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Psychological Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102058/binocular-summation-revisited-beyond-%C3%A2-2
#1
Daniel H Baker, Freya A Lygo, Tim S Meese, Mark A Georgeson
Our ability to detect faint images is better with two eyes than with one, but how great is this improvement? A meta-analysis of 65 studies published across more than 5 decades shows definitively that psychophysical binocular summation (the ratio of binocular to monocular contrast sensitivity) is significantly greater than the canonical value of √2. Several methodological factors were also found to affect summation estimates. Binocular summation was significantly affected by both the spatial and temporal frequency of the stimulus, and stimulus speed (the ratio of temporal to spatial frequency) systematically predicts summation levels, with slow speeds (high spatial and low temporal frequencies) producing the strongest summation...
August 13, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080055/the-unity-and-diversity-of-executive-functions-a-systematic-review-and-re-analysis-of-latent-variable-studies
#2
Justin E Karr, Corson N Areshenkoff, Philippe Rast, Scott M Hofer, Grant L Iverson, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been frequently applied to executive function measurement since first used to identify a three-factor model of inhibition, updating, and shifting; however, subsequent CFAs have supported inconsistent models across the life span, ranging from unidimensional to nested-factor models (i.e., bifactor without inhibition). This systematic review summarized CFAs on performance-based tests of executive functions and reanalyzed summary data to identify best-fitting models. Eligible CFAs involved 46 samples ( N = 9,756)...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010349/development-of-self-esteem-from-age-4-to-94-years-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#3
Ulrich Orth, Ruth Yasemin Erol, Eva C Luciano
To investigate the normative trajectory of self-esteem across the life span, this meta-analysis synthesizes the available longitudinal data on mean-level change in self-esteem. The analyses were based on 331 independent samples, including data from 164,868 participants. As effect size measure, we used the standardized mean change d per year. The mean age associated with the effect sizes ranged from 4 to 94 years. Results showed that average levels of self-esteem increased from age 4 to 11 years (cumulative d = 0...
July 16, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999335/the-social-identity-approach-to-disability-bridging-disability-studies-and-psychological-science
#4
Thomas P Dirth, Nyla R Branscombe
Although mainstream psychology has received numerous critiques for its traditional approaches to disability-related research, proposals for alternative theory that can encompass the social, cultural, political, and historical features of disability are lacking. The social identity approach (SIA) offers a rich framework from which to ask research questions about the experience of disability in accordance with the critical insights found in disability studies (DS), the source for many of the most compelling critiques of disability psychology research...
July 12, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952584/predicting-while-comprehending-language-a-theory-and-review
#5
Martin J Pickering, Chiara Gambi
Researchers agree that comprehenders regularly predict upcoming language, but they do not always agree on what prediction is (and how to differentiate it from integration) or what constitutes evidence for it. After defining prediction, we show that it occurs at all linguistic levels from semantics to form, and then propose a theory of which mechanisms comprehenders use to predict. We argue that they most effectively predict using their production system (i.e., prediction-by-production): They covertly imitate the linguistic form of the speaker's utterance and construct a representation of the underlying communicative intention...
June 28, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888932/visuomotor-control-eye-movements-and-steering-a-unified-approach-for-incorporating-feedback-feedforward-and-internal-models
#6
Otto Lappi, Callum Mole
The authors present an approach to the coordination of eye movements and locomotion in naturalistic steering tasks. It is based on recent empirical research, in particular, on driver eye movements, that poses challenges for existing accounts of how we visually steer a course. They first analyze how the ideas of feedback and feedforward processes and internal models are treated in control theoretical steering models within vision science and engineering, which share an underlying architecture but have historically developed in very separate ways...
