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Psychosomatic Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445210/perceived-discrimination-and-longitudinal-change-in-kidney-function-among-urban-adults
#1
May A Beydoun, Angedith Poggi-Burke, Alan B Zonderman, Ola S Rostant, Michele K Evans, Deidra C Crews
OBJECTIVE: Perceived discrimination has been associated with psychosocial distress and adverse health outcomes. We examined associations of perceived discrimination measures with changes in kidney function in a prospective cohort study, the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the LifeSpan. METHODS: Our study included 1,620 participants with preserved baseline kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73m) (662 Whites and 958 African-Americans (AA), aged 30-64 years)...
April 26, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445209/intelligence-and-interleukin-6-in-older-adults-the-role-of-repetitive-thought
#2
Suzanne C Segerstrom, Rebecca G Reed, April B Scott
OBJECTIVE: Higher IQ correlates with lower systemic inflammation, consistent with an association between lower IQ and disease risk. The present study examined the role of repetitive thought (RT) in the relationship between IQ and interleukin (IL)-6. RT is thinking attentively, repeatedly, and frequently about oneself and one's world and is characterized by Valence (positive-negative), Purpose (searching-solving), and Total quantity (much-little). METHODS: Estimated IQ and RT dimension scores were assessed at baseline in a sample of older adults (N=120, Mage=74 years), who thereafter had blood drawn up to 10 times semiannually (n=799)...
April 26, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437381/mean-levels-and-variability-in-affect-diabetes-self-care-behaviors-and-continuously-monitored-glucose-a-daily-study-of-latinos-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Julie Wagner, Stephen Armeli, Howard Tennen, Angela Bermudez-Millan, Howard Wolpert, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated between-person and within-person associations among mean levels and variability in affect, diabetes self-care behaviors, and continuously monitored glucose in Latinos with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Fifty participants (mean age=57.8 [SD=11.7] years, 74% women, mean A1c=8.3% [SD=1.5%]) wore a 'blinded' continuous glucose monitor for 7 days, and they responded to twice-daily automated phone surveys regarding positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA) and self-care behaviors...
April 21, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437380/lifestyle-and-neurocognition-in-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-cognitive-impairment
#4
James A Blumenthal, Patrick J Smith, Stephanie Mabe, Alan Hinderliter, Kathleen Welsh-Bohmer, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Pao-Hwa Lin, William Kraus, P Murali Doraiswamy, James Burke, Andrew Sherwood
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of lifestyle factors and neurocognitive functioning in older adults with vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment, without dementia (CIND). METHODS: One hundred sixty adults (Mean = 65.4±6.8 years) with CIND completed neurocognitive assessments of executive function, processing speed, and memory. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometry, aerobic capacity determined by exercise testing, and dietary habits quantified by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and 4-Day Food Diary to assess adherence to the Mediterranean and DASH diets were obtained to assess direct effects with neurocognition...
April 21, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437379/associations-of-lifetime-trauma-and-chronic-stress-with-c-reactive-protein-in-adults-ages-50-and-older-examining-the-moderating-role-of-perceived-control
#5
Ari J Elliot, Christopher J Mooney, Frank J Infurna, Benjamin P Chapman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether high perceived control mitigates systemic inflammatory risk associated with traumatic and chronic stress exposures in older adults. METHODS: A sample of community-dwelling adults ages 50 and older (N=4,779) was drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Structural equation models tested interactions of lifetime trauma and chronic stress with mastery and perceived constraints predicting baseline levels and four-year change in C-reactive protein (CRP)...
April 21, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422780/understanding-the-gut-microbiota-in-inflammatory-and-functional-gastrointestinal-diseases
#6
Johanna Sundin, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simren
OBJECTIVE: During the last decade experimental and observational studies have shown that patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) may have an altered intestinal microbial composition compared to healthy subjects. However, no uniform microbial signature has as yet been detected for either IBD or IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of microbial dysbiosis, and its potential relationship to the pathophysiology in IBD and IBS. METHODS: A selective review was conducted to summarize the current knowledge of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBD and IBS...
