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Psychological Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658730/a-dynamic-dual-process-model-of-risky-decision-making
#1
Adele Diederich, Jennifer S Trueblood
Many phenomena in judgment and decision making are often attributed to the interaction of 2 systems of reasoning. Although these so-called dual process theories can explain many types of behavior, they are rarely formalized as mathematical or computational models. Rather, dual process models are typically verbal theories, which are difficult to conclusively evaluate or test. In the cases in which formal (i.e., mathematical) dual process models have been proposed, they have not been quantitatively fit to experimental data and are often silent when it comes to the timing of the 2 systems...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658729/a-structural-model-of-intrinsic-motivation-on-the-psychology-of-means-ends-fusion
#2
Arie W Kruglanski, Ayelet Fishbach, Kaitlin Woolley, Jocelyn J Bélanger, Marina Chernikova, Erica Molinario, Antonio Pierro
The term intrinsic motivation refers to an activity being seen as its own end. Accordingly, we conceptualize intrinsic motivation (IM) as (perceived) means-ends fusion and define an intrinsicality continuum reflecting the degree to which such fusion is experienced. Our means-ends fusion (MEF) theory assumes four major antecedents of activity-goal fusion: (a) repeated pairing of the activity and the goal, (b) uniqueness of the activity-goal connection, (c) perceived similarity between the activity and its goal, and (d) temporal immediacy of goal attainment following the activity...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658728/-beyond-sacrificial-harm-a-two-dimensional-model-of-utilitarian-psychology-correction
#3
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology" by Guy Kahane, Jim A. C. Everett, Brian D. Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S. Faber, Molly J. Crockett and Julian Savulescu ( Psychological Review , Advanced Online Publication, Dec 21, 2017, np). The copyright attribution was incorrectly listed, and the Creative Commons CC-BY license disclaimer was incorrectly omitted from the author note. The correct copyright is "© 2017 The Author(s)" and the omitted disclaimer is presented in the erratum...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345482/subjects-adjust-criterion-on-errors-in-perceptual-decision-tasks
#4
Peter R Killeen, Thomas J Taylor, Mario Treviño
The optimal strategy in detection theory is to partition the decision axis at a criterion C, labeling all events that score above C "Signal", and all those that fall below "Noise." The optimal position of C, C*, depends on signal probability and payoffs. If observers place their criterion at some place other than C*, they suffer a loss in the Expected Value (EV) of payoffs over the course of many decisions. We provide an explicit equation for the degree of loss, where it is shown that the falloff in value will be steep in contexts of good discrimination and will be a flatter gradient in contexts of poor discrimination...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035080/neural-scaling-laws-for-an-uncertain-world
#5
Marc W Howard, Karthik H Shankar
Autonomous neural systems must efficiently process information in a wide range of novel environments which may have very different statistical properties. We consider the problem of how to optimally distribute receptors along a 1-dimensional continuum consistent with the following design principles. First, neural representations of the world should obey a neural uncertainty principle-making as few assumptions as possible about the statistical structure of the world. Second, neural representations should convey, as much as possible, equivalent information about environments with different statistics...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035078/overrepresentation-of-extreme-events-in-decision-making-reflects-rational-use-of-cognitive-resources
#6
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths, Ming Hsu
People's decisions and judgments are disproportionately swayed by improbable but extreme eventualities, such as terrorism, that come to mind easily. This article explores whether such availability biases can be reconciled with rational information processing by taking into account the fact that decision makers value their time and have limited cognitive resources. Our analysis suggests that to make optimal use of their finite time decision makers should overrepresent the most important potential consequences relative to less important, put potentially more probable, outcomes...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035076/internal-and-external-sources-of-variability-in-perceptual-decision-making
#7
Roger Ratcliff, Chelsea Voskuilen, Gail McKoon
It is important to identify sources of variability in processing to understand decision-making in perception and cognition. There is a distinction between internal and external variability in processing, and double-pass experiments have been used to estimate their relative contributions. In these and our experiments, exact perceptual stimuli are repeated later in testing, and agreement on the 2 trials is examined to see if it is greater than chance. In recent research in modeling decision processes, some models implement only (internal) variability in the decision process whereas others explicitly represent multiple sources of variability...
January 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265855/competing-theories-of-multialternative-multiattribute-preferential-choice
#8
Brandon M Turner, Dan R Schley, Carly Muller, Konstantinos Tsetsos
In accounting for phenomena present in preferential choice experiments, modern models assume a wide array of different mechanisms such as lateral inhibition, leakage, loss aversion, and saliency. These mechanisms create interesting predictions for the dynamics of the deliberation process as well as the aggregate behavior of preferential choice in a variety of contexts. However, the models that embody these different mechanisms are rarely subjected to rigorous quantitative tests of suitability by way of model fitting and evaluation...
December 21, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265854/beyond-sacrificial-harm-a-two-dimensional-model-of-utilitarian-psychology
#9
Guy Kahane, Jim A C Everett, Brian D Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S Faber, Molly J Crockett, Julian Savulescu
Recent research has relied on trolley-type sacrificial moral dilemmas to study utilitarian versus nonutilitarian modes of moral decision-making. This research has generated important insights into people's attitudes toward instrumental harm-that is, the sacrifice of an individual to save a greater number. But this approach also has serious limitations. Most notably, it ignores the positive, altruistic core of utilitarianism, which is characterized by impartial concern for the well-being of everyone, whether near or far...
