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Psychological Reports

Béla Birkás, András Láng, Norbert Meskó
Our study investigated the different mate preferences of the Dark Triad in women. In addition to former studies, we also examined the effect of self-evaluated attractiveness on these preferences. Attractiveness is a high-valued partner attribute, especially in short-term relationships. Accordingly, we predicted that women high in Dark Triad traits prefer characteristics related to short-term mating, because they possess traits favored in short-term relationships. Associations between ideal partner standards and Dark Triad traits were investigated with self-reports: 529 female undergraduate students filled out the Short Dark Triad and the Ideal Standards Scale...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Marie My Lien Rebetez, Lucien Rochat, Catherine Barsics, Martial Van der Linden
Procrastination has been described as the quintessence of self-regulatory failure. This study examines the relationships between this self-regulatory failure and other manifestations of self-regulation problems, namely impulsivity and intrusive thoughts. One hundred and forty-one participants completed questionnaires assessing procrastination, impulsivity (in particular, the urgency and lack of perseverance dimensions), and intrusive thoughts (i.e., rumination and daydreaming). Main results show that urgency mediated the association between rumination and procrastination, whereas rumination did not mediate the relation between urgency and procrastination...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Ana Azevedo Martins, Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes, Ana Filipa Alves, Leandro da Silva Almeida
The Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory is the principal model at present to define and assess intelligence. However, several authors have suggested that the structure of intelligence is not stable throughout life. For example, children tend to present a general ability, which is invested in the development of specific and differentiated abilities during adolescence, reflecting the effect of schooling, experiences, and interests. In this study, an intelligence nine subtests battery was applied to a sample of 470 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old Portuguese children, from public and private basic schools...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, Jennifer Bao, William D S Killgore
The neural basis of suppressing conscious access to one's own memories has recently received considerable attention, with several studies suggesting this process engages frontal-parietal cognitive control regions. However, researchers to date have not examined the way right and left hemisphere cognitive control networks coordinate with one another to accomplish this. We had 48 participants (25 female) complete a Think/No Think (T/NT) task for memories of emotionally unpleasant visual scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Marco Tommasi, Paola Grassi, Michela Balsamo, Laura Picconi, Adrian Furnham, Aristide Saggino
Adolescence is a critical period for the emergence of a balanced personality in adults. Extraversion, neuroticism, and affective self-efficacy beliefs in emotion regulation showed to be good predictors of psychological well-being in adolescents. We analyzed the association between affective self-efficacy beliefs, personality traits, and psychological well-being of 179 Italian adolescents. We also analyzed the connection between adolescents' filial self-efficacy beliefs and psychological well-being and possible moderating effects of self-efficacy beliefs on personality traits...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Dong-Gwi Lee, Harim Sohn, Byeong Hoon Bae, Yoorim Song
This study examines the validity of the Korean implementation of the Breakup Strategies Questionnaire. In Study 1, the construct validity of the Breakup Strategies Questionnaire was explored with 292 Korean undergraduate students. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling and Rasch's Modeling suggest 30 items with four factors (Avoidance/withdrawal, Positive tone/self-blame, Open confrontation, and Indirect manipulation) and five points in response. Study 2 with 174 Korean undergraduate students suggested potential gender differences in breakup strategy dimensions and provided support for concurrent validity with a measure of personal styles of coping as well as discriminant validity with social desirability...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
P Priscilla Lui, Gaithri A Fernando
Numerous scales currently exist that assess well-being, but research on measures of well-being is still advancing. Conceptualization and measurement of subjective well-being have emphasized intrapsychic over psychosocial domains of optimal functioning, and disparate research on hedonic, eudaimonic, and psychological well-being lacks a unifying theoretical model. Lack of systematic investigations on the impact of culture on subjective well-being has also limited advancement of this field. The goals of this investigation were to (1) develop and validate a self-report measure, the Well-Being Scale (WeBS), that simultaneously assesses overall well-being and physical, financial, social, hedonic, and eudaimonic domains of this construct; (2) evaluate factor structures that underlie subjective well-being; and (3) examine the measure's psychometric properties...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Helmut Lamm
A total of 272 students at a German university were asked to write down the story of an ingratiation attempt they had made and one they had received. They were then asked to reflect on each episode via a questionnaire. All but one participant reported that they had performed at least one of the four tactics postulated in Jones's ingratiation theory: compliments, favor-doing, opinion conformity, and positive self-presentation. In the case of received ingratiation, we found higher success ratings for nondependent (vs...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Yukiko Washio
Incentive use to improve maternal health behavior has been controversial, and guidelines to effectively design and implement such an intervention have been published. This commentary briefly describes a perspective from behavioral science for the existing guideline on the development of an incentive-based intervention to change maternal health behaviors. It is recommended to emphasize the saliency of incentives as an important variable to maintain the intervention effect while addressing barriers to feasibility and sustainability...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Frank J Dyer
The article presents a completely empirical approach to using drawings and associations as a supplemental tool in forensic psychological assessment. The present system represents a modern alternative to prior theory-driven "projective technique" approaches that have failed to pass scientific scrutiny. Using an archival sample of 252 forensic cases, House-Tree-Person drawing protocols were scored according to preliminary test items developed from published handbooks, academic courses, and workshops on the use of drawings and related associations for assessment...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Marita Heyns, Sebastiaan Rothmann
This study tested a structural model that identifies the nature of relationships between trust, autonomy satisfaction, and personal engagement at work. A cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample ( n = 252) was used. The Behavioral Trust Inventory, Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. While reliance-based trust did not have a significant influence on engagement, disclosure-based trust in a focal leader was found to predict satisfaction of autonomy needs and employee engagement...
