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Psychological Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893220/is-body-dissatisfaction-changing-across-time-a-cross-temporal-meta-analysis
#1
Bryan T Karazsia, Sarah K Murnen, Tracy L Tylka
It remains unclear whether body dissatisfaction, a widely recognized predictor of eating-related pathologies and depressive symptomatology, is consistent across cohorts and time. This question is important to investigate because dominant theories propose that sociocultural influences, which may fluctuate, play an important role in the development of body dissatisfaction. Previous efforts for tracking body dissatisfaction across cohorts and time are limited by relying on data from a single institution or using assessments that lack psychometric support across genders...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893219/integrating-the-context-appropriate-balanced-attention-model-and-reinforcement-sensitivity-theory-towards-a-domain-general-personality-process-model
#2
Michael D Collins, Chris J Jackson, Benjamin R Walker, Peter J O'Connor, Elliroma Gardiner
Over the last 40 years or more the personality literature has been dominated by trait models based on the Big Five (B5). Trait-based models describe personality at the between-person level but cannot explain the within-person mental mechanisms responsible for personality. Nor can they adequately account for variations in emotion and behavior experienced by individuals across different situations and over time. An alternative, yet understated, approach to personality architecture can be found in neurobiological theories of personality, most notably reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST)...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841450/risk-factors-for-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-a-meta-analysis-of-50-years-of-research
#3
Joseph C Franklin, Jessica D Ribeiro, Kathryn R Fox, Kate H Bentley, Evan M Kleiman, Xieyining Huang, Katherine M Musacchio, Adam C Jaroszewski, Bernard P Chang, Matthew K Nock
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) are major public health problems that have not declined appreciably in several decades. One of the first steps to improving the prevention and treatment of STBs is to establish risk factors (i.e., longitudinal predictors). To provide a summary of current knowledge about risk factors, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that have attempted to longitudinally predict a specific STB-related outcome. This included 365 studies (3,428 total risk factor effect sizes) from the past 50 years...
November 14, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841449/overlap-between-the-general-factor-of-personality-and-emotional-intelligence-a-meta-analysis
#4
Dimitri van der Linden, Keri A Pekaar, Arnold B Bakker, Julie Aitken Schermer, Philip A Vernon, Curtis S Dunkel, K V Petrides
We examine the relationship between the general factor of personality (GFP) and emotional intelligence (EI) and specifically test the hypothesis that the GFP is a social effectiveness factor overlapping conceptually with EI. Presented is an extensive meta-analysis in which the associations between the GFP, extracted from the Big Five dimensions, with various EI measures is examined. Based on a total sample of k = 142 data sources (N = 36,268) the 2 major findings from the meta-analysis were (a) a large overlap between the GFP and trait EI (r ≈ ...
November 14, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732018/why-are-some-stem-fields-more-gender-balanced-than-others
#5
Sapna Cheryan, Sianna A Ziegler, Amanda K Montoya, Lily Jiang
Women obtain more than half of U.S. undergraduate degrees in biology, chemistry, and mathematics, yet they earn less than 20% of computer science, engineering, and physics undergraduate degrees (National Science Foundation, 2014a). Gender differences in interest in computer science, engineering, and physics appear even before college. Why are women represented in some science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields more than others? We conduct a critical review of the most commonly cited factors explaining gender disparities in STEM participation and investigate whether these factors explain differential gender participation across STEM fields...
