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Psychological Reports

Elham Davoodi, Alainna Wen, Keith S Dobson, Ahmad A Noorbala, Abolfazl Mohammadi, Zahra Farahmand
Scant research has investigated emotion regulation strategies in somatization disorder, despite its high comorbidity with depression and the growing interest in this topic in depression. The present study investigated emotion regulation strategies in patients with major depression and somatization disorder using clinical samples to examine common vulnerability factors and to provide evidence for difficulties in emotion regulation as transdiagnostic factors in these disorders. Patients with major depressive disorder ( n = 30) and patients with somatization disorder ( n = 30) completed measures of putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategy use...
October 10, 2018: Psychological Reports
Kai Nagase
Extant research regarding humor appreciation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder has been equivocal. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the severity of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and humor appreciation in typically developing individuals. We hypothesized that the severity of autistic traits would have a U-shaped linear relationship with humor appreciation. Eighty typically developing undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 22 years ( Mage  = 20.20; SDage  = 1...
October 9, 2018: Psychological Reports
Nooshin Bazzazi, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Niloofar Moradi, Mohammad Haghighi, Abbas Moradi, Masoud Ghiasian, Serge Brand
Background Older people are at greater risk of both physical impairments and cognitive decline. Although previous studies have examined whether visual and cognitive impairments are associated, findings have been mixed with cognitive performance only crudely assessed. Nonetheless, it remains possible that this association becomes stronger with age. Accordingly, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that older people with visual impairments have poorer cognitive performance than healthy controls. To this end, we employed validated tools to assess both visual-related and visual-unrelated cognitive skills...
October 9, 2018: Psychological Reports
Lee J Curley, Rory MacLean, Jennifer Murray, Phyllis Laybourn
Decision science is an area of enquiry that crosses many disciplines, from psychology to economics, each with their own perspective of decision-making. Traditionally, mathematicians have envisaged decision-making as a purely rational endeavor, whereas psychologists and behavioral economists have critiqued this narrative and suggested that cognitive short cuts are the real mechanisms behind how decisions are made. However, contemporary dual process theorists argue that two systems of the mind exist: system 1 (intuitive decision-making) and system 2 (rational decision-making)...
October 2, 2018: Psychological Reports
Christopher Marcin Kowalski, Julie Aitken Schermer
The present study investigates the utility of psychological hardiness as well as the differences between rumination and worry. Undergraduate students completed questionnaires assessing hardiness, worry, rumination, mindfulness, neuroticism, anxiety, somatization, coping, and health. Correlations and partial correlations controlling for neuroticism were examined. Hardiness was negatively correlated with neuroticism, rumination, worry, and anxiety and positively correlated with mindfulness, coping, and health...
September 25, 2018: Psychological Reports
Pia Schönfeld, Julia Brailovskaia, Xiao Chi Zhang, Jürgen Margraf
Background and Objectives While stress is generally well established to be predictive for different indicators of mental health, little is known about the longitudinal effects of daily life stressors and the role of self-evaluation factors. We tested whether perceived general self-efficacy is a mediator for the association between daily life stressors and psychopathological symptoms as well as subjective well-being. Methods Data derived from 2160 Chinese university students was assessed at three time points with one-year intervals...
September 20, 2018: Psychological Reports
Laura Dewitte, Pehr Granqvist, Jessie Dezutter
We propose an integrative framework, advancing attachment as a vital factor in the development and maintenance of meaning throughout life. First, early attachment experiences provide a foundation for recognizing patterns and acquiring a sense of order and coherence. Furthermore, interactions with sensitive attachment figures stimulate mentalization capacities and exploration of the inner and outer environment, enabling the formation of complex representations of self, others, and the world, ultimately also molding how individuals appraise meaning in their lives...
September 14, 2018: Psychological Reports
Raymond D Collings, Leslie G Eaton
The current study examines relations between individual differences in attention measured in laboratory and real-world settings. In-laboratory computer-based assessments of orienting, phasic alertness, and executive attention as well as self-report measures of temperament and attention-related problems were administered to 111 undergraduate participants. Participants later completed a walking tour of a multistory building while wearing video recording glasses. The recordings were subsequently coded for orientation and capture of overt attention...
September 14, 2018: Psychological Reports
Omar Bajouk, Michel Hansenne
Meeting other people involves the importance to share their experiences and to understand their perspectives or, more simply, to empathize with them. Empathy research distinguishes two main dimensions of empathy, the affective sharing and the cognitive understanding. In the present study, we focus on the impact of cognitive load on empathy to pain, fear, happiness, and neutral facial emotions. Participants had to judge the intensity of the emotion when looking to facial expressions (empathize group), or with an additional eight-digit memory task (cognitive load group)...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Reports
S Abdolvahab Samavi, Samaneh Najarpourian, Moosa Javdan
In the present study, the effect of group hope therapy on labor pain and mental health of pregnant women was investigated, in consideration of the Iranian health policy's emphasis on encouraging women to have a healthy delivery. The research plan was a semiexperimental pretest-posttest design with a control group. A total of 36 pregnant women were assigned to the treatment and control group using a random procedure. General Health Questionnaire and a Visual Analog Scale were used to collect data about dependent variables...
