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Psychological Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863378/the-emergence-of-polychronization-and-feature-binding-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-primate-ventral-visual-system
#1
Akihiro Eguchi, James B Isbister, Nasir Ahmad, Simon Stringer
We present a hierarchical neural network model, in which subpopulations of neurons develop fixed and regularly repeating temporal chains of spikes (polychronization), which respond specifically to randomized Poisson spike trains representing the input training images. The performance is improved by including top-down and lateral synaptic connections, as well as introducing multiple synaptic contacts between each pair of pre- and postsynaptic neurons, with different synaptic contacts having different axonal delays...
June 4, 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683692/the-behavioral-ecology-of-cultural-psychological-variation
#2
Oliver Sng, Steven L Neuberg, Michael E W Varnum, Douglas T Kenrick
Recent work has documented a wide range of important psychological differences across societies. Multiple explanations have been offered for why such differences exist, including historical philosophies, subsistence methods, social mobility, social class, climactic stresses, and religion. With the growing body of theory and data, there is an emerging need for an organizing framework. We propose here that a behavioral ecological perspective, particularly the idea of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, can provide an overarching framework for thinking about psychological variation across cultures and societies...
April 23, 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733667/the-power-law-of-visual-working-memory-characterizes-attention-engagement
#3
Philip L Smith, Elaine A Corbett, Simon D Lilburn, Søren Kyllingsbæk
The quality or precision of stimulus representations in visual working memory can be characterized by a power law, which states that precision decreases as a power of the number of items in memory, with an exponent whose magnitude typically varies in the range 0.5 to 0.75. The authors show that the magnitude of the exponent is an index of the attentional demands of memory formation. They report 5 visual working memory experiments with tasks using noisy, backward-masked stimuli that varied in their attentional demands and show that the magnitude of the exponent increases systematically with the attentional demands of the task...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733666/do-infants-and-nonhuman-animals-attribute-mental-states
#4
Tyler Burge
Among psychologists, it is widely thought that infants well under age 3, monkeys, apes, birds, and dogs have been shown to have rudimentary capacities for representing and attributing mental states or relations. I believe this view to be mistaken. It rests on overinterpreting experiments. It also often rests on assuming that one must choose between taking these individuals to be mentalists and taking them to be behaviorists. This assumption underestimates a powerful nonmentalistic, nonbehavioristic explanatory scheme that centers on attributing action with targets and on causation of action by interlocking, internal conative, and sensory states...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733665/the-capacity-of-trans-saccadic-memory-in-visual-search
#5
Nicholas J Kleene, Melchi M Michel
Maintaining a continuous, stable perception of the visual world relies on the ability to integrate information from previous fixations with the current one. An essential component of this integration is trans-saccadic memory (TSM), memory for information across saccades. TSM capacity may play a limiting role in tasks requiring efficient trans-saccadic integration, such as multiple-fixation visual search tasks. We estimated TSM capacity and investigated its relationship to visual short-term memory (VSTM) using two visual search tasks, one in which participants maintained fixation while saccades were simulated and another where participants made a sequence of actual saccades...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733664/a-sampling-model-of-social-judgment
#6
Mirta Galesic, Henrik Olsson, Jörg Rieskamp
Studies of social judgments have demonstrated a number of diverse phenomena that were so far difficult to explain within a single theoretical framework. Prominent examples are false consensus and false uniqueness, as well as self-enhancement and self-depreciation. Here we show that these seemingly complex phenomena can be a product of an interplay between basic cognitive processes and the structure of social and task environments. We propose and test a new process model of social judgment, the social sampling model (SSM), which provides a parsimonious quantitative account of different types of social judgments...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733663/concepts-control-and-context-a-connectionist-account-of-normal-and-disordered-semantic-cognition
#7
