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Psychosomatic Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308579/marriage-and-gut-microbiome-feelings-tracing-novel-dyadic-pathways-to-accelerated-aging
#1
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser, Stephanie J Wilson, Annelise Madison
Couples influence each other's mental and physical health. This review focuses on how couples' relationships, the partners' individual and joint vulnerabilities, and their health behaviors influence health through changes in the gut microbiota, metabolism, and immune function. Couples' shared stressors and emotions and their intertwined lifestyles and routines serve to promote common disease risks in part through parallel changes in their gut microbiotas. Marital discord, stress, and depression have strong bidirectional links, fueling one another...
October 10, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300238/bereavement-self-reported-sleep-disturbances-and-inflammation-results-from-project-heart
#2
Diana A Chirinos, Jason C Ong, Luz M Garcini, Daisy Alvarado, Christopher Fagundes
OBJECTIVE: Spousal bereavement is linked to increased mortality and morbidity from inflammatory conditions. It also has a significant impact on sleep disturbances. Evidence from experimental studies indicates that chronic stress may prime individuals to have an exaggerated inflammatory response to acute stress. In this study, we examined the association between self-reported sleep disturbances and inflammation after adjusting for depressive symptoms, and determined whether this association varies by bereavement status (bereaved individuals vs...
October 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300237/computerized-exposure-therapy-for-spider-phobia-effects-of-cardiac-timing-and-interoceptive-ability-on-subjective-and-behavioral-outcomes
#3
David R Watson, Sarah N Garfinkel, Cassandra Gould van Praag, Daniel Willmott, Katherine Wong, Frances Meeten, Hugo D Critchley
OBJECTIVE: Spider phobia is a common form of anxiety disorder for which exposure therapy is an effective first-line treatment. Motivated by the observed modulation of threat processing by afferent cardiac signals; we tested the hypothesis that interoceptive information concerning cardiovascular arousal can influence the outcomes of computerised exposure therapy for spider phobia. METHOD: Fifty-three normal healthy participants with high spider phobia scores underwent one of three modified computerised exposure protocols, defined by the timing of exposure to brief spider stimuli within the cardiac cycle: Systole (during afferent baroreceptor firing); Diastole (during baroreceptor-quiescent interbeat interval); Random (non-contingent on cardiac cycle)...
October 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299401/the-relationship-between-daytime-salivary-melatonin-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-young-adults-seeking-psychiatric-care
#4
Fanny Söderquist, Isak Sundberg, Mia Ramklint, Rebecka Widerström, Per M Hellström, Janet L Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not completely understood, although we do know that patients with IBS have a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity (mainly depression and anxiety disorders). Melatonin, produced in the gastrointestinal tract, influences gut motility. Psychiatric conditions are associated with circadian disturbances in peripheral melatonin levels. This study aimed to investigate associations between daytime salivary melatonin and gastrointestinal symptoms in young adult psychiatric patients...
October 6, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299400/daily-stress-processes-as-contributors-to-and-targets-for-promoting-cognitive-health-in-later-life
#5
Robert S Stawski, Eric S Cerino, Dakota D Witzel, Stuart W S MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that daily stress processes, including exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors, are associated with response time inconsistency (RTI), an indicator of processing efficiency and cognitive health. Furthermore, we considered daily stress-cognitive health associations at the level of individual differences and within-persons over time. METHODS: Participants were 111 older adults (Mean=80 years, Range=66-95) enrolled in a measurement burst study where assessments of response-time based cognitive performance, stressful experiences, and affect were administered on each of 6 days over a two-week period...
October 6, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222711/biased-competition-favoring-physical-over-emotional-pain-a-possible-explanation-for-the-link-between-early-adversity-and-chronic-pain
#6
Richard D Lane, Frances Sommer Anderson, Ryan Smith
BACKGROUND: Early adversity predisposes to chronic pain, but a mechanistic explanation is lacking. Survivors of early adversity with chronic pain often appear impaired in their ability to be aware of, understand, and express distressing emotions such as anger and fear in social contexts. In this context, it has been proposed that pain may at times serve as a "psychic regulator" by preventing awareness of more intolerable emotions. METHOD: This narrative review builds on the premise is that physical and emotional pain are conscious experiences that can compete for selective attention...
