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Psychological Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150957/model-flexibility-analysis-does-not-measure-the-persuasiveness-of-a-fit
#1
Nathan J Evans, Zachary L Howard, Andrew Heathcote, Scott D Brown
Recently, Veksler, Myers, and Gluck (2015) proposed model flexibility analysis as a method that "aids model evaluation by providing a metric for gauging the persuasiveness of a given fit" (p. 755) Model flexibility analysis measures the complexity of a model in terms of the proportion of all possible data patterns it can predict. We show that this measure does not provide a reliable way to gauge complexity, which prevents model flexibility analysis from fulfilling either of the 2 aims outlined by Veksler et al...
February 2, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095003/cocaine-addiction-as-a-homeostatic-reinforcement-learning-disorder
#2
Mehdi Keramati, Audrey Durand, Paul Girardeau, Boris Gutkin, Serge H Ahmed
Drug addiction implicates both reward learning and homeostatic regulation mechanisms of the brain. This has stimulated 2 partially successful theoretical perspectives on addiction. Many important aspects of addiction, however, remain to be explained within a single, unified framework that integrates the 2 mechanisms. Building upon a recently developed homeostatic reinforcement learning theory, the authors focus on a key transition stage of addiction that is well modeled in animals, escalation of drug use, and propose a computational theory of cocaine addiction where cocaine reinforces behavior due to its rapid homeostatic corrective effect, whereas its chronic use induces slow and long-lasting changes in homeostatic setpoint...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068117/the-neural-representation-of-the-gender-of-faces-in-the-primate-visual-system-a-computer-modeling-study
#3
Thomas Minot, Hannah L Dury, Akihiro Eguchi, Glyn W Humphreys, Simon M Stringer
We use an established neural network model of the primate visual system to show how neurons might learn to encode the gender of faces. The model consists of a hierarchy of 4 competitive neuronal layers with associatively modifiable feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During training, the network was presented with many realistic images of male and female faces, during which the synaptic connections are modified using biologically plausible local associative learning rules. After training, we found that different subsets of output neurons have learned to respond exclusively to either male or female faces...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054796/robust-social-categorization-emerges-from-learning-the-identities-of-very-few-faces
#4
Robin S S Kramer, Andrew W Young, Matthew G Day, A Mike Burton
Viewers are highly accurate at recognizing sex and race from faces-though it remains unclear how this is achieved. Recognition of familiar faces is also highly accurate across a very large range of viewing conditions, despite the difficulty of the problem. Here we show that computation of sex and race can emerge incidentally from a system designed to compute identity. We emphasize the role of multiple encounters with a small number of people, which we take to underlie human face learning. We use highly variable everyday 'ambient' images of a few people to train a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model on identity...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221088/the-menstrual-cycle-response-and-developmental-affective-risk-model-a-multilevel-and-integrative-model-of-influence
#5
Jeff Kiesner
An integrative developmental model is presented in which menstrual cycle-related symptoms are hypothesized to result in a cascade of developmental challenges that contribute to increased affective symptoms among adolescent girls, and to long-term developmental sequelae. To provide the basis for this model a broad foundation is developed considering (a) psychological symptoms and disorders associated with reproductive events across the life span, and (b) the many and complicated effects that female reproductive steroids (estrogen & progesterone) have which trigger a variety of physical and psychological changes that are commonly associated with the menstrual cycle...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221087/fechner-s-law-in-metacognition-a-quantitative-model-of-visual-working-memory-confidence
#6
Ronald van den Berg, Aspen H Yoo, Wei Ji Ma
Although visual working memory (VWM) has been studied extensively, it is unknown how people form confidence judgments about their memories. Peirce (1878) speculated that Fechner's law-which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of stimulus intensity-might apply to confidence reports. Based on this idea, we hypothesize that humans map the precision of their VWM contents to a confidence rating through Fechner's law. We incorporate this hypothesis into the best available model of VWM encoding and fit it to data from a delayed-estimation experiment...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221086/cassandra-s-regret-the-psychology-of-not-wanting-to-know
