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Progress in Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826516/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Tara Mahfoud, Sam McLean, Nikolas Rose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826515/man-not-a-machine-models-minds-and-mental-labor-c-1980
#2
Max Stadler
This essay is concerned with the fate of the so-called "computer metaphor" of the mind in the age of mass computing. As such, it is concerned with the ways the mighty metaphor of the rational, rule-based, and serial "information processor," which dominated neurological and psychological theorizing in the early post-WW2 era, came apart during the 1970s and 1980s; and how it was, step by step, replaced by a set of model entities more closely in tune with the significance that was now discerned in certain kinds of "everyday practical action" as the ultimate manifestation of the human mind...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826514/opaque-models-using-drugs-and-dreams-to-explore-the-neurobiological-basis-of-mental-phenomena
#3
Nicolas Langlitz
On the basis of four historical and ethnographic case studies of modeling in neuroscience laboratories, this chapter introduces a distinction between transparent and opaque models. A transparent model is a simplified representation of a real world phenomenon. If it is not patently clear, it is at least much better comprehended than its objects of representation. An opaque model, by contrast, looks at one only partially understood phenomenon to stand in for another partially understood phenomenon. Here, the model is often just as complex as its target...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826513/slicing-the-cortex-to-study-mental-illness-alois-alzheimer-s-pictures-of-equivalence
#4
Lara Keuck
Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) was a German physician who specialized in psychiatry, and who is today known for the first description of a-in his own words-peculiar ailment (eigenartige Erkrankung), which was named after him. In his time, however, he was foremost recognized for his work in refining histopathological techniques and thereby contributing to the methodological arsenal for differential diagnosis in clinical psychiatry. In his laboratory that was based at the renowned Munich Psychiatric University Clinic led by Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), Alzheimer, his assistants, and students conserved, prepared, and studied slices of deceased patients' brains under the microscope...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826512/bridging-the-gap-between-system-and-cell-the-role-of-ultra-high-field-mri-in-human-neuroscience
#5
Robert Turner, Daniel De Haan
The volume of published research at the levels of systems and cellular neuroscience continues to increase at an accelerating rate. At the same time, progress in psychiatric medicine has stagnated and scientific confidence in cognitive psychology research is under threat due to careless analysis methods and underpowered experiments. With the advent of ultra-high field MRI, with submillimeter image voxels, imaging neuroscience holds the potential to bridge the cellular and systems levels. Use of these accurate and precisely localized quantitative measures of brain activity may go far in providing more secure foundations for psychology, and hence for more appropriate treatment and management of psychiatric illness...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826511/connectomes-as-constitutively-epistemic-objects-critical-perspectives-on-modeling-in-current-neuroanatomy
#6
Philipp Haueis, Jan Slaby
The term "connectome" is commonly taken to describe a complete map of neural connections in a nervous system of a given species. This chapter provides a critical perspective on the role of connectomes in neuroscientific practice and asks how the connectomic approach fits into a larger context in which network thinking permeates technology, infrastructure, social life, and the economy. In the first part of this chapter, we argue that, seen from the perspective of ongoing research, the notion of connectomes as "complete descriptions" is misguided...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826510/learning-from-large-scale-neural-simulations
#7
Maria Serban
Large-scale neural simulations have the marks of a distinct methodology which can be fruitfully deployed in neuroscience. I distinguish between two types of applications of the simulation methodology in neuroscientific research. Model-oriented applications aim to use the simulation outputs to derive new hypotheses about brain organization and functioning and thus to extend current theoretical knowledge and understanding in the field. Data-oriented applications of the simulation methodology target the collection and analysis of data relevant for neuroscientific research that is inaccessible via more traditional experimental methods...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826509/infrastructural-intelligence-contemporary-entanglements-between-neuroscience-and-ai
#8
Johannes Bruder
In this chapter, I reflect on contemporary entanglements between artificial intelligence and the neurosciences by tracing the development of Google's recent DeepMind algorithms back to their roots in neuroscientific studies of episodic memory and imagination. Google promotes a new form of "infrastructural intelligence," which excels by constantly reassessing its cognitive architecture in exchange with a cloud of data that surrounds it, and exhibits putatively human capacities such as intuition. I argue that such (re)alignments of biological and artificial intelligence have been enabled by a paradigmatic infrastructuralization of the brain in contemporary neuroscience...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826508/vital-brains-on-the-entanglement-of-media-minds-and-models
#9
Cornelius Borck
The advent of functional imaging, hailed as a breakthrough for marrying morphological and functional approaches in brain research, invites a reflection upon the interplay between models, instruments, and theories. Brain research and theorizing about the brain are generally mediated by the research technologies employed. Going back into the history of brain research, the chapter explores the epistemic effects of research technologies by focusing on the localization debate in relation to different visualization strategies...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648246/preface
#10
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648245/great-british-medalists-response-to-the-commentaries
#11
Lew Hardy, Matthew Barlow, Lynne Evans, Tim Rees, Tim Woodman, Chelsea Warr
Hardy et al. (2017) reported the findings of a large-scale, multisource, qualitative study that examined the commonalities of, and discriminators between, a group of super-elite (SE) and a group of elite (E) athletes who were matched on gender, sport, discipline, and era. Fifteen research teams who are actively engaged in research in the domain then provided critical commentaries on the target paper. In our response to these commentaries, we briefly remind the reader of the primary findings of the original paper and then deal with the commentaries under the subheadings: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Elite Performance; Mediating and Moderating Variables; Methodological Issues; Omissions; and Alternative Approaches...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648244/the-tales-athletes-tell-narrative-structure-and-identity-in-great-british-medalists
