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Yueqiao Han, Martijn Goudbeek, Maria Mos, Marc Swerts
Although the way tones are acquired by second or foreign language learners has attracted some scholarly attention, detailed knowledge of the factors that promote efficient learning is lacking. In this article, we look at the effect of visual cues (comparing audio-only with audio-visual presentations) and speaking style (comparing a natural speaking style with a teaching speaking style) on the perception of Mandarin tones by non-native listeners, looking both at the relative strength of these two factors and their possible interactions...
August 7, 2018: Phonetica
Jonathan Bucci, Pascal Perrier, Silvain Gerber, Jean-Luc Schwartz
Vowel reduction may involve phonetic reduction processes, with nonreached targets, and/or phonological processes in which a vowel target is changed for another target, possibly schwa. Coratino, a dialect of southern Italy, displays complex vowel reduction processes assumed to be phonological. We analyzed a corpus representative of vowel reduction in Coratino, based on a set of a hundred pairs of words contrasting a stressed and an unstressed version of a given vowel in a given consonant environment, produced by 10 speakers...
August 7, 2018: Phonetica
Charlotte Vaughn, Melissa Baese-Berk, Kaori Idemaru
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-native speech is frequently characterized as being more variable than native speech. However, the few studies that have directly investigated phonetic variability in the speech of second language learners have considered a limited subset of native/non-native language pairings and few linguistic features. METHODS: The present study examines group-level withinspeaker variability and central tendencies in acoustic properties of vowels andstops produced by learners of Japanese from two native language backgrounds, English and Mandarin, as well as native Japanese speakers...
August 7, 2018: Phonetica
Scott Myers, Saudah Namyalo, Anatole Kiriggwajjo
Scholars of Luganda (Bantu, Uganda) have described a contrast between falling and high tone, which is limited to syllables with a long vowel or a coda. The contrast has been represented with H on the first mora of a falling-tone syllable and on both moras in a high-tone syllable. This article explores this contrast through an instrumental study of the timing of f0 events in Luganda. It was found that the 2-tone classes differed in the timing of both the f0 rise and the subsequent f0 fall, supporting a reanalysis of the contrast as one between an early high tone and a late high tone...
July 18, 2018: Phonetica
Lisa Davidson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Creaky voice in American English plays both a prosodic role, as a phrase-final marker, and a sociolinguistic one, but it is unclear how accurately naïve listeners can identify creak, and what factors facilitate or hinder ist identification. METHODS: In this study, American listeners are presented with 2 experiments containing stimuli from both high- and low-pitched male and female speakers. Other manipulations include whether the auditory stimulus is a full sentence or a sentence fragment, and whether it is completely modally voiced, completely creaky, or partially creaky (final 40-50% of the utterance)...
July 18, 2018: Phonetica
Sonia Barnes
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vowel metaphony, a type of vowel harmony observed in Asturian, is characterized by the raising and/or centralization of stressed mid or low vowels in the presence of a high vowel in word-final position. Descriptions of Asturian metaphony have been based on data collected using exclusively auditory judgments. This study is the first to document the phenomenon acoustically. METHODS: The data were collected using a word elicitation task and sociolinguistic interviews of 40 speakers from the 2 geographic areas in which metaphony has been observed...
July 5, 2018: Phonetica
Thi Thuy Hien Tran, Nathalie Vallée, Lionel Granjon
A variety of studies have shown differences between phonetic features of consonants according to their prosodic and/or syllable (onset vs. coda) positions. However, differences are not always found, and interactions between the various factors involved are complex and not well understood. Our study compares acoustical characteristics of coda consonants in Vietnamese taking into account their position within words. Traditionally described as monosyllabic, Vietnamese is partially polysyllabic at the lexical level...
May 28, 2018: Phonetica
Ghada Khattab, Jalal Al-Tamimi, Wasan Alsiraih
AIM: This paper presents the auditory and acoustic investigations of pharyngeal consonants in Iraqi Arabic (IA). While the contested place and manner of articulation of these sounds have been the subject of investigation in many studies, the focus here is novel: we set out to investigate the extent to which pharyngeals in IA are accompanied by auditory nasalisation and how widespread the effect is across oral and nasal contexts. METHODS: Auditory and acoustic properties of nasalization, as produced by nine male speakers of IA, were investigated in target words with oral, nasal, and pharyngeal environments...
2018: Phonetica
Philip Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Phonetica
Sofía Romanelli, Andrea Menegotto, Ron Smyth
AIM: We assessed the effect of lexical stress on the duration and quality of Spanish word-final vowels /a, e, o/ produced by American English late intermediate learners of L2 Spanish, as compared to those of native L1 Argentine Spanish speakers. METHODS: Participants read 54 real words ending in /a, e, o/, with either final or penultimate lexical stress, embedded in a text and a word list. We measured vowel duration and both F1 and F2 frequencies at 3 temporal points...
2018: Phonetica
Ewa Jacewicz, Robert Allen Fox
We examined whether the fundamental frequency (f0) of vowels is influenced by regional variation, aiming to (1) establish how the relationship between vowel height and f0 ("intrinsic f0") is utilized in regional vowel systems and (2) determine whether regional varieties differ in their implementation of the effects of phonetic context on f0 variations. An extended set of acoustic measures explored f0 in vowels in isolated tokens (experiment 1) and in connected speech (experiment 2) from 36 women representing 3 different varieties of American English...
