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Peter F Halpin, Yoav Bergner
The social combination theory of group problem solving is used to extend existing psychometric models to collaborative settings. A model for pairwise group work is proposed, the implications of the model for assessment design are considered, and its estimation is addressed. The results are illustrated with an empirical example in which dyads work together on a twelfth-grade level mathematics assessment. In conclusion, attention is given to avenues of research that seem most fruitful for advancing current initiatives concerning the assessment of collaboration, teamwork, and related constructs...
August 9, 2018: Psychometrika
Yuqi Gu, Jingchen Liu, Gongjun Xu, Zhiliang Ying
The recent surge of interests in cognitive assessment has led to the development of cognitive diagnosis models. Central to many such models is a specification of the Q-matrix, which relates items to latent attributes that have natural interpretations. In practice, the Q-matrix is usually constructed subjectively by the test designers. This could lead to misspecification, which could result in lack of fit of the underlying statistical model. To test possible misspecification of the Q-matrix, traditional goodness of fit tests, such as the Chi-square test and the likelihood ratio test, may not be applied straightforwardly due to the large number of possible response patterns...
July 11, 2018: Psychometrika
Ick Hoon Jin, Minjeong Jeon
Item response theory (IRT) is one of the most widely utilized tools for item response analysis; however, local item and person independence, which is a critical assumption for IRT, is often violated in real testing situations. In this article, we propose a new type of analytical approach for item response data that does not require standard local independence assumptions. By adapting a latent space joint modeling approach, our proposed model can estimate pairwise distances to represent the item and person dependence structures, from which item and person clusters in latent spaces can be identified...
July 9, 2018: Psychometrika
Sandip Sinharay, Jens Ledet Jensen
In educational and psychological measurement, researchers and/or practitioners are often interested in examining whether the ability of an examinee is the same over two sets of items. Such problems can arise in measurement of change, detection of cheating on unproctored tests, erasure analysis, detection of item preknowledge, etc. Traditional frequentist approaches that are used in such problems include the Wald test, the likelihood ratio test, and the score test (e.g., Fischer, Appl Psychol Meas 27:3-26, 2003; Finkelman, Weiss, & Kim-Kang, Appl Psychol Meas 34:238-254, 2010; Glas & Dagohoy, Psychometrika 72:159-180, 2007; Guo & Drasgow, Int J Sel Assess 18:351-364, 2010; Klauer & Rettig, Br J Math Stat Psychol 43:193-206, 1990; Sinharay, J Educ Behav Stat 42:46-68, 2017)...
June 27, 2018: Psychometrika
R Philip Chalmers
This paper proposes a model-based family of detection and quantification statistics to evaluate response bias in item bundles of any size. Compensatory (CDRF) and non-compensatory (NCDRF) response bias measures are proposed, along with their sample realizations and large-sample variability when models are fitted using multiple-group estimation. Based on the underlying connection to item response theory estimation methodology, it is argued that these new statistics provide a powerful and flexible approach to studying response bias for categorical response data over and above methods that have previously appeared in the literature...
June 15, 2018: Psychometrika
Shaobo Jin, Irini Moustaki, Fan Yang-Wallentin
The problem of penalized maximum likelihood (PML) for an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) model is studied in this paper. An EFA model is typically estimated using maximum likelihood and then the estimated loading matrix is rotated to obtain a sparse representation. Penalized maximum likelihood simultaneously fits the EFA model and produces a sparse loading matrix. To overcome some of the computational drawbacks of PML, an approximation to PML is proposed in this paper. It is further applied to an empirical dataset for illustration...
June 6, 2018: Psychometrika
Shaobo Jin, Sebastian Ankargren
Model selection from a set of candidate models plays an important role in many structural equation modelling applications. However, traditional model selection methods introduce extra randomness that is not accounted for by post-model selection inference. In the current study, we propose a model averaging technique within the frequentist statistical framework. Instead of selecting an optimal model, the contributions of all candidate models are acknowledged. Valid confidence intervals and a [Formula: see text] test statistic are proposed...
June 4, 2018: Psychometrika
Daniel W Heck, Edgar Erdfelder, Pascal J Kieslich
Multinomial processing tree models assume that discrete cognitive states determine observed response frequencies. Generalized processing tree (GPT) models extend this conceptual framework to continuous variables such as response times, process-tracing measures, or neurophysiological variables. GPT models assume finite-mixture distributions, with weights determined by a processing tree structure, and continuous components modeled by parameterized distributions such as Gaussians with separate or shared parameters across states...
