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Progress in Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926454/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Bettina Studer, Stefan Knecht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926453/quantifying-motivation-with-effort-based-decision-making-paradigms-in-health-and-disease
#2
T T-J Chong, V Bonnelle, M Husain
Motivation can be characterized as a series of cost-benefit valuations, in which we weigh the amount of effort we are willing to expend (the cost of an action) in return for particular rewards (its benefits). Human motivation has traditionally been measured with self-report and questionnaire-based tools, but an inherent limitation of these methods is that they are unable to provide a mechanistic explanation of the processes underlying motivated behavior. A major goal of current research is to quantify motivation objectively with effort-based decision-making paradigms, by drawing on a rich literature from nonhuman animals...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926452/control-feedback-as-the-motivational-force-behind-habitual-behavior
#3
O Nafcha, E T Higgins, B Eitam
Motivated behavior is considered to be a product of integration of a behavior's subjective benefits and costs. As such, it is unclear what motivates "habitual behavior" which occurs, by definition, after the outcome's value has diminished. One possible answer is that habitual behavior continues to be selected due to its "intrinsic" worth. Such an explanation, however, highlights the need to specify the motivational system for which the behavior has intrinsic worth. Another key question is how does an activity attain such intrinsically rewarding properties...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926451/motivation-what-have-we-learned-and-what-is-still-missing
#4
B Studer, S Knecht
This final chapter deliberates three overarching topics and conclusions of the research presented in this volume: the endurance of the concept of extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation, the importance of considering subjective costs of activities when aiming to understand and enhance motivation, and current knowledge of the neurobiological underpinnings of motivation. Furthermore, three topics for future motivation research are outlined, namely the assessment and determinants of intrinsic benefits, the reconciliation of activity-specific motivation models with generalized motivation impairments in clinical populations, and the motivational dynamics of groups...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926450/changing-health-behavior-motivation-from-i-must-to-i-want
#5
S Knecht, P Kenning
In the past, medicine was dominated by acute diseases. Since treatments were unknown to patients they followed their medical doctors´ directives-at least for the duration of the disease. Behavior was thus largely motivated by avoiding expected costs associated with alternative behaviors (I-must). The health challenges prevailing today are chronic conditions resulting from the way we chose to live. Traditional directive communication has not been successful in eliciting and maintaining appropriate lifestyle changes...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#6
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926448/increasing-self-directed-training-in-neurorehabilitation-patients-through-competition
#7
B Studer, H Van Dijk, R Handermann, S Knecht
This proof-of-concept study aimed to test whether competition could be a useful tool to increase intensity and amount of self-directed training in neurorehabilitation. Stroke patients undergoing inpatient neurorehabilitation (n=93) conducted self-directed endurance training on a (wheelchair-compatible) bicycle trainer under three experimental conditions: a "Competition" condition and two noncompetition control conditions (repeated randomized within-subject design). Training performance and perceived exertion were recorded and statistically analyzed...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926447/motivation-and-attention-following-hemispheric-stroke
#8
E Olgiati, C Russell, D Soto, P Malhotra
Spatial neglect (SN) is an extremely common disorder of attention; it is most frequently a consequence of stroke, especially to the right cerebral hemisphere. The current view of SN is that it is not a unitary deficit but a multicomponent syndrome. Crucially, it has been repeatedly shown that it has a considerable negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. Although a number of behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been developed, none of these appears to be applicable to all patients with SN or has proved unequivocally successful in clinical trials...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926446/how-motivation-and-reward-learning-modulate-selective-attention
#9
A Bourgeois, L Chelazzi, P Vuilleumier
Motivational stimuli such as rewards elicit adaptive responses and influence various cognitive functions. Notably, increasing evidence suggests that stimuli with particular motivational values can strongly shape perception and attention. These effects resemble both selective top-down and stimulus-driven attentional orienting, as they depend on internal states but arise without conscious will, yet they seem to reflect attentional systems that are functionally and anatomically distinct from those classically associated with frontoparietal cortical networks in the brain...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926445/rewarding-feedback-promotes-motor-skill-consolidation-via-striatal-activity
#10
M Widmer, N Ziegler, J Held, A Luft, K Lutz
Knowledge of performance can activate the striatum, a key region of the reward system and highly relevant for motivated behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, striatal activity linked to knowledge of performance was measured during the training of a repetitive arc-tracking task. Knowledge of performance was given after a random selection of trials or after good performance. The third group received knowledge of performance after good performance plus a monetary reward. Skill learning was measured from pre- to post- (acquisition) and from post- to 24h posttraining (consolidation)...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926444/common-and-distinctive-approaches-to-motivation-in-different-disciplines
#11
T Strombach, S Strang, S Q Park, P Kenning
