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Phonetica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384645/perception-of-japanese-pitch-accent-without-f0
#1
Yukiko Sugiyama
Phonological contrasts are typically encoded with multiple acoustic correlates to ensure efficient communication. Studies have shown that such phonetic redundancy is found not only in segmental contrasts, but also in suprasegmental contrasts such as tone. In Japanese, fundamental frequency (F0) is the primary cue for pitch accent. However, little is known about its secondary cues. In the present study, a perception experiment was conducted to examine whether any secondary cues exist for Japanese accent. First, minimal pairs of final-accented and unaccented words were identified using a database, resulting in 14 pairs of words...
April 7, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301854/pre-low-raising-in-japanese-pitch-accent
#2
Albert Lee, Santitham Prom-On, Yi Xu
Japanese has been observed to have 2 versions of the H tone, the higher of which is associated with an accented mora. However, the distinction of these 2 versions only surfaces in context but not in isolation, leading to a long-standing debate over whether there is 1 H tone or 2. This article reports evidence that the higher version may result from a pre-low raising mechanism rather than being inherently higher. The evidence is based on an analysis of F0 of words that varied in length, accent condition and syllable structure, produced by native speakers of Japanese at 2 speech rates...
March 17, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301851/the-effect-of-focus-and-phrase-position-on-east-norwegian-lexical-tonal-accents
#3
Niamh E Kelly, Rajka Smiljanic
Two experiments examined the acoustic correlates of the disyllabic tonal accent contrast in the Trøndersk dialect of Norwegian, and how narrow focus and phrasal position shape the contrast. Production results showed that both tonal accents have a high-low (HL) pitch contour, with different timing. In narrow focus, the pitch contrast was enlarged through asymmetrical F0 changes. When at the right edge of an accent phrase (AP), the accents were shown to have a higher L, lower AP H% tone, shorter stressed vowel, and longer final vowel...
March 17, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268232/nonnative-accent-discrimination-with-words-and-sentences
#4
Eriko Atagi, Tessa Bent
BACKGROUND: Accent detection studies have shown native listeners to be highly sensitive to the presence of nonnative accents. This study examined the robustness of this sensitivity. METHODS: We evaluated listeners' accent discrimination performance when presented with a stimulus set consisting of multiple nonnative accents, as well as words and sentences that were unique in each trial. Listeners heard pairs of talkers reading the same word or sentence and indicated whether the talkers' native languages were the same or different...
March 7, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268220/lingual-articulation-and-coarticulation-for-catalan-consonants-and-vowels-an-ultrasound-study
#5
Daniel Recasens, Clara Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: The study investigates the tongue position and coarticulatory characteristics of a subset of Catalan consonants and vowels using ultrasound. METHOD: Ultrasound data were recorded and analyzed for the Catalan front lingual consonants /t, d, n, l, ɾ, s, r, ʎ, ɲ, ʃ/ and vowels /i, e, a, o, u/ in symmetrical VCV sequences produced by 5 adult Catalan speakers. RESULTS: Among other aspects, data show more tongue body fronting for palatal consonants and, among dentals and alveolars, for laminals than for apicals; the manner of articulation demands account for considerable tongue body retraction and predorsum lowering during the trill /r/ and for some tongue body retraction during /l/ next to front vowels...
March 7, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268213/the-nature-of-phonetic-gradience-across-a-dialect-continuum-evidence-from-modern-greek-vowels
#6
Charalambos Themistocleous
This study investigates the acoustic properties of vowels in 2 Modern Greek varieties: Standard Modern Greek (SMG) and Cypriot Greek (CG). Both varieties contain in their phonetic inventories the same 5 vowels. Forty-five female speakers between 19 and 29 years old participated in this study: 20 SMG speakers and 25 CG speakers, born and raised in Athens and Nicosia, respectively. Stimuli consisted of a set of nonsense CVCV and VCV words, each containing 1 of the 5 Greek vowels in stressed and unstressed position...
March 7, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490962/glasgow-gloom-or-leeds-glue-dialect-specific-vowel-duration-constrains-lexical-segmentation-and-access
#7
Rachel Smith, Tamara Rathcke
Timing cues are important in many aspects of speech processing, fromidentifying segments to locating word and phrase boundaries. They vary across accents, yet representation and processing of this variation are poorly understood. We investigated whether an accent difference in vowel duration affects lexical segmentation and access. In Glasgow English (GE), /i u e o/ are shorter than in Leeds English (LE), especially for /i u/ before voiced stops and nasals. In a word-spotting experiment, GE and LE participants heard nonsense sequences (e...
2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489954/dialect-interference-in-lexical-processing-effects-of-familiarity-and-social-stereotypes
#8
Cynthia Clopper
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current study explored the roles of dialect familiarityand social stereotypes in dialect interference effects in a speeded lexical classification task. METHODS: Listeners classified the words bad and bed or had and head produced by local Midland and non-local Northern talkers and the words sod and side or rod and ride produced by non-local, non-stereotyped Northern and nonlocal, stereotyped Southern talkers in single- and mixed-talker blocks...
2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750223/the-accentual-phrase-in-singapore-english
#9
Adam J Chong, James Sneed German
This paper reports on a speech production experiment that explores whether the accentual phrase (AP) represents an abstract level of prosodic phrasing in Singapore English. Specifically, it tests whether the right edge of the AP is associated with phrase-final lengthening, the degree of which can be distinguished from lengthening associated with the intonational phrase (IP). Target words were produced in matched sentence contexts in 3 phrasal positions: AP-medial (wordfinal), AP-final, and IP-final. As predicted, target words in AP-final position were longer than those in AP-medial position and shorter than those in IP-final position...
