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Psychological Reports

Ayame Tamura, Yoshinori Sugiura, Tomoko Sugiura, Jun Moriya
Psychopathy is personality traits, which is consisted of primary psychopathy characterized by affective and interpersonal problems and secondary psychopathy characterized by behavioral problems. Prior researchers have suggested that people with psychopathy have peculiar attention, which prevents them from detecting information peripheral to their concern, and we hypothesized that this explains their low empathy. Based on these reasoning, the present study assessed whether attention moderates the relationship between psychopathy and affective empathy...
September 16, 2016: Psychological Reports
Connie Duer, Tom Tomasi, Charles I Abramson
Even in the best situations, the artificial social constructs of captivity alter natural elephant behavior and unfortunately create distress. Asian elephants are powerful and intelligent animals that require consideration for their well-being and prudent management. The males present particular difficulties due to a temporary state of heightened aggressive behavior unique to male elephants called "musth." When he is in this state, the danger the elephant poses to other animals and the people around him is considerable...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Reports
Walter R Schumm
Are the outcomes for children of gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents in general the same as those for heterosexual parents? That controversial question is discussed here in a detailed review of the social science literature in three parts: (1) stability of same-sex parental relationships, (2) child outcomes, and (3) child outcomes in same-sex adoption. Relationship instability appears to be higher among gay and lesbian parent couples and may be a key mediating factor influencing outcomes for children. With respect to part 2, while parental self-reports usually present few significant differences, social desirability or self-presentation bias may be a confounding factor...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Reports
Natália Kaščáková, Daniela Husárová, Jozef Hašto, Peter Kolarčik, Iva Poláčková Šolcová, Andrea Madarasová Gecková, Peter Tavel
The aim of this study was to create a shorter Czech version (ECR-R-16) of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-R) questionnaire and to assess its psychometric properties. Data from a representative sample of the Czech population from 15 to 90 years old (N = 1000, M age = 46.0 years, SD = 17.3) were collected using a face-to-face structured interview in 2014. The developed short form of the Czech version of the ECR-R showed good internal consistency (alphas varied from .84 to .90), and both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses replicated the two-dimensional model...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Reports
Kyoko Asakura, Miho Satoh, Ikue Watanabe
This study's aim was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Attitude toward Professional Autonomy Scale for Nurses in Japan. In Study 1, the initial (26-item) version of the scale was pilot tested on 454 Japanese nurses; item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed. In Study 2, the revised version of the scale (19 items) was administered to 802 Japanese nurses. The scale had good internal consistency (α = .85). Correlations with the scale of the desire of self-determination supported its concurrent validity...
August 29, 2016: Psychological Reports
Habab Osman, Maryam Alahmadi, Salaheldin Bakhiet, Richard Lynn
Data are reported showing statistically significant negative correlations between intelligence and family size, position, and income in a sample of 604 adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. There were no statistically significant correlations or associations between whether the mother or father were deceased or both parents were alive, and whether the parents were living together or were divorced.
August 23, 2016: Psychological Reports
Myung-Sun Chung
Although an association between lack of forgiveness and poor mental health is known, prior studies have reported mixed findings of the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms. In an attempt to explain the strength differences between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms, this study examined the moderating effect of self-compassion. A total of 311 Korean teachers (89 men, 222 women; M age = 39.3 year, SD = 9.1) were asked to complete self-report questionnaires, including the Korean versions of the Trait Forgivingness Scale, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale...
August 10, 2016: Psychological Reports
Xiao D Yue, Chun-Lok Leung, Neelam A Hiranandani
Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale...
August 9, 2016: Psychological Reports
Yair Amichai-Hamburger, Shir Etgar
This study investigated the relationship between smartphone multitasking and romantic intimacy. Participants currently in a romantic relationship (N = 128; 98 women; M age = 26.7 years, SD = 4.3) filled out two sets of questionnaires: The Emotional Intimacy Scale, measuring romantic intimacy, and the mobile phone interference in life scale, measuring multitasking on a smartphone. Participants filled out each questionnaire twice, once in relation to themselves and once in relation to their partner (for the partner questionnaire, statements were altered from the first person to the third person singular, he/she instead of I)...
