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Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases

Edward Archer, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish between causal factors and mere statistical associations engendered the proliferation of misleading and demonstrably false research programs and failed public health initiatives...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Robert F Kushner
Obesity is one of the most serious and prevalent non-communicable diseases of the twenty-first century. It is also a patient-centered condition in which affected individuals seek treatment through a variety of commercial, medical and surgical approaches. Considering obesity as a chronic medical disease state helps to frame the concept of using a three-stepped intensification of care approach to weight management. As a foundation, all patients should be counseled on evidence-based lifestyle approaches that include diet, physical activity and behavior change therapies...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Yifeng Xu, Xiaoxiao Liu, Hongli Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Tamara B Horwich, Gregg C Fonarow, Adrienne L Clark
Obesity continues to be a public health problem in the general population, and also significantly increases the risk for the development of new-onset heart failure (HF). However, in patients with already-established, chronic HF, overweight and mild to moderate obesity is associated with substantially improved survival compared to normal weight patients; this has been termed the "obesity paradox". The majority of studies measure obesity by body mass index, but studies utilizing less-frequently used measures of body fat and body composition, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, skinfold estimates, and bioelectrical impedance analysis also confirm the obesity paradox in HF...
May 28, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Laura Chiavaroli, Stephanie K Nishi, Tauseef A Khan, Catherine R Braunstein, Andrea J Glenn, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Dario Rahelić, Hana Kahleová, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, David J A Jenkins, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND: The evidence for the Portfolio dietary pattern, a plant-based dietary pattern that combines recognized cholesterol-lowering foods (nuts, plant protein, viscous fibre, plant sterols), has not been summarized. OBJECTIVE: To update the European Association for the Study of Diabetes clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials using GRADE of the effect of the Portfolio dietary pattern on the primary therapeutic lipid target for cardiovascular disease prevention, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and other established cardiometabolic risk factors...
May 25, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Hana Kahleova, Susan Levin, Neal D Barnard
Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of mortality, being responsible for 46% of non-communicable disease deaths. It has been estimated that about 85.6 million Americans are living with some form of CVD, which continues to rise. Healthy lifestyle choices may reduce the risk of myocardial infarction by more than 80%, with nutrition playing a key role. Vegetarian dietary patterns reduce CVD mortality and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by 40%. Plant-based diets are the only dietary pattern to have shown reversal of CHD...
May 22, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Edward Bitok, Joan Sabaté
There is compelling evidence showing that nut intake confers protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). We conducted a review of the literature with respect to observational studies and randomized trials completed in the past ≈25 years that examined nut intake and CVD endpoints. We included findings from major cohort studies, a large intervention trial, and numerous smaller nut trials. Collectively, data from observational and intervention studies indicate strong and significant association between nut intake and decreased risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease , myocardial infarction, and sudden death; and somewhat weak association with stroke...
May 22, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
John L Sievenpiper, Carl J Lavie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Edward Archer
Sugars are foundational to biological life and played essential roles in human evolution and dietary patterns for most of recorded history. The simple sugar glucose is so central to human health that it is one of the World Health Organization's Essential Medicines. Given these facts, it defies both logic and a large body of scientific evidence to claim that sugars and other nutrients that played fundamental roles in the substantial improvements in life- and health-spans over the past century are now suddenly responsible for increments in the prevalence of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases...
May 1, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Niels Graudal, Gesche Jürgens
Ninety-five percent of the World's populations have a mean salt intake between 6-12 g, which is much lower than the tolerated daily level of up to 55 g/d. In spite of this, the recommended upper level by many health institutions is as low as 5.8 g/day. When reviewing the evidence for an upper level of 5.8g/day, it becomes apparent that neither the supporting studies selected by the health institutions, nor randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies disregarded by the health institutions, document that a salt intake below this 5...
