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Psychological Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530428/short-term-memory-and-long-term-memory-are-still-different
#1
Dennis Norris
A commonly expressed view is that short-term memory (STM) is nothing more than activated long-term memory. If true, this would overturn a central tenet of cognitive psychology-the idea that there are functionally and neurobiologically distinct short- and long-term stores. Here I present an updated case for a separation between short- and long-term stores, focusing on the computational demands placed on any STM system. STM must support memory for previously unencountered information, the storage of multiple tokens of the same type, and variable binding...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530427/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-association-between-pubertal-timing-and-psychopathology-in-adolescence-are-there-sex-differences-in-risk
#2
Josie M Ullsperger, Molly A Nikolas
Research examining pubertal timing effects on psychopathology has emphasized that a subset of adolescents, particularly females, who experience early pubertal maturation relative to their peers appear to be at increased risk for psychopathology. The aims of the current meta-analysis were (a) to quantify the magnitude of early pubertal timing effects on psychopathology, (b) to examine potential moderators of pubertal timing effects (sex, psychopathology domain, sample composition, measurement method, and mean sample age), and (c) to examine findings in relation to hypotheses in the extant literature explicating differential pubertal timing effects for early versus late youth and males versus females...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493725/questionnaire-and-behavioral-task-measures-of-impulsivity-are-differentially-associated-with-body-mass-index-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis
#3
Rebecca L Emery, Michele D Levine
Although impulsivity has been implicated in the development and maintenance of obesity, evidence linking impulsivity to obesity has been mixed. These mixed findings may be related to differences in the type of impulsivity measures used and the varied domains of impulsivity assessed by each measure. The present meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of measurement selection on the relationship between impulsivity and body mass index (BMI). A total of 142 articles met inclusion criteria and were comprised of 315,818 participants...
May 11, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447829/attributes-of-conscientiousness-throughout-the-animal-kingdom-an-empirical-and-evolutionary-overview
#4
Mikel M Delgado, Frank J Sulloway
Conscientiousness is a fundamental aspect of human personality, one that is closely linked with various favorable life outcomes. Despite its importance in humans, conscientiousness has received little attention as to how it may have evolved, or whether it provides similar fitness benefits in other animals. To date, research in animal personality has found consistent support for the presence of all major dimensions of human personality in other animals except conscientiousness. In this review, we investigate conscientiousness at the level of traits and facets (clusters of closely related traits)...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447828/gender-differences-in-depression-in-representative-national-samples-meta-analyses-of-diagnoses-and-symptoms
#5
Rachel H Salk, Janet S Hyde, Lyn Y Abramson
In 2 meta-analyses on gender differences in depression in nationally representative samples, we advance previous work by including studies of depression diagnoses and symptoms to (a) estimate the magnitude of the gender difference in depression across a wide array of nations and ages; (b) use a developmental perspective to elucidate patterns of gender differences across the life span; and (c) incorporate additional theory-driven moderators (e.g., gender equity). For major depression diagnoses and depression symptoms, respectively, we meta-analyzed data from 65 and 95 articles and their corresponding national data sets, representing data from 1,716,195 and 1,922,064 people in over 90 different nations...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447827/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-personality-disorders-a-meta-analytic-review
#6
Sylia Wilson, Catherine B Stroud, C Emily Durbin
Personality disorders are defined in the current psychiatric diagnostic system as pervasive, inflexible, and stable patterns of thinking, feeling, behaving, and interacting with others. Questions regarding the validity and reliability of the current personality disorder diagnoses prompted a reconceptualization of personality pathology in the most recent edition of the psychiatric diagnostic manual, in an appendix of emerging models for future study. To evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of the current personality disorder diagnoses, we conducted a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical research on associations between personality disorders and interpersonal functioning, defined using the interpersonal circumplex model (comprising orthogonal dimensions of agency and communion), as well as functioning in specific relationship domains (parent-child, family, peer, romantic)...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406659/does-gratitude-enhance-prosociality-a-meta-analytic-review
#7
Lawrence K Ma, Richard J Tunney, Eamonn Ferguson
Theoretical models suggest that gratitude is linked to increased prosociality. To date, however, there is a lack of a comprehensive quantitative synthesis of results to support this claim. In this review we aimed to (a) examine the overall strength of the association between gratitude and prosociality, and (b) identify the theoretical and methodological variables that moderate this link. We identified 252 effect sizes from 91 studies across 65 papers-(Total N = 18,342 participants). The present meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant, and moderate positive correlation between gratitude and prosociality (r = ...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368147/the-three-second-subjective-present-a-critical-review-and-a-new-proposal
#8
Peter A White
It has been argued that there is a "subjective present" or "experienced moment" of about 3 seconds in duration, involving automatic binding of events into perceptual units on that time scale. Research on topics that have been taken as relevant to this proposal is reviewed. The topics include accuracy in reproduction of stimulus durations, synchronization of behavior with a regular beat, mental rhythmization of a regular beat, time units in behavior, segmentation of observed behavior into meaningful units, time scale of reversals of perception with bistable ambiguous figures, time scale of inhibition of return in visual search, and EEG responses to deviant stimuli in series of repeating stimuli...
