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Psychological Reports

Peter G van der Velden, Mauro Pecoraro, Mijke S Houwerzijl, Erik van der Meulen
Whistleblowers play a very important and indispensable role in society and health care sector, but their act may elicit retaliation and other negative effects, which may impact their mental health. The main aim of the present comparative study is to assess to what extent whistleblowers ( N = 27) more often suffer from severe mental health problems than other population-based groups in the Netherlands, i.e., matched controls ( N = 135), cancer patients ( N = 130), persons with (partial) work disabilities ( N = 194), physically "healthy" persons ( N = 200), and general population ( N = 1026), using the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey scales (for general mental health) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scales (for specific mental health problems: depression, anxiety, agoraphobia, interpersonal sensitivity and distrust, and sleeping problems)...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Marko Vladisavljević, Vladimir Mentus
In this article, we examine the structure of the subjective well-being and its relation to objective well-being indicators using the data from the European Union's Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) from Serbia. This is one of the first papers to analyze a new module on subjective well-being from EU-SILC micro-dataset (with over 20,000 respondents). We investigate the factor structure of the items and the differences in the association of subjective well-being dimensions with objective indicators of well-being within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Better Life Initiative framework...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Mubeccel Gonen, Tulin Guler-Yildiz, Ayca Ulker-Erdem, Aileen Garcia, Helen Raikes, Ibrahim H Acar, Feyza Ozkan-Yildiz, Ipek Karlidag, Sukran Ucus, Dawn L Davis
This study examined the relations between executive functions and developmental domains of preschool children from low-income families through an intercultural perspective in the U.S. and Turkey. A total of 471 children and their primary caregivers participated in the Turkey part of the study, while 286 children and their parents engaged in U.S. SAMPLE: Regression analyses revealed that fine motor, problem solving, and executive functions of children between two contexts were significantly different from each other...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Hom-Yi Lee, En-Lin Yang
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often reported to have deficits of time perception. However, there is a strong relation between performance on tasks of working memory and time perception. Thus, it is possible that the poor performance of children with ADHD on time perception results from their deficit of working memory. In this study, the working memory of participants was separately assessed; therefore, we could explore the relationship between working memory and time perception of children with ADHD...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Kenneth Drinkwater, Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Andrew Parker
This research demonstrates that higher levels of mental toughness provide cognitive-perceptual processing advantages when evaluating risk. No previous research, however, has examined mental toughness in relation to perception of risk and paranormal belief (a variable associated with distorted perception of causality and elevated levels of perceived risk). Accordingly, the present paper investigated relationships between these factors. A sample of 174 participants completed self-report measures assessing mental toughness, general perception of risk, and paranormal belief...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Antonella Marchetti, Francesca Baglio, Ilaria Castelli, Ludovica Griffanti, Raffaello Nemni, Federica Rossetto, Annalisa Valle, Michela Zanette, Davide Massaro
During adolescence and early adulthood, individuals deal with important developmental changes, especially in the context of complex social interactions. Previous studies demonstrated that those changes have a significant impact on the social decision making process, in terms of a progressive increase of intentionality comprehension of others, of the sensitivity to fairness, and of the impermeability to decisional biases. However, neither adolescents nor adults reach the ideal level of maximization and of rationality of the homo economicus proposed by classical economics theory, thus remaining more close to the model of the "bounded rationality" proposed by cognitive psychology...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Barbara Stiglbauer, Carrie Kovacs
The presented empirical study among a sample of n = 256 participants addressed the relationship between consumers' need for uniqueness and their reactions to web-based personalized advertising. Drawing on regulatory focus theory, we argue that the consumers' need for uniqueness dimensions creative choice and similarity avoidance may relate to promotion and prevention regulatory orientations, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that creative choice and similarity avoidance would differentially predict self-reported approach and avoidance behavior toward personalized advertising...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Julio González-Álvarez, Teresa Cervera-Crespo
Sexual attraction in humans is influenced by cultural or moral factors, and some gender differences can emerge in this complex interaction. A previous study found that men dissociate sexual attraction from moral judgment more than women do. Two experiments consisting of giving attractiveness ratings to photos of real opposite-sex individuals showed that men, compared to women, were significantly less influenced by the moral valence of a description about the person shown in each photo. There is evidence of some processing differences between real and artificial computer-generated faces...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
John W Lace, Kristen A Haeberlein, Paul J Handal
This study investigated the dimensionality of the Langner Symptom Survey and replicated a recent finding regarding a clinically validated cutoff score in emerging adults. Nine hundred thirteen (631 females and 282 males) students at a private university in the Midwestern United States participated online as part of a larger study and completed the Langner Symptom Survey and a demographic questionnaire. Results from exploratory principal components and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for both a six- and three-factor model of the Langner Symptom Survey, with the three-factor model offering marginally better confirmatory fit indices and greater parsimony of interpretation...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Maria Sophia Heering, Luigi Leone
