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Sora Lee, Daniel M Bolt
While item complexity is often considered as an item feature in test development, it is much less frequently attended to in the psychometric modeling of test items. Prior work suggests that item complexity may manifest through asymmetry in item characteristics curves (ICCs; Samejima in Psychometrika 65:319-335, 2000). In the current paper, we study the potential for asymmetric IRT models to inform empirically about underlying item complexity, and thus the potential value of asymmetric models as tools for item validation...
September 25, 2017: Psychometrika
Francesco Bartolucci, Alessio Farcomeni, Luisa Scaccia
We propose a nonparametric item response theory model for dichotomously-scored items in a Bayesian framework. The model is based on a latent class (LC) formulation, and it is multidimensional, with dimensions corresponding to a partition of the items in homogenous groups that are specified on the basis of inequality constraints among the conditional success probabilities given the latent class. Moreover, an innovative system of prior distributions is proposed following the encompassing approach, in which the largest model is the unconstrained LC model...
September 12, 2017: Psychometrika
Monia Ranalli, Roberto Rocci
The literature on clustering for continuous data is rich and wide; differently, that one developed for categorical data is still limited. In some cases, the clustering problem is made more difficult by the presence of noise variables/dimensions that do not contain information about the clustering structure and could mask it. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for simultaneous clustering and dimensionality reduction of ordered categorical data able to detect the discriminative dimensions discarding the noise ones...
September 6, 2017: Psychometrika
Yang Liu, Ji Seung Yang
In most item response theory applications, model parameters need to be first calibrated from sample data. Latent variable (LV) scores calculated using estimated parameters are thus subject to sampling error inherited from the calibration stage. In this article, we propose a resampling-based method, namely bootstrap calibration (BC), to reduce the impact of the carryover sampling error on the interval estimates of LV scores. BC modifies the quantile of the plug-in posterior, i.e., the posterior distribution of the LV evaluated at the estimated model parameters, to better match the corresponding quantile of the true posterior, i...
September 6, 2017: Psychometrika
Yinghan Chen, Steven Andrew Culpepper, Yuguo Chen, Jeffrey Douglas
Cognitive diagnosis models are partially ordered latent class models and are used to classify students into skill mastery profiles. The deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate model (DINA) is a popular psychometric model for cognitive diagnosis. Application of the DINA model requires content expert knowledge of a Q matrix, which maps the attributes or skills needed to master a collection of items. Misspecification of Q has been shown to yield biased diagnostic classifications. We propose a Bayesian framework for estimating the DINA Q matrix...
August 31, 2017: Psychometrika
Jean-Paul Fox, Joris Mulder, Sandip Sinharay
Two marginal one-parameter item response theory models are introduced, by integrating out the latent variable or random item parameter. It is shown that both marginal response models are multivariate (probit) models with a compound symmetry covariance structure. Several common hypotheses concerning the underlying covariance structure are evaluated using (fractional) Bayes factor tests. The support for a unidimensional factor (i.e., assumption of local independence) and differential item functioning are evaluated by testing the covariance components...
August 29, 2017: Psychometrika
George Karabatsos
This article introduces a Bayesian method for testing the axioms of additive conjoint measurement. The method is based on an importance sampling algorithm that performs likelihood-free, approximate Bayesian inference using a synthetic likelihood to overcome the analytical intractability of this testing problem. This new method improves upon previous methods because it provides an omnibus test of the entire hierarchy of cancellation axioms, beyond double cancellation. It does so while accounting for the posterior uncertainty that is inherent in the empirical orderings that are implied by these axioms, together...
August 25, 2017: Psychometrika
Xiang Liu, Zhuangzhuang Han, Matthew S Johnson
In educational and psychological measurement when short test forms are used, the asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator of the person parameter of item response models does not hold. As a result, hypothesis tests or confidence intervals of the person parameter based on the normal distribution are likely to be problematic. Inferences based on the exact distribution, on the other hand, do not suffer from this limitation. However, the computation involved for the exact distribution approach is often prohibitively expensive...
August 23, 2017: Psychometrika
R Philip Chalmers
This paper demonstrates that, after applying a simple modification to Li and Stout's (Psychometrika 61(4):647-677, 1996) CSIBTEST statistic, an improved variant of the statistic could be realized. It is shown that this modified version of CSIBTEST has a more direct association with the SIBTEST statistic presented by Shealy and Stout (Psychometrika 58(2):159-194, 1993). In particular, the asymptotic sampling distributions and general interpretation of the effect size estimates are the same for SIBTEST and the new CSIBTEST...
August 22, 2017: Psychometrika
Nickolay T Trendafilov, Sara Fontanella, Kohei Adachi
Sparse principal component analysis is a very active research area in the last decade. It produces component loadings with many zero entries which facilitates their interpretation and helps avoid redundant variables. The classic factor analysis is another popular dimension reduction technique which shares similar interpretation problems and could greatly benefit from sparse solutions. Unfortunately, there are very few works considering sparse versions of the classic factor analysis. Our goal is to contribute further in this direction...