August 5, 2016: Psychological Reports
Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid, Mahboubeh Dadfar, Ahmed M Abdel-Khalek, David Lester
A love of life is defined as an overall positive attitude toward life and a liking for life. The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of a Persian version of the Love of Life Scale using a convenience sample of 145 Iranian female volunteer college students (M age = 23.0 years, SD = 3.4). The mean score on the Love of Life Scale was 61.08 (SD = 11.40). A principal component analysis with a Varimax rotation yielded two factors labeled (a) Positive Attitude Towards Life and Happy Consequences of Love of Life and (b) Meaningfulness of Life...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Weisheng Chiu, Fernando M Rodriguez, Doyeon Won
This study examines the factor structure of the shortened version of the Leadership Scale for Sport, through a survey of 201 collegiate swimmers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II and III institutions, using both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis. Both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis showed that a five-factor solution fit the data adequately. The sizes of factor loadings on target factors substantially differed between the confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling solutions...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Tomoko Sugiura, Yoshinori Sugiura
Skills to refrain from catastrophic thinking were negatively related to worry and a wide range of psychological distress. Repetitive negative thinking (including worry) is proposed as a common etiological factor for a wide range of psychological distress. Therefore, reduced repetitive negative thinking would mediate the negative relation between refraining from catastrophic thinking and psychological distress (depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsessions and compulsions). As an overlap between five indices of psychological distress was expected, we first computed latent factors underlying them, which were then predicted by refraining from catastrophic thinking and repetitive negative thinking...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Therdpong Thongseiratch, Juthamas Worachotekamjorn
This study compared the number of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV versus DSM-V criterion in children who have learning or behavioral problems with high IQ. The medical records of children ≤15 years of age who presented with learning or behavioral problems and underwent a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III IQ test at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic unit between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Information on DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria for ADHD were derived from computer-based medical records...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
George T Patterson
Few longitudinal studies have investigated the use of coping strategies among police recruits. This study investigated perceived life and work stressors, appraisal, and coping over a seven-month police recruit academy training program. Participants were 81 police recruits who completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire at three time points approximately three months apart. The average age of the recruits was 27.6 years (SD = 5.1, range 20-51). Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to examine coping scores...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Xue Wang, Xin Xu, Yangyang Liu
The objective of the present study is to investigate gender differences in the ability to identify females' voice during menstruation. In Study 1, 55 male participants (M age = 19.6 years, SD = 1.0) were asked to listen to vocal samples from women during both ovulation and menstruation and to identify which recordings featured menstruating women. The results showed that the accuracy of men's responses (M = 56.73%, SD = 0.21) was significantly higher than 50%. In Study 2, 118 female students (M age = 19...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Michael D Maraun, Stephen D Hart
Recently, researchers in the field of forensic mental health have attempted to address the technical, empirical question of whether important clinical problems, such as psychopathy or malingering, constitute taxa (i.e., discrete conditions). In this paper, we provide a detailed elucidation of the foundational logic of the quantitative methods employed to answer this question, focusing on the taxometric procedures developed by Paul Meehl and colleagues. We attempt to demonstrate that research on taxonicity is hampered by (a) researchers' unfamiliarity with or misunderstanding of the logic underlying latent variable technologies and (b) the fundamental incapacity of Meehlian procedures to provide a test of taxonicity...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Michael T Bradley, Andrew Brand
Accurate measurement and a cutoff probability with inferential statistics are not wholly compatible. Fisher understood this when he developed the F test to deal with measurement variability and to make judgments on manipulations that may be worth further study. Neyman and Pearson focused on modeled distributions whose parameters were highly determined and concluded that inferential judgments following an F test could be made with accuracy because the distribution parameters were determined. Neyman and Pearson's approach in the application of statistical analyses using alpha and beta error rates has played a dominant role guiding inferential judgments, appropriately in highly determined situations and inappropriately in scientific exploration...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Yunhui Huang, Wei Lv, Jiang Wu
This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Elisa Gambetti, Raffaella Nori, Fiorella Giusberti
The present study examined the influence of specific evidence and testimonies on a juror's decision to make a verdict of intentional or negligent homicide in a Civil law country. Italian students (N = 280; M age = 25.0 years, SD = 2.9) read different affidavits characterized by the presence or absence of three elements against the defendant: motive, skill in use of weapons, and previous violence toward the victim. Participants then decided a verdict and provided a confidence judgment on their decision...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
Umran Akin, Ahmet Akin, Erol Uğur
This research investigated the mediator role of mindfulness on the relationship between friendship quality and subjective vitality. Participants were 273 university students (M age = 21 years, SD = 1.1) who completed a questionnaire package that included the Friendship Quality Scale, the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. Both mindfulness and subjective vitality were correlated positively with friendship quality and subjective vitality was correlated positively with mindfulness...
October 2016: Psychological Reports
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