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Psychological Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068117/the-neural-representation-of-the-gender-of-faces-in-the-primate-visual-system-a-computer-modeling-study
#1
Thomas Minot, Hannah L Dury, Akihiro Eguchi, Glyn W Humphreys, Simon M Stringer
We use an established neural network model of the primate visual system to show how neurons might learn to encode the gender of faces. The model consists of a hierarchy of 4 competitive neuronal layers with associatively modifiable feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During training, the network was presented with many realistic images of male and female faces, during which the synaptic connections are modified using biologically plausible local associative learning rules. After training, we found that different subsets of output neurons have learned to respond exclusively to either male or female faces...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054796/robust-social-categorization-emerges-from-learning-the-identities-of-very-few-faces
#2
Robin S S Kramer, Andrew W Young, Matthew G Day, A Mike Burton
Viewers are highly accurate at recognizing sex and race from faces-though it remains unclear how this is achieved. Recognition of familiar faces is also highly accurate across a very large range of viewing conditions, despite the difficulty of the problem. Here we show that computation of sex and race can emerge incidentally from a system designed to compute identity. We emphasize the role of multiple encounters with a small number of people, which we take to underlie human face learning. We use highly variable everyday 'ambient' images of a few people to train a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model on identity...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004960/self-evaluation-of-decision-making-a-general-bayesian-framework-for-metacognitive-computation
#3
Stephen M Fleming, Nathaniel D Daw
People are often aware of their mistakes, and report levels of confidence in their choices that correlate with objective performance. These metacognitive assessments of decision quality are important for the guidance of behavior, particularly when external feedback is absent or sporadic. However, a computational framework that accounts for both confidence and error detection is lacking. In addition, accounts of dissociations between performance and metacognition have often relied on ad hoc assumptions, precluding a unified account of intact and impaired self-evaluation...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004959/modeling-visual-problem-solving-as-analogical-reasoning
#4
Andrew Lovett, Kenneth Forbus
We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004958/associative-judgment-and-vector-space-semantics
#5
Sudeep Bhatia
I study associative processing in high-level judgment using vector space semantic models. I find that semantic relatedness, as quantified by these models, is able to provide a good measure of the associations involved in judgment, and, in turn, predict responses in a large number of existing and novel judgment tasks. My results shed light on the representations underlying judgment, and highlight the close relationship between these representations and those at play in language and in the assessment of word meaning...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869455/an-interference-model-of-visual-working-memory
#6
Klaus Oberauer, Hsuan-Yu Lin
The article introduces an interference model of working memory for information in a continuous similarity space, such as the features of visual objects. The model incorporates the following assumptions: (a) Probability of retrieval is determined by the relative activation of each retrieval candidate at the time of retrieval; (b) activation comes from 3 sources in memory: cue-based retrieval using context cues, context-independent memory for relevant contents, and noise; (c) 1 memory object and its context can be held in the focus of attention, where it is represented with higher precision, and partly shielded against interference...
January 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797539/the-visually-guided-development-of-facial-representations-in-the-primate-ventral-visual-pathway-a-computer-modeling-study
#7
Akihiro Eguchi, Glyn W Humphreys, Simon M Stringer
Experimental studies have shown that neurons at an intermediate stage of the primate ventral visual pathway, occipital face area, encode individual facial parts such as eyes and nose while neurons in the later stages, middle face patches, are selective to the full face by encoding the spatial relations between facial features. We have performed a computer modeling study to investigate how these cell firing properties may develop through unsupervised visually guided learning. A hierarchical neural network model of the primate's ventral visual pathway is trained by presenting many randomly generated faces to the network while a local learning rule modifies the strengths of the synaptic connections between neurons in successive layers...
November 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797538/on-the-origins-of-logarithmic-number-to-position-mapping
#8
Dror Dotan, Stanislas Dehaene
The number-to-position task, in which children and adults are asked to place numbers on a spatial number line, has become a classic measure of number comprehension. We present a detailed experimental and theoretical dissection of the processing stages that underlie this task. We used a continuous finger-tracking technique, which provides detailed information about the time course of processing stages. When adults map the position of 2-digit numbers onto a line, their final mapping is essentially linear, but intermediate finger location show a transient logarithmic mapping...
November 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732021/exploring-visual-attention-functions-of-the-human-extrageniculate-pathways-through-behavioral-cues
#9
Raphaël Mizzi, George A Michael
Over the past few decades, evidence has accumulated showing that, at subcortical levels, visual attention depends partly on the extrageniculate neural pathways, that is, those pathways that bypass the lateral geniculate nucleus and circumvent the primary visual cortex. Working in concert with neuroscience, experimental psychology has contributed considerably to the understanding of the role these pathways play through the use of 3 behavioral cues: nasal-temporal asymmetries, responses to S-cone stimuli, and responses to perceptually suppressed stimuli...
