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Population Studies

Warren B Miller, Jennifer S Barber, Paul Schulz
We explore whether young women's perceptions of their sexual partners' childbearing desires contribute to their risk of pregnancy. We used weekly journal data collected from 787 young women to measure their childbearing desires and their perceptions of their partners' childbearing desires. We then conducted hazard modelling to predict pregnancy risk with variables based on interactions between the women's desires and their perceived partners' desires. Models that include perceived partners' desires perform better than one based on women's desires alone...
November 29, 2016: Population Studies
Martin Dribe, Marco Breschi, Alain Gagnon, Danielle Gauvreau, Heidi A Hanson, Thomas N Maloney, Stanislao Mazzoni, Joseph Molitoris, Lucia Pozzi, Ken R Smith, Hélène Vézina
The timings of historical fertility transitions in different regions are well understood by demographers, but much less is known regarding their specific features and causes. In the study reported in this paper, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories on fertility behaviour...
November 25, 2016: Population Studies
Francesco Scalone, Patrizia Agati, Aurora Angeli, Annalisa Donno
Previous researchers have found that traditional determinants explain only a limited part of the variation in perinatal and infant mortality at the family level. In the study reported in this paper, we explored the factors that make the perinatal/neonatal death risk more heterogeneous across families. We estimated logistic regressions with cluster random effects at the maternal level, using data from the Italian village of Granarolo from 1900 to 1939. We estimated the effects of selected predictors on perinatal/neonatal mortality and unexplained inter-family variation...
November 24, 2016: Population Studies
Ronald Kwon, Augustine Kposowa
Multi-racial (mixed-race) people constitute a growing percentage of the United States (US) population. The study reported in this paper used residential segregation measures as a proxy for social distance, to examine whether segregation levels of multi-racial groups differ from those of mono-racial groups in the US in 2010. First, we find that all multi-racial groups considered in the study experience lower levels of segregation at county level than their mono-racial counterparts. However, black-whites and Hispanic-whites experience higher levels of segregation than other multi-racial groups...
November 22, 2016: Population Studies
Ian M Timæus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Population Studies
Tom Wilson
Existing projections of Australia's Indigenous Population suffer from a number of limitations: problematic input data, unsatisfactory projection model design, and poor forecast performance. The aim of this study was to create a new model for projecting that population that better represents the demographic processes at work, and that makes use of a newly available data source on identification change. A new projection model is presented that explicitly incorporates ethnic-identification change, and mixed (Indigenous/Non-Indigenous) partnering and childbearing...
November 2016: Population Studies
Jona Schellekens, Frans van Poppel
Mounting evidence suggests that early-life conditions have an enduring effect on an individual's mortality risks as an adult. The contribution of improvements in early-life conditions to the overall decline in adult mortality, however, remains a debated issue. We provide an estimate of the contribution of improvements in early-life conditions to mortality decline after age 30 in Dutch cohorts born between 1812 and 1921. We used two proxies for early-life conditions: median height and early-childhood mortality...
November 2016: Population Studies
Eva Beaujouan, Zuzanna Brzozowska, Kryštof Zeman
During the twentieth century, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population...
November 2016: Population Studies
Alexandre Gori Maia, Camila Strobl Sakamoto
This study analysed the impact of changing family structure on income distribution. Specifically, it analysed how changes in the proportions of different categories of family in the population contributed to increases in the income of the richest and poorest social strata in Brazil, and the consequent impacts on income inequality. Rural and urban families were compared in order to understand how these dynamics had different impacts on more developed (urban) and less developed (rural) areas. The results emphasize how changes observed in family structure are more pronounced among the richest families, contributing to an increase in (i) the income of the richest families and (ii) income inequality between the richest and poorest families, as well as between urban and rural areas...
November 2016: Population Studies
Margaret Triyana
Data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993-2000) were used to examine whether the effects of the Indonesian 'Midwife in the Village' programme persisted more than 10 years after its implementation. The study followed up earlier studies of the programme's effects by estimating its effects on pregnancy outcomes, using propensity-score matching applied to data collected after the 1997 Asian economic crisis. The results indicate that only the programme's effect on the use of prenatal care services persisted, and that the loss of village midwives during the crisis had no significant effect on pregnancy outcomes...
