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Adam J Chong, James Sneed German
This paper reports on a speech production experiment that explores whether the accentual phrase (AP) represents an abstract level of prosodic phrasing in Singapore English. Specifically, it tests whether the right edge of the AP is associated with phrase-final lengthening, the degree of which can be distinguished from lengthening associated with the intonational phrase (IP). Target words were produced in matched sentence contexts in 3 phrasal positions: AP-medial (wordfinal), AP-final, and IP-final. As predicted, target words in AP-final position were longer than those in AP-medial position and shorter than those in IP-final position...
October 17, 2016: Phonetica
Natasha Warner, Anne Cutler
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Evidence from spoken word recognition suggests that for English listeners, distinguishing full versus reduced vowels is important, but discerning stress differences involving the same full vowel (as in mu- from music or museum) is not. In Dutch, in contrast, the latter distinction is important. This difference arises from the relative frequency of unstressed full vowels in the two vocabularies. The goal of this paper is to determine how this difference in the lexicon influences the perception of stressed versus unstressed vowels...
October 7, 2016: Phonetica
Rachel Smith, Tamara Rathcke
Timing cues are important in many aspects of speech processing, fromidentifying segments to locating word and phrase boundaries. They vary across accents, yet representation and processing of this variation are poorly understood. We investigated whether an accent difference in vowel duration affects lexical segmentation and access. In Glasgow English (GE), /i u e o/ are shorter than in Leeds English (LE), especially for /i u/ before voiced stops and nasals. In a word-spotting experiment, GE and LE participants heard nonsense sequences (e...
August 5, 2016: Phonetica
Cynthia Clopper
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current study explored the roles of dialect familiarityand social stereotypes in dialect interference effects in a speeded lexical classification task. METHODS: Listeners classified the words bad and bed or had and head produced by local Midland and non-local Northern talkers and the words sod and side or rod and ride produced by non-local, non-stereotyped Northern and nonlocal, stereotyped Southern talkers in single- and mixed-talker blocks...
August 5, 2016: Phonetica
Bistra Andreeva, William John Barry, Jacques Koreman
In this study, local and global prosodic cues for information structure are examined in the elicited production of six Bulgarian sentences. The sentences were produced in response to different questions, devised to prompt different focus realizations (broad focus and non-contrastive and contrastive narrow focus). Results show that speakers consistently differentiate broad and narrow focus by means of both local and global acoustic cues, by producing different pitch accent types on the nuclear syllable and reducing the 'phonetic strength' of the default pre-nuclear accent in the narrow focus condition...
2016: Phonetica
Zofia Malisz, Michael O'Dell, Tommi Nieminen, Petra Wagner
This stud y was ai med at analyzing empirical duration data for Polish spoken at different tempos using an updated version of the Coupled Oscillator Model of speech timing and rhythm variability (O'Dell and Nieminen, 1999, 2009). We use Bayesian inference on parameters relating to speech rate to investigate how tempo affects timing in Polish. The model parameters found are then compared with parameters obtained for equivalent material in Finnish to shed light on which of the effects represent general speech rate mechanisms and which are specific to Polish...
2016: Phonetica
Amalia Arvaniti, Marzena Żygis, Marek Jaskuła
Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall...
2016: Phonetica
Tatiana Luchkina, Jennifer S Cole
This study examines prosody in read productions of two published narratives by 15 Russian speakers. Two distinct sources of variation in acoustic-prosodic expression are considered: structural and referent-based. Structural effects refer to the particular linearization of words in a sentence or phrase. Referent-based effects relate to the semantic and pragmatic characteristics of the discourse referent of a word, and to grammatical roles that are partially dependent on referent characteristics. Here, we examine referent animacy and the related grammatical function of subjecthood, and the relative accessibility or information status of a word...
2016: Phonetica
Zofia Malisz, Marzena Żygis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Phonetica
Tamara V Rathcke
Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages...
2016: Phonetica
Štefan Benuš, Juraj Šimko
BACKGROUND/AIM: Encoding intended meanings in the type and strength of prosodic boundaries and strategies for communicating these meanings in ambient noise use similar prosodic cues. We analyze how increasing the level of ambient noise affects the realization of Slovak prosodic boundaries. METHODS: Five native speakers of Slovak read sentences, manipulating the boundary type (weak, rise, fall) and the location of pre-boundary pitch accent. Ambient noise of several levels was administered via headphones...