September 14, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216226/the-effect-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-zhike-houpu-herbal-pair-zkhphp-on-depressive-behaviors-and-hippocampal-serotonin-1a-receptors-in-rats-following-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-cums
#7
Zi'an Xia, Chunhu Zhang, Yuanhao Du, Wei Huang, Zhihua Xing, Hui Cao, Kechao Nie, Yang Wang, Xingui Xiong, Bo Yang
OBJECTIVE: Zhike-Houpu herbal pair (ZKHPHP) is a well-known Chinese medicine to treat gastrointestinal motility dysfunction. Recently, many researchers have found that some of the compounds of ZKHPHP such as meranzin hydrate and magnolol have antidepressant effects. However, little is known about the antidepressant mechanism of ZKHPHP. Therefore, the main aim of the study is to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of ZKHPHP and its possible mechanism of action on HTR1A (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A) in the hippocampus CA1 region in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress...
September 13, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211795/childhood-adversity-and-pain-facilitation
#8
Dokyoung S You, Mary W Meagher
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether childhood adversity would be associated with hypersensitivity on two measures of central pain facilitation: area of secondary allodynia and Temporal Summation of Second Pain (TSSP), and whether pain facilitation would be explained by adult Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHOD: Participants endorsing high (n=31) and low (n=31) childhood adversity underwent capsaicin-induced secondary allodynia and TSSP testing...
September 11, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188382/the-effects-of-tryptophan-enhancement-and-depletion-on-plasma-catecholamine-levels-in-healthy-individuals
#9
Stephen H Boyle, Beverly H Brummett, Cynthia M Kuhn, John C Barefoot, Ilene C Siegler, Redford B Williams, Anastasia Georgiades
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) serotonin (5-HT) exerts both excitatory and inhibitory effects on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in animals. In this study, we examine the effects of tryptophan enhancement and depletion on plasma catecholamine levels in humans. METHODS: The total sample consisted of 164 healthy men and women who were tested over 2 days. Seventy-nine participants were randomized to a tryptophan enhancement condition and eighty-five to a tryptophan depletion condition...
September 4, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134359/reduced-fear-conditioned-pain-modulation-in-experienced-meditators-a-preliminary-study
#10
A Taylor Véronique, Mathieu Roy, Luke Chang, Louis-Nascan Gill, Christian Mueller, Pierre Rainville
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based practice is a form of cognitive/affective training that may help reduce suffering by attenuating maladaptive anticipatory processes. This study's objective was to examine the pain modulating impact of classical fear learning in meditation practitioners. METHODS: The hyperalgesic effects of pain expectation and uncertainty were assessed outside formal meditation in 11 experienced meditators (>1000h) compared to meditation-naïve controls during a Pavlovian classical fear-conditioning paradigm involving two visual stimuli (CS+/CS-), one of which (CS+) co-terminated with a noxious electrical stimulus (US) on 50% of trials...
August 21, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134358/intimacy-as-related-to-cortisol-reactivity-and-recovery-in-couples-undergoing-psychosocial-stress
#11
Beate Ditzen, Janine Germann, Nathalie Meuwly, Thomas N Bradbury, Guy Bodenmann, Markus Heinrichs
OBJECTIVE: The importance of recovery from stress is evident in times of high prevalence of stress-related diseases. Intimacy has been found to buffer psychobiological stress-reactivity, suggesting that emotional and physical closeness might trigger biological mechanisms which underlie the health-beneficial effects of couple relationships. Here we investigated whether couples' spontaneous expression of intimacy before and after psychosocial stress exposure in the laboratory reduced cortisol reactivity and accelerated recovery...