May 1, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick, Albert K Chan, Martin A Alpert
Obesity is known to be a strong predictor of sudden cardiac death. For this reason, concern exists that this association may be related to delayed ventricular repolarization (VR), which has been extensively studied in overweight and obese patients. The corrected QT interval (QTc) and QT or QTc dispersion have been the most commonly-used electrocardiographic methods for assessing VR. Multiple controlled studies demonstrated that QTc and QT or QTc dispersion were significantly longer/greater in overweight and obese subjects than in normal weight controls...
April 23, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Jesús Francisco García-Gavilán, Mònica Bulló, Laura Barrubés
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality is increasing, representing an important public health issue worldwide. It is well-known that risk of CVD is substantially influenced by lifestyle, including poor diet, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity. In the last years, the so-called Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has been associated with broad healthy benefits on human health, including protection against CVD. The present narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the evidence from meta-analyses of epidemiological and clinical trials analyzing MedDiet and CVD risk...
April 18, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Andrew Elagizi, Carl J Lavie, Keri Marshall, James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe, Richard V Milani
The potential cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) benefits of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (OM3) have been intensely studied and debated for decades. Initial trials were performed in patients with low use of maximal medical therapy for CVD, and reported significant mortality benefits with the use of 1 g/day OM3 intervention following myocardial infarction (MI). More recent studies, including cohorts of patients receiving modern guideline directed medical therapy for CVD, have often not shown similar benefits with OM3 use...
March 20, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Jari A Laukkanen, Tanjaniina Laukkanen, Hassan Khan, Maira Babar, Setor K Kunutsor
Both cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and frequency of sauna bathing (FSB) are each strongly and independently associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk. However, the combined effect of CRF and FSB on SCD risk has not been previously investigated. We evaluated the joint impact of CRF and FSB on the risk of SCD in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2291 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Objectively measured CRF and self-reported sauna bathing habits were assessed at baseline...
March 16, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Matthew C Bunte, Mehdi H Shishehbor
Endovascular therapy (EVT) of symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) offers relief of symptoms and enhanced quality of life. Advancements in technique and technology have increased the feasibility and practicality of EVT, which now represents the preferred mode of revascularization over surgical procedures in many centers across the world. In this review, we consider the future of EVT in context of a rapidly expanding population of patients with symptomatic PAD.
March 10, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Nupoor Narula, Daniella Kadian-Dodov, Jeffrey W Olin
Fibromuscular dyplasia (FMD) is an under-recognized non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory arteriopathy that occurs most commonly in middle-aged women, but may affect individuals of all age groups. FMD may result in stenosis, aneurysm, dissection, occlusion, or arterial tortuosity. Recently published data demonstrated a genetic association of FMD with a variant in the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1), substantiating that the pathogenesis of this condition has genetic contribution. The renal and extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries are most often involved, although any arterial bed may be affected...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Piotr Sobieszczyk
There continues to be controversy on the use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in patients with deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and venous thromboembolism. In this state of the art review, the benefits and risks of IVC filters are discussed. Based on the current state of knowledge regarding the efficacy and risks of this therapy, guidelines are suggested regarding the patients who need and who do not need this expensive, risky, but potentially life-saving therapy.
March 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Mary M McDermott
Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) now affects 200 million people worldwide and is a major cause of disability. Cilostazol is the only Federal Drug Administration approved medication for PAD-related ischemic symptoms that is recommended by clinical practice guidelines. Supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in PAD. Recent evidence shows that home-based exercise interventions that include occasional medical center visits and incorporate behavioral change techniques also significantly improve walking endurance in PAD...
March 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Teresa L Carman
Patients with a history of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are at risk for a recurrent event. This is particularly true of patients with idiopathic events or events related to low risk triggers. In these patients extending anticoagulation beyond 3 to 6months may be warranted. Using clinical risk, biomarker analysis and risk stratification protocols we can make the best recommendations to patients with respect to the risks and benefits of ongoing therapy. Trials demonstrating benefit from low-dose aspirin for secondary prophylaxis may provide an option for patients in whom ongoing anticoagulation is deemed unsafe...
March 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Esther S H Kim, Joshua A Beckman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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