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Progress in Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054294/preface
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2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054293/corticostriatal-plasticity-neuronal-ensembles-and-regulation-of-drug-seeking-behavior
#2
Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, William C Griffin, Christie D Fowler, Paul J Kenny, Peter W Kalivas
The idea that interconnected neuronal ensembles code for specific behaviors has been around for decades; however, recent technical improvements allow studying these networks and their causal role in initiating and maintaining behavior. In particular, the role of ensembles in drug-seeking behaviors in the context of addiction is being actively investigated. Concurrent with breakthroughs in quantifying ensembles, research has identified a role for synaptic glutamate spillover during relapse. In particular, the transient relapse-associated changes in glutamatergic synapses on accumbens neurons, as well as in adjacent astroglia and extracellular matrix, are key elements of the synaptic plasticity encoded by drug use and the metaplasticity induced by drug-associated cues that precipitate drug-seeking behaviors...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054292/addiction-a-dysregulation-of-satiety-and-inflammatory-processes
#3
Rivona Harricharan, Oualid Abboussi, William M U Daniels
Over the years, drug addiction has proven to be a perplexing conundrum for scientists. In attempts to decipher the components of the puzzle, multiple theories of addiction have been proposed. While these theories have assisted in providing essential fundamental information, current research recommends that a new theory needs to be presented taking into consideration the results of recent developments in the fields of neuroimmunology, genetics, and neuropsychiatry. After extensively examining the published literature, we propose in this review that neuroinflammation and hypothalamic functioning strongly underpin addictive behavior...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054291/neuroscience-informed-psychoeducation-for-addiction-medicine-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#4
Hamed Ekhtiari, Tara Rezapour, Robin L Aupperle, Martin P Paulus
Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054290/addictive-behaviors-why-and-how-impaired-mental-time-matters
#5
Xavier Noël, Nematollah Jaafari, Antoine Bechara
Mental time travel (MTT) allows navigation into the past, the future, and the minds of others, and it subserves future-oriented decision-making. Impaired MTT has been associated with a tendency to over-rely on the present, which is a characteristic of addictive behaviors. We here discuss the possible relationship between impaired autographical memory, future-oriented MTT, shortened time horizons, suboptimal social cognition, and poor decision-making in individuals with drug and gambling use disorders. We elaborate on how impaired MTT could compromise the process of change in addiction recovery and the effectiveness of psychotherapy...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054289/cross-talk-between-the-epigenome-and-neural-circuits-in-drug-addiction
#6
Philipp Mews, Erin S Calipari
Drug addiction is a behavioral disorder characterized by dysregulated learning about drugs and associated cues that result in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Learning about drug rewards and predictive cues is a complex process controlled by a computational network of neural connections interacting with transcriptional and molecular mechanisms within each cell to precisely guide behavior. The interplay between rapid, temporally specific neuronal activation, and longer-term changes in transcription is of critical importance in the expression of appropriate, or in the case of drug addiction, inappropriate behaviors...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054288/using-the-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-to-conceptualize-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-in-relation-to-addiction
#7
Samantha J Brooks, Christine Lochner, Steve Shoptaw, Dan J Stein
Nomenclature for mental disorder was updated in 2013 with the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). In DSM-5, substance use disorders are framed as more dimensional. First, the distinction between abuse and dependence is replaced by substance use. Second, the addictions section now covers both substances and behavioral addictions. This contemporary move toward dimensionality and transdiagnosis in the addictions and other disorders embrace accumulating cognitive-affective neurobiological evidence that is reflected in the United States' National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (NIH RDoC)...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054287/differential-modulatory-effects-of-cocaine-on-marmoset-monkey-recognition-memory
#8
Jonathan L Melamed, Fernando M de Jesus, Jéssica Aquino, Clarissa R S Vannuchi, Renata B M Duarte, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Marilia Barros
Acute and repeated exposure to cocaine alters the cognitive performance of humans and animals. How each administration schedule affects the same memory task has yet to be properly established in nonhuman primates. Therefore, we assessed the performance of marmoset monkeys in a spontaneous object-location (SOL) recognition memory task after acute and repeated exposure to cocaine (COC; 5mg/kg, ip). Two identical neutral stimuli were explored on the 10-min sample trial, after which preferential exploration of the displaced vs the stationary object was analyzed on the 10-min test trial...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054286/functional-roles-of-orexin-hypocretin-receptors-in-reward-circuit
#9
Abbas Haghparast, Zahra Fatahi, Reza Arezoomandan, Sara Karimi, Zahra Taslimi, Shahram Zarrabian
Since its first discovery in 1998, it has become clear that the orexinergic system plays an important role in regulating a number of functions including food, sex, social connections, and most prominently reward-related behaviors. Orexinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project extensively to other brain areas, two most important of which are the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens that are involved in reward processing. In this review, we have presented the work in our laboratory along with the work of others and have discussed the possible functions we can infer from the research...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054285/paraventricular-thalamus-gateway-to-feeding-appetitive-motivation-and-drug-addiction
#10
E Zayra Millan, ZhiYi Ong, Gavan P McNally
This chapter reviews the anatomical and functional evidence demonstrating the contribution of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) to appetitive motivation, food intake control, and drug-seeking behaviors. We first consider the anatomical properties of the PVT to highlight its relevance in the control of appetitive motivation, feeding, and drug seeking. This is followed by a review of the available literature on PVT neurocircuitry, PVT involvement in food intake control, animal models of drug self-administration, withdrawal, and relapse...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054284/the-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-and-addiction-the-price-we-pay-for-adaptability
#11
Tanya Calvey