October 17, 2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710964/stress-effects-in-vowel-perception-as-a-function-of-language-specific-vocabulary-patterns
#10
Natasha Warner, Anne Cutler
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Evidence from spoken word recognition suggests that for English listeners, distinguishing full versus reduced vowels is important, but discerning stress differences involving the same full vowel (as in mu- from music or museum) is not. In Dutch, in contrast, the latter distinction is important. This difference arises from the relative frequency of unstressed full vowels in the two vocabularies. The goal of this paper is to determine how this difference in the lexicon influences the perception of stressed versus unstressed vowels...
October 7, 2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208148/local-and-global-cues-in-the-prosodic-realization-of-broad-and-narrow-focus-in-bulgarian
#11
Bistra Andreeva, William John Barry, Jacques Koreman
In this study, local and global prosodic cues for information structure are examined in the elicited production of six Bulgarian sentences. The sentences were produced in response to different questions, devised to prompt different focus realizations (broad focus and non-contrastive and contrastive narrow focus). Results show that speakers consistently differentiate broad and narrow focus by means of both local and global acoustic cues, by producing different pitch accent types on the nuclear syllable and reducing the 'phonetic strength' of the default pre-nuclear accent in the narrow focus condition...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208147/perspectives-on-speech-timing-coupled-oscillator-modeling-of-polish-and-finnish
#12
Zofia Malisz, Michael O'Dell, Tommi Nieminen, Petra Wagner
This stud y was ai med at analyzing empirical duration data for Polish spoken at different tempos using an updated version of the Coupled Oscillator Model of speech timing and rhythm variability (O'Dell and Nieminen, 1999, 2009). We use Bayesian inference on parameters relating to speech rate to investigate how tempo affects timing in Polish. The model parameters found are then compared with parameters obtained for equivalent material in Finnish to shed light on which of the effects represent general speech rate mechanisms and which are specific to Polish...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208141/the-phonetics-and-phonology-of-the-polish-calling-melodies
#13
Amalia Arvaniti, Marzena Żygis, Marek Jaskuła
Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208137/structural-and-referent-based-effects-on-prosodic-expression-in-russian
#14
Tatiana Luchkina, Jennifer S Cole
This study examines prosody in read productions of two published narratives by 15 Russian speakers. Two distinct sources of variation in acoustic-prosodic expression are considered: structural and referent-based. Structural effects refer to the particular linearization of words in a sentence or phrase. Referent-based effects relate to the semantic and pragmatic characteristics of the discourse referent of a word, and to grammatical roles that are partially dependent on referent characteristics. Here, we examine referent animacy and the related grammatical function of subjecthood, and the relative accessibility or information status of a word...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208136/special-issue-slavic-perspectives-on-prosody
#15
Zofia Malisz, Marzena Żygis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208133/how-truncating-are-truncating-languages-evidence-from-russian-and-german
#16
Tamara V Rathcke
Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208129/stability-and-variability-in-slovak-prosodic-boundaries
#17
Štefan Benuš, Juraj Šimko
BACKGROUND/AIM: Encoding intended meanings in the type and strength of prosodic boundaries and strategies for communicating these meanings in ambient noise use similar prosodic cues. We analyze how increasing the level of ambient noise affects the realization of Slovak prosodic boundaries. METHODS: Five native speakers of Slovak read sentences, manipulating the boundary type (weak, rise, fall) and the location of pre-boundary pitch accent. Ambient noise of several levels was administered via headphones...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208126/the-prosody-of-the-czech-discourse-marker-jasn%C3%A4-an-analysis-of-forms-and-functions
#18
Jan Volin, Lenka Weingartová, Oliver Niebuhr
Words like yeah, okay and (al)right are fairly unspecific in their lexical semantics, and not least for this reason there is a general tendency for them to occur with highly varied and expressive prosodic patterns across languages. Here we examine in depth the prosodic forms that express eight pragmatic functions of the Czech discourse marker jasně, including resignation, reassurance, surprise, indifference or impatience. Using a collection of 172 tokens from a corpus of scripted dialogues by 30 native speakers, we performed acoustic analyses, applied classification algorithms and solicited judgments from native listeners in a perceptual experiment...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225777/the-korean-prevocalic-palatal-glide-a-comparison-with-the-russian-glide-and-palatalization
#19
Yunju Suh, Jiwon Hwang
Phonetic studies of the Korean prevocalic glides have often suggested that they are shorter in duration than those of languages like English, and lack a prolonged steady state. In addition, the formant frequencies of the Korean labiovelar glide are reported to be greatly influenced by the following vowel. In this study the Korean prevocalic palatal glide is investigated vis-à-vis the two phonologically similar configurations of another language - the glide /j/ and the secondary palatalization of Russian, with regard to the inherent duration of the glide component, F2 trajectory, vowel-to-glide coarticulation and glide-to-vowel coarticulation...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225639/the-phonetics-of-head-and-body-movement-in-the-realization-of-american-sign-language-signs
#20
Martha E Tyrone, Claude E Mauk
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Because the primary articulators for sign languages are the hands, sign phonology and phonetics have focused mainly on them and treated other articulators as passive targets. However, there is abundant research on the role of nonmanual articulators in sign language grammar and prosody. The current study examines how hand and head/body movements are coordinated to realize phonetic targets. METHODS: Kinematic data were collected from 5 deaf American Sign Language (ASL) signers to allow the analysis of movements of the hands, head and body during signing...
2016: Phonetica
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