July 13, 2017: Psychometrika
Hailemichael M Worku, Mark De Rooij
The ideal point classification (IPC) model was originally proposed for analysing multinomial data in the presence of predictors. In this paper, we studied properties of the IPC model for analysing bivariate binary data with a specific focus on three quantities: (1) the marginal probabilities; (2) the association structure between the two binary responses; and (3) the joint probabilities. We found that the IPC model with a specific class point configuration represents either the marginal probabilities or the association structure...
June 13, 2017: Psychometrika
So Yeon Chun, Michael W Browne, Alexander Shapiro
Covariance structure analysis and its structural equation modeling extensions have become one of the most widely used methodologies in social sciences such as psychology, education, and economics. An important issue in such analysis is to assess the goodness of fit of a model under analysis. One of the most popular test statistics used in covariance structure analysis is the asymptotically distribution-free (ADF) test statistic introduced by Browne (Br J Math Stat Psychol 37:62-83, 1984). The ADF statistic can be used to test models without any specific distribution assumption (e...
June 8, 2017: Psychometrika
Laura Bocci, Donatella Vicari
A Generalized INDCLUS model, termed GINDCLUS, is presented for clustering three-way two-mode proximity data. In order to account for the heterogeneity of the data, both a partition of the subjects into homogeneous classes and a covering of the objects into groups are simultaneously determined. Furthermore, the availability of information which is external to the three-way data is exploited to better account for such heterogeneity: the weights of both classifications are linearly linked to external variables allowing for the identification of meaningful classes of subjects and groups of objects...
June 2017: Psychometrika
Cristina Mollica, Luca Tardella
The elicitation of an ordinal judgment on multiple alternatives is often required in many psychological and behavioral experiments to investigate preference/choice orientation of a specific population. The Plackett-Luce model is one of the most popular and frequently applied parametric distributions to analyze rankings of a finite set of items. The present work introduces a Bayesian finite mixture of Plackett-Luce models to account for unobserved sample heterogeneity of partially ranked data. We describe an efficient way to incorporate the latent group structure in the data augmentation approach and the derivation of existing maximum likelihood procedures as special instances of the proposed Bayesian method...
June 2017: Psychometrika
Michael Sobel, David Madigan, Wei Wang
We construct a framework for meta-analysis and other multi-level data structures that codifies the sources of heterogeneity between studies or settings in treatment effects and examines their implications for analyses. The key idea is to consider, for each of the treatments under investigation, the subject's potential outcome in each study or setting were he to receive that treatment. We consider four sources of heterogeneity: (1) response inconsistency, whereby a subject's response to a given treatment would vary across different studies or settings, (2) the grouping of nonequivalent treatments, where two or more treatments are grouped and treated as a single treatment under the incorrect assumption that a subject's responses to the different treatments would be identical, (3) nonignorable treatment assignment, and (4) response-related variability in the composition of subjects in different studies or settings...
June 2017: Psychometrika
Jimmy de la Torre, Chia-Yi Chiu
This rejoinder responds to the commentary by Liu (Psychometrika, 2015) entitled "On the consistency of Q-matrix estimation: A commentary" on the paper "A general method of empirical Q-matrix validation" by de la Torre and Chiu (Psychometrika, 2015). It discusses and addresses three concerns raised in the commentary, namely the estimation accuracy when a provisional Q-matrix is used, the consistency of the Q-matrix estimator, and the computational efficiency of the proposed method.
June 2017: Psychometrika
Ji Yeh Choi, Heungsun Hwang, Michio Yamamoto, Kwanghee Jung, Todd S Woodward
Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) and functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis (FMCCA) are data reduction techniques for functional data that are collected in the form of smooth curves or functions over a continuum such as time or space. In FPCA, low-dimensional components are extracted from a single functional dataset such that they explain the most variance of the dataset, whereas in FMCCA, low-dimensional components are obtained from each of multiple functional datasets in such a way that the associations among the components are maximized across the different sets...
June 2017: Psychometrika
Steffen Nestler, Mitja D Back
Whether, when, and why perceivers are able to accurately infer the personality traits of other individuals is a key topic in psychological science. Studies examining this question typically ask a number of perceivers to judge a number of targets with regard to a specific trait. The resulting data are then analyzed by averaging the judgments across perceivers or by computing the respective statistic for each single perceiver. Here, we discuss the limitations of the average-perceiver and single-perceiver approaches...
June 2017: Psychometrika
Jingchen Liu
This commentary concerns the theoretical properties of the estimation procedure in "A General Method of Empirical Q-matrix Validation" by Jimmy de la Torre and Chia-Yi Chiu. It raises the consistency issue of the estimator, proposes some modifications to it, and also makes some conjectures.
June 2017: Psychometrika
Michel Tenenhaus, Arthur Tenenhaus, Patrick J F Groenen
A new framework for sequential multiblock component methods is presented. This framework relies on a new version of regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA) where various scheme functions and shrinkage constants are considered. Two types of between block connections are considered: blocks are either fully connected or connected to the superblock (concatenation of all blocks). The proposed iterative algorithm is monotone convergent and guarantees obtaining at convergence a stationary point of RGCCA...
May 23, 2017: Psychometrika
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