Paul Hoffman, James L McClelland, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Semantic cognition requires conceptual representations shaped by verbal and nonverbal experience and executive control processes that regulate activation of knowledge to meet current situational demands. A complete model must also account for the representation of concrete and abstract words, of taxonomic and associative relationships, and for the role of context in shaping meaning. We present the first major attempt to assimilate all of these elements within a unified, implemented computational framework. Our model combines a hub-and-spoke architecture with a buffer that allows its state to be influenced by prior context...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658730/a-dynamic-dual-process-model-of-risky-decision-making
#8
Adele Diederich, Jennifer S Trueblood
Many phenomena in judgment and decision making are often attributed to the interaction of 2 systems of reasoning. Although these so-called dual process theories can explain many types of behavior, they are rarely formalized as mathematical or computational models. Rather, dual process models are typically verbal theories, which are difficult to conclusively evaluate or test. In the cases in which formal (i.e., mathematical) dual process models have been proposed, they have not been quantitatively fit to experimental data and are often silent when it comes to the timing of the 2 systems...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658729/a-structural-model-of-intrinsic-motivation-on-the-psychology-of-means-ends-fusion
#9
Arie W Kruglanski, Ayelet Fishbach, Kaitlin Woolley, Jocelyn J Bélanger, Marina Chernikova, Erica Molinario, Antonio Pierro
The term intrinsic motivation refers to an activity being seen as its own end. Accordingly, we conceptualize intrinsic motivation (IM) as (perceived) means-ends fusion and define an intrinsicality continuum reflecting the degree to which such fusion is experienced. Our means-ends fusion (MEF) theory assumes four major antecedents of activity-goal fusion: (a) repeated pairing of the activity and the goal, (b) uniqueness of the activity-goal connection, (c) perceived similarity between the activity and its goal, and (d) temporal immediacy of goal attainment following the activity...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658728/-beyond-sacrificial-harm-a-two-dimensional-model-of-utilitarian-psychology-correction
#10
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology" by Guy Kahane, Jim A. C. Everett, Brian D. Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S. Faber, Molly J. Crockett and Julian Savulescu ( Psychological Review , Advanced Online Publication, Dec 21, 2017, np). The copyright attribution was incorrectly listed, and the Creative Commons CC-BY license disclaimer was incorrectly omitted from the author note. The correct copyright is "© 2017 The Author(s)" and the omitted disclaimer is presented in the erratum...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265854/beyond-sacrificial-harm-a-two-dimensional-model-of-utilitarian-psychology
#11
Guy Kahane, Jim A C Everett, Brian D Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S Faber, Molly J Crockett, Julian Savulescu
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 125(2) of Psychological Review (see record 2018-15704-001). The copyright attribution was incorrectly listed, and the Creative Commons CC-BY license disclaimer was incorrectly omitted from the author note. The correct copyright is "© 2017 The Author(s)" and the omitted disclaimer is found in the erratum. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Recent research has relied on trolley-type sacrificial moral dilemmas to study utilitarian versus nonutilitarian modes of moral decision-making...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265853/are-there-two-processes-in-reasoning-the-dimensionality-of-inductive-and-deductive-inferences
#12
Rachel G Stephens, John C Dunn, Brett K Hayes
Single-process accounts of reasoning propose that the same cognitive mechanisms underlie inductive and deductive inferences. In contrast, dual-process accounts propose that these inferences depend upon 2 qualitatively different mechanisms. To distinguish between these accounts, we derived a set of single-process and dual-process models based on an overarching signal detection framework. We then used signed difference analysis to test each model against data from an argument evaluation task, in which induction and deduction judgments are elicited for sets of valid and invalid arguments...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265852/a-social-identity-model-of-pro-environmental-action-simpea
#13
Immo Fritsche, Markus Barth, Philipp Jugert, Torsten Masson, Gerhard Reese
Large-scale environmental crises are genuinely collective phenomena: they usually result from collective, rather than personal, behavior and how they are cognitively represented and appraised is determined by collectively shared interpretations (e.g., differing across ideological groups) and based on concern for collectives (e.g., humankind, future generations) rather than for individuals. Nevertheless, pro-environmental action has been primarily investigated as a personal decision-making process. We complement this research with a social identity perspective on pro-environmental action...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144149/modeling-numerosity-representation-with-an-integrated-diffusion-model
#14
Roger Ratcliff, Gail McKoon