October 10, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709981/deontological-coherence-a-framework-for-commonsense-moral-reasoning
#6
Keith J Holyoak, Derek Powell
We review a broad range of work, primarily in cognitive and social psychology, that provides insight into the processes of moral judgment. In particular, we consider research on pragmatic reasoning about regulations and on coherence in decision making, both areas in which psychological theories have been guided by work in legal philosophy. Armed with these essential prerequisites, we sketch a psychological framework for how ordinary people make judgments about moral issues. Based on a literature review, we show how the framework of deontological coherence unifies findings in moral psychology that have often been explained in terms of a grab-bag of heuristics and biases...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618545/psychological-correlates-of-habitual-diet-in-healthy-adults
#7
Richard J Stevenson
There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618544/a-meta-analytic-review-of-collaborative-inhibition-and-postcollaborative-memory-testing-the-predictions-of-the-retrieval-strategy-disruption-hypothesis
#8
Stéphanie B Marion, Craig Thorley
The retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis (Basden, Basden, Bryner, & Thomas, 1997) is the most widely cited theoretical explanation for why the memory performance of collaborative groups is inferior to the pooled performance of individual group members remembering alone (i.e., collaborative inhibition). This theory also predicts that several variables will moderate collaborative inhibition. This meta-analysis tests the veracity of the theory by systematically examining whether or not these variables do moderate the presence and strength of collaborative inhibition...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618543/a-meta-analytical-integration-of-over-40-years-of-research-on-diversity-training-evaluation
#9
Katerina Bezrukova, Chester S Spell, Jamie L Perry, Karen A Jehn
This meta-analysis of 260 independent samples assessed the effects of diversity training on 4 training outcomes over time and across characteristics of training context, design, and participants. Models from the training literature and psychological theory on diversity were used to generate theory-driven predictions. The results revealed an overall effect size (Hedges g) of .38 with the largest effect being for reactions to training and cognitive learning; smaller effects were found for behavioral and attitudinal/affective learning...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869459/the-perils-of-unitary-models-of-the-etiology-of-mental-disorders-the-response-modulation-hypothesis-of-psychopathy-as-a-case-example-rejoinder-to-newman-and-baskin-sommers-2016
#10
Scott O Lilienfeld, Sarah Francis Smith, Ashley L Watts
We respond to Newman and Baskin-Sommers's (2016) criticisms of our meta-analytic and narrative synthesis of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH) of psychopathy (Smith & Lilienfeld, 2015). We concur with Newman and Baskin-Sommers that our results offer modest support for the RMH and that several of our arguments apply with equal force to rival etiological models of psychopathy. Nevertheless, we contend that Newman and Baskin-Sommers' criticisms of our findings and conclusions are unconvincing, and that the research support for the RMH is considerably more mixed than implied by Newman and Baskin-Sommers...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869458/smith-and-lilienfeld-s-meta-analysis-of-the-response-modulation-hypothesis-important-theoretical-and-quantitative-clarifications
#11
Joseph P Newman, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers
In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, applied across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748610/emotion-and-false-memory-the-context-content-paradox
#12
S H Bookbinder, C J Brainerd
False memories are influenced by a variety of factors, but emotion is a variable of special significance, for theoretical and practical reasons. Interestingly, emotion's effects on false memory depend on whether it is embedded in the content of to-be-remembered events or in our moods, where mood is an aspect of the context in which events are encoded. We sketch the theoretical basis for this content-context dissociation and then review accumulated evidence that content and context effects are indeed different...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732017/half-a-century-of-research-on-garner-interference-and-the-separability-integrality-distinction
#13
Daniel Algom, Daniel Fitousi
Research in the allied domains of selective attention and perceptual independence has made great advances over the past 5 decades ensuing from the foundational ideas and research conceived by Wendell R. Garner. In particular, Garner's speeded classification paradigm has received considerable attention in psychology. The paradigm is widely used to inform research and theory in various domains of cognitive science. It was Garner who provided the consensual definition of the separable-integral partition of stimulus dimensions, delineating a set of converging operations sustaining the distinction...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732016/dispositional-negativity-an-integrative-psychological-and-neurobiological-perspective
#14
Alexander J Shackman, Do P M Tromp, Melissa D Stockbridge, Claire M Kaplan, Rachael M Tillman, Andrew S Fox
Dispositional negativity-the propensity to experience and express more frequent, intense, or enduring negative affect-is a fundamental dimension of childhood temperament and adult personality. Elevated levels of dispositional negativity can have profound consequences for health, wealth, and happiness, drawing the attention of clinicians, researchers, and policymakers. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the psychological and neurobiological processes linking stable individual differences in dispositional negativity to momentary emotional states...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559748/hemispheric-asymmetry-in-the-hierarchical-perception-of-music-and-speech
#15
Matthew A Rosenthal
The perception of music and speech involves a higher level, cognitive mechanism that allows listeners to form expectations for future music and speech events. This article comprehensively reviews studies on hemispheric differences in the formation of melodic and harmonic expectations in music and selectively reviews studies on hemispheric differences in the formation of syntactic and semantic expectations in speech. On the basis of this review, it is concluded that the higher level mechanism flexibly lateralizes music processing to either hemisphere depending on the expectation generated by a given musical context...
