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Psychological Review

Shan Shen, Wei Ji Ma
Given the same sensory stimuli in the same task, human observers do not always make the same response. Well-known sources of behavioral variability are sensory noise and guessing. Visual short-term memory (STM) studies have suggested that the precision of the sensory noise is itself variable. However, it is unknown whether precision is also variable in perceptual tasks without a memory component. We searched for evidence for variable precision in 11 visual perception tasks with a single relevant feature, orientation...
October 18, 2018: Psychological Review
Angela G Pirlott, Corey L Cook
Stereotypes, prejudices, and discriminatory behaviors directed toward people based on their sexual orientation vary broadly. Existing perspectives on sexual prejudice argue for different underlying causes, sometimes provide disparate or conflicting evidence for its roots, and typically fail to account for variances observed across studies. We propose an affordance management approach to understanding sexual prejudice, which weds the fundamental motives theory with the sociofunctional threat-based approach to prejudice to provide a broader explanation for the causes and outcomes of sexual prejudice and to explain inter- and intragroup prejudices more broadly...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Review
Hans Colonius, Adele Diederich
The ability to inhibit our responses voluntarily is an important case of cognitive control. The stop-signal paradigm is a popular tool to study response inhibition. Participants perform a response time task (go task), and occasionally, the go stimulus is followed by a stop signal after a variable delay, indicating subjects to withhold their response (stop task). The main interest of modeling is in estimating the unobservable stop-signal processing time, that is, the covert latency of the stopping process as a characterization of the response inhibition mechanism...
October 1, 2018: Psychological Review
David A Mély, Drew Linsley, Thomas Serre
Context is known to affect how a stimulus is perceived. A variety of illusions have been attributed to contextual processing-from orientation tilt effects to chromatic induction phenomena, but their neural underpinnings remain poorly understood. Here, we present a recurrent network model of classical and extraclassical receptive fields that is constrained by the anatomy and physiology of the visual cortex. A key feature of the model is the postulated existence of near- versus far- extraclassical regions with complementary facilitatory and suppressive contributions to the classical receptive field...
September 20, 2018: Psychological Review
David C Geary
General intelligence or g is one of the most thoroughly studied concepts in the behavioral sciences. Measures of intelligence are predictive of a wide range of educational, occupational, and life outcomes, including creative productivity and are systematically related to physical health and successful aging. The nexus of relations suggests 1 or several fundamental biological mechanisms underlie g, health, and aging, among other outcomes. Cell-damaging oxidative stress has been proposed as 1 of many potential mechanisms, but the proposal is underdeveloped and does not capture other important mitochondrial functions...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Review
Rahul Bhui, Samuel J Gershman
The theory of decision by sampling (DbS) proposes that an attribute's subjective value is its rank within a sample of attribute values retrieved from memory. This can account for instances of context dependence beyond the reach of classic theories that assume stable preferences. In this paper, we provide a normative justification for DbS that is based on the principle of efficient coding. The efficient representation of information in a noiseless communication channel is characterized by a uniform response distribution, which the rank transformation implements...
November 2018: Psychological Review
Roger Ratcliff
A new diffusion model of decision making in continuous space is presented and tested. The model is a sequential sampling model in which both spatially continuously distributed evidence and noise are accumulated up to a decision criterion (a 1 dimensional [1D] line or a 2 dimensional [2D] plane). There are two major advances represented in this research. The first is to use spatially continuously distributed Gaussian noise in the decision process (Gaussian process or Gaussian random field noise) which allows the model to represent truly spatially continuous processes...
November 2018: Psychological Review
Ralph Hertwig, Timothy J Pleskac
Regenwetter and Robinson (2017) discuss a challenging construct-behavior gap in psychological research. It can emerge when testing hypotheses that pertain to a theoretical construct (e.g., preferences) on the basis of observed behavior (e.g., actual choices). The problem is that the different heuristic methods that are sometimes used to link overt choices to covert preferences may ignore heterogeneity between and within individuals, rendering inferences drawn from choices to preferences invalid. Regenwetter and Robinson's remedy is to make heterogeneity an explicit part of the theory...
October 2018: Psychological Review
Melissa J Sharpe, Simon Killcross
Theories of functioning in the medial prefrontal cortex are distinct across appetitively and aversively motivated procedures. In the appetitive domain, it is argued that the medial prefrontal cortex is important for producing adaptive behavior when circumstances change. This view advocates a role for this region in using higher-order information to bias performance appropriate to that circumstance. Conversely, literature born out of aversive studies has led to the theory that the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex is necessary for the expression of conditioned fear, whereas the infralimbic region is necessary for a decrease in responding following extinction...
October 2018: Psychological Review
Gregory M Walton, Timothy D Wilson
Long-standing social problems such as poor achievement, personal and intergroup conflict, bad health, and unhappiness can seem like permanent features of the social landscape. We describe an approach to such problems rooted in basic theory and research in social psychology. This approach emphasizes subjective meaning-making-working hypotheses people draw about themselves, other people, and social situations; how deleterious meanings can arise from social and cultural contexts; how interventions to change meanings can help people flourish; and how initial change can become embedded to alter the course of people's lives...
October 2018: Psychological Review
Morten Moshagen, Benjamin E Hilbig, Ingo Zettler
Many negatively connoted personality traits (often termed "dark traits") have been introduced to account for ethically, morally, and socially questionable behavior. Herein, we provide a unifying, comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding dark personality in terms of a general dispositional tendency of which dark traits arise as specific manifestations. That is, we theoretically specify the common core of dark traits, which we call the Dark Factor of Personality ( D ). The fluid concept of D captures individual differences in the tendency to maximize one's individual utility-disregarding, accepting, or malevolently provoking disutility for others-accompanied by beliefs that serve as justifications...
