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Psychological Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321017/what-meta-analyses-reveal-about-the-replicability-of-psychological-research
#1
T D Stanley, Evan C Carter, Hristos Doucouliagos
Can recent failures to replicate psychological research be explained by typical magnitudes of statistical power, bias or heterogeneity? A large survey of 12,065 estimated effect sizes from 200 meta-analyses and nearly 8,000 papers is used to assess these key dimensions of replicability. First, our survey finds that psychological research is, on average, afflicted with low statistical power. The median of median power across these 200 areas of research is about 36%, and only about 8% of studies have adequate power (using Cohen's 80% convention)...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265011/retrieval-potentiates-new-learning-a-theoretical-and-meta-analytic-review
#2
Jason C K Chan, Christian A Meissner, Sara D Davis
A growing body of research has shown that retrieval can enhance future learning of new materials. In the present report, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on this finding, which we term test-potentiated new learning. Our primary objectives were to (a) produce an integrative review of the existing theoretical explanations, (b) summarize the extant empirical data with a meta-analysis, (c) evaluate the existing accounts with the meta-analytic results, and (d) highlight areas that deserve further investigations...
September 27, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475019/parental-alienating-behaviors-an-unacknowledged-form-of-family-violence
#3
Jennifer J Harman, Edward Kruk, Denise A Hines
Despite affecting millions of families around the world, parental alienation has been largely unacknowledged or denied by legal and health professionals as a form of family violence. This complex form of aggression entails a parental figure engaging in the long-term use of a variety of aggressive behaviors to harm the relationship between their child and another parental figure, and/or to hurt the other parental figure directly because of their relationship with their child. Like other forms of family violence, parental alienation has serious and negative consequences for family members, yet victims are often blamed for their experience...
December 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475018/what-have-we-learned-from-offender-profiling-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-40-years-of-research
#4
Bryanna Fox, David P Farrington
In the 4 decades since offender profiling (OP) was established, hundreds of journal articles, books, book chapters, reports, and magazine articles have been published on the topic, and the technique has been used by countless law enforcement agencies around the globe. However, despite the popularity and extensive literature published on OP, very little is known about its evolution, current state, or findings of the field to date. Therefore, this study presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of 426 publications on OP from 1976 through 2016...
December 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475017/-the-case-against-specialized-visual-spatial-short-term-memory-correction-to-morey-2018
#5
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The case against specialized visual-spatial short-term memory" by Candice C. Morey ( Psychological Bulletin , 2018[Aug], Vol 144[8], 849-883). In the article, the text describing the case reports of patient E. L. D. (Hanley, Pearson, & Young, 1990, Hanley, Young, & Pearson, 1991) the text should read that E. L. D. had difficulties compared to a control sample choosing which of 20 faces (rather than 12 faces) she had recently seen. Later in the same section, the text should read "she had little difficulty recognizing which of two familiar faces she had encountered in a recent experimental session ...
December 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475016/quasi-experimental-evidence-on-short-and-long-term-consequences-of-bullying-victimization-a-meta-analysis
#6
Tabea Schoeler, Lauren Duncan, Charlotte M Cecil, George B Ploubidis, Jean-Baptiste Pingault
Exposure to bullying victimization is associated with a wide-range of short and long-term adverse outcomes. However, the extent to which these associations reflect a causal influence of bullying victimization remains disputed. Here, we aimed to provide the most stringent evidence regarding the consequences of bullying victimization by meta-analyzing all relevant quasi-experimental (QE) studies. Multilevel random effects models and metaregression were employed to (a) estimate the pooled QE-adjusted effect size (Cohen d) for bullying victimization on outcomes and to (b) evaluate potential sources of heterogeneity...
December 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999335/the-social-identity-approach-to-disability-bridging-disability-studies-and-psychological-science
#7
Thomas P Dirth, Nyla R Branscombe
Although mainstream psychology has received numerous critiques for its traditional approaches to disability-related research, proposals for alternative theory that can encompass the social, cultural, political, and historical features of disability are lacking. The social identity approach (SIA) offers a rich framework from which to ask research questions about the experience of disability in accordance with the critical insights found in disability studies (DS), the source for many of the most compelling critiques of disability psychology research...