November 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669355/-a-qualitative-meta-analysis-examining-clients-experiences-of-psychotherapy-a-new-agenda-correction-to-levitt-pomerville-and-surace-2016
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "A qualitative meta-analysis examining clients' experiences of psychotherapy: A new agenda" by Heidi M. Levitt, Andrew Pomerville and Francisco I. Surace (, 2016[Aug], Vol 142[8], 801-830). In the article, the 2nd sentence in the Broadening the Forms of Power When Considering Client-Therapist Differences section, "Indeed, most of the studies (55/66, 83.3%) in these categories focused either on the power differential within the therapeutic relationship (37) or culturally based power differences between therapists and clients (29)...
October 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513919/differences-in-sensitivity-to-parenting-depending-on-child-temperament-a-meta-analysis
#17
Meike Slagt, Judith Semon Dubas, Maja Deković, Marcel A G van Aken
Several models of individual differences in environmental sensitivity postulate increased sensitivity of some individuals to either stressful (diathesis-stress), supportive (vantage sensitivity), or both environments (differential susceptibility). In this meta-analysis we examine whether children vary in sensitivity to parenting depending on their temperament, and if so, which model can best be used to describe this sensitivity pattern. We tested whether associations between negative parenting and negative or positive child adjustment as well as between positive parenting and positive or negative child adjustment would be stronger among children higher on putative sensitivity markers (difficult temperament, negative emotionality, surgency, and effortful control)...
October 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504934/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-association-between-perceived-social-support-and-depression-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#18
Sandra Yu Rueger, Christine Kerres Malecki, Yoonsun Pyun, Chase Aycock, Samantha Coyle
This meta-analysis evaluated the relation between social support and depression in youth and compared the cumulative evidence for 2 theories that have been proposed to explain this association: the general benefits (GB; also known as main effects) and stress-buffering (SB) models. The study included 341 articles (19% unpublished) gathered through a search in PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ERIC, and ProQuest, and a hand search of 11 relevant journals. Using a random effects model, the overall effect size based on k = 341 studies and N = 273,149 participants was r = ...
October 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504933/attention-and-associative-learning-in-humans-an-integrative-review
#19
Mike E Le Pelley, Chris J Mitchell, Tom Beesley, David N George, Andy J Wills
This article presents a comprehensive survey of research concerning interactions between associative learning and attention in humans. Four main findings are described. First, attention is biased toward stimuli that predict their consequences reliably (). This finding is consistent with the approach taken by Mackintosh (1975) in his attentional model of associative learning in nonhuman animals. Second, the strength of this attentional bias is modulated by the value of the outcome (). That is, predictors of high-value outcomes receive especially high levels of attention...
October 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732004/-effects-of-stress-on-decisions-under-uncertainty-a-meta-analysis-correction-to-starcke-and-brand-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis" by Katrin Starcke and Matthias Brand (Psychological Bulletin, Advanced Online Publication, May 23, 2016, np). It should have been reported that the inverted u-shaped relationship between cortisol stress responses and decision-making performance was only observed in female, but not in male participants as suggested by the study by van den Bos, Harteveld, and Stoop (2009). Corrected versions of the affected sentences are provided...
September 2016: Psychological Bulletin
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