September 11, 2018: Psychological Reports
Sun Ah Lim, Sukkyung You
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between perceived parental negligence and reliance on mobile phone usage among youth in vulnerable social groups, and whether peer attachment mediates this association. Specifically, we aimed to provide in-depth information on the relationship between perceived parental negligence and mobile phone dependency by examining the mediating effects of three subfactors of peer attachment: communication, trust, and isolation. For this purpose, we analyzed the longitudinal data of 485 elementary school students in grades 4 to 6 who were attending a community children's center...
September 11, 2018: Psychological Reports
Jennifer E Graham-Engeland, Sunmi Song, Ambika Mathur, David A Wagstaff, Laura Cousino Klein, Courtney Whetzel, William T Ayoub
In a novel pilot study, we investigated how emotional state is related to inflammatory responses to acute pain among women with rheumatoid arthritis. Nine women completed four 5-hour visits that varied only by manipulation of emotion (anger, sadness, happiness, vs. control); in each visit, acute pain was elicited, with blood draws at baseline, 10 minutes, 60 minutes, and 100 minutes post-pain. We examined the effects of within-subjects factors on circulating inflammatory biomarkers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, and cortisol...
September 6, 2018: Psychological Reports
James Juergensen, Christina Leckfor
The use of Facebook and other social media sites has increased to the point that some consider it to be a behavioral addiction. Previously, research has used the Approach-Avoidance Task to measure implicit approach and withdrawal tendencies in response to a variety of stimuli, including alcohol, desserts, cigarettes, spiders, and cannabis. When responding to these types of stimuli, individuals typically evidence an approach bias toward appetitive images and a withdrawal bias in response to undesirable and/or fearful stimuli...
September 6, 2018: Psychological Reports
Tianpeng Ye, Naixue Cui, Wen Yang, Jianghong Liu
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Adolescent Stress Questionnaire ( ASQ-CN) in a sample of Chinese middle school students ( N = 420; 52.14% boys and 47.86% girls). Iterated principal factor analysis and multiple-group principal components cluster analysis supported a six-factor model with 42 items out of 58 items in the ASQ-CN. The internal consistency was from .82 to .90. Girls reported lower stress levels in one subscale, Stress of romantic relationship, whereas no gender differences were found in the other five subscales...
September 6, 2018: Psychological Reports
Yaniv Efrati, Yair Amichai-Hamburger
The Internet provides people with the ability to act anonymously, which may lead them to feel secure and to release them from many of their inhibitions. In many cases, this leads them to participate in cybersex activities and online pornography. This study examined the psychological factors behind young people's sexual behavior online. Participants comprised 713 Israeli adolescents (383 boys and 330 girls) aged 14 to 18 years. Our results indicated that the impact of loneliness on online sexual activity and frequency of pornography use was dependent on participants' attachment orientations...
September 5, 2018: Psychological Reports
Yalçın Özdemir, Ali Serdar Sağkal
Research investigating the development of psychological problems among children has typically focused on the role of parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct effects of recalled parenting practices (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) on psychological distress and indirect effects through self-criticism. Participants were 410 undergraduate students (290 females and 120 males) with a mean age of 20.10 ( SD = 1.65). Participants completed the measure of My Memories of Upbringing-Egna Minnen Betraffande Uppfostra; Forms of Self Criticizing/Attacking and Self Reassuring Scale; and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale as self-report measures...
September 5, 2018: Psychological Reports
Purya Baghaei, Philipp Doebler
The Rasch Poisson Counts Model is the oldest Rasch model developed by the Danish mathematician Georg Rasch in 1952. Nevertheless, the model has had limited applications in psychoeducational assessment. With the rise of neurocognitive and psychomotor testing, there is more room for new applications of the model where other item response theory models cannot be applied. In this paper, we give a general introduction to the Rasch Poisson Counts Model and then using data of an attention test walk the reader through how to use the "lme4" package in R to estimate the model and interpret the outputs...
September 5, 2018: Psychological Reports
James J Annesi
An enhanced understanding of the dynamics of psychosocial change processes within behavioral weight loss treatments is required to improve their generally poor results. Based on social cognitive theory, self-regulation of eating has the possibility of affecting interrelations between psychosocial correlates of inappropriate eating behaviors such as emotional eating and negative mood. Within behavioral interventions, physical activity, treatment foci, and the length of treatment might moderate those relationships...
September 4, 2018: Psychological Reports
Athena Kheibari, Julie Cerel, Rebecca Sanford
This study aimed to examine the attitudes of college students toward suicide and nonsuicide loss survivors' future suicide intent-specifically the degree to which each is believed to be suicidal based on the characteristics of the loss and relationship to the deceased. Participants were asked to read a descriptive vignette about a bereaved individual and assess their judgment about the survivor's current state of suicide-related ideation. The results revealed that the likelihood of indicating suicide-related ideation was decreased by 5...
September 4, 2018: Psychological Reports
Sheldon Grant Levy
The problem of assessing opinions through surveys with double-barreled items has long been recognized, but nonfield experiments that examine their construction have been limited. Opinions about evolution based on an international multidecade Gallup survey were examined through an experimental design in which answers to the Gallup alternatives, one of which was double-barreled, were compared to those obtained when the components were separated. Random assignment of the original and deconstructed versions to 302 university students resulted in relatively few students who received the deconstructed version providing a pattern of answers that replicated the original item...
September 4, 2018: Psychological Reports
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