2016: Phonetica
Jan Volin, Lenka Weingartová, Oliver Niebuhr
Words like yeah, okay and (al)right are fairly unspecific in their lexical semantics, and not least for this reason there is a general tendency for them to occur with highly varied and expressive prosodic patterns across languages. Here we examine in depth the prosodic forms that express eight pragmatic functions of the Czech discourse marker jasně, including resignation, reassurance, surprise, indifference or impatience. Using a collection of 172 tokens from a corpus of scripted dialogues by 30 native speakers, we performed acoustic analyses, applied classification algorithms and solicited judgments from native listeners in a perceptual experiment...
2016: Phonetica
Yunju Suh, Jiwon Hwang
Phonetic studies of the Korean prevocalic glides have often suggested that they are shorter in duration than those of languages like English, and lack a prolonged steady state. In addition, the formant frequencies of the Korean labiovelar glide are reported to be greatly influenced by the following vowel. In this study the Korean prevocalic palatal glide is investigated vis-à-vis the two phonologically similar configurations of another language - the glide /j/ and the secondary palatalization of Russian, with regard to the inherent duration of the glide component, F2 trajectory, vowel-to-glide coarticulation and glide-to-vowel coarticulation...
2016: Phonetica
Martha E Tyrone, Claude E Mauk
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Because the primary articulators for sign languages are the hands, sign phonology and phonetics have focused mainly on them and treated other articulators as passive targets. However, there is abundant research on the role of nonmanual articulators in sign language grammar and prosody. The current study examines how hand and head/body movements are coordinated to realize phonetic targets. METHODS: Kinematic data were collected from 5 deaf American Sign Language (ASL) signers to allow the analysis of movements of the hands, head and body during signing...
2016: Phonetica
Gillian Gallagher
This paper reports on the results of two studies investigating the role of allophony in cueing phonemic contrasts. In Cochabamba Quechua, the uvularvelar place distinction is often cued by additional differences in the height of the surrounding vowels. An acoustic study documents the lowering effect of a preceding tautomorphemic or a following heteromorphemic uvular on the high vowels /i u/. A discrimination study finds that vowel height is a significant cue to the velar-uvular place contrast. These findings support a view of contrasts as collections of distinguishing properties, as opposed to oppositions in a single distinctive feature...
2016: Phonetica
Jeffrey J Holliday
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many studies have shown that experienced second language (L2) learners are more skilled than novice L2 learners at a variety of L2 tasks, including auditory discrimination between members of L2 phonological contrasts. In this paper we argued that while L2 experience is typically beneficial when comparing the effects of more versus less experience, it is not necessarily beneficial when comparing the effects of some experience versus none. METHODS: We compared the perceptual assimilation and discrimination of the Korean sibilant fricatives /s(h)/ and /s*/ by 3 native Mandarin populations: naïve listeners, novice L2 learners (4-6 weeks of experience), and advanced L2 learners (over 2 years of experience)...
2016: Phonetica
Marianne Pouplier, Philip Hoole
BACKGROUND: We investigate the articulatory-acoustic relationship in German fricative sequences. We pursue the possibility that /f/#sibilant and /s#ʃ/ sequences are in principle subject to articulatory overlap in a similar fashion, yet due to independent articulators being involved, there is a significant difference in the acoustic consequences. We also investigate the role of vowel context and stress. METHODS: We recorded electropalatographic and acoustic data from 9 native speakers of German...
2016: Phonetica
Nicholas Henriksen
In this paper we aim to resolve the phonological status of utterance-initial rises in Spanish wh-questions. METHODS/ANALYSIS 1: In analysis 1 we examine the scaling and alignment properties of utterance-initial rises produced by 14 speakers of Peninsular Spanish. RESULTS/ANALYSIS 1: The results provide evidence for a single bitonal pitch accent at the left periphery (L + <H*) despite multiple options at the right periphery. CONCLUSION/ANALYSIS 1: Our analysis, relying on the notion of sparse tonal specification, helps to explain Sp_ToBI transcribers' past inconsistencies in labeling wh-question initial rises...
2016: Phonetica
Marina Vigario, Joseph Butler, Marisa S Cruz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Phonetica
Conceição Cunha
This paper investigates similarities between lexical consonant clusters and CVC sequences differing in the presence or absence of a lexical vowel in speech perception and production in two Portuguese varieties. The frequent high vowel deletion in the European variety (EP) and the realization of intervening vocalic elements between lexical clusters in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) may minimize the contrast between lexical clusters and CVC sequences in the two Portuguese varieties. In order to test this hypothesis we present a perception experiment with 72 participants and a physiological analysis of 3-dimensional movement data from 5 EP and 4 BP speakers...
2015: Phonetica
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