October 10, 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657442/psychology-not-educational-neuroscience-is-the-way-forward-for-improving-educational-outcomes-for-all-children-reply-to-gabrieli-2016-and-howard-jones-et-al-2016
#10
Jeffrey S Bowers
In Bowers (2016), I argued that there are (a) practical problems with educational neuroscience (EN) that explain why there are no examples of EN improving teaching and (b) principled problems with the logic motivating EN that explain why it is likely that there never will be. In the following article, I consider the main responses raised by both Gabrieli (2016) and Howard-Jones et al. (2016) and find them all unconvincing. Following this exchange, there are still no examples of EN providing new insights to teaching in the classroom, there are still no examples of EN providing new insights to remedial instructions for individuals, and, as I detail in this article, there is no evidence that EN is useful for the diagnosis of learning difficulties...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657441/the-principles-and-practices-of-educational-neuroscience-comment-on-bowers-2016
#11
Paul A Howard-Jones, Sashank Varma, Daniel Ansari, Brian Butterworth, Bert De Smedt, Usha Goswami, Diana Laurillard, Michael S C Thomas
In his recent critique of Educational Neuroscience, Bowers argues that neuroscience has no role to play in informing education, which he equates with classroom teaching. Neuroscience, he suggests, adds nothing to what we can learn from psychology. In this commentary, we argue that Bowers' assertions misrepresent the nature and aims of the work in this new field. We suggest that, by contrast, psychological and neural levels of explanation complement rather than compete with each other. Bowers' analysis also fails to include a role for educational expertise-a guiding principle of our new field...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657440/the-promise-of-educational-neuroscience-comment-on-bowers-2016
#12
John D E Gabrieli
Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657439/thinking-outside-the-box-when-reading-aloud-between-localist-module-connection-strength-as-a-source-of-word-frequency-effects
#13
Derek Besner, Evan F Risko
The frequency with which words appear in print is a powerful predictor of the time to read monosyllabic words aloud, and consequently all models of reading aloud provide an explanation for this effect. The entire class of localist accounts assumes that the effect of word frequency arises because the mental lexicon is organized around frequency of occurrence (the action is inside the lexical boxes). We propose instead that the frequency of occurrence effect is better understood in terms of the hypothesis that the strength of between module connections varies as a function of word frequency...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504526/a-multi-rater-framework-for-studying-personality-the-trait-reputation-identity-model
#14
Samuel T McAbee, Brian S Connelly
Personality and social psychology have historically been divided between personality researchers who study the impact of traits and social-cognitive researchers who study errors in trait judgments. However, a broader view of personality incorporates not only individual differences in underlying traits but also individual differences in the distinct ways a person's personality is construed by oneself and by others. Such unique insights are likely to appear in the idiosyncratic personality judgments that raters make and are likely to have etiologies and causal force independent of trait perceptions shared across raters...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379575/cooperative-inference-features-objects-and-collections
#15
Sophia Ray Searcy, Patrick Shafto
Cooperation plays a central role in theories of development, learning, cultural evolution, and education. We argue that existing models of learning from cooperative informants have fundamental limitations that prevent them from explaining how cooperation benefits learning. First, existing models are shown to be computationally intractable, suggesting that they cannot apply to realistic learning problems. Second, existing models assume a priori agreement about which concepts are favored in learning, which leads to a conundrum: Learning fails without precise agreement on bias yet there is no single rational choice...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135600/the-discovery-of-processing-stages-extension-of-sternberg-s-method
#16
John R Anderson, Qiong Zhang, Jelmer P Borst, Matthew M Walsh
We introduce a method for measuring the number and durations of processing stages from the electroencephalographic signal and apply it to the study of associative recognition. Using an extension of past research that combines multivariate pattern analysis with hidden semi-Markov models, the approach identifies on a trial-by-trial basis where brief sinusoidal peaks (called bumps) are added to the ongoing electroencephalographic signal. We propose that these bumps mark the onset of critical cognitive stages in processing...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26938449/the-practical-and-principled-problems-with-educational-neuroscience
#17
Jeffrey S Bowers
The core claim of educational neuroscience is that neuroscience can improve teaching in the classroom. Many strong claims are made about the successes and the promise of this new discipline. By contrast, I show that there are no current examples of neuroscience motivating new and effective teaching methods, and argue that neuroscience is unlikely to improve teaching in the future. The reasons are twofold. First, in practice, it is easier to characterize the cognitive capacities of children on the basis of behavioral measures than on the basis of brain measures...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881695/tool-use-and-affordance-manipulation-based-versus-reasoning-based-approaches
#18
François Osiurak, Arnaud Badets
Tool use is a defining feature of human species. Therefore, a fundamental issue is to understand the cognitive bases of human tool use. Given that people cannot use tools without manipulating them, proponents of the manipulation-based approach have argued that tool use might be supported by the simulation of past sensorimotor experiences, also sometimes called affordances. However, in the meanwhile, evidence has been accumulated demonstrating the critical role of mechanical knowledge in tool use (i.e., the reasoning-based approach)...
October 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617347/a-general-model-framework-for-multisymbol-number-comparison
#19
Stefan Huber, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Klaus Willmes, Korbinian Moeller
Different models have been proposed for the processing of multisymbol numbers like two- and three-digit numbers but also for negative numbers and decimals. However, these multisymbol numbers are assembled from the same set of Arabic digits and comply with the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. Considering these shared properties, we suggest that the processing of multisymbol numbers can be described in one general model framework. Accordingly, we first developed a computational model framework realizing componential representations of multisymbol numbers and evaluated its validity by simulating standard empirical effects of number magnitude comparison...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337391/why-contextual-preference-reversals-maximize-expected-value
#20
Andrew Howes, Paul A Warren, George Farmer, Wael El-Deredy, Richard L Lewis
Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals...
July 2016: Psychological Review
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