December 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265012/low-and-variable-correlation-between-reaction-time-costs-and-accuracy-costs-explained-by-accumulation-models-meta-analysis-and-simulations
#8
Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Aline Bompas, Solveiga Vivian-Griffiths, Petroc Sumner
The underpinning assumption of much research on cognitive individual differences (or group differences) is that task performance indexes cognitive ability in that domain. In many tasks performance is measured by differences (costs) between conditions, which are widely assumed to index a psychological process of interest rather than extraneous factors such as speed-accuracy trade-offs (e.g., Stroop, implicit association task, lexical decision, antisaccade, Simon, Navon, flanker, and task switching). Relatedly, reaction time (RT) costs or error costs are interpreted similarly and used interchangeably in the literature...
November 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102058/binocular-summation-revisited-beyond-%C3%A2-2
#9
Daniel H Baker, Freya A Lygo, Tim S Meese, Mark A Georgeson
Our ability to detect faint images is better with two eyes than with one, but how great is this improvement? A meta-analysis of 65 studies published across more than 5 decades shows definitively that psychophysical binocular summation (the ratio of binocular to monocular contrast sensitivity) is significantly greater than the canonical value of √2. Several methodological factors were also found to affect summation estimates. Binocular summation was significantly affected by both the spatial and temporal frequency of the stimulus, and stimulus speed (the ratio of temporal to spatial frequency) systematically predicts summation levels, with slow speeds (high spatial and low temporal frequencies) producing the strongest summation...
November 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080055/the-unity-and-diversity-of-executive-functions-a-systematic-review-and-re-analysis-of-latent-variable-studies
#10
Justin E Karr, Corson N Areshenkoff, Philippe Rast, Scott M Hofer, Grant L Iverson, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been frequently applied to executive function measurement since first used to identify a three-factor model of inhibition, updating, and shifting; however, subsequent CFAs have supported inconsistent models across the life span, ranging from unidimensional to nested-factor models (i.e., bifactor without inhibition). This systematic review summarized CFAs on performance-based tests of executive functions and reanalyzed summary data to identify best-fitting models. Eligible CFAs involved 46 samples ( N = 9,756)...
November 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010349/development-of-self-esteem-from-age-4-to-94-years-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#11
Ulrich Orth, Ruth Yasemin Erol, Eva C Luciano
To investigate the normative trajectory of self-esteem across the life span, this meta-analysis synthesizes the available longitudinal data on mean-level change in self-esteem. The analyses were based on 331 independent samples, including data from 164,868 participants. As effect size measure, we used the standardized mean change d per year. The mean age associated with the effect sizes ranged from 4 to 94 years. Results showed that average levels of self-esteem increased from age 4 to 11 years (cumulative d = 0...
October 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888932/visuomotor-control-eye-movements-and-steering-a-unified-approach-for-incorporating-feedback-feedforward-and-internal-models
#12
Otto Lappi, Callum Mole
The authors present an approach to the coordination of eye movements and locomotion in naturalistic steering tasks. It is based on recent empirical research, in particular, on driver eye movements, that poses challenges for existing accounts of how we visually steer a course. They first analyze how the ideas of feedback and feedforward processes and internal models are treated in control theoretical steering models within vision science and engineering, which share an underlying architecture but have historically developed in very separate ways...
