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Psychological Bulletin

Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Aline Bompas, Solveiga Vivian-Griffiths, Petroc Sumner
The underpinning assumption of much research on cognitive individual differences (or group differences) is that task performance indexes cognitive ability in that domain. In many tasks performance is measured by differences (costs) between conditions, which are widely assumed to index a psychological process of interest rather than extraneous factors such as speed-accuracy trade-offs (e.g., Stroop, implicit association task, lexical decision, antisaccade, Simon, Navon, flanker, and task switching). Relatedly, reaction time (RT) costs or error costs are interpreted similarly and used interchangeably in the literature...
September 27, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Jason C K Chan, Christian A Meissner, Sara D Davis
A growing body of research has shown that retrieval can enhance future learning of new materials. In the present report, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on this finding, which we term test-potentiated new learning. Our primary objectives were to (a) produce an integrative review of the existing theoretical explanations, (b) summarize the extant empirical data with a meta-analysis, (c) evaluate the existing accounts with the meta-analytic results, and (d) highlight areas that deserve further investigations...
September 27, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Daniel H Baker, Freya A Lygo, Tim S Meese, Mark A Georgeson
Our ability to detect faint images is better with two eyes than with one, but how great is this improvement? A meta-analysis of 65 studies published across more than 5 decades shows definitively that psychophysical binocular summation (the ratio of binocular to monocular contrast sensitivity) is significantly greater than the canonical value of √2. Several methodological factors were also found to affect summation estimates. Binocular summation was significantly affected by both the spatial and temporal frequency of the stimulus, and stimulus speed (the ratio of temporal to spatial frequency) systematically predicts summation levels, with slow speeds (high spatial and low temporal frequencies) producing the strongest summation...
August 13, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Justin E Karr, Corson N Areshenkoff, Philippe Rast, Scott M Hofer, Grant L Iverson, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been frequently applied to executive function measurement since first used to identify a three-factor model of inhibition, updating, and shifting; however, subsequent CFAs have supported inconsistent models across the life span, ranging from unidimensional to nested-factor models (i.e., bifactor without inhibition). This systematic review summarized CFAs on performance-based tests of executive functions and reanalyzed summary data to identify best-fitting models. Eligible CFAs involved 46 samples ( N = 9,756)...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Otto Lappi, Callum Mole
The authors present an approach to the coordination of eye movements and locomotion in naturalistic steering tasks. It is based on recent empirical research, in particular, on driver eye movements, that poses challenges for existing accounts of how we visually steer a course. They first analyze how the ideas of feedback and feedforward processes and internal models are treated in control theoretical steering models within vision science and engineering, which share an underlying architecture but have historically developed in very separate ways...
October 2018: Psychological Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Meta-analysis of action video game impact on perceptual, attentional, and cognitive skills" by Benoit Bediou, Deanne M. Adams, Richard E. Mayer, Elizabeth Tipton, C. Shawn Green and Daphne Bavelier ( Psychological Bulletin , 2018[Jan], Vol 144[1], 77-110). In the article, a number of issues related to clustering in cases of partial overlap between participants were identified following publication. This document clarifies these issues and extends the original results by adding additional sensitivity analyses...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Klaus Oberauer, Stephan Lewandowsky, Edward Awh, Gordon D A Brown, Andrew Conway, Nelson Cowan, Christopher Donkin, Simon Farrell, Graham J Hitch, Mark J Hurlstone, Wei Ji Ma, Candice C Morey, Derek Evan Nee, Judith Schweppe, Evie Vergauwe, Geoff Ward
We respond to the comments of Logie and Vandierendonck to our article proposing benchmark findings for evaluating theories and models of short-term and working memory. The response focuses on the two main points of criticism: (a) Logie and Vandierendonck argue that the scope of the set of benchmarks is too narrow. We explain why findings on how working memory is used in complex cognition, findings on executive functions, and findings from neuropsychological case studies are currently not included in the benchmarks, and why findings with visual and spatial materials are less prevalent among them...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
André Vandierendonck
This commentary addresses a number of problems with the benchmarks proposed for evaluating theories of short-term and working memory (Oberauer et al., 2018). First, it is shown that the proposed benchmarks intentionally exclude findings regarding the core of the working memory construct and also miss some important findings from other subdomains. For these reasons, the benchmarks cannot be considered as a valid representation of the findings on short-term and working memory. Second, it is shown that although theory-neutrality of the benchmarks was aimed for, this goal was not achieved because theory-neutrality in the formulation of the benchmarks does not guarantee inclusion of all theory-dependent findings...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Robert H Logie
Oberauer et al. (2018) report the results of an ambitious project to identify key or "benchmark" empirical findings that have been associated with the concept of working memory. This commentary questions the utility of setting different levels of priority for previous findings for the purposes of advancing theoretical understanding. This gives undue weight to well-established findings that are studied by large numbers of researchers, at the expense of new, or less well researched findings that could be just as, if not more important for theory development...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Klaus Oberauer, Stephan Lewandowsky, Edward Awh, Gordon D A Brown, Andrew Conway, Nelson Cowan, Christopher Donkin, Simon Farrell, Graham J Hitch, Mark J Hurlstone, Wei Ji Ma, Candice C Morey, Derek Evan Nee, Judith Schweppe, Evie Vergauwe, Geoff Ward
Any mature field of research in psychology-such as short-term/working memory-is characterized by a wealth of empirical findings. It is currently unrealistic to expect a theory to explain them all; theorists must satisfice with explaining a subset of findings. The aim of the present article is to make the choice of that subset less arbitrary and idiosyncratic than is current practice. We propose criteria for identifying benchmark findings that every theory in a field should be able to explain: Benchmarks should be reproducible, generalize across materials and methodological variations, and be theoretically informative...
