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Blakeley B McShane, Ulf Böckenholt
We introduce multilevel multivariate meta-analysis methodology designed to account for the complexity of contemporary psychological research data. Our methodology directly models the observations from a set of studies in a manner that accounts for the variation and covariation induced by the facts that observations differ in their dependent measures and moderators and are nested within, for example, papers, studies, groups of subjects, and study conditions. Our methodology is motivated by data from papers and studies of the choice overload hypothesis...
May 19, 2017: Psychometrika
Po-Hsien Huang
Model selection is a popular strategy in structural equation modeling (SEM). To select an "optimal" model, many selection criteria have been proposed. In this study, we derive the asymptotics of several popular selection procedures in SEM, including AIC, BIC, the RMSEA, and a two-stage rule for the RMSEA (RMSEA-2S). All of the results are derived under weak distributional assumptions and can be applied to a wide class of discrepancy functions. The results show that both AIC and BIC asymptotically select a model with the smallest population minimum discrepancy function (MDF) value regardless of nested or non-nested selection, but only BIC could consistently choose the most parsimonious one under nested model selection...
April 26, 2017: Psychometrika
Michelle M LaMar
Within-task actions can provide additional information on student competencies but are challenging to model. This paper explores the potential of using a cognitive model for decision making, the Markov decision process, to provide a mapping between within-task actions and latent traits of interest. Psychometric properties of the model are explored, and simulation studies report on parameter recovery within the context of a simple strategy game. The model is then applied to empirical data from an educational game...
April 26, 2017: Psychometrika
Steffen Grønneberg, Njål Foldnes
We propose a new and flexible simulation method for non-normal data with user-specified marginal distributions, covariance matrix and certain bivariate dependencies. The VITA (VIne To Anything) method is based on regular vines and generalizes the NORTA (NORmal To Anything) method. Fundamental theoretical properties of the VITA method are deduced. Two illustrations demonstrate the flexibility and usefulness of VITA in the context of structural equation models. R code for the implementation is provided.
April 24, 2017: Psychometrika
Po-Hsien Huang, Hung Chen, Li-Jen Weng
A penalized likelihood (PL) method for structural equation modeling (SEM) was proposed as a methodology for exploring the underlying relations among both observed and latent variables. Compared to the usual likelihood method, PL includes a penalty term to control the complexity of the hypothesized model. When the penalty level is appropriately chosen, the PL can yield an SEM model that balances the model goodness-of-fit and model complexity. In addition, the PL results in a sparse estimate that enhances the interpretability of the final model...
April 17, 2017: Psychometrika
Alwin Stegeman
A new model for simultaneous component analysis (SCA) is introduced that contains the existing SCA models with common loading matrix as special cases. The new SCA-T3 model is a multi-set generalization of the Tucker3 model for component analysis of three-way data. For each mode (observational units, variables, sets) a different number of components can be chosen and the obtained solution can be rotated without loss of fit to facilitate interpretation. SCA-T3 can be fitted on centered multi-set data and also on the corresponding covariance matrices...
April 6, 2017: Psychometrika
J R Lockwood, Daniel F McCaffrey
This article considers the application of the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) method for measurement error correction when the error variance is a function of the latent variable being measured. Heteroskedasticity of this form arises in educational and psychological applications with ability estimates from item response theory models. We conclude that there is no simple solution for applying SIMEX that generally will yield consistent estimators in this setting. However, we demonstrate that several approximate SIMEX methods can provide useful estimators, leading to recommendations for analysts dealing with this form of error in settings where SIMEX may be the most practical option...
March 29, 2017: Psychometrika
Sacha Epskamp, Mijke Rhemtulla, Denny Borsboom
We introduce the network model as a formal psychometric model, conceptualizing the covariance between psychometric indicators as resulting from pairwise interactions between observable variables in a network structure. This contrasts with standard psychometric models, in which the covariance between test items arises from the influence of one or more common latent variables. Here, we present two generalizations of the network model that encompass latent variable structures, establishing network modeling as parts of the more general framework of structural equation modeling (SEM)...
March 13, 2017: Psychometrika
Elena A Erosheva, S McKay Curtis
This paper considers the reflection unidentifiability problem in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the associated implications for Bayesian estimation. We note a direct analogy between the multimodality in CFA models that is due to all possible column sign changes in the matrix of loadings and the multimodality in finite mixture models that is due to all possible relabelings of the mixture components. Drawing on this analogy, we derive and present a simple approach for dealing with reflection in variance in Bayesian factor analysis...
March 13, 2017: Psychometrika
Hao Ren, Wim J van der Linden, Qi Diao
Parameter recovery and item utilization were investigated for different designs for online test item calibration. The design was adaptive in a double sense: it assumed both adaptive testing of examinees from an operational pool of previously calibrated items and adaptive assignment of field-test items to the examinees. Four criteria of optimality for the assignment of the field-test items were used, each of them based on the information in the posterior distributions of the examinee's ability parameter during adaptive testing as well as the sequentially updated posterior distributions of the field-test item parameters...
