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Psychological Reports

Jeremy S Nash, Kana Imuta, Mark Nielsen
A cognitive bias known as the sunk cost effect has been found across a number of contexts. This bias drives the continued investment of time, effort, or money into an endeavor on the basis of prior investments into it. In Studies 1 and 2, we attempted to observe whether this effect occurs for short-term behavioral investments. In both studies, a reverse, or no sunk cost effect was found. In Study 3, we attempted to find an effect using hypothetical scenarios that were analagous to the behavioral investments presented in Study 1...
August 10, 2018: Psychological Reports
Joseph J Ryan, Takahiro Yamaguchi, David S Kreiner
The Rey 15-Item Test and reliable digit span were evaluated in Japan. Participants were controls ( n = 15), healthy volunteers instructed to simulate memory impairment ( n = 12; 5 of 17 volunteers did not comply with instructions and were dropped), healthy elderly ( n = 12), and cognitively disabled nursing home residents ( n = 8). On the 15-Item Test, controls and elderly performed similarly and were combined. Nursing home residents could not cope with the 15-Item Test and were dropped. Total score was a fair predictor of dissimulation using a cutoff ≤ 8...
August 9, 2018: Psychological Reports
Yuanyuan Shi, Yu L L Luo, Yunzhi Liu, Ziyan Yang
Previous studies have pondered the relevance of social networking sites (SNSs) to psychological well-being, but few have taken online affective experience into consideration. To extend previous research on the relationship between SNSs and psychological well-being, we opted to target emotions experienced while visiting SNSs as a means to predict off-line well-being. In our two studies, we surveyed affective experience on SNSs, overall life satisfaction, and general emotional well-being of young adults who access SNSs regularly...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Reports
Wei-Ching Wang
Internet addiction has become a significant concern with a variety of negative outcomes among the younger generation in today's modern society and has been investigated and discussed in many studies. Of all the influencing factors, boredom has been proven to be a common trigger for intensive internet use and can result in particularly problematic internet use behavior. A number of studies have indicated the importance of time use as a treatment. Thus, using free time well might serve as a solution to reduce leisure boredom and internet addiction...
August 2, 2018: Psychological Reports
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith
The field of neurobiology of learning and memory has demonstrated that interhemispheric activation plays an important role in subserving episodic memory function. A common behavioral technique to induce interhemispheric activation includes saccadic eye movements, with a common behavioral marker being the degree of handedness. Importantly, however, the field of exercise neurobiology has yet to consider these behavioral techniques and markers in exercise-based studies. This review highlights the effects of these techniques and markers on episodic memory function and discusses the implications of this for exercise studies...
July 30, 2018: Psychological Reports
Jiansheng Li, Xiaozhen Zhang, Hao Zheng, Qingqiu Lu, Gang Fan
This study examined whether global processing style facilitates the discovery of structural similarity. In the two experiments, the participants were presented with three stories after being primed with global or local processing through a Navon task. The first story was the base story, and the other two stories shared either surface similarity or structural similarity with the base story. The results showed that, compared with the participants of the local processing and control groups, a substantially greater number of participants of the global processing group selected the story with structural similarity to the base story...
July 30, 2018: Psychological Reports
Richard J Harnish, Joshua T Gump, K Robert Bridges, Frederick J Slack, Karen M Rottschaefer
OBJECTIVE: The current research examined whether eating disorder risk and the attitudinal elements related to body image predict compulsive buying. METHOD: A sample of students attending two public universities located in the northeast United States were surveyed. RESULTS: A multiple regression indicated that attitudes related to one's physical appearance, fitness, and health as well as eating disorder risk were predictors of compulsive buying with appearance orientation being the strongest predictor of compulsive buying...
July 25, 2018: Psychological Reports
Ma Jenina N Nalipay, Lisbeth Ku
Hopelessness theory of depression posits that hopelessness due to negative inferences may serve as a proximal and sufficient cause of depression, while interpersonal theories suggest that interpersonal stress resulting from relationship problems and social rejection may lead to symptoms of depression. We propose that the two perspectives can be integrated by examining a model in which hopelessness predicts depression symptoms through two specific interpersonal stress constructs, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, in a sample of university students from Macau ( N = 350)...