November 2016: Population Studies
Leena Merdad, Kenneth Hill, Michael Levin
In many less developed countries, household surveys collect full and summary birth histories to provide estimates of child mortality. However, full birth histories are expensive to collect and cannot provide precise estimates for small areas, and summary birth histories only provide past child mortality trends. A simple method that provides estimates for the most recent past uses questions about the survival of recent births in censuses or large household surveys. This study examines such data collected by 45 censuses and shows that on average they tend to underestimate under-5 mortality in comparison with alternative estimates, albeit with wide variations...
October 6, 2016: Population Studies
Jan Hoem, Lesia Nedoluzhko
To keep childbearing that occurs before and after migration separate from each other, many analysts apply a technique that uses 'negative durations' to estimate the childbearing risks that migrants have before they migrate. This strategy can lead to incorrect results and should be abandoned. In this research note, we use data for births and internal migration in Sweden to highlight how the two types of behaviour can be kept apart conceptually and analytically without use of 'negative durations'. The procedures used can easily be generalized to any similarly linked pair of behaviours...
October 4, 2016: Population Studies
Barbara S Okun
Secular, native-born Jews in Israel enjoy the socio-economic status of many affluent populations living in other democratic countries, but have above-replacement period and cohort fertility. This study revealed a constellation of interrelated factors which together characterize the socio-economic, cultural, and political environment of this fertility behaviour and set it apart from that of other advanced societies. The factors are: a combination of state and family support for childbearing; a dual emphasis on the social importance of women's employment and fertility; policies that support working mothers within a conservative welfare regime; a family system in which parents provide significant financial and caregiving aid to their adult children; relatively egalitarian gender-role attitudes and household behaviour; the continuing importance of familist ideology and of marriage as a social institution; the role of Jewish nationalism and collective behaviour in a religious society characterized by ethno-national conflict; and a discourse which defines women as the biological reproducers of the nation...
July 2016: Population Studies
Peter McDonald, Ian Pool
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Population Studies
Elina Einiö, Jessica Nisén, Pekka Martikainen
We investigated the association between number of offspring and later-life mortality of Finnish men and women born 1938-50, and whether the association was explained by living conditions in own childhood and adulthood, chronic conditions, fertility timing, and unobserved characteristics common to siblings. We used a longitudinal 1950 census sample to estimate mortality at ages 50-72. Relative to parents of two children, all-cause mortality is highest among childless men and women, and elevated among those with one child, independently of observed confounders...
July 2016: Population Studies
Michael Murphy
We investigated the effect of migration on population dynamics in England & Wales and Scotland from the mid-nineteenth century to the present by comparing actual population size and structure with estimates based on zero net migration from a range of starting dates. In this period, Scotland had the largest net outflow among countries in Europe for which detailed information is available, whereas overall net migration in England & Wales was close to zero. In the absence of migration, population would have been over twice as large in Scotland in 2013 as the actual value, but similar to its actual value in England & Wales...
July 2016: Population Studies
Nick Parr, Jackie Li, Leonie Tickle
The economic implications of increasing life expectancy are important concerns for governments in developed countries. The aims of this study were as follows: (i) to forecast mortality for 14 developed countries from 2010 to 2050, using the Poisson Common Factor Model; (ii) to project the effects of the forecast mortality patterns on support ratios; and (iii) to calculate labour force participation increases which could offset these effects. The forecast gains in life expectancy correlate negatively with current fertility...
July 2016: Population Studies
Hannaliis Jaadla, Allan Puur
Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells...
July 2016: Population Studies
Pieter van Baal, Frederik Peters, Johan Mackenbach, Wilma Nusselder
Forecasts of life expectancy (LE) have fuelled debates about the sustainability and dependability of pension and healthcare systems. Of relevance to these debates are inequalities in LE by education. In this paper, we present a method of forecasting LE for different educational groups within a population. As a basic framework we use the Li-Lee model that was developed to forecast mortality coherently for different groups. We adapted this model to distinguish between overall, sex-specific, and education-specific trends in mortality, and extrapolated these time trends in a flexible manner...
July 2016: Population Studies
Silvia Bermúdez, Rafael Blanquero
In certain countries population data are available in grouped form only, usually as quinquennial age groups plus a large open-ended range for the elderly. However, official statistics call for data by individual age since many statistical operations, such as the calculation of demographic indicators, require the use of ungrouped population data. In this paper a number of mathematical models are proposed which, starting from population data given in age groups, enable these ranges to be degrouped into age-specific population values without leaving a fractional part...
July 2016: Population Studies
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