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Psychological Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144149/modeling-numerosity-representation-with-an-integrated-diffusion-model
#1
Roger Ratcliff, Gail McKoon
Models of the representation of numerosity information used in discrimination tasks are integrated with a diffusion decision model. The representation models assume distributions of numerosity either with means and SD that increase linearly with numerosity or with means that increase logarithmically with constant SD. The models produce coefficients that are applied to differences between two numerosities to produce drift rates and these drive the decision process. The linear and log models make differential predictions about how response time (RT) distributions and accuracy change with numerosity and which model is successful depends on the task...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035080/neural-scaling-laws-for-an-uncertain-world
#2
Marc W Howard, Karthik H Shankar
Autonomous neural systems must efficiently process information in a wide range of novel environments which may have very different statistical properties. We consider the problem of how to optimally distribute receptors along a 1-dimensional continuum consistent with the following design principles. First, neural representations of the world should obey a neural uncertainty principle-making as few assumptions as possible about the statistical structure of the world. Second, neural representations should convey, as much as possible, equivalent information about environments with different statistics...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035079/action-and-perception-in-literacy-a-common-code-for-spelling-and-reading
#3
George Houghton
There is strong evidence that reading and spelling in alphabetical scripts depend on a shared representation (common-coding). However, computational models usually treat the two skills separately, producing a wide variety of proposals as to how the identity and position of letters is represented. This article treats reading and spelling in terms of the common-coding hypothesis for perception-action coupling. Empirical evidence for common representations in spelling-reading is reviewed. A novel version of the Start-End Competitive Queuing (SE-CQ) spelling model is introduced, and tested against the distribution of positional errors in Letter Position Dysgraphia, data from intralist intrusion errors in spelling to dictation, and dysgraphia because of nonperipheral neglect...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035078/overrepresentation-of-extreme-events-in-decision-making-reflects-rational-use-of-cognitive-resources
#4
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths, Ming Hsu
People's decisions and judgments are disproportionately swayed by improbable but extreme eventualities, such as terrorism, that come to mind easily. This article explores whether such availability biases can be reconciled with rational information processing by taking into account the fact that decision makers value their time and have limited cognitive resources. Our analysis suggests that to make optimal use of their finite time decision makers should overrepresent the most important potential consequences relative to less important, put potentially more probable, outcomes...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035077/task-conflict-and-proactive-control-a-computational-theory-of-the-stroop-task
#5
Eyal Kalanthroff, Eddy J Davelaar, Avishai Henik, Liat Goldfarb, Marius Usher
The Stroop task is a central experimental paradigm used to probe cognitive control by measuring the ability of participants to selectively attend to task-relevant information and inhibit automatic task-irrelevant responses. Research has revealed variability in both experimental manipulations and individual differences. Here, we focus on a particular source of Stroop variability, the reverse-facilitation (RF; faster responses to nonword neutral stimuli than to congruent stimuli), which has recently been suggested as a signature of task conflict...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035076/internal-and-external-sources-of-variability-in-perceptual-decision-making
#6
Roger Ratcliff, Chelsea Voskuilen, Gail McKoon
It is important to identify sources of variability in processing to understand decision-making in perception and cognition. There is a distinction between internal and external variability in processing, and double-pass experiments have been used to estimate their relative contributions. In these and our experiments, exact perceptual stimuli are repeated later in testing, and agreement on the 2 trials is examined to see if it is greater than chance. In recent research in modeling decision processes, some models implement only (internal) variability in the decision process whereas others explicitly represent multiple sources of variability...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933872/from-needs-to-goals-and-representations-foundations-for-a-unified-theory-of-motivation-personality-and-development
#7
Carol S Dweck
Drawing on both classic and current approaches, I propose a theory that integrates motivation, personality, and development within one framework, using a common set of principles and mechanisms. The theory begins by specifying basic needs and by suggesting how, as people pursue need-fulfilling goals, they build mental representations of their experiences (beliefs, representations of emotions, and representations of action tendencies). I then show how these needs, goals, and representations can serve as the basis of both motivation and personality, and can help to integrate disparate views of personality...
September 21, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106269/a-dynamic-approach-to-recognition-memory
#8
Gregory E Cox, Richard M Shiffrin
We present a dynamic model of memory that integrates the processes of perception, retrieval from knowledge, retrieval of events, and decision making as these evolve from 1 moment to the next. The core of the model is that recognition depends on tracking changes in familiarity over time from an initial baseline generally determined by context, with these changes depending on the availability of different kinds of information at different times. A mathematical implementation of this model leads to precise, accurate predictions of accuracy, response time, and speed-accuracy trade-off in episodic recognition at the levels of both groups and individuals across a variety of paradigms...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106268/strategy-selection-as-rational-metareasoning
#9
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths
Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106267/a-novel-ecological-account-of-prefrontal-cortex-functional-development
#10
Denise M Werchan, Dima Amso
In this paper, we argue that prefrontal cortex ontogenetic functional development is best understood through an ecological lens. We first begin by reviewing evidence supporting the existing consensus that PFC structural and functional development is protracted based on maturational constraints. We then examine recent findings from neuroimaging studies in infants, early life stress research, and connectomics that support the novel hypothesis that PFC functional development is driven by reciprocal processes of neural adaptation and niche construction...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703607/none-of-the-above-a-bayesian-account-of-the-detection-of-novel-categories
#11
Daniel J Navarro, Charles Kemp
Every time we encounter a new object, action, or event, there is some chance that we will need to assign it to a novel category. We describe and evaluate a class of probabilistic models that detect when an object belongs to a category that has not previously been encountered. The models incorporate a prior distribution that is influenced by the distribution of previous objects among categories, and we present 2 experiments that demonstrate that people are also sensitive to this distributional information. Two additional experiments confirm that distributional information is combined with similarity when both sources of information are available...