Humans are more likely to become addicted and to stay addicted than are other animals. This chapter is a neurobiological and molecular review of addiction and the cooccurring traits and psychiatric disorders from the perspective of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). Addiction is an example of pleiotropy as many common haplotypes that are associated with individual differences in vulnerability to substance dependence express a variety of important brain-based phenotypes such as neuroadaptive processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031474/sport-time-pressure-and-cognitive-performance
#12
Chia N Chiu, Chiao-Yun Chen, Neil G Muggleton
Sport participation, fitness, and expertise have been associated with a range of cognitive benefits in a range of populations but both the factors that confer such benefits and the nature of the resulting changes are relatively unclear. Additionally, the interactions between time pressure and cognitive performance for these groups is little studied. Using a flanker task, which measures the ability to selectively process information, and with different time limits for responding, we investigated the differences in performance for participants in (1) an unpredictable, open-skill sport (volleyball), (2) an exercise group engaged in predictable, closed-skill sports (running, swimming), and (3) nonsporting controls...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031473/exploring-the-applicability-of-the-contextual-interference-effect-in-sports-practice
#13
Damian Farrow, Tim Buszard
This review will consider three key issues considered critical when determining the efficacy of the contextual interference effect when applied to sports practice. First, the issue of complexity is considered in relation to the amount of interference actually needed in the applied sports setting to create effective learning. Second, the traditional underpinning mechanism/s of contextual interference are discussed in relation to recent neurophysiological perspectives on their viability. A counter-position to these dominant theories is also presented drawing on an implicit learning framework...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031472/catching-on-it-early-bodily-and-brain-anticipatory-mechanisms-for-excellence-in-sport
#14
Ana M Abreu, Matteo Candidi, Salvatore M Aglioti
Programming and executing a subsequent move is inherently linked to the ability to anticipate the actions of others when interacting. Such fundamental social ability is particularly important in sport. Here, we discuss the possible mechanisms behind the highly sophisticated anticipation skills that characterize experts. We contend that prediction in sports might rely on a finely tuned perceptual system that endows experts with a fast, partially unconscious, pickup of relevant cues. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the multimodal, perceptuomotor, multiple-duty cells (mirror neurons) that play an important function in action anticipation by means of an inner motor simulation process...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031471/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-3-decision-making-under-mental-performance-pressure-in-junior-elite-athletes
#15
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the decision making of world class elite and subelite athletes (see Parkin and Walsh, 2017; Parkin et al., 2017), here the abilities of those at the earliest stage of entry to elite sport are examined. Junior elite athletes have undergone initial national selection and are younger than athletes examined previously (mean age 13 years). Decision making under mental pressure is explored in this sample. During performance an athlete encounters a wide array of mental pressures; these include the psychological impact of errors, negative feedback, and requirements for sustained attention in a dynamic environment (Anshel and Wells, 2000; Mellalieu et al...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031470/the-resonant-system-linking-brain-body-environment-in-sport-performance-%C3%A2
#16
Pedro Teques, Duarte Araújo, Ludovic Seifert, Vicente L Del Campo, Keith Davids
The ecological dynamics approach offers new insights to understand how athlete nervous systems are embedded within the body-environment system in sport. Cognitive neuroscience focuses on the neural bases of athlete behaviors in terms of perceptual, cognitive, and motor functions defined within specific brain structures. Here, we discuss some limitations of this traditional perspective, addressing how athletes functionally adapt perception and action to the dynamics of complex performance environments by continuously perceiving information to regulate goal-directed actions...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031469/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-2-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-subelite-athletes
#17
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the influence of acute physical exhaustion on decision-making in world-class elite athletes in Parkin et al. (2017), here a similar method is applied to subelite athletes. These subelite athletes were enrolled on a Team GB talent development program and were undergoing training for possible Olympic competition in 4-8 years. They differ from elite athletes examined previously according to expertise and age. While considered elite (Swann et al., 2015), the subelite athletes had approximately 8 years fewer sporting experience and were yet to obtain sustained success on the international stage...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031468/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-1-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-elite-athletes
#18
Beth L Parkin, Katie Warriner, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031467/action-skilled-observation-issues-for-the-study-of-sport-expertise-and-the-brain
#19
April Karlinsky, Karen Zentgraf, Nicola J Hodges
With a growing body of research devoted to uncovering regions of the brain implicated in action observation following various action-related experiences, including sport, we ask what we know from this research, and what we still need to know, as it pertains to sport and the brain. To do this, we review and integrate knowledge garnered from developmental work, short-term motor learning studies, and most significantly sport athletes across varying skill levels. We consider various neurophysiological methods, including TMS, fMRI, and EEG, which have been used to help uncover brain regions involved in action-skilled observation...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031466/discerning-measures-of-conscious-brain-processes-associated-with-superior-early-motor-performance-capacity-coactivation-and-character
#20
Tina van Duijn, Tim Buszard, Merel C J Hoskens, Rich S W Masters
This study explored the relationship between working memory (WM) capacity, corticocortical communication (EEG coherence), and propensity for conscious control of movement during the performance of a complex far-aiming task. We were specifically interested in the role of these variables in predicting motor performance by novices. Forty-eight participants completed (a) an assessment of WM capacity (an adapted Rotation Span task), (b) a questionnaire that assessed the propensity to consciously control movement (the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale), and (c) a hockey push-pass task...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
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