December 21, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265853/are-there-two-processes-in-reasoning-the-dimensionality-of-inductive-and-deductive-inferences
#10
Rachel G Stephens, John C Dunn, Brett K Hayes
Single-process accounts of reasoning propose that the same cognitive mechanisms underlie inductive and deductive inferences. In contrast, dual-process accounts propose that these inferences depend upon 2 qualitatively different mechanisms. To distinguish between these accounts, we derived a set of single-process and dual-process models based on an overarching signal detection framework. We then used signed difference analysis to test each model against data from an argument evaluation task, in which induction and deduction judgments are elicited for sets of valid and invalid arguments...
December 21, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265852/a-social-identity-model-of-pro-environmental-action-simpea
#11
Immo Fritsche, Markus Barth, Philipp Jugert, Torsten Masson, Gerhard Reese
Large-scale environmental crises are genuinely collective phenomena: they usually result from collective, rather than personal, behavior and how they are cognitively represented and appraised is determined by collectively shared interpretations (e.g., differing across ideological groups) and based on concern for collectives (e.g., humankind, future generations) rather than for individuals. Nevertheless, pro-environmental action has been primarily investigated as a personal decision-making process. We complement this research with a social identity perspective on pro-environmental action...
December 21, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144149/modeling-numerosity-representation-with-an-integrated-diffusion-model
#12
Roger Ratcliff, Gail McKoon
Models of the representation of numerosity information used in discrimination tasks are integrated with a diffusion decision model. The representation models assume distributions of numerosity either with means and SD that increase linearly with numerosity or with means that increase logarithmically with constant SD. The models produce coefficients that are applied to differences between two numerosities to produce drift rates and these drive the decision process. The linear and log models make differential predictions about how response time (RT) distributions and accuracy change with numerosity and which model is successful depends on the task...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106269/a-dynamic-approach-to-recognition-memory
#13
Gregory E Cox, Richard M Shiffrin
We present a dynamic model of memory that integrates the processes of perception, retrieval from knowledge, retrieval of events, and decision making as these evolve from 1 moment to the next. The core of the model is that recognition depends on tracking changes in familiarity over time from an initial baseline generally determined by context, with these changes depending on the availability of different kinds of information at different times. A mathematical implementation of this model leads to precise, accurate predictions of accuracy, response time, and speed-accuracy trade-off in episodic recognition at the levels of both groups and individuals across a variety of paradigms...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106268/strategy-selection-as-rational-metareasoning
#14
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths
Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106267/a-novel-ecological-account-of-prefrontal-cortex-functional-development
#15
Denise M Werchan, Dima Amso
In this paper, we argue that prefrontal cortex ontogenetic functional development is best understood through an ecological lens. We first begin by reviewing evidence supporting the existing consensus that PFC structural and functional development is protracted based on maturational constraints. We then examine recent findings from neuroimaging studies in infants, early life stress research, and connectomics that support the novel hypothesis that PFC functional development is driven by reciprocal processes of neural adaptation and niche construction...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933872/from-needs-to-goals-and-representations-foundations-for-a-unified-theory-of-motivation-personality-and-development
#16
Carol S Dweck
Drawing on both classic and current approaches, I propose a theory that integrates motivation, personality, and development within one framework, using a common set of principles and mechanisms. The theory begins by specifying basic needs and by suggesting how, as people pursue need-fulfilling goals, they build mental representations of their experiences (beliefs, representations of emotions, and representations of action tendencies). I then show how these needs, goals, and representations can serve as the basis of both motivation and personality, and can help to integrate disparate views of personality...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910127/visual-shape-perception-as-bayesian-inference-of-3d-object-centered-shape-representations
#17
Goker Erdogan, Robert A Jacobs
Despite decades of research, little is known about how people visually perceive object shape. We hypothesize that a promising approach to shape perception is provided by a "visual perception as Bayesian inference" framework which augments an emphasis on visual representation with an emphasis on the idea that shape perception is a form of statistical inference. Our hypothesis claims that shape perception of unfamiliar objects can be characterized as statistical inference of 3D shape in an object-centered coordinate system...
November 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035079/action-and-perception-in-literacy-a-common-code-for-spelling-and-reading
#18
George Houghton
There is strong evidence that reading and spelling in alphabetical scripts depend on a shared representation (common-coding). However, computational models usually treat the two skills separately, producing a wide variety of proposals as to how the identity and position of letters is represented. This article treats reading and spelling in terms of the common-coding hypothesis for perception-action coupling. Empirical evidence for common representations in spelling-reading is reviewed. A novel version of the Start-End Competitive Queuing (SE-CQ) spelling model is introduced, and tested against the distribution of positional errors in Letter Position Dysgraphia, data from intralist intrusion errors in spelling to dictation, and dysgraphia because of nonperipheral neglect...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035077/task-conflict-and-proactive-control-a-computational-theory-of-the-stroop-task
#19
Eyal Kalanthroff, Eddy J Davelaar, Avishai Henik, Liat Goldfarb, Marius Usher
The Stroop task is a central experimental paradigm used to probe cognitive control by measuring the ability of participants to selectively attend to task-relevant information and inhibit automatic task-irrelevant responses. Research has revealed variability in both experimental manipulations and individual differences. Here, we focus on a particular source of Stroop variability, the reverse-facilitation (RF; faster responses to nonword neutral stimuli than to congruent stimuli), which has recently been suggested as a signature of task conflict...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703607/none-of-the-above-a-bayesian-account-of-the-detection-of-novel-categories
#20
Daniel J Navarro, Charles Kemp
Every time we encounter a new object, action, or event, there is some chance that we will need to assign it to a novel category. We describe and evaluate a class of probabilistic models that detect when an object belongs to a category that has not previously been encountered. The models incorporate a prior distribution that is influenced by the distribution of previous objects among categories, and we present 2 experiments that demonstrate that people are also sensitive to this distributional information. Two additional experiments confirm that distributional information is combined with similarity when both sources of information are available...
October 2017: Psychological Review
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