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Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606473/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-exercise-training-in-african-americans
#1
REVIEW
Damon L Swift, Neil M Johannsen, Conrad P Earnest, Robert L Newton, Joshua E McGee, Timothy S Church
African Americans (AAs) have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to their Caucasian American ( CA) counterparts, which represents a major health disparity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a well-established independent risk factor for all-cause and CVD mortality, which has been shown across many epidemiological and clinical trials to be lower in AAs compared to CAs. While much attention has been given to traditional health disparity risk factors (e.g. blood pressure, obesity, insulin resistance), the impact of racial differences in CRF on CVD mortality has not been widely considered...
June 10, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576674/public-park-spaces-as-a-platform-to-promote-healthy-living-introducing-a-healthpark-concept
#2
REVIEW
Ross Arena, Samantha Bond, Robert O'Neil, Deepika R Laddu, Andrew P Hills, Carl J Lavie, Amy McNeil
The concept of Healthy Living (HL) as a primary medical intervention continues to gain traction, and rightfully so. Being physically active, consuming a nutritious diet, not smoking and maintaining an appropriate body weight constitute the HL polypill, the foundation of HL medicine (HLM). Daily use of the HL polypill, working toward optimal dosages, portends profound health benefits, substantially reducing the risk of chronic disease [i.e., cardiovascular disease (CVD), pulmonary disease, metabolic syndromes, certain cancers, etc...
May 30, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551473/heart-failure-with-myocardial-recovery-the-patient-whose-heart-failure-has-improved-what-next
#3
REVIEW
Petra Nijst, Pieter Martens, Wilfried Mullens
In an important number of heart failure (HF) patients substantial or complete myocardial recovery occurs. In the strictest sense, myocardial recovery is a return to both normal structure and function of the heart. HF patients with myocardial recovery or recovered ejection fraction (EF; HFrecEF) are a distinct population of HF patients with different underlying etiologies, demographics, comorbidities, response to therapies and outcomes compared to HF patients with persistent reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)...
May 24, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546085/imaging-the-cervical-vasculature
#4
REVIEW
Richard E Latchaw, Sheri L Albers
There are many ways to image the cervical vasculature. Each of the imaging techniques will be discussed in detail, including the method of performance, the quality of the images, the advantages and disadvantages compared to other techniques, and the potential complications. The disease entities will be discussed and illustrated with pathologically and clinically proven case material.
May 22, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539213/medical-management-of-asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis
#5
REVIEW
Aaron W Aday, Joshua A Beckman
Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for both stroke and cardiovascular disease. Appropriate management of asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) remains unclear. Although several randomized clinical trials support revascularization in asymptomatic patients with severe CAS to reduce stroke risk, the participants in these trials did not receive optimal medical therapy (OMT) by today's standards. For many individuals, medical therapy may provide excellent risk reduction without the periprocedural risk of endarterectomy or stenting...
May 21, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502849/the-interaction-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-with-obesity-and-the-obesity-paradox-in-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Ahmet Afşin Oktay, Carl J Lavie, Peter F Kokkinos, Parham Parto, Ambarish Pandey, Hector O Ventura
Overweight and obesity are well-established risk factors for most cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), and atrial fibrillation. Despite the strong link between excess adiposity and risk of CVD, growing evidence has demonstrated an obesity paradox in patients with CVD. This phenomenon is characterized by a better prognosis in overweight and mildly obese CVD patients than their leaner counterparts. Moreover, the worst outcomes are often incurred by underweight CVD patients, followed by those of normal weight or severely obese...
May 12, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502848/exercise-training-in-athletes-with-heart-disease
#7
REVIEW
Antonio B Fernandez, Paul D Thompson
Exercise events and sport participation have increased over recent decades. The average age of sports participants has also increased with a potential parallel increase in the number of exercise participants with both occult and diagnosed cardiovascular disease (CVD). Habitual physical activity and exercise training reduce atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk in a curvilinear fashion by affecting multiple ASCVD risk factors. Nonetheless, exercise also increases the risk of sudden cardiac death in both young and adult individuals with occult CVD making it important to balance the risks and benefits of exercise and exercise training in these individuals...
