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Yuval Palgi, Sharon Avidor, Amit Shrira, Ehud Bodner, Menachem Ben-Ezra, Oleg Zaslavsky, Yaakov Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined how inner perceptions that develop in the aftermath of exposure to trauma attenuate the association between posttraumatic symptoms across time and what the reciprocal relations between inner perceptions of trauma and posttraumatic symptoms are. METHOD: The present article is based on two studies. The data in Study 1 are drawn from three waves of a longitudinal study of community-dwelling midlife adults and older adults residing in the south of Israel...
September 14, 2018: Psychiatry
Gideon de Jong, Ellen Meijer, Gert Schout
BACKGROUND: Recovery is a journey not only of personal change but also of social reengagement. It underlines the essence of social environments that are supportive to the recovery of people with ongoing mental health issues. The process of recovery also affects other actors, and likewise these actors exert their influence on the recovery of their family member or friend. OBJECTIVE: Since 2009, we have been studying whether the decision-making model called family group conferencing (FGC) helps mental health clients increase their self-reliance...
September 10, 2018: Psychiatry
Ian H Stanley, Joseph W Boffa, Thomas E Joiner
OBJECTIVE: A suicide attempt is at least somewhat life-threatening by definition and is, for some, traumatic. Thus, it is possible that some individuals may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from a suicide attempt. METHOD: In this article, we consider whether one's suicide attempt could fulfill Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for a PTSD Criterion A event and contribute to the development of attendant PTSD symptoms (e...
September 5, 2018: Psychiatry
Denise Erbuto, Marco Innamorati, Dorian A Lamis, Isabella Berardelli, Alberto Forte, Eleonora De Pisa, Monica Migliorati, Gianluca Serafini, Xenia Gonda, Zoltan Rihmer, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Affective temperaments have been shown to be related to psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. Less is known about the potential contributory role of affective temperaments on suicide risk factors. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of affective temperaments on suicide risk was mediated by other variables, such as hopelessness, mentalization deficits, dissociation, psychological pain, and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Several assessment instruments, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A); the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS); the Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS); the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES); the Psychological Pain Assessment Scale (PPAS); and the Mentalization Questionnaire (MZQ), were administered to 189 psychiatrically hospitalized patients (103 women, 86 men) in Rome, Italy...
September 5, 2018: Psychiatry
Jon Frederickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Psychiatry
Amanda L Adrian, Jeffrey L Thomas, Amy B Adler
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the association between previous deployment experience and somatic symptoms, mental health, unit climate perceptions, anger, and risk taking among junior-enlisted soldiers who were preparing to deploy or who were in garrison, or home duty station. The study also investigated potential differences in these variables based on unit leader deployment history. METHOD: Soldiers in a combat unit were surveyed either in a predeployment (n = 1,554; one week before deployment) or garrison setting (n = 1,326)...
August 17, 2018: Psychiatry
Craig J Bryan, David C Rozek, T Scott Burch, Bruce Leeson, Tracy A Clemans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Psychiatry
Robert J Ursano, James A Naifeh, Ronald C Kessler, Oscar I Gonzalez, Carol S Fullerton, Holly Herberman Mash, Charlotte A Riggs-Donovan, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Gary H Wynn, Hieu M Dinh, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Nancy A Sampson, Steven G Heeringa, Murray B Stein
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Army suicide rate increased sharply during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. There is limited information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors among soldiers in the Army's Reserve Component (RC), which is composed of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among activated RC soldiers. METHODS: Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty for the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1...
July 20, 2018: Psychiatry
Doron Amsalem, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Doron Gothelf, David Roe
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate how patients with schizophrenia and their relatives learn about the diagnosis and to study their feelings and degree of satisfaction with the process of delivering that information. METHOD: A total of 16 individuals who had been recently diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 15 of their relatives were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using grounded theory...
July 18, 2018: Psychiatry
Zahava Solomon, Rahel Bachem, Yafit Levin, Laura Crompton, Karni Ginzburg
OBJECTIVE: Long-term trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may fluctuate over time and typically conform to four heterogeneous patterns: resilience, recovery, delayed-onset, and chronic symptomatology. However, such fluctuations are typically short ranged and have rarely been investigated over the course of decades after the trauma. Moreover, existing studies have used a variety of measurements, either employing a categorical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-oriented approach or a continuous measure of symptom severity...