#12
Tristan J Coulter, Clifford J Mallett, Jefferson A Singer
Using a life story approach, Hardy and colleagues present a study examining the similarities and differences in the psychosocial development of UK-based elite and super-elite athletes. We found this work to be a highly personal account into the lives of these cohorts, which advances knowledge concerning the psychology and influencing events and circumstances that separate the good from the great performers. We make some suggestions for how to enrich the study's findings and approach, by (1) adopting McAdams' multilayer framework of personality, as an overarching structure for assessing the whole person, and (2) encouraging the authors to explore the narrative structure of the presented life stories and go beyond simply an interpretation of their content...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648243/a-culture-of-striving-augments-use-of-working-memory-implications-for-attention-control
#13
Tim Buszard, Rich S W Masters
A culture of striving was notable in the developmental background of many of the elite and super elite athletes in the Hardy et al. STUDY: Critically, a culture of striving was credited with a positive influence on a range of issues relevant to elite sports performance, including performance under pressure. Of the six athletes who did not reveal a culture of striving, five reported the greatest difficulty performing in high-pressure situations. We suspect that a culture of striving facilitates the development of attention control ability, which subsequently assists performance under pressure...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648242/super-elite-athletes-some-complimentary-observations-from-australia-and-some-lessons-for-sports-expertise-research-comment-on-hardy-et-al
#14
Damian Farrow
This commentary provides an Australian perspective through the lens of former Australian tennis players' reflections of their journey to becoming super/elite tennis players. Their observations are largely supportive of the findings of the target article. Further, the experimental design and terminology used in the target article are contextualized from the perspective of sports expertise research.
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648241/is-a-peaceful-mind-a-winning-mind-comment-on
#15
Li-Wei Zhang
This commentary on Hardy and colleagues' discussion of psychosocial biographies of British super-elite athletes discusses cultural differences from a Chinese perspective. While British super-elite athletes might cope with high pressure by a counter-phobic attitude or total preparation, Chinese super-elite athletes achieve that by "Pingchangxin," a concept originated from Hongzhou Buddhism. This concept is difficult to translate but includes having no evaluation of good and evil, maintaining a peaceful mind in adversity and frustration, letting nature take its course, so as to reach the realm of freedom...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648240/eventual-sport-performance-level-what-about-the-role-of-type-of-sport-perception-of-critical-life-events-and-practice-quality
#16
Tynke Toering
The target article describes an interesting study, which provides some challenging findings regarding athletes' pathway to excellence. The suggested links between critical life events, need for success, personal characteristics, and eventual performance level make sense from a psychodynamic perspective. This commentary will discuss some critical points related to the application of the findings in talent identification and -development programs. These are (1) the possible effect of the selection of participants on the results (including the impact of dependence on others for team sport athletes and the opportunity for multiple medal attainment), (2) a lack of detail in the description of how the athletes approached the critical life events (the perception of an event may contribute more to development than the event itself), and (3) a lack of detail in the description of the practice process throughout development...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648239/great-british-medalists-a-commentary-based-on-a-developmental-systems-theory-perspective
#17
Martin I Jones, Mark R Wilson
In their target article, Hardy and colleagues outline some psychosocial factors that were proposed to underpin the development of serial sporting champions. In this commentary, we suggest that the psychodynamic compensatory mechanisms model described by Hardy et al. is limited by its failure to consider the role of the broader developmental systems in which an individual exists (including funding structure, community, culture, and historical niche). We suggest that any workable talent development model needs to consider the bidirectional relationships between individuals and their contexts, and as such, should be guided by a more dynamic, developmental systems theory approach...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648238/getting-gritty-about-practice-and-success-motivational-characteristics-of-great-performers
#18
Nicola J Hodges, Paul R Ford, David T Hendry, A Mark Williams
We consider the data reported in the target article with respect to key motivational frameworks and characteristics, including grit and self-determined forms of motivation. Empirical data are reviewed that highlight the relationships between these concepts and practice and success. We highlight the concept of grit as a defining characteristic of the super-elite athletes, in reference to both their continued perseverance in the face of obstacles, as well as the increased motivation seemingly caused by such obstacles or setbacks...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648237/adversity-related-experiences-are-essential-for-olympic-success-additional-evidence-and-considerations
#19
Mustafa Sarkar, David Fletcher
Drawing on Hardy et al.'s study as the target article, in this commentary, we focus on the adversity-related experiences and consequences of the Olympic and/or World champions that they sampled. With this in mind, we divide the narrative into two main sections. In the first section, we explore the association between adversity-related experiences and Olympic success, and provide additional evidence in support of the notion that adversity-related experiences are essential for success at the highest level of sport...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648236/the-stress-test-does-what-doesn-t-kill-me-make-me-a-super-elite-athlete
#20
Ian H Robertson
Super-elite athletes succeed in part because: (a) previous hardship builds resilience, (b) success breeds success, and (c) they can rename anxiety as excitement. It is unlikely that most of their outstanding success is due to psychodynamic compensatory mechanisms.
2017: Progress in Brain Research
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