April 3, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333495/variables-associated-with-achievement-in-higher-education-a-systematic-review-of-meta-analyses
#9
Michael Schneider, Franzis Preckel
The last 2 decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students. We provide a list of the 105 variables, ordered by the effect size, and summary statistics for central research topics. The results highlight the close relation between social interaction in courses and achievement...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368148/the-effects-of-acute-stress-on-episodic-memory-a-meta-analysis-and-integrative-review
#10
Grant S Shields, Matthew A Sazma, Andrew M McCullough, Andrew P Yonelinas
A growing body of research has indicated that acute stress can critically impact memory. However, there are a number of inconsistencies in the literature, and important questions remain regarding the conditions under which stress effects emerge as well as basic questions about how stress impacts different phases of memory. In this meta-analysis, we examined 113 independent studies in humans with 6,216 participants that explored effects of stress on encoding, postencoding, retrieval, or postreactivation phases of episodic memory...
June 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333494/taxonomic-and-thematic-semantic-systems
#11
REVIEW
Daniel Mirman, Jon-Frederick Landrigan, Allison E Britt
Object concepts are critical for nearly all aspects of human cognition, from perception tasks like object recognition, to understanding and producing language, to making meaningful actions. Concepts can have 2 very different kinds of relations: similarity relations based on shared features (e.g., dog-bear), which are called "taxonomic" relations, and contiguity relations based on co-occurrence in events or scenarios (e.g., dog-leash), which are called "thematic" relations. Here, we report a systematic review of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience evidence of this distinction in the structure of semantic memory...
May 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333493/bayesian-approaches-to-autism-towards-volatility-action-and-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Colin J Palmer, Rebecca P Lawson, Jakob Hohwy
Autism spectrum disorder currently lacks an explanation that bridges cognitive, computational, and neural domains. In the past 5 years, progress has been sought in this area by drawing on Bayesian probability theory to describe both social and nonsocial aspects of autism in terms of systematic differences in the processing of sensory information in the brain. The present article begins by synthesizing the existing literature in this regard, including an introduction to the topic for unfamiliar readers. The key proposal is that autism is characterized by a greater weighting of sensory information in updating probabilistic representations of the environment...
May 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263645/a-re-examination-of-the-mere-exposure-effect-the-influence-of-repeated-exposure-on-recognition-familiarity-and-liking
#13
REVIEW
R Matthew Montoya, Robert S Horton, Jack L Vevea, Martyna Citkowicz, Elissa A Lauber
To evaluate the veracity of models of the mere exposure effect and to understand the processes that moderate the effect, we conducted a meta-analysis of the influence of repeated exposure on liking, familiarity, recognition, among other evaluations. We estimated parameters from 268 curve estimates drawn from 81 articles and revealed that the mere exposure effect was characterized by a positive slope and negative quadratic effect consistent with an inverted-U shaped curve. In fact, such curves were associated with (a) all visual, but not auditory stimuli; (b) exposure durations shorter than 10 s and longer than 1 min; (c) both homogeneous and heterogeneous presentation types; and (d) ratings that were taken after all stimuli were presented...