October 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148383/-meta-analysis-of-action-video-game-impact-on-perceptual-attentional-and-cognitive-skills-correction-to-bediou-et-al-2018
#13
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Meta-analysis of action video game impact on perceptual, attentional, and cognitive skills" by Benoit Bediou, Deanne M. Adams, Richard E. Mayer, Elizabeth Tipton, C. Shawn Green and Daphne Bavelier ( Psychological Bulletin , 2018[Jan], Vol 144[1], 77-110). In the article, a number of issues related to clustering in cases of partial overlap between participants were identified following publication. This document clarifies these issues and extends the original results by adding additional sensitivity analyses...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148382/benchmarks-provide-common-ground-for-model-development-reply-to-logie-2018-and-vandierendonck-2018
#14
Klaus Oberauer, Stephan Lewandowsky, Edward Awh, Gordon D A Brown, Andrew Conway, Nelson Cowan, Christopher Donkin, Simon Farrell, Graham J Hitch, Mark J Hurlstone, Wei Ji Ma, Candice C Morey, Derek Evan Nee, Judith Schweppe, Evie Vergauwe, Geoff Ward
We respond to the comments of Logie and Vandierendonck to our article proposing benchmark findings for evaluating theories and models of short-term and working memory. The response focuses on the two main points of criticism: (a) Logie and Vandierendonck argue that the scope of the set of benchmarks is too narrow. We explain why findings on how working memory is used in complex cognition, findings on executive functions, and findings from neuropsychological case studies are currently not included in the benchmarks, and why findings with visual and spatial materials are less prevalent among them...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148381/working-memory-benchmarks-a-missed-opportunity-comment-on-oberauer-et-al-2018
#15
André Vandierendonck
This commentary addresses a number of problems with the benchmarks proposed for evaluating theories of short-term and working memory (Oberauer et al., 2018). First, it is shown that the proposed benchmarks intentionally exclude findings regarding the core of the working memory construct and also miss some important findings from other subdomains. For these reasons, the benchmarks cannot be considered as a valid representation of the findings on short-term and working memory. Second, it is shown that although theory-neutrality of the benchmarks was aimed for, this goal was not achieved because theory-neutrality in the formulation of the benchmarks does not guarantee inclusion of all theory-dependent findings...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148380/scientific-advance-and-theory-integration-in-working-memory-comment-on-oberauer-et-al-2018
#16
Robert H Logie
Oberauer et al. (2018) report the results of an ambitious project to identify key or "benchmark" empirical findings that have been associated with the concept of working memory. This commentary questions the utility of setting different levels of priority for previous findings for the purposes of advancing theoretical understanding. This gives undue weight to well-established findings that are studied by large numbers of researchers, at the expense of new, or less well researched findings that could be just as, if not more important for theory development...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148379/benchmarks-for-models-of-short-term-and-working-memory
#17
Klaus Oberauer, Stephan Lewandowsky, Edward Awh, Gordon D A Brown, Andrew Conway, Nelson Cowan, Christopher Donkin, Simon Farrell, Graham J Hitch, Mark J Hurlstone, Wei Ji Ma, Candice C Morey, Derek Evan Nee, Judith Schweppe, Evie Vergauwe, Geoff Ward
Any mature field of research in psychology-such as short-term/working memory-is characterized by a wealth of empirical findings. It is currently unrealistic to expect a theory to explain them all; theorists must satisfice with explaining a subset of findings. The aim of the present article is to make the choice of that subset less arbitrary and idiosyncratic than is current practice. We propose criteria for identifying benchmark findings that every theory in a field should be able to explain: Benchmarks should be reproducible, generalize across materials and methodological variations, and be theoretically informative...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792442/the-case-against-specialized-visual-spatial-short-term-memory
#18
Candice C Morey
The dominant paradigm for understanding working memory, or the combination of the perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic processes needed for thinking, subdivides short-term memory (STM) according to whether memoranda are encoded in aural-verbal or visual formats. This traditional dissociation has been supported by examples of neuropsychological patients who seem to selectively lack STM for either aural-verbal, visual, or spatial memoranda, and by experimental research using dual-task methods. Though this evidence is the foundation of assumptions of modular STM systems, the case it makes for a specialized visual STM system is surprisingly weak...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792441/human-memory-reconsolidation-a-guiding-framework-and-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#19
James W B Elsey, Vanessa A Van Ast, Merel Kindt
Research in nonhuman animals suggests that reactivation can induce a transient, unstable state in a previously consolidated memory, during which the memory can be disrupted or modified, necessitating a process of restabilization in order to persist. Such findings have sparked a wave of interest into whether this phenomenon, known as reconsolidation, occurs in humans. Translating research from animal models to human experiments and even to clinical interventions is an exciting prospect, but amid this excitement, relatively little work has critically evaluated and synthesized existing research regarding human memory reconsolidation...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781626/on-selecting-evidence-to-test-hypotheses-a-theory-of-selection-tasks
#20
Marco Ragni, Ilir Kola, Philip N Johnson-Laird
How individuals choose evidence to test hypotheses is a long-standing puzzle. According to an algorithmic theory that we present, it is based on dual processes: individuals' intuitions depending on mental models of the hypothesis yield selections of evidence matching instances of the hypothesis, but their deliberations yield selections of potential counterexamples to the hypothesis. The results of 228 experiments using Wason's selection task corroborated the theory's predictions. Participants made dependent choices of items of evidence: the selections in 99 experiments were significantly more redundant (using Shannon's measure) than those of 10,000 simulations of each experiment based on independent selections...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
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