Models of the representation of numerosity information used in discrimination tasks are integrated with a diffusion decision model. The representation models assume distributions of numerosity either with means and SD that increase linearly with numerosity or with means that increase logarithmically with constant SD. The models produce coefficients that are applied to differences between two numerosities to produce drift rates and these drive the decision process. The linear and log models make differential predictions about how response time (RT) distributions and accuracy change with numerosity and which model is successful depends on the task...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345482/subjects-adjust-criterion-on-errors-in-perceptual-decision-tasks
#15
Peter R Killeen, Thomas J Taylor, Mario Treviño
The optimal strategy in detection theory is to partition the decision axis at a criterion C, labeling all events that score above C "Signal", and all those that fall below "Noise." The optimal position of C, C*, depends on signal probability and payoffs. If observers place their criterion at some place other than C*, they suffer a loss in the Expected Value (EV) of payoffs over the course of many decisions. We provide an explicit equation for the degree of loss, where it is shown that the falloff in value will be steep in contexts of good discrimination and will be a flatter gradient in contexts of poor discrimination...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035080/neural-scaling-laws-for-an-uncertain-world
#16
Marc W Howard, Karthik H Shankar
Autonomous neural systems must efficiently process information in a wide range of novel environments which may have very different statistical properties. We consider the problem of how to optimally distribute receptors along a 1-dimensional continuum consistent with the following design principles. First, neural representations of the world should obey a neural uncertainty principle-making as few assumptions as possible about the statistical structure of the world. Second, neural representations should convey, as much as possible, equivalent information about environments with different statistics...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035078/overrepresentation-of-extreme-events-in-decision-making-reflects-rational-use-of-cognitive-resources
#17
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths, Ming Hsu
People's decisions and judgments are disproportionately swayed by improbable but extreme eventualities, such as terrorism, that come to mind easily. This article explores whether such availability biases can be reconciled with rational information processing by taking into account the fact that decision makers value their time and have limited cognitive resources. Our analysis suggests that to make optimal use of their finite time decision makers should overrepresent the most important potential consequences relative to less important, put potentially more probable, outcomes...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035076/internal-and-external-sources-of-variability-in-perceptual-decision-making
#18
Roger Ratcliff, Chelsea Voskuilen, Gail McKoon
It is important to identify sources of variability in processing to understand decision-making in perception and cognition. There is a distinction between internal and external variability in processing, and double-pass experiments have been used to estimate their relative contributions. In these and our experiments, exact perceptual stimuli are repeated later in testing, and agreement on the 2 trials is examined to see if it is greater than chance. In recent research in modeling decision processes, some models implement only (internal) variability in the decision process whereas others explicitly represent multiple sources of variability...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265855/competing-theories-of-multialternative-multiattribute-preferential-choice
#19
Brandon M Turner, Dan R Schley, Carly Muller, Konstantinos Tsetsos
In accounting for phenomena present in preferential choice experiments, modern models assume a wide array of different mechanisms such as lateral inhibition, leakage, loss aversion, and saliency. These mechanisms create interesting predictions for the dynamics of the deliberation process as well as the aggregate behavior of preferential choice in a variety of contexts. However, the models that embody these different mechanisms are rarely subjected to rigorous quantitative tests of suitability by way of model fitting and evaluation...
December 21, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106269/a-dynamic-approach-to-recognition-memory
#20
Gregory E Cox, Richard M Shiffrin
We present a dynamic model of memory that integrates the processes of perception, retrieval from knowledge, retrieval of events, and decision making as these evolve from 1 moment to the next. The core of the model is that recognition depends on tracking changes in familiarity over time from an initial baseline generally determined by context, with these changes depending on the availability of different kinds of information at different times. A mathematical implementation of this model leads to precise, accurate predictions of accuracy, response time, and speed-accuracy trade-off in episodic recognition at the levels of both groups and individuals across a variety of paradigms...
November 2017: Psychological Review
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