Read by QxMD icon Read

Progress in Brain Research

Christina J Howard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
What are the building blocks of our visual representations? Whatever we look at, the things we see will have some feature variability: even snow is not purely white but has a range of shades of white. However, in most studies investigating visual perception, homogeneous displays with all stimuli having a very limited range of features have been used. In contrast, recent studies using heterogeneous displays have shown that our perceptual system encodes surprisingly detailed information about stimuli, representing parameters such as the mean, variance, and most importantly the probability density functions of feature distributions...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Eli Brenner, Jeroen B J Smeets
In this chapter, we discuss the way in which visual information is gathered and try to relate this to the task at hand. It is well established that people direct their gaze toward the places at which they expect to be able to gather the most useful information. Studies of gaze during goal-directed actions show that people also make sure to gather information precisely at the moment that they need it. We argue that the eye movements that people make during interception tasks and the precision that people achieve in such tasks suggest that people constantly update their estimates of the details that are needed to successfully hit the target...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Guy Snir, Yaffa Yeshurun
The ability to identify a target is usually hindered if it appears shortly after another target. This simple and somewhat intuitive observation is qualified by a multitude of unexpected findings and conflicting theories that originate from the attentional blink paradigm. In this review, the major results, implications, and outstanding questions that stem from the paradigm are presented and discussed. The extant literature suggests that when the temporal domain is densely stacked with numerous stimuli, the entities that underlie attentional selection and cognitive control are brief perceptual episodes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Maruti V Mishra, Sonia B Ray, Narayanan Srinivasan
Emotions play a significant role in guiding everyday actions and strongly interact with attention. The processing of emotional information over time and the influence of attention on such processing has been studied through the phenomenon of attentional blink using rapid serial visual presentations (RSVP) tasks. This chapter discusses the interaction between temporal attention and the type of emotional information (words, scenes, and facial expressions) presented during or before the RSVP stream. The findings show that the affective content and the arousal value of the emotional stimuli presented as first target, second target, or both affects the magnitude and the duration of the blink window...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Naomi du Bois, Mark A Elliott
The synchronization of cortically disparate neural assemblies at frequencies in the gamma-band range (30-70Hz) is considered to be involved in the perceptual organization of the environment. In support of this Elliott (2014) demonstrated improved detection of a target stimulus when this target was primed in a matrix that flickered at specific frequencies in the gamma-band range, each found to be separated by regular intervals which correspond with a 6.69Hz period. This can be explained in terms of the interaction of the stimulus (and stimulus-induced) rhythm with a slow endogenous theta rhythm...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
James T Enns, Allison A Brennan, Robert L Whitwell
What is the relation between the two visual stream hypothesis and selective visual attention? In this chapter, we first consider this question at a theoretical level before presenting an example of work from our lab that examines the question: Under what conditions does the emotional content of a visual object influence visually guided action? Previous research has demonstrated that fear can influence perception, both consciously and unconsciously, but it is unclear when fear influences visually guided action...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Laurent Goffart, Clara Bourrelly, Julie Quinet
In primates, the appearance of an object moving in the peripheral visual field elicits an interceptive saccade that brings the target image onto the foveae. This foveation is then maintained more or less efficiently by slow pursuit eye movements and subsequent catch-up saccades. Sometimes, the tracking is such that the gaze direction looks spatiotemporally locked onto the moving object. Such a spatial synchronism is quite spectacular when one considers that the target-related signals are transmitted to the motor neurons through multiple parallel channels connecting separate neural populations with different conduction speeds and delays...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Yuki Sato, Toshihiro Kawase, Kouji Takano, Charles Spence, Kenji Kansaku
Understanding how we consciously experience our bodies is a fundamental issue in both psychology and neuroscience. To date, the incorporation of nonbody objects into the body representation has been investigated extensively, and the incorporation of prosthetic arms in amputees has been demonstrated using the rubber hand illusion. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of prosthetic arms in amputees using the crossed hands illusion, in which successive somatosensory stimuli are delivered, one to each arm, at intervals of 300ms or less, and where arm crossing often causes inversion of perceived tactile temporal order...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Yuanye Wang, Huan Luo
In order to deal with external world efficiently, the brain constantly generates predictions about incoming sensory inputs, a process known as "predictive coding." Our recent studies, by employing visual priming paradigms in combination with a time-resolved behavioral measurement, reveal that perceptual predictions about simple features (e.g., left or right orientation) return to low sensory areas not continuously but recurrently in a theta-band (3-4Hz) rhythm. However, it remains unknown whether high-level object processing is also mediated by the oscillatory mechanism and if yes at which rhythm the mechanism works...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Alexis D J Makin