August 21, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281028/chronic-family-stress-and-adolescent-health-the-moderating-role-of-emotion-regulation
#12
Emily J Jones, Phoebe H Lam, Lauren C Hoffer, Edith Chen, Hannah M C Schreier
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether the association between chronic family stress and physiological measures is moderated by emotion regulation strategies in an adolescent sample. METHODS: Chronic family stress was assessed via a semistructured interview and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and suppression) via questionnaire among 261 adolescents (14.57 (1.07) years). Several metabolic (waist-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and inflammatory markers (basal and stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production in response to bacterial challenge) as well as glucocorticoid sensitivity were assessed...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281027/effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
James Reavell, Michael Hopkinson, Danielle Clarkesmith, Deirdre A Lane
OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and influence their mental well-being and CVD prognosis. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression and anxiety in patients with CVD. Secondary objectives were to assess the impact of CBT on cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular events, patient satisfaction, and quality of life. METHODS: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and alternative sources were searched for randomized controlled trials and observational studies with a control...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277936/article-summaries-for-october-2018-psychosomatic-medicine-volume-80-issue-8
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148747/neural-correlates-of-giving-social-support-differences-between-giving-targeted-versus-untargeted-support
#15
Tristen K Inagaki, Lauren P Ross
OBJECTIVE: Giving support contributes to the link between social ties and health; however, the neural mechanisms are not known. Giving support in humans may rely on neural regions implicated in parental care in animals. The current studies, therefore, assess the contribution of parental care-related neural regions to giving support in humans and, as a further theoretical test, examine whether the benefits of giving targeted support to single, identifiable individuals in need extend to giving untargeted support to larger societal causes...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134360/prevalence-of-illness-induced-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-united-states
#16
Renée El-Gabalawy, Natalie Mota, Jordana L Sommer, Donald Edmondson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113911/comparison-of-treatment-rates-of-depression-after-stroke-versus-myocardial-infarction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-data
#17
Simon Ladwig, Zien Zhou, Ying Xu, Xia Wang, Clara K Chow, Katja Werheid, Maree L Hackett
OBJECTIVE: Depression after stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) is common but often assumed to be undertreated without reliable evidence being available. Thus, we aimed to determine treatment rates and investigate the application of guidelines in these conditions. METHODS: Databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus were systematically searched without language restriction from inception to June 30, 2017. Prospective observational studies with consecutive recruitment reporting any antidepressant treatment in adults with depression after stroke or MI were included...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095673/when-family-matters-most-a-test-of-the-association-between-sexual-minority-identity-disclosure-context-and-diurnal-cortisol-in-sexual-minority-young-adults
#18
Andrew W Manigault, Wilson S Figueroa, Cari R Hollenbeck, Anna E Mendlein, Alex Woody, Katrina R Hamilton, Matt C Scanlin, Ryan C Johnson, Peggy M Zoccola
OBJECTIVE: Revealing one's sexual identity to others is a complex process marked by a shift in the types of stressors faced by sexual minority young adults. Such stressors influence the secretion of health-relevant hormones, including cortisol, yet how dimensions of disclosure (i.e., the degree and context) influence neuroendocrine functioning remains poorly understood. The current study examined the association between disclosure context (disclosure to family members, friends/co-workers/acquaintances, and members of religious groups) and diurnal cortisol while allowing disclosure to vary in degree (i...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095672/a-microbial-signature-of-psychological-distress-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
Johannes Peter, Camille Fournier, Marija Durdevic, Lukas Knoblich, Bettina Keip, Clemens Dejaco, Michael Trauner, Gabriele Moser
OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with alterations along the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Previous studies have suggested a parallel segregation of microbial features and psychological burden in IBS. This study aimed at exploring the microbial correlates of psychological distress in patients with IBS. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with IBS (Rome III criteria, M (SD) age = 42 (15) years, 35 female, 25 diarrhea-dominant, 5 constipation-dominant, and 18 alternating-type IBS) were assessed for psychological and clinical variables with validated questionnaires, fecal samples underwent microbial 16S rRNA analyses (regions V1-2)...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085997/insecure-attachment-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-functioning-in-people-with-eating-disorders
#20
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Giuseppina Patriciello, Valeria Ruzzi, Giovanna Fico, Francesca Pellegrino, Giovanni Castellini, Luca Steardo, Palmiero Monteleone, Mario Maj
OBJECTIVE: Childhood attachment experiences affect adult emotion regulation and ability to cope with stressors. Therefore, insecure attachment may influence the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a dysregulation of HPA axis has been found in insecure attached healthy individuals. The effects of attachment on HPA axis activity have never been investigated in eating disorders (EDs). Therefore, we assessed the relationships between insecure attachment and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in adults with EDs...
October 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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