#7
Gerd Gigerenzer, Rocio Garcia-Retamero
Ignorance is generally pictured as an unwanted state of mind, and the act of willful ignorance may raise eyebrows. Yet people do not always want to know, demonstrating a lack of curiosity at odds with theories postulating a general need for certainty, ambiguity aversion, or the Bayesian principle of total evidence. We propose a regret theory of deliberate ignorance that covers both negative feelings that may arise from foreknowledge of negative events, such as death and divorce, and positive feelings of surprise and suspense that may arise from foreknowledge of positive events, such as knowing the sex of an unborn child...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221085/goal-relevance-as-a-quantitative-model-of-human-task-relevance
#8
James Tanner, Laurent Itti
The concept of relevance is used ubiquitously in everyday life. However, a general quantitative definition of relevance has been lacking, especially as pertains to quantifying the relevance of sensory observations to one's goals. We propose a theoretical definition for the information value of data observations with respect to a goal, which we call "goal relevance." We consider the probability distribution of an agent's subjective beliefs over how a goal can be achieved. When new data are observed, its goal relevance is measured as the Kullback-Leibler divergence between belief distributions before and after the observation...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004960/self-evaluation-of-decision-making-a-general-bayesian-framework-for-metacognitive-computation
#9
Stephen M Fleming, Nathaniel D Daw
People are often aware of their mistakes, and report levels of confidence in their choices that correlate with objective performance. These metacognitive assessments of decision quality are important for the guidance of behavior, particularly when external feedback is absent or sporadic. However, a computational framework that accounts for both confidence and error detection is lacking. In addition, accounts of dissociations between performance and metacognition have often relied on ad hoc assumptions, precluding a unified account of intact and impaired self-evaluation...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004959/modeling-visual-problem-solving-as-analogical-reasoning
#10
Andrew Lovett, Kenneth Forbus
We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004958/associative-judgment-and-vector-space-semantics
#11
Sudeep Bhatia
I study associative processing in high-level judgment using vector space semantic models. I find that semantic relatedness, as quantified by these models, is able to provide a good measure of the associations involved in judgment, and, in turn, predict responses in a large number of existing and novel judgment tasks. My results shed light on the representations underlying judgment, and highlight the close relationship between these representations and those at play in language and in the assessment of word meaning...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869455/an-interference-model-of-visual-working-memory
#12
Klaus Oberauer, Hsuan-Yu Lin
The article introduces an interference model of working memory for information in a continuous similarity space, such as the features of visual objects. The model incorporates the following assumptions: (a) Probability of retrieval is determined by the relative activation of each retrieval candidate at the time of retrieval; (b) activation comes from 3 sources in memory: cue-based retrieval using context cues, context-independent memory for relevant contents, and noise; (c) 1 memory object and its context can be held in the focus of attention, where it is represented with higher precision, and partly shielded against interference...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797539/the-visually-guided-development-of-facial-representations-in-the-primate-ventral-visual-pathway-a-computer-modeling-study
#13
Akihiro Eguchi, Glyn W Humphreys, Simon M Stringer
Experimental studies have shown that neurons at an intermediate stage of the primate ventral visual pathway, occipital face area, encode individual facial parts such as eyes and nose while neurons in the later stages, middle face patches, are selective to the full face by encoding the spatial relations between facial features. We have performed a computer modeling study to investigate how these cell firing properties may develop through unsupervised visually guided learning. A hierarchical neural network model of the primate's ventral visual pathway is trained by presenting many randomly generated faces to the network while a local learning rule modifies the strengths of the synaptic connections between neurons in successive layers...