May 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263644/who-s-biased-a-meta-analysis-of-buyer-seller-differences-in-the-pricing-of-lotteries
#14
Eldad Yechiam, Nathaniel J S Ashby, Thorsten Pachur
A large body of empirical research has examined the impact of trading perspective on pricing of consumer products, with the typical finding being that selling prices exceed buying prices (i.e., the endowment effect). Using a meta-analytic approach, we examine to what extent the endowment effect also emerges in the pricing of monetary lotteries. As monetary lotteries have a clearly defined normative value, we also assess whether one trading perspective is more biased than the other. We consider several indicators of bias: absolute deviation from expected values, rank correlation with expected values, overall variance, and per-unit variance...
May 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301203/time-for-considering-the-possibility-that-sleep-plays-no-unique-role-in-motor-memory-consolidation-reply-to-adi-japha-and-karni-2016
#15
Timothy C Rickard, Steven C Pan
The hypothesis that sleep makes a unique contribution to motor memory consolidation has been debated in recent years. In the target article (Pan & Rickard, 2015), we reported results of a comprehensive meta-analysis of the explicit motor sequence learning literature in which evidence was evaluated for both enhanced performance after sleep and stabilization after sleep. After accounting for confounding variables, we found no compelling evidence for either empirical phenomenon, and hence no compelling evidence for sleep-specific consolidation...
April 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301202/the-structure-of-common-emotion-regulation-strategies-a-meta-analytic-examination
#16
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Tierney P McMahon, Thomas P Chacko
Emotion regulation has been examined extensively with regard to important outcomes, including psychological and physical health. However, the literature includes many different emotion regulation strategies but little examination of how they relate to one another, making it difficult to interpret and synthesize findings. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the underlying structure of common emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, behavioral avoidance, distraction, experiential avoidance, expressive suppression, mindfulness, problem solving, reappraisal, rumination, worry), and to evaluate this structure in light of theoretical models of emotion regulation...
April 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191983/mental-health-of-extremely-low-birth-weight-survivors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Karen J Mathewson, Cheryl H T Chow, Kathleen G Dobson, Eliza I Pope, Louis A Schmidt, Ryan J Van Lieshout
Although individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; < 1,000 g) are the most vulnerable of all preterm survivors, their risk for mental health problems across the life span has not been systematically reviewed. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to ascertain whether the risk for mental health problems is greater for ELBW survivors than their normal birth weight (NBW) peers in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Forty-one studies assessing 2,712 ELBW children, adolescents, and adults and 11,127 NBW controls were reviewed...
April 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182460/lying-takes-time-a-meta-analysis-on-reaction-time-measures-of-deception
#18
Kristina Suchotzki, Bruno Verschuere, Bram Van Bockstaele, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Geert Crombez
Lie detection techniques are frequently used, but most of them have been criticized for the lack of empirical support for their predictive validity and presumed underlying mechanisms. This situation has led to increased efforts to unravel the cognitive mechanisms underlying deception and to develop a comprehensive theory of deception. A cognitive approach to deception has reinvigorated interest in reaction time (RT) measures to differentiate lies from truths and to investigate whether lying is more cognitively demanding than truth telling...
April 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230414/the-effect-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-as-an-antidepressive-treatment-is-falling-reply-to-lj%C3%A3-tsson-et-al-2017-and-cristea-et-al-2017
#19
Oddgeir Friborg, Tom J Johnsen
This article critically reassesses the nonlinear reanalysis by Ljótsson, Hedman, Mattsson, and Andersson (2017) and reviews Cristea et al.'s (2017) extension of our original meta-analysis (Johnsen & Friborg, 2015) reporting a decline in the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating unipolar depression. Ljótsson et al. fitted a piecewise meta-regression model to the data, indicating a halt in the decline from the year 1995 onward, hence concluding that CBT is not gradually losing its efficacy...
March 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230413/the-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-are-not-systematically-falling-a-revision-of-johnsen-and-friborg-2015
#20
Ioana A Cristea, Simona Stefan, Eirini Karyotaki, Daniel David, Steven D Hollon, Pim Cuijpers
In a meta-analysis, Johnsen and Friborg (2015) reported a significant negative relationship between publication year and the effect sizes (ESs) of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressive disorders, suggesting its effectiveness was falling. We identified a series of methodological and conceptual caveats and consequently redid the meta-analysis. We used the same inclusion criteria, but only included randomized controlled trials and searched for additional eligible trials. We computed both within-group and between-group ESs for the CBT arm for the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)...
March 2017: Psychological Bulletin
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