July 18, 2018: Psychiatry
Matthew Price, Cynthia Luethcke Lancaster, Daniel F Gros, Alison C Legrand, Katherine van Stolk-Cooke, Ron Acierno
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to traumatic events. Social support is negatively related to PTSD symptoms in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It is unclear, however, if social support is associated with treatment response for PTSD. The current study evaluated the extent to which social support was associated with PTSD treatment response among treatment-seeking veterans receiving prolonged exposure (PE). It was hypothesized that social support would improve PTSD treatment response and that PTSD symptom reduction would improve social support...
July 18, 2018: Psychiatry
Lauren M Sippel, Laura E Watkins, Robert H Pietrzak, Rani Hoff, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem
OBJECTIVE: While poor social connectedness is often a consequence of living with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, little is known about whether PTSD symptom clusters may be uniquely related to different aspects of social connectedness. This information can inform case conceptualization and treatment planning to potentially facilitate sustained recovery for individuals with PTSD. METHOD: We examined associations among a five-factor model of PTSD and two aspects of social connectedness-distress related to problems getting along with others and days of contact with supportive loved ones in the past 30 days-in a sample of 2,600 U...
July 17, 2018: Psychiatry
Lennart Reifels, Matthew J Spittal, Michel L A Dückers, Katherine Mills, Jane Pirkis
OBJECTIVE: Despite growing awareness of adverse mental health consequences, the scarce existing evidence on the link of disaster exposure and suicidality has remained inconclusive, and the differential suicidality risk associated with distinct levels of natural and man-made disaster exposure is unknown. We therefore investigated the lifetime prevalence and risk of suicidal behavior associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. METHOD: We utilized data from a nationally representative mental health survey (n = 8,841)...
July 17, 2018: Psychiatry
J Breslau, E C Wong, M A Burnam, M Cefalu, E A Roth, R L Collins
OBJECTIVE: To test associations between perceived discrimination based on mental health status and impaired functioning in a population sample with psychological distress. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with a sample of respondents to the California Health Interview Survey with mild, moderate, or severe psychological distress. Perceived discrimination was assessed using 14 items covering four domains in which discrimination is reported: social, partner, institutional, and work...
March 26, 2018: Psychiatry
Douglas Zatzick, Joan Russo, Peter Thomas, Doyanne Darnell, Harry Teter, Leah Ingraham, Lauren K Whiteside, Jin Wang, Roxanne Guiney, Lea Parker, Kirsten Sandgren, Margot Kelly Hedrick, Erik G Van Eaton, Gregory Jurkovich
OBJECTIVE: The investigation aimed to compare two approaches to the delivery of care for hospitalized injury survivors, a patient-centered care transition intervention versus enhanced usual care. METHOD: This pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial randomized 171 acutely injured trauma survivors with three or more early postinjury concerns and high levels of emotional distress to intervention (I; n = 85) and enhanced usual care control (C; n = 86) conditions...
March 13, 2018: Psychiatry
Masanori Nagamine, Taisuke Yamamoto, Jun Shigemura, Masaaki Tanichi, Aihide Yoshino, Go Suzuki, Yoshitomo Takahashi, Masaki Miyazaki, Yasuhide Uwabe, Nahoko Harada, Kunio Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 70,000 Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) personnel were dispatched in the wake of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the tsunami and nuclear disaster that followed. This study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the JGSDF personnel and the correlates. METHODS: Data collected from 56,753 participants at three time points (one, six, and 12 months after mission completion) were analyzed. Those who scored 25 or more points on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) were allocated into the high posttraumatic stress response (high-PTSR) group, and the high general psychological distress (high-GPD) group, respectively...
February 27, 2018: Psychiatry
Robert J Ursano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Psychiatry
Larry Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Psychiatry
Russell C Smith, Carlos W Pratt
OBJECTIVE: This is a follow-up study of a pilot project first reported on in 2006. A group model was developed for a state psychiatric hospital setting to assist residents who had displayed characteristics of "institutionalism." This includes an aversion or ambivalence to discharge efforts and an acceptance of prolonged life in the hospital. The pilot project, while small, was promising, with five of seven people entering the community successfully within a year and a half. METHOD: The current project expanded the scope to include three groups with a total of 25 participants...
2018: Psychiatry
Sharon Alperovitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Psychiatry
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