October 2018: Psychological Review
Cristian Buc Calderon, Wim Gevers, Tom Verguts
Converging evidence has led to a consensus in favor of computational models of behavior implementing continuous information flow and parallel processing between cognitive processing stages. Yet, such models still typically implement a discrete step between the last cognitive stage and motor implementation. This discrete step is implemented as a fixed decision bound that activation in the last cognitive stage needs to cross before action can be initiated. Such an implementation is questionable as it cannot account for two important features of behavior...
August 30, 2018: Psychological Review
Luke Strickland, Shayne Loft, Roger W Remington, Andrew Heathcote
Event-based prospective memory (PM) requires remembering to perform intended deferred actions when particular stimuli or events are encountered in the future. We propose a detailed process theory within Braver's (2012) proactive and reactive framework of the way control is maintained over the competing demands of prospective memory decisions and decisions associated with ongoing task activities. The theory is instantiated in a quantitative "Prospective Memory Decision Control" (PMDC) architecture, which uses linear ballistic evidence accumulation (Brown & Heathcote, 2008) to model both PM and ongoing decision processes...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Review
Hui Chen, Brad Wyble
Spatial cueing is thought to indicate the resource limits of visual attention because invalidly cued items are reported more slowly and less accurately than validly cued items. However, limited resource accounts cannot explain certain findings, such as dividing attention without costs, or attentional benefits without invalidity costs. The current study presents a new account of exogenous cueing, namely the memory encoding cost (MEC) theory, which integrates attention and memory encoding to explain costs and benefits evoked by a spatial cue...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Review
Joshua Snell, Sam van Leipsig, Jonathan Grainger, Martijn Meeter
Decades of reading research have led to sophisticated accounts of single-word recognition and, in parallel, accounts of eye-movement control in text reading. Although these two endeavors have strongly advanced the field, their relative independence has precluded an integrated account of the reading process. To bridge the gap, we here present a computational model of reading, OB1-reader, which integrates insights from both literatures. Key features of OB1 are as follows: (1) parallel processing of multiple words, modulated by an attentional window of adaptable size; (2) coding of input through a layer of open bigram nodes that represent pairs of letters and their relative position; (3) activation of word representations based on constituent bigram activity, competition with other word representations and contextual predictability; (4) mapping of activated words onto a spatiotopic sentence-level representation to keep track of word order; and (5) saccade planning, with the saccade goal being dependent on the length and activation of surrounding word units, and the saccade onset being influenced by word recognition...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Review
Benjamin Eva, Stephan Hartmann
According to the Bayesian paradigm in the psychology of reasoning, the norms by which everyday human cognition is best evaluated are probabilistic rather than logical in character. Recently, the Bayesian paradigm has been applied to the domain of argumentation, in which the fundamental norms are traditionally assumed to be logical. Here, we present a major generalization of extant Bayesian approaches to argumentation that (a) utilizes a new class of Bayesian learning methods that are better suited to modeling dynamic and conditional inferences than standard Bayesian conditionalization, (b) is able to characterize the special value of logically valid argument schemes in uncertain reasoning contexts, (c) greatly extends the range of inferences and argumentative phenomena that can be adequately described in a Bayesian framework, and (d) undermines some influential theoretical motivations for dual function models of human cognition...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Review
Erin C Westgate, Timothy D Wilson
What is boredom? We review environmental, attentional, and functional theories and present a new model that describes boredom as an affective indicator of unsuccessful attentional engagement in valued goal-congruent activity. According to the Meaning and Attentional Components (MAC) model, boredom is the result of (a) an attentional component, namely mismatches between cognitive demands and available mental resources, and (b) a meaning component, namely mismatches between activities and valued goals (or the absence of valued goals altogether)...
July 2, 2018: Psychological Review
Laura F Bringmann, Markus I Eronen
The network approach to psychopathology is becoming increasingly popular. The motivation for this approach is to provide a replacement for the problematic common cause perspective and the associated latent variable model, where symptoms are taken to be mere effects of a common cause (the disorder itself). The idea is that the latent variable model is plausible for medical diseases, but unrealistic for mental disorders, which should rather be conceptualized as networks of directly interacting symptoms. We argue that this rationale for the network approach is misguided...
July 2018: Psychological Review
Nathan J Evans, Scott D Brown, Douglas J K Mewhort, Andrew Heathcote
The "law of practice"-a simple nonlinear function describing the relationship between mean response time (RT) and practice-has provided a practically and theoretically useful way of quantifying the speed-up that characterizes skill acquisition. Early work favored a power law, but this was shown to be an artifact of biases caused by averaging over participants who are individually better described by an exponential law. However, both power and exponential functions make the strong assumption that the speedup always proceeds at a steadily decreasing rate, even though there are sometimes clear exceptions...
July 2018: Psychological Review
Jerome R Busemeyer, Zheng Wang
A general theory of measurement context effects, called Hilbert space multidimensional (HSM) theory, is presented. A measurement context refers to a subset of psychological variables that an individual evaluates on a particular occasion. Different contexts are formed by evaluating different but possibly overlapping subsets of variables. Context effects occur when the judgments across contexts cannot be derived from a single joint probability distribution over the complete set of values of the observed variables...
July 2018: Psychological Review
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