May 12, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502847/the-role-for-cardiologists-in-stroke-intervention
#8
REVIEW
Richard R Heuser
Even though cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death in the United States, stroke is the second leading of global cause of death behind CVD . In the 21st Century, less than 40% of overall stroke patients are discharged to home and almost 25% of Medicare beneficiaries do not survive 90days. In spite of the fact that tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) has been approved for stroke care for 20years, only .75% of annual strokes are actually treated with intravenous (IV) TPA. Similar to how interventional cardiologists evolved from IV to catheter mechanical treatment for acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) over 30years ago, over the last few years, neurointerventionists now perform endovascular stroke therapy in many of these patients using stent retrievers...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501337/late-in-hospital-management-of-patients-hospitalized-with-acute-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Nicole B Cyrille, Snehal R Patel
Acute Heart Failure (AHF) hospitalization presents a significant financial burden and portends a poor prognosis following discharge. As such, there has been significant emphasis on the late inpatient management of patients hospitalized with AHF to ensure successful transition to the outpatient setting and to reduce overall readmission and mortality rates. Thorough discharge planning and a multidisciplinary team approach are essential and as outlined in this review should focus on four key elements: the assessment of patients' readiness for discharge, optimization of goal directed medical therapy and appropriate device therapy, patient education and transition to the outpatient care...
May 10, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483606/palliative-care-in-heart-failure-what-triggers-specialist-consultation
#10
REVIEW
Mitchell A Psotka, Kanako Y McKee, Albert Y Liu, Giovanni Elia, Teresa De Marco
Heart failure (HF) continues to cause substantial death and suffering despite the availability of numerous medical, surgical, and technological therapeutic advancements. As a patient-centered holistic discipline focused on improving quality of life and decreasing anguish, palliative care (PC) has a crucial role in the care of HF patients that has been acknowledged by multiple international guidelines. PC can be provided by all members of the HF care team, including but not limited to practitioners with specialty PC training...
May 5, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478115/asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis-revascularization
#11
REVIEW
Robert D Safian
In patients with carotid stenosis, the most common cause of stroke is atheroembolization, and the risk is strongly related to stenosis severity and symptomatic status (stroke or transient ischemic attack within 6months). Carotid revascularization by carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) results in plaque "passivation" by lumen enlargement, plaque removal, or plaque coverage with subsequent endothelialization. While there is considerable circumstantial evidence linking a decrease in the risk of stroke to the use of "optimal medical therapy (OMT)", the components of OMT have not been defined, and such therapy has not been rigorously evaluated in any randomized clinical trial (RCT) compared with revascularization...
May 3, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465001/neuroprotection-in-the-treatment-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#12
REVIEW
Rajan A G Patel, Paul W McMullen
Neuroprotection remains one of the holy grails of acute ischemic stroke therapy. The ability to protect the ischemic brain from injury until reperfusion and then to protect the brain from reperfusion injury could theoretically improve freedom from disability among stroke survivors. This manuscript reviews the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of stroke and summarizes pharmacologic and other therapies that showed promise in pre-clinical testing as neuroprotection agents. However to date, no compelling efficacy data have been published regarding any pharmacologic or other therapies...
April 29, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457791/left-atrial-appendage-occlusion-for-stroke-prevention
#13
Arijit Chanda, John P Reilly
More than 2.3 million adults in the United States have atrial fibrillation (AF), which exposes them to a 5-fold increased risk of stroke. The left atrial appendage (LAA) appears to be the source of thrombus formation in the vast majority of these patients. Anticoagulation significantly reduces the risk of stroke, but often we encounter patients who have absolute or relative contraindication to anticoagulation. Percutaneous LAA exclusion offers an alternative to anticoagulation to decrease the risk of stroke...