March 13, 2017: Psychometrika
Paul Dudgeon
Yuan and Chan (Psychometrika 76:670-690, 2011. doi: 10.1007/S11336-011-9224-6 ) derived consistent confidence intervals for standardized regression coefficients under fixed and random score assumptions. Jones and Waller (Psychometrika 80:365-378, 2015. doi: 10.1007/S11336-013-9380-Y ) extended these developments to circumstances where data are non-normal by examining confidence intervals based on Browne's (Br J Math Stat Psychol 37:62-83, 1984. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8317.1984.tb00789.x ) asymptotic distribution-free (ADF) theory...
March 13, 2017: Psychometrika
Minjeong Jeon, Frank Rijmen, Sophia Rabe-Hesketh
We present a variational maximization-maximization algorithm for approximate maximum likelihood estimation of generalized linear mixed models with crossed random effects (e.g., item response models with random items, random raters, or random occasion-specific effects). The method is based on a factorized variational approximation of the latent variable distribution given observed variables, which creates a lower bound of the log marginal likelihood. The lower bound is maximized with respect to the factorized distributions as well as model parameters...
February 28, 2017: Psychometrika
Emily A Scherer, Lin Huang, Lydia A Shrier
Ecological momentary assessment data consist of in-the-moment sampling several times per day aimed at capturing phenomena that are highly variable. When research questions are focused on the association between a construct measured repeatedly and an event that occurs sporadically over time interspersed between repeated measures, the data consist of correlated observed or censored times to an event. In such a case, specialized time-to-event models that account for correlated observations are required to properly assess the relationships under study...
March 2017: Psychometrika
Yang Liu, Jan Hannig
Samejima's graded response model (GRM) has gained popularity in the analyses of ordinal response data in psychological, educational, and health-related assessment. Obtaining high-quality point and interval estimates for GRM parameters attracts a great deal of attention in the literature. In the current work, we derive generalized fiducial inference (GFI) for a family of multidimensional graded response model, implement a Gibbs sampler to perform fiducial estimation, and compare its finite-sample performance with several commonly used likelihood-based and Bayesian approaches via three simulation studies...
February 21, 2017: Psychometrika
Yu-Wei Chang, Nan-Jung Hsu, Rung-Ching Tsai
The multiple-group categorical factor analysis (FA) model and the graded response model (GRM) are commonly used to examine polytomous items for differential item functioning to detect possible measurement bias in educational testing. In this study, the multiple-group categorical factor analysis model (MC-FA) and multiple-group normal-ogive GRM models are unified under the common framework of discretization of a normal variant. We rigorously justify a set of identified parameters and determine possible identifiability constraints necessary to make the parameters just-identified and estimable in the common framework of MC-FA...
February 17, 2017: Psychometrika
Ji Yeh Choi, Heungsun Hwang, Marieke E Timmerman
Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) is a useful multivariate method for decomposing three-way data that consist of three different types of entities simultaneously. This method estimates trilinear components, each of which is a low-dimensional representation of a set of entities, often called a mode, to explain the maximum variance of the data. Functional PARAFAC permits the entities in different modes to be smooth functions or curves, varying over a continuum, rather than a collection of unconnected responses...
February 14, 2017: Psychometrika
J Fernando Vera, Rodrigo Macías
One of the main problems in cluster analysis is that of determining the number of groups in the data. In general, the approach taken depends on the cluster method used. For K-means, some of the most widely employed criteria are formulated in terms of the decomposition of the total point scatter, regarding a two-mode data set of N points in p dimensions, which are optimally arranged into K classes. This paper addresses the formulation of criteria to determine the number of clusters, in the general situation in which the available information for clustering is a one-mode [Formula: see text] dissimilarity matrix describing the objects...
February 13, 2017: Psychometrika
Alberto Maydeu-Olivares
When a statistically significant mean difference is found, the magnitude of the difference is judged qualitatively using an effect size such as Cohen's d. In contrast, in a structural equation model (SEM), the result of the statistical test of model fit is often disregarded if significant, and inferences are drawn using "close" models retained based on point estimates of sample statistics (goodness-of-fit indices). However, when a SEM cannot be retained using a test of exact fit, all substantive inferences drawn from it are suspect...
February 7, 2017: Psychometrika
Wim J van der Linden, Michelle D Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Psychometrika
Steffen Nestler, Katharina Geukes, Roos Hutteman, Mitja D Back
The social relations model (SRM) is commonly used in the analysis of interpersonal judgments and behaviors that arise in groups. The SRM was developed only for use with cross-sectional data. Here, we introduce an extension of the SRM to longitudinal data. The social relations growth model represents a person's repeated SRM judgments of another person as a function of time. We show how the model's parameters can be estimated using restricted maximum likelihood, and how the effects of covariates on interindividual and interdyad variability in growth can be computed...
December 6, 2016: Psychometrika
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