October 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703606/cyclical-population-dynamics-of-automatic-versus-controlled-processing-an-evolutionary-pendulum
#12
David G Rand, Damon Tomlin, Adam Bear, Elliot A Ludvig, Jonathan D Cohen
Psychologists, neuroscientists, and economists often conceptualize decisions as arising from processes that lie along a continuum from automatic (i.e., "hardwired" or overlearned, but relatively inflexible) to controlled (less efficient and effortful, but more flexible). Control is central to human cognition, and plays a key role in our ability to modify the world to suit our needs. Given its advantages, reliance on controlled processing may seem predestined to increase within the population over time. Here, we examine whether this is so by introducing an evolutionary game theoretic model of agents that vary in their use of automatic versus controlled processes, and in which cognitive processing modifies the environment in which the agents interact...
October 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569526/noisy-preferences-in-risky-choice-a-cautionary-note
#13
Sudeep Bhatia, Graham Loomes
We examine the effects of multiple sources of noise in risky decision making. Noise in the parameters that characterize an individual's preferences can combine with noise in the response process to distort observed choice proportions. Thus, underlying preferences that conform to expected value maximization can appear to show systematic risk aversion or risk seeking. Similarly, core preferences that are consistent with expected utility theory, when perturbed by such noise, can appear to display nonlinear probability weighting...
October 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504522/the-construct-behavior-gap-in-behavioral-decision-research-a-challenge-beyond-replicability
#14
Michel Regenwetter, Maria M Robinson
Behavioral decision research compares theoretical constructs like preferences to behavior such as observed choices. Three fairly common links from constructs to behavior are (1) to tally, across participants and decision problems, the number of choices consistent with one predicted pattern of pairwise preferences; (2) to compare what most people choose in each decision problem against a predicted preference pattern; or (3) to enumerate the decision problems in which two experimental conditions generate a 1-sided significant difference in choice frequency 'consistent' with the theory...
October 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471206/the-complementary-roles-of-auditory-and-motor-information-evaluated-in-a-bayesian-perceptuo-motor-model-of-speech-perception
#15
Raphaël Laurent, Marie-Lou Barnaud, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Pierre Bessière, Julien Diard
There is a consensus concerning the view that both auditory and motor representations intervene in the perceptual processing of speech units. However, the question of the functional role of each of these systems remains seldom addressed and poorly understood. We capitalized on the formal framework of Bayesian Programming to develop COSMO (Communicating Objects using Sensory-Motor Operations), an integrative model that allows principled comparisons of purely motor or purely auditory implementations of a speech perception task and tests the gain of efficiency provided by their Bayesian fusion...
October 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447812/a-computational-model-of-fraction-arithmetic
#16
David W Braithwaite, Aryn A Pyke, Robert S Siegler
Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction, a failure that hinders their learning of more advanced mathematics as well as their occupational success. To test hypotheses about why children have so many difficulties in this area, we created a computational model of fraction arithmetic learning and presented it with the problems from a widely used textbook series. The simulation generated many phenomena of children's fraction arithmetic performance through a small number of common learning mechanisms operating on a biased input set...
October 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414490/interference-and-memory-capacity-limitations
#17
Ansgar D Endress, Szilárd Szabó
Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference...
October 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910127/visual-shape-perception-as-bayesian-inference-of-3d-object-centered-shape-representations
#18
Goker Erdogan, Robert A Jacobs
Despite decades of research, little is known about how people visually perceive object shape. We hypothesize that a promising approach to shape perception is provided by a "visual perception as Bayesian inference" framework which augments an emphasis on visual representation with an emphasis on the idea that shape perception is a form of statistical inference. Our hypothesis claims that shape perception of unfamiliar objects can be characterized as statistical inference of 3D shape in an object-centered coordinate system...
September 14, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639818/a-critical-examination-of-the-research-and-theoretical-underpinnings-discussed-in-thomson-besner-and-smilek-2016
#19
Nicholas W Fraulini, Gabriella M Hancock, Alexis R Neigel, Victoria L Claypoole, James L Szalma
Thomson, Besner, and Smilek (2016) propose that performance decrements associated with sustained attention are not consistently the result of a decline in perceptual sensitivity. Thomson et al. (2016) present empirical evidence using a novel, nontraditional vigilance task to support their assumptions. However, in the present rebuttal, we argue that the authors have not only have misinterpreted previous research in sustained attention, but also have misapplied those interpretations to their study. Thomson et al...
July 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447811/likelihood-based-parameter-estimation-and-comparison-of-dynamical-cognitive-models
#20
Heiko H Schütt, Lars O M Rothkegel, Hans A Trukenbrod, Sebastian Reich, Felix A Wichmann, Ralf Engbert
Dynamical models of cognition play an increasingly important role in driving theoretical and experimental research in psychology. Therefore, parameter estimation, model analysis and comparison of dynamical models are of essential importance. In this article, we propose a maximum likelihood approach for model analysis in a fully dynamical framework that includes time-ordered experimental data. Our methods can be applied to dynamical models for the prediction of discrete behavior (e.g., movement onsets); in particular, we use a dynamical model of saccade generation in scene viewing as a case study for our approach...
July 2017: Psychological Review
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