April 28, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457790/initial-assessment-and-triage-of-the-stroke-patient
#14
Richard M Zweifler
Nearly 800,000 strokes occur in the United States each year, and stroke is the leading cause of preventable permanent disability. Timely recognition and treatment are imperative to reduce stroke-related morbidity and mortality. Given the evidence supporting intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy for ischemic stroke, stroke symptoms must be rapidly identified and mimics quickly excluded prior to therapeutic decisions. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator is recommended for all qualified patients and patients with presentations suggesting large vessel occlusion should be evaluated for mechanical thrombectomy...
April 27, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442330/symptomatic-carotid-artery-disease-revascularization
#15
REVIEW
Piero Montorsi, Stefano Galli, Paolo M Ravagnani, Marco Roffi
Patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease should be managed by a multidisciplinary team including neurologists, vascular surgeons and interventionalists. Duplex ultrasound is the most widely used diagnostic modality to assess carotid disease, followed by additional imaging tests (CT- or MR-angiography) to confirm the severity of the stenosis, detect brain lesions, and assess intracranial circulation as well as the supra-aortic anatomy. Although overall randomized trial results favored (CEA) over carotid artery stenting (CAS) in symptomatic patients, this was likely related to the insufficient expertise of the endovascular specialists in several of the trials...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442329/association-of-telomere-length-with-myocardial-infarction-a-prospective-cohort-from-the-population-based-hunt-2-study
#16
REVIEW
Ida Beate Øyen Østhus, Stian Lydersen, Håvard Dalen, Javaid Nauman, Ulrik Wisløff
As possible markers of biological age, telomere length (TL) has been associated with age-related diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI) with conflicting findings. We sought to assess the relationship between TL and risk of future MI in 915 healthy participants (51.7% women) 65 years or older from a population-based prospective cohort (the HUNT 2 study, Norway). Mean TL was measured by quantitative PCR expressed as relative T (telomere repeat copy number) to S (single copy gene number) ratio, and log-transformed...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385556/high-intensity-interval-training-for-maximizing-health-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Trine Karlsen, Inger-Lise Aamot, Mark Haykowsky, Øivind Rognmo
Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377168/a-reference-equation-for-normal-standards-for-vo2-max-analysis-from-the-fitness-registry-and-the-importance-of-exercise-national-database-friend-registry
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan Myers, Leonard A Kaminsky, Ricardo Lima, Jeffrey W Christle, Euan Ashley, Ross Arena
Existing normal standards for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) are problematic because they tend to be population specific, lack normal distribution and portability, and are poorly represented by women. The objective of the current study was to apply the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND) Registry to improve upon previous regression formulas for normal standards for VO2 max using treadmill testing. Maximal treadmill tests were performed in 7783 healthy men and women (20-79years; maximal RER >1...
April 1, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372946/the-role-of-embolic-protection-in-carotid-stenting-progress-in-cardiovascular-diseases-pcvd
#19
REVIEW
Taisei Kobayashi, Jay Giri
Embolic protection device (EPD) use has become ubiquitous and is currently mandated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) for reimbursement in conjunction with carotid artery stenting (CAS). There are two classes of EPD devices: distal filter EPD (f-EPD) and proximal EPD (p-EPD). Measuring the incremental benefit of one strategy over the other remains problematic for several reasons. The first lies in the difficulty of defining an embolic event as transcranial Doppler and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities may not correlate with clinical events...
March 31, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365297/endovascular-therapy-for-acute-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Maria Politi, Andreas Kastrup, Konstantinos Marmagkiolis, Iris Q Grunwald, Panagiotis Papanagiotou
Stroke is the most common cause of permanent disability, the second most common cause of dementia, and the fourth most common cause of death in the Western world. Recently, based on positive multicenter randomized clinical trials, endovascular therapy for acute stroke has undergone a revolution. Routine mechanical thrombectomy in addition to intravenous thrombolysis has been shown to provide excellent outcomes for patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusions. This procedure reduces disability and benefits are seen across a wide range of age and initial stroke severity...
March 30, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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