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Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases

Brian D Hoit
Pericardial heart disease includes pericarditis, (an acute, subacute, or chronic fibrinous, noneffusive, or exudative process), and its complications, constriction, (an acute, subacute, or chronic adhesive or fibrocalcific response), and cardiac tamponade. The pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis readily explains their respective findings on clinical examination, Doppler echocardiography, and at cardiac catheterization. The primary abnormality of cardiac tamponade is pan-cyclic compression of the cardiac chambers by increased pericardial fluid requiring that cardiac chambers compete for a fixed intrapericardial volume...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
John P Reilly, Christopher J White
Renal Denervation for Resistant Hypertension Renal denervation as a treatment for hypertension (HTN) has been shown to be effective as a surgical procedure. Over the past ten years, an endovascular approach to replicate the results of surgical splanchnicectomy has been investigated to replace this surgical procedure with a less invasive procedure with lower morbidity. Several devices and procedures have been developed, including a non-invasive strategy. We review the improvement of HTN in clinical trials of these devices as well as the shortcomings of these studies...
October 24, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Chirag Bavishi, Sripal Bangalore, Franz H Messerli
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are first line anti-HTN drug classes that are potent, effective and largely safe. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) have shown similar blood pressure (BP) reduction but more side effects. The efficacy of ACEIs and ARBs (for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal protection) has been promoted to extend beyond what could be explained by BP reduction alone...
October 21, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Massimo Imazio, Elena Gribaudo, Fiorenzo Gaita
Recurrent pericarditis is the most common and troublesome complication of pericarditis affecting 20 to 50% of patients. Its pathogenesis is often presumed to be immune-mediated, but additional investigations are needed to clarify the pathogenesis in order to develop etiology-oriented therapies. Imaging with Computed Tomography and especially Cardiac Magnetic Resonance holds promise to help in the identification of more difficult cases and improve their management. Refractory recurrent pericarditis with corticosteroid dependence and colchicine resistance remain still an unsolved issue in search of new therapies, although old drugs such as azathioprine, intravenous immunoglobulins, and biological agents seem promising, but new randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm their role...
October 7, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Ahmad Sabbahi, Ross Arena, Ahmed Elokda, Shane A Phillips
Hypertension (HTN) has recently been determined to be the number one overall risk factor of disease. With direct and indirect costs amounting to $46.4 billion in 2011 and projections of six-fold increases by 2030, the importance of low-cost nonpharmacological interventions can be appreciated. Vascular structural changes, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic overstimulation are major contributing factors to the pathophysiology of HTN. Exercise training (ET) for blood pressure (BP) control has been shown to be an effective and integral component of nonpharmacological interventions for BP control...
September 30, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Richard V Milani, Carl J Lavie, Jonathan K Wilt, Robert M Bober, Hector O Ventura
Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic disease in the U.S., and the standard model of office-based care delivery has yielded suboptimal outcomes, with approximately 50% of affected patients not achieving blood pressure (BP) control. Poor population-level BP control has been primarily attributed to therapeutic inertia and low patient engagement. New models of care delivery utilizing patient-generated health data, comprehensive assessment of social health determinants, computerized algorithms generating tailored interventions, frequent communication and reporting, and non-physician providers organized as an integrated practice unit, have the potential to transform population-based HTN control...
September 30, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Stephen K Williams, Joseph Ravenell, Sara Seyedali, Sam Nayef, Gbenga Ogedegbe
Blacks are especially susceptible to hypertension( HTN) and its associated organ damage leading to adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal outcomes. Accordingly, HTN is particularly significant in contributing to the black-white racial differences in health outcomes in the US. As such, in order to address these health disparities, practical clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on how to treat HTN, specifically in blacks, are needed. This review article is a timely addition to the literature because the most recent U...
September 29, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Gregory L Stonerock, James A Blumenthal
Although healthy lifestyles (HL) offer a number of health benefits, nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes remains a frequent and difficult obstacle to realizing these benefits. Behavioral counseling can improve adherence to a HL. However, individuals' motivation for change and resistance to altering unhealthy habits must be considered when developing an effective approach to counseling. In the present article, we review psychological, behavioral, and environmental factors that may promote adherence and contribute to nonadherence...
September 14, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Julian E Mariampillai, Per Anders Eskås, Sondre Heimark, Sverre E Kjeldsen, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Giuseppe Mancia
Although high blood pressure (BP) is the leading risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease, the optimal BP treatment target in order to reduce CV risk is unclear in the aftermath of the SPRINT study. The aim of this review is to assess large, randomized, and controlled trials on BP targets, as well as review selected observational analyses from other large randomized BP trials in order to evaluate the benefit of intense vs. standard BP control. None of the studies, except SPRINT, favored intense BP treatment...
September 13, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Ahmet Afşin Oktay, Carl J Lavie, Richard V Milani, Hector O Ventura, Yvonne E Gilliland, Sangeeta Shah, Michael E Cash
Hypertension (HTN) is a global health problem and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. The hemodynamic overload from HTN causes left ventricular (LV) remodeling, which usually manifests as distinct alterations in LV geometry, such as concentric remodeling or concentric and eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH). In addition to being a common target organ response to HTN, LV geometric abnormalities are well-known independent risk factors for CVD. Because of their prognostic implications and quantifiable nature, changes in LV geometric parameters have commonly been included as an outcome in anti-HTN drug trials...