May 24, 2018: Psychometrika
Sy-Miin Chow, Lu Ou, Arridhana Ciptadi, Emily B Prince, Dongjun You, Michael D Hunter, James M Rehg, Agata Rozga, Daniel S Messinger
A growing number of social scientists have turned to differential equations as a tool for capturing the dynamic interdependence among a system of variables. Current tools for fitting differential equation models do not provide a straightforward mechanism for diagnosing evidence for qualitative shifts in dynamics, nor do they provide ways of identifying the timing and possible determinants of such shifts. In this paper, we discuss regime-switching differential equation models, a novel modeling framework for representing abrupt changes in a system of differential equation models...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Ke-Hai Yuan, Mortaza Jamshidian, Yutaka Kano
Unless data are missing completely at random (MCAR), proper methodology is crucial for the analysis of incomplete data. Consequently, methods for effectively testing the MCAR mechanism become important, and procedures were developed via testing the homogeneity of means and variances-covariances across the observed patterns (e.g., Kim & Bentler in Psychometrika 67:609-624, 2002; Little in J Am Stat Assoc 83:1198-1202, 1988). The current article shows that the population counterparts of the sample means and covariances of a given pattern of the observed data depend on the underlying structure that generates the data, and the normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood estimates for different patterns of the observed sample can converge to the same values even when data are missing at random or missing not at random, although the values may not equal those of the underlying population distribution...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Soojin Park, Peter M Steiner, David Kaplan
Considering that causal mechanisms unfold over time, it is important to investigate the mechanisms over time, taking into account the time-varying features of treatments and mediators. However, identification of the average causal mediation effect in the presence of time-varying treatments and mediators is often complicated by time-varying confounding. This article aims to provide a novel approach to uncovering causal mechanisms in time-varying treatments and mediators in the presence of time-varying confounding...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Riet van Bork, Raoul P P P Grasman, Lourens J Waldorp
In this paper we present a new implication of the unidimensional factor model. We prove that the partial correlation between two observed variables that load on one factor given any subset of other observed variables that load on this factor lies between zero and the zero-order correlation between these two observed variables. We implement this result in an empirical bootstrap test that rejects the unidimensional factor model when partial correlations are identified that are either stronger than the zero-order correlation or have a different sign than the zero-order correlation...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Dylan Molenaar, Paul de Boeck
In item response theory modeling of responses and response times, it is commonly assumed that the item responses have the same characteristics across the response times. However, heterogeneity might arise in the data if subjects resort to different response processes when solving the test items. These differences may be within-subject effects, that is, a subject might use a certain process on some of the items and a different process with different item characteristics on the other items. If the probability of using one process over the other process depends on the subject's response time, within-subject heterogeneity of the item characteristics across the response times arises...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Kohei Adachi, Nickolay T Trendafilov
A new factor analysis (FA) procedure has recently been proposed which can be called matrix decomposition FA (MDFA). All FA model parameters (common and unique factors, loadings, and unique variances) are treated as fixed unknown matrices. Then, the MDFA model simply becomes a specific data matrix decomposition. The MDFA parameters are found by minimizing the discrepancy between the data and the MDFA model. Several algorithms have been developed and some properties have been discussed in the literature (notably by Stegeman in Comput Stat Data Anal 99:189-203, 2016), but, as a whole, MDFA has not been studied fully yet...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Kai Wang
Previous studies have found some puzzling power anomalies related to testing the indirect effect of a mediator. The power for the indirect effect stagnates and even declines as the size of the indirect effect increases. Furthermore, the power for the indirect effect can be much higher than the power for the total effect in a model where there is no direct effect and therefore the indirect effect is of the same magnitude as the total effect. In the presence of direct effect, the power for the indirect effect is often much higher than the power for the direct effect even when these two effects are of the same magnitude...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Chia-Yi Chiu, Yan Sun, Yanhong Bian
The focus of cognitive diagnosis (CD) is on evaluating an examinee's strengths and weaknesses in terms of cognitive skills learned and skills that need study. Current methods for fitting CD models (CDMs) work well for large-scale assessments, where the data of hundreds or thousands of examinees are available. However, the development of CD-based assessment tools that can be used in small-scale test settings, say, for monitoring the instruction and learning process at the classroom level has not kept up with the rapid pace at which research and development proceeded for large-scale assessments...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Sora Lee, Daniel M Bolt
While item complexity is often considered as an item feature in test development, it is much less frequently attended to in the psychometric modeling of test items. Prior work suggests that item complexity may manifest through asymmetry in item characteristics curves (ICCs; Samejima in Psychometrika 65:319-335, 2000). In the current paper, we study the potential for asymmetric IRT models to inform empirically about underlying item complexity, and thus the potential value of asymmetric models as tools for item validation...
June 2018: Psychometrika
Yang Liu, Ji Seung Yang
In most item response theory applications, model parameters need to be first calibrated from sample data. Latent variable (LV) scores calculated using estimated parameters are thus subject to sampling error inherited from the calibration stage. In this article, we propose a resampling-based method, namely bootstrap calibration (BC), to reduce the impact of the carryover sampling error on the interval estimates of LV scores. BC modifies the quantile of the plug-in posterior, i.e., the posterior distribution of the LV evaluated at the estimated model parameters, to better match the corresponding quantile of the true posterior, i...
June 2018: Psychometrika
George Karabatsos
This article introduces a Bayesian method for testing the axioms of additive conjoint measurement. The method is based on an importance sampling algorithm that performs likelihood-free, approximate Bayesian inference using a synthetic likelihood to overcome the analytical intractability of this testing problem. This new method improves upon previous methods because it provides an omnibus test of the entire hierarchy of cancellation axioms, beyond double cancellation. It does so while accounting for the posterior uncertainty that is inherent in the empirical orderings that are implied by these axioms, together...
June 2018: Psychometrika
R Philip Chalmers
This paper demonstrates that, after applying a simple modification to Li and Stout's (Psychometrika 61(4):647-677, 1996) CSIBTEST statistic, an improved variant of the statistic could be realized. It is shown that this modified version of CSIBTEST has a more direct association with the SIBTEST statistic presented by Shealy and Stout (Psychometrika 58(2):159-194, 1993). In particular, the asymptotic sampling distributions and general interpretation of the effect size estimates are the same for SIBTEST and the new CSIBTEST...
June 2018: Psychometrika
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