November 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797538/on-the-origins-of-logarithmic-number-to-position-mapping
#14
Dror Dotan, Stanislas Dehaene
The number-to-position task, in which children and adults are asked to place numbers on a spatial number line, has become a classic measure of number comprehension. We present a detailed experimental and theoretical dissection of the processing stages that underlie this task. We used a continuous finger-tracking technique, which provides detailed information about the time course of processing stages. When adults map the position of 2-digit numbers onto a line, their final mapping is essentially linear, but intermediate finger location show a transient logarithmic mapping...
November 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732021/exploring-visual-attention-functions-of-the-human-extrageniculate-pathways-through-behavioral-cues
#15
Raphaƫl Mizzi, George A Michael
Over the past few decades, evidence has accumulated showing that, at subcortical levels, visual attention depends partly on the extrageniculate neural pathways, that is, those pathways that bypass the lateral geniculate nucleus and circumvent the primary visual cortex. Working in concert with neuroscience, experimental psychology has contributed considerably to the understanding of the role these pathways play through the use of 3 behavioral cues: nasal-temporal asymmetries, responses to S-cone stimuli, and responses to perceptually suppressed stimuli...
October 10, 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657442/psychology-not-educational-neuroscience-is-the-way-forward-for-improving-educational-outcomes-for-all-children-reply-to-gabrieli-2016-and-howard-jones-et-al-2016
#16
Jeffrey S Bowers
In Bowers (2016), I argued that there are (a) practical problems with educational neuroscience (EN) that explain why there are no examples of EN improving teaching and (b) principled problems with the logic motivating EN that explain why it is likely that there never will be. In the following article, I consider the main responses raised by both Gabrieli (2016) and Howard-Jones et al. (2016) and find them all unconvincing. Following this exchange, there are still no examples of EN providing new insights to teaching in the classroom, there are still no examples of EN providing new insights to remedial instructions for individuals, and, as I detail in this article, there is no evidence that EN is useful for the diagnosis of learning difficulties...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657441/the-principles-and-practices-of-educational-neuroscience-comment-on-bowers-2016
#17
Paul A Howard-Jones, Sashank Varma, Daniel Ansari, Brian Butterworth, Bert De Smedt, Usha Goswami, Diana Laurillard, Michael S C Thomas
In his recent critique of Educational Neuroscience, Bowers argues that neuroscience has no role to play in informing education, which he equates with classroom teaching. Neuroscience, he suggests, adds nothing to what we can learn from psychology. In this commentary, we argue that Bowers' assertions misrepresent the nature and aims of the work in this new field. We suggest that, by contrast, psychological and neural levels of explanation complement rather than compete with each other. Bowers' analysis also fails to include a role for educational expertise-a guiding principle of our new field...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657440/the-promise-of-educational-neuroscience-comment-on-bowers-2016
#18
John D E Gabrieli
Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657439/thinking-outside-the-box-when-reading-aloud-between-localist-module-connection-strength-as-a-source-of-word-frequency-effects
#19
Derek Besner, Evan F Risko
The frequency with which words appear in print is a powerful predictor of the time to read monosyllabic words aloud, and consequently all models of reading aloud provide an explanation for this effect. The entire class of localist accounts assumes that the effect of word frequency arises because the mental lexicon is organized around frequency of occurrence (the action is inside the lexical boxes). We propose instead that the frequency of occurrence effect is better understood in terms of the hypothesis that the strength of between module connections varies as a function of word frequency...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504526/a-multi-rater-framework-for-studying-personality-the-trait-reputation-identity-model
#20
Samuel T McAbee, Brian S Connelly
Personality and social psychology have historically been divided between personality researchers who study the impact of traits and social-cognitive researchers who study errors in trait judgments. However, a broader view of personality incorporates not only individual differences in underlying traits but also individual differences in the distinct ways a person's personality is construed by oneself and by others. Such unique insights are likely to appear in the idiosyncratic personality judgments that raters make and are likely to have etiologies and causal force independent of trait perceptions shared across raters...
October 2016: Psychological Review
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