September 8, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Ernst J Schaefer, Pimjai Anthanont, Margaret R Diffenderfer, Eliana Polisecki, Bela F Asztalos
Low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women is a significant independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and is often observed in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Patients with marked deficiency of HDL-C (<20 mg/dL) in the absence of secondary causes are much less common (<1% of the population). These patients may have homozygous, compound heterozygous, or heterozygous defects involving the apolipoprotein (APO)AI, ABCA1, or lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase genes, associated with apo A-I deficiency, apoA-I variants, Tangier disease , familial lecithin:cholesteryl ester acyltransferase deficiency, and fish eye disease...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Neil J Stone, Conrad B Blum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Nidhi Agrawal, Patricia Freitas Corradi, Namrata Gumaste, Ira J Goldberg
Cholesterol reduction has markedly reduced major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and shown regression of atherosclerosis in some studies. However, CVD has for decades also been associated with increased levels of circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Whether this is due to a direct toxic effect of these lipoproteins on arteries or whether this is merely an association is unresolved. More recent genetic analyses have linked genes that modulate TG metabolism with CVD. Moreover, analyses of subgroups of hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) subjects in clinical trials using fibric acid drugs have been interpreted as evidence that TG reduction reduces CVD events...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Lane B Benes, Nikhil S Bassi, Michael H Davidson
The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on cholesterol management have placed greater emphasis on high-intensity statin dosing for those with known cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Differences in risk of hepatotoxicity, new onset diabetes and rhabdomyolysis specifically between the high-intensity statins and the most common moderate-intensity statin, simvastatin, were not found to a significant degree in this review. Rather, baseline characteristics and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) appear to be more important regarding the risk of these adverse effects...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Jennifer G Robinson
After maximizing statin and lifestyle adherence, some patients may benefit from additional low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. The potential for net benefit from added therapy can inform nonstatin decision-making. Considering patient risk and the LDL-C level on statin, the additional potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction benefit from further lowering LDL-C depends on the magnitude of LDL-C lowering from the nonstatin. Ezetimibe is the only nonstatin shown to reduce atherosclerotic CVD events added to a statin, albeit modestly, since it modestly reduces LDL-C by about 20%...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Yashashwi Pokharel, Julia M Akeroyd, Salim S Virani
A clinician has a large number of guidelines to follow. Searching the words "cardiovascular" and "guideline" on the website, yielded 502 cardiovascular guidelines, 40 alone in 2015. (1) [National Guideline Clearinghouse: Agency for Healthcare Research and 19 Quality (n.d.)] Similarly, searching the words "cholesterol" and "guideline" yielded 107 results, 6 alone in 2015. This information overload can decrease providers' self-efficacy in using guidelines, particularly if they have inconsistent messages...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Sotirios Tsimikas
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a genetic, independent and likely causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Lp(a) levels are primarily genetically determined and tend to fluctuate only mildly around a pre-determined level. In primary care settings, one Lp(a) measurement can reclassify up to 40% of patients in intermediate risk score categories. In secondary care settings, recent data from the JUPITER and AIM-HIGH trials demonstrate that elevated Lp(a) remains part of the "residual risk" despite achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <70 mg/dL...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Patricia Vassallo, Steven L Driver, Neil J Stone
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of metabolic risk factors, identifies individuals at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Measurement of waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose are easily obtained in the clinic. At any level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, presence of MetS increases the risk of adverse CVD outcomes including bothatherosclerotic CVD and atrial fibrillation. The MetS construct should focus the clinician on recommending behavioral lifestyle modification as this improves all of its components...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
David R Saxon, Robert H Eckel
Statin intolerance is a commonly encountered clinical problem for which useful management strategies exist. Although many patients report statin-related muscle symptoms, studies indicate that the majority of these patients can tolerate a statin upon re-challenge. Alternative statin dosing strategies are an effective way to modify and reintroduce statin therapy for patients reporting adverse symptoms. Correction of vitamin D deficiency and hypothyroidism may improve statin tolerability in some patients. CoQ10 supplementation has been found to be of no benefit for statin-related muscle symptoms in most recent clinical trials...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Conrad B Blum
Familial type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) was first recognized as a distinct entity over 60 years ago. Since then, it has proven to be instructive in identifying the key role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in removal of the remnants of very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons produced by the action of lipoprotein lipase on these triglyceride-transporting lipoproteins. It has additionally shed light on the potent atherogenicity of the remnant lipoproteins. This review describes the history of development of our understanding of type III HLP, discusses the several genetic variants of apoE that play roles in the genesis of type III HLP, and describes the remarkable responsiveness of this fascinating disorder to lifestyle modification, especially carbohydrate restriction and calorie restriction, and, when required, the addition of pharmacotherapy...
September 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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