In this study, it was hypothesized that experimentally manipulated levels of power would moderate the association of dispositional social dominance orientation (SDO) with preferences for harsh punishment. In particular, we expected to detect a stronger effect for dispositional SDO in the low-power condition, relying on the notion that low power enhances sensitivity to threats to the status quo, and that high SDO individuals are particularly motivated to enforce hierarchy-enhancing measures as punishment. SDO scores were measured two months prior to the experiment, and then immediately after the experimental session...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Xianchun Li, Di Yuan, Ying Fan, Chao Yan, Liangcai Gao
Intertemporal choice refers to the choice between receiving a small immediate reward or a large delayed one. Previous studies have indicated that time perception plays a critical role in the intertemporal choice, and it could be affected by the features of the target stimulus in the time reproduction task, such as speed of movement and state of motion. However, there is no evidence about whether backward or forward motion perception could alter the intertemporal choice. Thus, in our current study, 29 participants were asked to perform two tasks in a random order...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Adam Jordan Gott, Melanie D Hetzel-Riggin
This study explores the role of substance use expectancies as mediators between the Dark Triad of personality, substance use, and substance use preferences. A sample of college students ( M = 19.38, SD = 2.63, N = 207) completed an online questionnaire that assessed the Dark Triad traits, substance use history, substance preferences, and substance use expectancies. Three specific substance use expectancies-increased confidence, tension reduction, and cognitive enhancement-were shown to either partially or fully mediate the relationships between the Dark Triad and substance use behaviors and preference for certain substances of abuse...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Ricky S Wong, Magda Osman, Wai Hung Wong, Yiling Lin, Kasper Ho
Over 3 million people in Hong Kong and 21 million people in the UK are saving for retirement under the mandatory provident fund and individual savings account schemes, respectively. Yet, we know little about how individual preferences, such as risk attitudes (risk-seeking and risk-averse) that are known to impact highly consequential decisions in a variety of real-world contexts, impact retirement investment choices. In two experimental studies (Study 1-Hong Kong sample and Study 2-United Kingdom sample), we show that personal risk attitudes were a strong predictor of the profile of retirement investment portfolios...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Chen-Yi Amy Ko, Yuhsuan Chang
This study investigated the relationships among resilience, social anxiety, and procrastination in a sample of college students. Specifically, structural equation modeling analyses were applied to examine the effect of resilience on procrastination and to test the mediating effect of social anxiety. The results of this study suggested that social anxiety partially mediated the relationship between resilience and procrastination. Students with higher levels of resilience reported a lower frequency of procrastination behavior, and resilience had an indirect effect on procrastination through social anxiety...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Meghan I H Lindeman, Amanda M Durik, Maura Dooley
Although self-promotion (communicating one's past accomplishments and positive characteristics) is important for obtaining career and educational opportunities, women feel uncomfortable when doing it, which limits their self-promotion success. This study tested which of the three possible theoretical mechanisms explained women's limited self-promotion success: (1) cognitive dissonance, (2) stereotype threat, and (3) backlash avoidance. In this experiment, college women ( N = 123) wrote a scholarship application essay and the ownership of the essay was varied experimentally...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Ewa Mörtberg, Markus Jansson Fröjmark
Social anxiety is common in the general population, as well as among students in higher education. For screening of social anxiety, there is a need for brief scales. In the present study, the psychometric properties were examined in a Swedish version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a university student sample ( n = 161). In addition to the SPIN and Mini-SPIN, participants completed measures of fear of public speaking, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
Single bouts of aerobic exercise and meditation have been shown to induce positive affect. In a novel experimental paradigm, we sought to examine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise and meditation, as well as exercise and meditation combined on affect among young adults. Participants ( N = 110, mean age = 21.4 years) were randomly assigned to walk, meditate, walk then meditate, meditate then walk, or to sit (inactive control). All walking and meditation bouts were 10 minutes in duration...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Ayşe Altan-Atalay, Halise Belgin Ayvaşık
Looming Cognitive Style, which was proposed as cognitive vulnerability model specific for anxiety disorders, suggests that anxiety-prone individuals have a tendency to perceive threats and dangers as getting closer, becoming larger, and more agonizing every passing minute. Yet, very few studies focused on the family-related variables that are associated with development of Looming Cognitive Style. This study aims to investigate the relationship of Looming Cognitive Style with measures perceived parenting and attachment...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
There is irrefutable evidence that regular participation in physical activity is favorably associated with numerous positive health outcomes, including cognitive function. Emerging work suggests that perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity behavior, is inversely associated with mortality risk. In this study, we evaluate whether perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity, is associated with cognitive function, a robust indicator of mortality risk. Data from the cross-sectional 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were employed ( N = 2352; 60+ years of age)...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Huai-Liang Liang
Based on affective events theory and the crossover model, this study examines the effect of psychological contract breach on employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining and explores the crossover effect of employee dysfunctional behavior on partner family undermining in work-family issues. This study collected 370 employee-partner dyads (277 male employees, 93 female employees, M age = 43.59 years) from a large manufacturing organization. The results of this study support the conception that employees' psychological contract breach results in frustration in the workplace...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
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