April 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406804/subjective-general-health-and-the-social-regulation-of-hypothalamic-activity
#7
Casey L Brown, Lane Beckes, Joseph P Allen, James A Coan
OBJECTIVE: Social support is associated with better health. This association may be partly mediated through the social regulation of adrenomedullary activity related to poor cardiovascular health and glucocorticoid activity known to inhibit immune functioning. These physiological cascades originate in the hypothalamic areas that are involved in the neural response to threat. We investigated whether the down regulation, by social support, of hypothalamic responses to threat is associated with better subjective health...
April 12, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406803/investigating-clinical-benefits-of-a-novel-sleep-focused-mind-body-program-on-gulf-war-illness-gwi-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Yoshio Nakamura, David L Lipschitz, Gary W Donaldson, Yuri Kida, Samuel Williams, Richard Landward, Don Glover, Gavin West, Ashok Tuteja
OBJECTIVE: Mind-Body Bridging (MBB) has been shown to be effective for improving disturbed sleep. In this prospective randomized-controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of sleep-focused MBB compared with sleep education control (SED) for improving sleep in previously deployed Gulf War Veterans. METHODS: US military service members with sleep and physical health complaints who were deployed in 1990-1991 were randomized to receive MBB (n=33) or SED (n=27) between 2012 and 2015, each comprised three weekly sessions...
April 12, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323668/mindfulness-meditation-training-and-executive-control-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Adrienne A Taren, Peter J Gianaros, Carol M Greco, Emily K Lindsay, April Fairgrieve, Kirk Warren Brown, Rhonda K Rosen, Jennifer L Ferris, Erica Julson, Anna L Marsland, J David Creswell
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g. attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) - a hub of the executive control network - and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function...
March 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319558/effects-of-medical-interventions-on-gender-dysphoria-and-body-image-a-follow-up-study
#10
Tim C van de Grift, Els Elaut, Susanne C Cerwenka, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Griet De Cuypere, Hertha Richter-Appelt, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence is to investigate the status of all individuals who had applied for gender confirming interventions from 2007 until 2009, irrespective of whether they received treatment. The current article describes the study protocol, the effect of medical treatment on gender dysphoria and body image, and the predictive value of (pre)treatment factors on post-treatment outcomes. METHODS: Data were collected on medical interventions, transition status, gender dysphoria (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body image (Body Image Scale for Transsexuals)...
March 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306624/the-association-of-work-characteristics-with-ovarian-cancer-risk-and-mortality
#11
Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M Poole, Annika Idahl, Eva Lundin, Anil K Sood, Ichiro Kawachi, Laura D Kubzansky, Shelley S Tworoger
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer (OvCA) is a leading cause of cancer death for women. Depression and social isolation have been associated with a higher OvCA risk and poorer survival, but other forms of chronic psychosocial stress, including work-related characteristics, remain understudied. METHODS: Women from three prospective cohorts (Nurses' Health Study (NHS), n=31,754; Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), n=74,260; Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS); nnested case-control study=196) completed a job questionnaire, assessing demand and control at work, social support provided by coworkers and supervisor, and job security...
March 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306623/risk-of-epilepsy-in-individuals-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-nationwide-longitudinal-study
#12
Yu-Hsiung Chen, Han-Ting Wei, Ya-Mei Bai, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kai-Lin Huang, Tung-Ping Su, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Yi-Hui Wu, Tai-Long Pan, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Shih-Jen Tsai, Mu-Hong Chen
OBJECTIVE: Several cross-sectional studies reported a relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and epilepsy. However, the temporal association between PTSD and epilepsy has rarely been investigated. We hypothesized that the risk of developing epilepsy later in life would be higher in patients with PTSD than in those without PTSD. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 6425 individuals with PTSD and 24,980 age-/sex-matched controls were enrolled between 2002 and 2009 in our study, and followed up to the end of 2011...
March 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282363/the-relationship-between-mental-health-disease-severity-and-genetic-risk-for-depression-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Jack Euesden, Faith Matcham, Matthew Hotopf, Sophia Steer, Andrew P Cope, Cathryn M Lewis, Ian C Scott
OBJECTIVE: Reduced mental health is prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although longitudinal studies are limited, there is evidence that depression associates with worse disease outcomes. We evaluated reciprocal relationships between mental health, RA severity and genetic risks for depression over 2-years in a well-characterised cohort of RA patients. METHODS: We evaluated 520 early RA patients previously enrolled to two clinical trials. Mental health was measured using the SF-36 mental health (MH) domain and mental component summary scores (MCS)...