2018: Phonetica
Shigeto Kawahara, Atsushi Noto, Gakuji Kumagai
This paper presents a case study of sound symbolism, cases in which certain sounds tend to be associated with particular meanings. We used the corpus of all Japanese Pokémon names available as of October 2016. We tested the effects of voiced obstruents, mora counts, and vowel quality on Pokémon characters' size, weight, strength parameters, and evolution levels. We found that the number of voiced obstruents in Pokémon names correlates positively with size, weight, evolution levels, and general strength parameters, except for speed...
2018: Phonetica
Natalia Zharkova
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is growing evidence that coarticulation development is protracted and segment-specific, and yet very little information is available on the changes in the extent of coarticulation across different phonemes throughout childhood. This study describes lingual coarticulatory patterns in 6 age groups of Scottish English-speaking children between 3 and 13 years old. METHODS: Vowelon-consonant anticipatory coarticulation was analysed using ultrasound imaging data on tongue shape from 4 consonants that differ in the degree of constraint, i...
2018: Phonetica
Marko Liker, Fiona E Gibbon
Although numerous studies have investigated supraglottal strategies for signalling voicing in fricatives, there is still no agreement about the precise characteristics of tongue-to-palate contact timing during voiced as opposed to voiceless fricatives. In this study we use electropalatography (EPG) to investigate articulatory and coarticulatory characteristics of tongue-to-palate contact timing during /s/ and /z/ in English. Five typically speaking participants, speakers of Southern British English, produced 500 trochaic words containing the intervocalic alveolar fricatives /s/ or /z/...
2018: Phonetica
Benjamin Parrell, Shrikanth Narayanan
Consonant reduction is often treated as an allophonic process at the phonological planning level, with one production target (allophone) being substituted for another. We propose that, alternatively, reduction can be the result of an online process driven by prosodically conditioned durational variability and an invariant production target. We show that this approach can account for patterns of coronal stop (/t/, /d/, and /n/) production in both American English and Spanish. Contrary to effort-driven theories of reduction, we show that reduction does notdepend on changes to gestural stiffness...
2018: Phonetica
Phil Howson
Two of the major problems with rhotics are: (1) rhotics, unlike most other classes, are highly resistant to secondary palatalization, and (2) acoustic cues for rhotics as a class have been elusive. This study examines the acoustics of Upper and Lower Sorbian rhotics. Dynamic measures of the F1-F3 and F2-F1 were recorded and compared using SSANOVAs. The results indicate there is a striking delay in achievement of F2 for both the palatalized rhotics, while F2, F1, and F2-F1 are similar for all the rhotics tested here...
2018: Phonetica
Hyunsoon Kim, Shinji Maeda, Kiyoshi Honda, Lise Crevier-Buchman
This paper aims to refine our understanding of the speech mechanism and laryngeal features involved in the Korean lenis (/p t k/), aspirated (/ph th kh/), and fortis (/p' t' k'/) plosives. For this purpose we made measurements using a new noninvasive technique called external lighting and sensing photoglottography (ePGG) as well as intra-oral air pressure (Pio) above the glottis, airflow, and acoustic data. From simultaneous recordings of the experimental data, we were ableto quantify the laryngeal-oral coordination of glottal opening and a consonant release, and the covariance of airflow peak and duration of aspiration with glottal opening...
2018: Phonetica
Marija Tabain, Alexei Kochetov
This study examines formant and spectral moment data for the apical and retroflex lateral sounds /l ɭ/ of the Dravidian languages Kannada and Malayalam, together with the rhotic /ɻ/ of Malayalam. Data are presented for 10 male speakers of each language. We find that the first spectral moment is lower for retroflex laterals than for alveolar laterals, and lower for the rhotic /ɻ/ of Malayalam than for the retroflex lateral in the same language. Differences emerge when the retroflex lateral of Kannada is compared with the same sound in Malayalam...
2018: Phonetica
Meghan Clayards
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous research found that individual talkers have consistent differences in the production of segments impacting the perception of their speech by others. Speakers also produce multiple acoustic-phonetic cues to phonological contrasts. Less is known about how multiple cues covary within a phonetic category and across talkers. We examined differences in individual talkers across cues and whether token-by-token variability is a result of intrinsic factors or speaking style by examining within-category correlations...
2018: Phonetica
Bei Wang, Yi Xu, Qifan Ding
The current study investigates whether and how focus, phrase boundary and newness can be simultaneously marked in speech prosody in Mandarin Chinese. Homophones were used to construct three syntactic structures that differed only in boundary condition, focus was elicited by preceding questions, while newness of postboundary words was manipulated as whether they had occurred in the previous text. Systematic analysis of F0 and duration showed that (1) duration was a reliable correlate of boundary strength regardless of focus location, while involvement of F0 was only in terms of lowering of phrase-final F0 minima and raising of phrase-initial F0 minima at a relatively strong boundary, (2) postfocus compression (PFC) of F0 was applied across all boundaries, including those with long silent pauses (over 200 ms), and postfocus F0 was lowered to almost the same degree in all boundary conditions, and (3) newness of postfocus words had no systematic effect on F0 or duration...
2018: Phonetica
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