Over the last couple of decades, a body of theories has emerged that explains when and why people are motivated to act. Multiple disciplines have investigated the origins and consequences of motivated behavior, and have done so largely in parallel. Only recently have different disciplines, like psychology and economics, begun to consolidate their knowledge, attempting to integrate findings. The following chapter presents and discusses the most prominent approaches to motivation in the disciplines of biology, psychology, and economics...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926443/applied-economics-the-use-of-monetary-incentives-to-modulate-behavior
#12
S Strang, S Q Park, T Strombach, P Kenning
According to standard economic theory higher monetary incentives will lead to higher performance and higher effort independent of task, context, or individual. In many contexts this standard economic advice is implemented. Monetary incentives are, for example, used to enhance performance at workplace or to increase health-related behavior. However, the fundamental positive impact of monetary incentives has been questioned by psychologists as well as behavioral economists during the last decade, arguing that monetary incentives can sometimes even backfire...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926442/intrinsic-motivation-curiosity-and-learning-theory-and-applications-in-educational-technologies
#13
P-Y Oudeyer, J Gottlieb, M Lopes
This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926441/a-benefit-cost-framework-of-motivation-for-a-specific-activity
#14
B Studer, S Knecht
How can an individual be motivated to perform a target exercise or activity? This question arises in training, therapeutic, and education settings alike, yet despite-or even because of-the large range of extant motivation theories, finding a clear answer to this question can be challenging. Here we propose an application-friendly framework of motivation for a specific activity or exercise that incorporates core concepts from several well-regarded psychological and economic theories of motivation. The key assumption of this framework is that motivation for performing a given activity is determined by the expected benefits and the expected costs of (performance of) the activity...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926440/fatigue-with-up-vs-downregulated-brain-arousal-should-not-be-confused
#15
U Hegerl, C Ulke
Fatigue is considered to be an important and frequent factor in motivation problems. However, this term lacks clinical and pathophysiological validity. Semantic precision has to be improved. Lack of drive and tiredness with increased sleepiness as observed in fatigue in the context of inflammatory and immunological processes (hypoaroused fatigue) has to be separated from inhibition of drive and tiredness with prolonged sleep onset latency as observed in major depression (hyperaroused fatigue). Subjective experiences as reported by patients, as well as clinical, behavioral, and neurobiological findings support the validity and importance of this distinction...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926439/competition-testosterone-and-adult-neurobehavioral-plasticity
#16
A B Losecaat Vermeer, I Riečanský, C Eisenegger
Motivation in performance is often measured via competitions. Winning a competition has been found to increase the motivation to perform in subsequent competitions. One potential neurobiological mechanism that regulates the motivation to compete involves sex hormones, such as the steroids testosterone and estradiol. A wealth of studies in both nonhuman animals and humans have shown that a rise in testosterone levels before and after winning a competition enhances the motivation to compete. There is strong evidence for acute behavioral effects in response to steroid hormones...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926438/exploring-individual-differences-in-task-switching-persistence-and-other-personality-traits-related-to-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function
#17
A Umemoto, C B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015)...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926437/involvement-of-opioid-signaling-in-food-preference-and-motivation-studies-in-laboratory-animals
#18
I Morales, L Font, P J Currie, R Pastor
Motivation is a complex neurobiological process that initiates, directs, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. Although distinct components of motivated behavior are difficult to investigate, appetitive and consummatory phases of motivation are experimentally separable. Different neurotransmitter systems, particularly the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, have been associated with food motivation. Over the last two decades, however, research focusing on the role of opioid signaling has been particularly growing in this area...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926436/to-work-or-not-to-work-neural-representation-of-cost-and-benefit-of-instrumental-action
#19
N B Kroemer, C Burrasch, L Hellrung
By definition, instrumental actions are performed in order to obtain certain goals. Nevertheless, the attainment of goals typically implies obstacles, and response vigor is known to reflect an integration of subjective benefit and cost. Whereas several brain regions have been associated with cost/benefit ratio decision-making, trial-by-trial fluctuations in motivation are not well understood. We review recent evidence supporting the motivational implications of signal fluctuations in the mesocorticolimbic system...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926435/brain-correlates-of-the-intrinsic-subjective-cost-of-effort-in-sedentary-volunteers
#20
J Bernacer, I Martinez-Valbuena, M Martinez, N Pujol, E Luis, D Ramirez-Castillo, M A Pastor
One key aspect of motivation is the ability of agents to overcome excessive weighting of intrinsic subjective costs. This contribution aims to analyze the subjective cost of effort and assess its neural correlates in sedentary volunteers. We recruited a sample of 57 subjects who underwent a decision-making task using a prospective, moderate, and sustained physical effort as devaluating factor. Effort discounting followed a hyperbolic function, and individual discounting constants correlated with an indicator of sedentary lifestyle (global physical activity questionnaire; R=-0...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
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