March 9, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272110/the-association-between-temperament-and-microbiota-in-healthy-individuals-a-pilot-study
#14
Hojun Kim, Young-Jae Park
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether enterotypes in the gut microbiome could be determined by clustering validity indexes and whether these enterotypes were associated with individual differences in temperament traits. METHODS: Sixty healthy Korean participants (21 men; 27.5 ± 8.1 years, 39 women; 34.5 ± 14.3 years) were asked to answer 60 temperament questions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) from the Korean version of the temperament and character inventory-125 (K-TCI-125)...
March 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221237/ptsd-orientation-to-pain-and-pain-perception-in-ex-prisoners-of-war-who-underwent-torture
#15
Noga Tsur, Ruth Defrin, Karni Ginzburg
OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that torture survivors often suffer long-term chronic pain and increased pain perception. However, it is unclear whether the actual experience of torture, or rather the subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), explains these pain problems. Furthermore, while catastrophic and fearful orientations to pain have been suggested to play a significant role in the association between trauma and pain, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study examined whether chronic pain and pain perception among torture survivors are associated with torture experience or PTSD and whether catastrophic and fearful orientations mediate or moderate these associations...
February 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207612/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-executive-function-performance-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Melanie M Broadley, Melanie J White, Brooke Andrew
OBJECTIVE: To examine the current evidence for executive function (EF) performance differences between groups with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and non-diabetic control groups during adolescence and early adulthood, and to explore the relationships between EF and diabetes-related risk factors. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature examining EF performance in groups with T1DM was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic database searches for published and unpublished literature yielded a final set of 26 articles after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 16, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207613/vagal-regulation-of-cardiac-function-in-early-childhood-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescence
#17
Meghan J Gangel, Lilly Shanahan, Jacek Kolacz, James A Janssen, Ashley Brown, Susan D Calkins, Susan P Keane, Laurie Wideman
OBJECTIVE: Poor behavioral self-regulation in the first two decades of life has been identified as an important precursor of disease risk in adulthood. However, physiological regulation has not been well-studied as a disease risk factor before adulthood. We tested whether physiological regulation at age two, in the form of vagal regulation of cardiac function (indexed by RSA change), would predict three indicators of cardiovascular risk at age 16 (diastolic and systolic blood pressure and body mass index)...
February 15, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178034/the-neurobiology-of-health-communication
#18
Peter A Hall, Kirk I Erickson, Peter J Gianaros
This issue of Psychosomatic Medicine describes findings from an innovative study by Kang et al. employing neuroimaging methods to quantify neural responses to health communications. Findings indicated that those sedentary individuals who hold self-transcendent values show attenuated limbic threat responses to communications about the benefits of physical activity. Furthermore, participants who were instructed to articulate such values showed some evidence of additional blunting of the same neural response. In this editorial we provide context for the interpretation of these findings within the existing research using the brain-as-predictor approach, and other recent trends within biobehavioral medicine involving the use of neuroscience methods in the service of health behavior change...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178033/social-influences-on-prevotella-and-the-gut-microbiome-of-young-monkeys
#19
Wellington Z Amaral, Gabriele R Lubach, Alexandra Proctor, Mark Lyte, Gregory J Phillips, Christopher L Coe
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the bacterial profiles of young monkeys as they were weaned into peer groups with a particular focus on Prevotella, an important taxon in both human and nonhuman primates. The weaning of infants and increased social contact with peers is a developmental stage that is likely to affect the gut microbiome. METHODS: Gut bacteria were assessed in 63 rhesus monkeys living in social groups comprised of 4-7 individuals. Two groups were assessed prospectively on Day 1 and 2 weeks after rehousing away from the mother and group formation...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178032/early-life-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-metabolic-health-disparities
#20
Camelia E Hostinar, Kharah M Ross, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller
OBJECTIVE: A quarter of the world's population suffers from metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS prevalence stratifies by socioeconomic status (SES), such that low SES is associated with higher MetS risk. The present study compared the associations between early-life SES and current SES with MetS. METHODS: Participants (N = 354, ages 15-55, M = 36.5 years, SD = 10.7; 55% female; 72.9% White, 16.9% Asian, 10.2% other) were evaluated for SES and MetS. All were in good health, defined as free of chronic medical illness and acute infectious disease...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
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