The brain continuously maintains a current representation of its immediate surroundings. Perceptual representations are often updated when the world changes, e.g., when we notice an object move. However, we can also update representations internally, without incoming signals from the senses. In other words, we can run internal simulations of dynamic events. This ability is evident during mental object rotation. These uncontroversial observations lead to an obvious question that nevertheless remains to be answered: How does the brain control the speed of dynamic mental simulations? Is there a central rate controller or pacemaker module in the brain that can be temporarily coupled to sensory maps? We can refer to this as the common rate control theory...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
J Daniel McCarthy, Gennady Erlikhman, Gideon Paul Caplovitz
When an object partially or completely disappears behind an occluding surface, a representation of that object persists. For example, fragments of no longer visible objects can serve as an input into mid-level constructive visual processes, interacting and integrating with currently visible portions to form perceptual units and global motion signals. Remarkably, these persistent representations need not be static and can have their positions and orientations updated postdictively as new information becomes visible...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Shih-Yu Lo
Based on the finding that perception is lagged by attention split on multiple features (Lo et al., 2012), this study investigated how the feature-based lag effect interacts with the target spatial arrangement. Participants were presented with gratings the spatial frequencies of which constantly changed. The task was to monitor two gratings of the same or different colors and report their spatial frequencies right before the stimulus offset. The results showed a perceptual lag wherein the reported value was closer to the physical value some time prior to the stimulus offset...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal
A cognitive system faced with contingent events that cause rapid changes in sensory data may (i) incrementally incorporate new data into the ongoing perceptual and motor processing; or (ii) restart processing on each new event; or (iii) sample the data and hold onto the sample until its processing is complete, while disregarding any contingent changes. We offer a set of computational first-principles arguments for a hypothesis, according to which any system that contends with certain classes of perception and behavioral control tasks must include the sample-and-hold option (possibly alongside the other two, which may be useful in other tasks)...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Katya Olmos-Solis, Anouk M van Loon, Sander A Los, Christian N L Olivers
Theories of visual search assume that selection is driven by an active template representation of the target object. Earlier studies suggest that template activation occurs prior to search, but the temporal dynamics of such preactivation remain unclear. Two experiments employed microsaccades to track both general preparation (i.e., anticipation of the search task as such) and template-specific preparation (i.e., anticipation of target selection) of visual search. Participants memorized a target color (i.e., the template) for an upcoming search task...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, William C Griffin, Christie D Fowler, Paul J Kenny, Peter W Kalivas
The idea that interconnected neuronal ensembles code for specific behaviors has been around for decades; however, recent technical improvements allow studying these networks and their causal role in initiating and maintaining behavior. In particular, the role of ensembles in drug-seeking behaviors in the context of addiction is being actively investigated. Concurrent with breakthroughs in quantifying ensembles, research has identified a role for synaptic glutamate spillover during relapse. In particular, the transient relapse-associated changes in glutamatergic synapses on accumbens neurons, as well as in adjacent astroglia and extracellular matrix, are key elements of the synaptic plasticity encoded by drug use and the metaplasticity induced by drug-associated cues that precipitate drug-seeking behaviors...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Rivona Harricharan, Oualid Abboussi, William M U Daniels
Over the years, drug addiction has proven to be a perplexing conundrum for scientists. In attempts to decipher the components of the puzzle, multiple theories of addiction have been proposed. While these theories have assisted in providing essential fundamental information, current research recommends that a new theory needs to be presented taking into consideration the results of recent developments in the fields of neuroimmunology, genetics, and neuropsychiatry. After extensively examining the published literature, we propose in this review that neuroinflammation and hypothalamic functioning strongly underpin addictive behavior...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Hamed Ekhtiari, Tara Rezapour, Robin L Aupperle, Martin P Paulus
Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Xavier Noël, Nematollah Jaafari, Antoine Bechara
Mental time travel (MTT) allows navigation into the past, the future, and the minds of others, and it subserves future-oriented decision-making. Impaired MTT has been associated with a tendency to over-rely on the present, which is a characteristic of addictive behaviors. We here discuss the possible relationship between impaired autographical memory, future-oriented MTT, shortened time horizons, suboptimal social cognition, and poor decision-making in individuals with drug and gambling use disorders. We elaborate on how impaired MTT could compromise the process of change in addiction recovery and the effectiveness of psychotherapy...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"