July 24, 2018: Psychological Reports
Christine Ma-Kellams, Brianna Bishop, Mei Fong Zhang, Brian Villagrana
To what extent could "Big Data" predict the results of the 2016 U.S. presidential election better than more conventional sources of aggregate measures? To test this idea, the present research used Google search trends versus other forms of state-level data (i.e., both behavioral measures like the incidence of hate crimes, hate groups, and police brutality and implicit measures like Implicit Association Test (IAT) data) to predict each state's popular vote for the 2016 presidential election. Results demonstrate that, when taken in isolation, zero-order correlations reveal that prevalence of hate groups, prevalence of hate crimes, Google searches for racially charged terms (i...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Tzu-Fen Chang, Desiree Baolian Qin
Drawing on a sample of 318 African American and 354 Latino urban, low-income families, we identify maternal monitoring knowledge trajectories and examine which trajectory predicts fewer late-adolescent externalizing problems and which family and neighborhood factors predict trajectories with positive implications for late-adolescent externalizing behaviors. The majority of adolescents in both groups perceived long-term high levels of maternal monitoring knowledge throughout adolescence-stably high for the African American sample and high for the Latino sample...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Elianne F Van Steenbergen, Cilia van der Ven, Maria C W Peeters, Toon W Taris
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a mandatory transition to New Ways of Working (NWW) on employees' job demands (i.e., mental demands, workload, and task ambiguity), job resources (i.e., autonomy, supervisor support, coworker support, and possibilities for development), and their levels of burnout and work engagement. Additionally, it was investigated whether the effects of the transition depended on employees' personal resources (Psychological Capital-PsyCap). Design/methodology/approach We investigated an organization in transition...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Randy J McCarthy, Brett M Wells, John J Skowronski, Donal E Carlston
Four studies pursued the idea that spontaneous trait inferences (STIs) involve the formation of both inferential knowledge and associative knowledge while spontaneous trait transferences (STTs) involve only the formation of associative knowledge. These studies varied the type and amount of behavioral information from which perceivers could extract trait information. Experiments 1a and 1b used a modified savings-in-relearning paradigm and demonstrated that repeated presentations of an individual and a behavior description increased the strength of association between the target and implied trait, and this effect did not depend on whether the repeated presentations involved redundant information or new information...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Rebecca A Blackie, Nancy L Kocovski
Post-event processing refers to negative and repetitive thinking following anxiety provoking social situations. Those who engage in post-event processing may lack self-compassion in relation to social situations. As such, the primary aim of this research was to evaluate whether those high in self-compassion are less likely to engage in post-event processing and the specific self-compassion domains that may be most protective. In study 1 ( N = 156 undergraduate students) and study 2 ( N = 150 individuals seeking help for social anxiety and shyness), participants completed a battery of questionnaires, recalled a social situation, and then rated state post-event processing...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Mae Hyang Hwang, Hyo Jin Lim, Hye Suk Ha
This study examined the structural relationship between age, grit (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interest), conscientiousness, self-control, and school success of female students at an Open University in Korea. We analyzed 509 students' responses, and it turned out that the level of perseverance of effort was negatively correlated with academic maladjustment. Also, perseverance of effort had a positive indirect effect on grade point average scores. Conscientiousness and self-control were found to be positively correlated with grit factors and they had negative effects on academic maladjustment through perseverance of effort...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Evan D Bradley
Music and language share perceptual resources, and both map sound to invariant categories-invariant over and within speakers for language and over instruments and keys for music. The effects of stimulus variability on lexical tone and musical interval tasks among non-tone language speakers were compared using a matching (XAB) task under varying levels of stimulus variability. Listeners perceived Mandarin words better with single rather than multiple speakers and showed similar advantages in melodic interval perception for low (single instrument) versus high (multiple instruments) variability sets...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Zuosong Chen, Kaihong Sun, Kun Wang
This study aims to investigate the relationships among self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping and the potential mediating role of achievement goals in the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping in college physical education. The participants were 320 Chinese college students. Three validated scales were employed to assess participants' self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping in college physical education. Results showed that self-esteem had a negative effect on self-handicapping...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Mehdi B Mehrani
The present article describes a new Persian elicited imitation test (EIT) developed for assessing the overall language proficiency of Persian-speaking preschoolers. It reports a study that investigated the power of the EIT in discriminating children's linguistic abilities through having them repeat sentences of varying lengths and morphosyntactic complexity. The study also explored the relationship between children's performance on the EIT and their free speech. A total of 119 three- to- six-year-old Iranian monolingual children participated in the study by completing the EIT and an oral narrative task...
August 2018: Psychological Reports
Keegan D Greenier
This study sought to investigate how individual differences are related to schadenfreude (pleasure derived from another's misfortune) by replicating past findings and extending them to additional personality traits. Because most past research on schadenfreude has relied heavily on the use of reactions to hypothetical scenarios, an attempt was made to demonstrate external validity by also including a reaction to a live event (confederate misfortune). For the scenarios, schadenfreude was positively correlated with the Dark Triad and just world beliefs; negatively correlated with empathy and agreeableness; and uncorrelated with dispositional envy, self-esteem, or the remaining Big Five traits...
June 2018: Psychological Reports
Audrey Pelt, Valérie Fointiat
In a forced compliance situation, Scheier and Carver have shown that making high private self-consciousness salient through exposure to a mirror inhibits the arousal of dissonance and the subsequent attitude change. Based on these results, the aim of our study is to examine an alternate theoretical interpretation of the absence of attitude change. From our point of view, the mirror could have the status of a misattribution cue, thus maintaining the arousal. To test this hypothesis within the induced hypocrisy paradigm, participants first completed the private self-consciousness scale...
June 2018: Psychological Reports
Richard Perlow, Mia Jattuso
Researchers have operationalized working memory in different ways and although working memory-performance relationships are well documented, there has been relatively less attention devoted to determining whether seemingly similar measures yield comparable relations with performance outcomes. Our objective is to assess whether two working memory measures deploying the same processes but different item content yield different relations with two problem-solving criteria. Participants completed a computation-based working memory measure and a reading-based measure prior to performing a computerized simulation...
June 2018: Psychological Reports
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