September 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Candice C Morey
The dominant paradigm for understanding working memory, or the combination of the perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic processes needed for thinking, subdivides short-term memory (STM) according to whether memoranda are encoded in aural-verbal or visual formats. This traditional dissociation has been supported by examples of neuropsychological patients who seem to selectively lack STM for either aural-verbal, visual, or spatial memoranda, and by experimental research using dual-task methods. Though this evidence is the foundation of assumptions of modular STM systems, the case it makes for a specialized visual STM system is surprisingly weak...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
James W B Elsey, Vanessa A Van Ast, Merel Kindt
Research in nonhuman animals suggests that reactivation can induce a transient, unstable state in a previously consolidated memory, during which the memory can be disrupted or modified, necessitating a process of restabilization in order to persist. Such findings have sparked a wave of interest into whether this phenomenon, known as reconsolidation, occurs in humans. Translating research from animal models to human experiments and even to clinical interventions is an exciting prospect, but amid this excitement, relatively little work has critically evaluated and synthesized existing research regarding human memory reconsolidation...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Marco Ragni, Ilir Kola, Philip N Johnson-Laird
How individuals choose evidence to test hypotheses is a long-standing puzzle. According to an algorithmic theory that we present, it is based on dual processes: individuals' intuitions depending on mental models of the hypothesis yield selections of evidence matching instances of the hypothesis, but their deliberations yield selections of potential counterexamples to the hypothesis. The results of 228 experiments using Wason's selection task corroborated the theory's predictions. Participants made dependent choices of items of evidence: the selections in 99 experiments were significantly more redundant (using Shannon's measure) than those of 10,000 simulations of each experiment based on independent selections...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Ulrich Orth, Ruth Yasemin Erol, Eva C Luciano
To investigate the normative trajectory of self-esteem across the life span, this meta-analysis synthesizes the available longitudinal data on mean-level change in self-esteem. The analyses were based on 331 independent samples, including data from 164,868 participants. As effect size measure, we used the standardized mean change d per year. The mean age associated with the effect sizes ranged from 4 to 94 years. Results showed that average levels of self-esteem increased from age 4 to 11 years (cumulative d = 0...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Thomas P Dirth, Nyla R Branscombe
Although mainstream psychology has received numerous critiques for its traditional approaches to disability-related research, proposals for alternative theory that can encompass the social, cultural, political, and historical features of disability are lacking. The social identity approach (SIA) offers a rich framework from which to ask research questions about the experience of disability in accordance with the critical insights found in disability studies (DS), the source for many of the most compelling critiques of disability psychology research...
July 12, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Paul De Boeck, Minjeong Jeon
An overview and discussion is made of the perceived replication crisis in terms of end problems, explanations, and remedies. Following a discussion of a published large-scale replication study and a review of the meta-analysis literature, we come to the conclusion that many effects are small and that on average the variance of the effects is roughly 10% to 25% of the population variance, most likely because of context dependencies. The proposed explanations such as questionable and suboptimal research practices (low power, poor measurement quality, and the use of NHST) are discussed, as well as more distal explanatory factors such as journals, funding agencies, and institutions...
July 2018: Psychological Bulletin
R Matthew Montoya, Christine Kershaw, Julie L Prosser
We present a meta-analysis that investigated the relation between self-reported interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Our synthesis focused on (a) identifying the behaviors related to attraction; (b) evaluating the efficacy of models of the relation between attraction and behavior; (c) testing the impact of several moderators, including evaluative threat salience, cognitive appraisal salience, and the sex composition of the social interaction; and (d) investigating the degree of agreement between the meta-analytic findings and an ethnographic analysis...
July 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Steven C Pan, Timothy C Rickard
Attempting recall of information from memory, as occurs when taking a practice test, is one of the most potent training techniques known to learning science. However, does testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts? In the present article, we report the findings of the first comprehensive meta-analytic review into that question. Our review encompassed 192 transfer effect sizes extracted from 122 experiments and 67 published and unpublished articles (N = 10,382) that together comprise more than 40 years of research...
July 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Martin J Pickering, Chiara Gambi
Researchers agree that comprehenders regularly predict upcoming language, but they do not always agree on what prediction is (and how to differentiate it from integration) or what constitutes evidence for it. After defining prediction, we show that it occurs at all linguistic levels from semantics to form, and then propose a theory of which mechanisms comprehenders use to predict. We argue that they most effectively predict using their production system (i.e., prediction-by-production): They covertly imitate the linguistic form of the speaker's utterance and construct a representation of the underlying communicative intention...
June 28, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Mark S Allen, Emma E Walter
This meta-analytic review addresses whether the major dimensions of trait personality relate to components of human sexuality. A comprehensive literature search identified 137 studies that met inclusion criteria (761 effect sizes; total n = 420,595). Pooled mean effects were computed using inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis. Mean effect sizes from 100 separate meta-analyses provided evidence that personality relates to theoretically predicted components of sexuality and sexual health. Neuroticism was positively related to sexual dissatisfaction (r+ = ...
June 7, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
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