June 11, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878796/linking-big-five-personality-traits-to-sexuality-and-sexual-health-a-meta-analytic-review
#7
Mark S Allen, Emma E Walter
This meta-analytic review addresses whether the major dimensions of trait personality relate to components of human sexuality. A comprehensive literature search identified 137 studies that met inclusion criteria (761 effect sizes; total n = 420,595). Pooled mean effects were computed using inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis. Mean effect sizes from 100 separate meta-analyses provided evidence that personality relates to theoretically predicted components of sexuality and sexual health. Neuroticism was positively related to sexual dissatisfaction (r+ = ...
June 7, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792442/the-case-against-specialized-visual-spatial-short-term-memory
#8
Candice C Morey
The dominant paradigm for understanding working memory, or the combination of the perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic processes needed for thinking, subdivides short-term memory (STM) according to whether memoranda are encoded in aural-verbal or visual formats. This traditional dissociation has been supported by examples of neuropsychological patients who seem to selectively lack STM for either aural-verbal, visual, or spatial memoranda, and by experimental research using dual-task methods. Though this evidence is the foundation of assumptions of modular STM systems, the case it makes for a specialized visual STM system is surprisingly weak...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792441/human-memory-reconsolidation-a-guiding-framework-and-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#9
James W B Elsey, Vanessa A Van Ast, Merel Kindt
Research in nonhuman animals suggests that reactivation can induce a transient, unstable state in a previously consolidated memory, during which the memory can be disrupted or modified, necessitating a process of restabilization in order to persist. Such findings have sparked a wave of interest into whether this phenomenon, known as reconsolidation, occurs in humans. Translating research from animal models to human experiments and even to clinical interventions is an exciting prospect, but amid this excitement, relatively little work has critically evaluated and synthesized existing research regarding human memory reconsolidation...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781626/on-selecting-evidence-to-test-hypotheses-a-theory-of-selection-tasks
#10
Marco Ragni, Ilir Kola, Philip N Johnson-Laird
How individuals choose evidence to test hypotheses is a long-standing puzzle. According to an algorithmic theory that we present, it is based on dual processes: individuals' intuitions depending on mental models of the hypothesis yield selections of evidence matching instances of the hypothesis, but their deliberations yield selections of potential counterexamples to the hypothesis. The results of 228 experiments using Wason's selection task corroborated the theory's predictions. Participants made dependent choices of items of evidence: the selections in 99 experiments were significantly more redundant (using Shannon's measure) than those of 10,000 simulations of each experiment based on independent selections...
August 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771554/perceived-crisis-and-reforms-issues-explanations-and-remedies
#11
Paul De Boeck, Minjeong Jeon
An overview and discussion is made of the perceived replication crisis in terms of end problems, explanations, and remedies. Following a discussion of a published large-scale replication study and a review of the meta-analysis literature, we come to the conclusion that many effects are small and that on average the variance of the effects is roughly 10% to 25% of the population variance, most likely because of context dependencies. The proposed explanations such as questionable and suboptimal research practices (low power, poor measurement quality, and the use of NHST) are discussed, as well as more distal explanatory factors such as journals, funding agencies, and institutions...
July 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733622/a-meta-analytic-investigation-of-the-relation-between-interpersonal-attraction-and-enacted-behavior
#12
R Matthew Montoya, Christine Kershaw, Julie L Prosser
We present a meta-analysis that investigated the relation between self-reported interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Our synthesis focused on (a) identifying the behaviors related to attraction; (b) evaluating the efficacy of models of the relation between attraction and behavior; (c) testing the impact of several moderators, including evaluative threat salience, cognitive appraisal salience, and the sex composition of the social interaction; and (d) investigating the degree of agreement between the meta-analytic findings and an ethnographic analysis...
July 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733621/transfer-of-test-enhanced-learning-meta-analytic-review-and-synthesis
#13
Steven C Pan, Timothy C Rickard
Attempting recall of information from memory, as occurs when taking a practice test, is one of the most potent training techniques known to learning science. However, does testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts? In the present article, we report the findings of the first comprehensive meta-analytic review into that question. Our review encompassed 192 transfer effect sizes extracted from 122 experiments and 67 published and unpublished articles (N = 10,382) that together comprise more than 40 years of research...
