsychosocial-complexity-and-health-care-needs-measurement-properties-of-the-intermed-self-assessment-version-imsa
#16
Arianne K B van Reedt Dortland, Lilian L Peters, Annette D Boenink, Jan H Smit, Joris P J Slaets, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Andreas Joos, Corine H M Latour, Friedrich Stiefel, Cyrille Burrus, Marie Guitteny-Collas, Silvia Ferrari
OBJECTIVES: The INTERMED Self-Assessment questionnaire (IMSA) was developed as an alternative to the observer-rated INTERMED (IM) to assess biopsychosocial complexity and health care needs. We studied feasibility, reliability and validity of the IMSA within a large and heterogeneous international sample of adult hospital in- and outpatients, and its predictive value for health care utilization (HCU) and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: 850 participants aged 17 to 90 from 5 countries completed the IMSA and were evaluated with the IM...
December 28, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033197/impact-of-panic-attacks-on-bronchoconstriction-and-subjective-distress-in-asthma-patients-with-and-without-panic-disorder
#17
Maxine Boudreau, Simon L Bacon, Nicola J Paine, André Cartier, Barbara Trutschnigg, Alexandre Morizio, Kim L Lavoie
OBJECTIVES: Panic disorder (PD) is common among asthmatics and is associated with worse asthma outcomes. This may occur due to psychophysiological factors or to cognitive/affective factors. This study evaluated the impact of panic attacks (PAs) on bronchoconstriction and subjective distress in asthmatics with and without PD. METHODS: A total of 25 asthmatics (15 with PD who had a PA [PD/PA], 10 without PD who didn't have a PA [noPD/noPA]) were recruited from an outpatient clinic...
December 28, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033196/the-impact-of-subjective-well-being-on-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies-in-the-general-population
#18
Natalia Martín-María, Marta Miret, Francisco Félix Caballero, Laura Alejandra Rico-Uribe, Andrew Steptoe, Somnath Chatterji, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether subjective well-being is a protective factor for mortality in the general population, and to analyze the differential impact of evaluative, experienced, and eudaimonic well-being. METHODS: Systematic review of articles in the PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed databases. Data on the studies' characteristics, quality, and the effects of variables were extracted. A meta-analysis was conducted on the studies included in the systematic review...
December 28, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009652/positive-and-negative-affect-is-related-to-experiencing-chest-pain-during-exercise-induced-myocardial-ischemia
#19
Philippe Stébenne, Simon L Bacon, Anthony Austin, Nicola J Paine, André Arsenault, Catherine Laurin, Bernard Meloche, Jennifer Gordon, Jocelyn Dupuis, Kim L Lavoie
OBJECTIVES: Silent myocardial ischemia is thought to be associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes due to a lack of perception of pain cues that initiate treatment seeking. Negative affect (NA) has been associated with increased pain reporting and positive affect (PA) with decreased pain reporting, but these psychological factors have not been examined within the context of myocardial ischemia. This study evaluated the associations between PA, NA, and chest pain reporting in patients with and without ischemia during exercise testing...
December 22, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002383/stress-induced-parasympathetic-control-and-its-association-with-inflammatory-reactivity
#20
Alex Woody, Wilson S Figueroa, Fabian Benencia, Peggy M Zoccola
OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that the inflammatory cytokine system is regulated through the vagus nerve, where vagal activation inhibits release of inflammatory cytokines and, therefore, inflammation. Thus, loss of vagal activation (i.e., reduced high-frequency heart rate variability [HF-HRV]) should result in greater inflammation. Evidence to date for this relationship has relied on animal models and resting states in humans. The present study used a psychosocial stressor to test whether stress-induced decreases in HF-HRV predict increases in circulating inflammatory markers...
December 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
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