February 2018: Psychological Reports
Małgorzata Wójcik, Anna M Hełka
This article introduces ABBL, the anti-bullying program for the transition to middle school, which was designed as a free, feasible, and easily applicable solution for teachers who, for any reason, cannot take advantage of comprehensive anti-bullying school-based programs. The ABBL, based on the identification of the causal risk factors and mechanisms that lead to bullying, aims to influence the peer group in such a way that students do not reward antisocial behaviors and are, instead, able to create supportive class atmospheres and strong networks of personal attachments...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Vaka Vésteinsdóttir, Eva D Steingrimsdottir, Adam Joinson, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Fanney Thorsdottir
Whether or not socially desirable responding is a cause for concern in personality assessment has long been debated. For many researchers, McCrae and Costa laid the issue to rest when they showed that correcting for socially desirable responding in self-reports did not improve the agreement with spouse ratings on the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience Personality Inventory. However, their findings rest on the assumption that observer ratings in general, and spouse ratings in particular, are an unbiased external criterion...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Wen-Ta Tseng, Tzi-Ying Su, John-Michael L Nix
This study applied the many-facet Rasch model to assess learners' translation ability in an English as a foreign language context. Few attempts have been made in extant research to detect and calibrate rater severity in the domain of translation testing. To fill the research gap, this study documented the process of validating a test of Chinese-to-English sentence translation and modeled raters' scoring propensity defined by harshness or leniency, expert/novice effects on severity, and concomitant effects on item difficulty...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
William Davidson, Hall P Beck
This study empirically confirmed the relationships between the degree to which students satisfied three basic needs (competence, relatedness, and autonomy) and the strength of their commitments to the university they attended and to obtaining a baccalaureate degree. A questionnaire was administered online to 1257 students at two 4-year universities. Regression analysis yielded statistically significant associations between the three needs and Institutional Commitment and Degree Commitment, explaining more than 20% of the variance in the latter two variables...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Denise K Whitford, Andrea M Emerson
There have been long-term concerns regarding discriminatory discipline practices used with culturally and linguistically diverse students, with little research on the impact teacher-centered empathy interventions may have on this population. This randomized pretest-posttest control group design investigates the ability of a brief empathy-inducing intervention to improve the implicit bias of pre-service teachers, as measured by the Implicit Association Test. We found the empathy intervention statistically significant at decreasing the implicit bias of White female pre-service teachers toward Black individuals ( F = 7...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Michael J Roche, Nicholas C Jacobson
Polling suggested that the 2016 United States presidential election affected citizens' mood and stress levels. Yet, polling often fails to employ repeated measurement designs that can capture pre- and post-levels of change within the same person. In this study, undergraduate students ( N = 85) completed a 14-day daily diary where mood, stress, and mental health outcomes were assessed before and after the election. Multilevel modeling revealed an immediate upsurge in anxiety, stress, and poor sleep quality the day after the election, followed by a recovery period indicating these effects were short-lived...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Manpal Singh Bhogal, Niall Galbraith, Ken Manktelow
Previous literature suggests that altruism may have evolved as a sexually selectable trait. Recent research suggests that women seek altruistic traits for long-term, not short-term relationships, as altruism can serve as an honest signal of one's character. We tested this hypothesis by asking 102 participants to complete a modified version of Buss's Mate Preferences Questionnaire. We found that women placed higher importance on altruism in a mate compared to men, and this preference was greater when seeking a long-term mate, compared to a short-term mate...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Sehee Hong, Soyoung Kim
There are basically two modeling approaches applicable to analyzing an actor-partner interdependence model: the multilevel modeling (hierarchical linear model) and the structural equation modeling. This article explains how to use these two models in analyzing an actor-partner interdependence model and how these two approaches work differently. As an empirical example, marital conflict data were used to analyze an actor-partner interdependence model. The multilevel modeling and the structural equation modeling produced virtually identical estimates for a basic model...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Julia Garami, Ahmad Valikhani, Denise Parkes, Paul Haber, Justin Mahlberg, Blazej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Ahmed A Moustafa
The investigation of psychosocial factors in relation to opiate addiction is limited and typically uses binary measures to assess how incidences of childhood trauma correlate with addiction. There has also been a lack of enquiry into how experiences of noninterpersonal versus interpersonal trauma may impact drug use addiction. In this regard, the current study utilized a novel measurement of interpersonal versus noninterpersonal lifetime trauma and a scale assessing severity of childhood trauma to examine how these factors may impact patients with opioid addiction...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
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