July 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553763/can-t-get-it-out-of-my-mind-a-systematic-review-of-predictors-of-intrusive-memories-of-distressing-events
#14
Elizabeth H Marks, Anna R Franklin, Lori A Zoellner
Intrusive memories, when persistent and distressing, are theorized to underlie a range of transdiagnostic psychological symptoms and associated impairment. However, little is known about factors predicting the development and persistence of intrusive memories. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the literature on pre-event, event-based, and post-event predictors of intrusive memories. A systematic review was conducted, searching for studies that examined intrusive, event-based memories. One hundred and six articles were identified from PsycInfo, PubMed, and Medline databases...
June 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517263/metaphor-comprehension-a-critical-review-of-theories-and-evidence
#15
Keith J Holyoak, Dušan Stamenković
We review psychological research bearing on major theories of metaphor comprehension. A broad survey of behavioral studies is coupled with findings from recent meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of metaphor processing. We identify three broad theoretical positions that have been the foci of research efforts: analogy, categorization, and conceptual mapping. The first two of these emphasize relatively well-specified information-processing models; the third links metaphor comprehension to embodied cognition...
June 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517261/cognitive-structure-flexibility-and-plasticity-in-human-multitasking-an-integrative-review-of-dual-task-and-task-switching-research
#16
Iring Koch, Edita Poljac, Hermann Müller, Andrea Kiesel
Numerous studies showed decreased performance in situations that require multiple tasks or actions relative to appropriate control conditions. Because humans often engage in such multitasking activities, it is important to understand how multitasking affects performance. In the present article, we argue that research on dual-task interference and sequential task switching has proceeded largely separately using different experimental paradigms and methodology. In our article we aim at organizing this complex set of research in terms of three complementary research perspectives on human multitasking...
June 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517262/automatic-imitation-a-meta-analysis
#17
Emiel Cracco, Lara Bardi, Charlotte Desmet, Oliver Genschow, Davide Rigoni, Lize De Coster, Ina Radkova, Eliane Deschrijver, Marcel Brass
Automatic imitation is the finding that movement execution is facilitated by compatible and impeded by incompatible observed movements. In the past 15 years, automatic imitation has been studied to understand the relation between perception and action in social interaction. Although research on this topic started in cognitive science, interest quickly spread to related disciplines such as social psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience. However, important theoretical questions have remained unanswered...
May 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517260/the-relation-of-attachment-security-status-to-effortful-self-regulation-a-meta-analysis
#18
Susanna Pallini, Antonio Chirumbolo, Mara Morelli, Roberto Baiocco, Fiorenzo Laghi, Nancy Eisenberg
Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age...
May 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494194/a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-associations-between-substance-use-and-interpersonal-attachment-security
#19
Catharine E Fairbairn, Daniel A Briley, Dahyeon Kang, R Chris Fraley, Benjamin L Hankin, Talia Ariss
Substance use has long been associated with close relationship distress. Although the direction of influence for this association has not been established, it has often been assumed that substance use is the causal agent and that close relationship distress is the effect. But research seeking to establish temporal precedence in this link has produced mixed findings. Further, theoretical models of substance use and close relationship processes present the plausibility of the inverse pathway-that insecure close relationships may serve as a vulnerability factor for the development of later substance problems...
May 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595300/-narrowing-the-transmission-gap-a-synthesis-of-three-decades-of-research-on-intergenerational-transmission-of-attachment-correction
#20
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Narrowing the transmission gap: A synthesis of three decades of research on intergenerational transmission of attachment" by Marije L. Verhage, Carlo Schuengel, Sheri Madigan, R. M. Pasco Fearon, Mirjam Oosterman, Rosalinda Cassibba, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn ( Psychological Bulletin , 2016[Apr], Vol 142[4], 337-366). In the article, there are errors in Table 7. The percentages of the attachment classifications do not add up to 100%. The corrected version of Table 7 is provided in the erratum...
April 2018: Psychological Bulletin
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