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Nutrition Reviews

Thomas G Simnadis, Linda C Tapsell, Eleanor J Beck
CONTEXT: Sorghum, an ancient grain originating in Africa, may have health-protective properties that could encourage its consumption among those who do not traditionally consume it. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the health effects associated with the consumption of sorghum among humans. DATA SOURCES: Academic databases were searched for relevant studies published between 1985 and November 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Nineteen studies -13 interventional and 6 observational - were identified for inclusion...
September 30, 2016: Nutrition Reviews
James R Brooks, Hellen Oketch-Rabah, Tieraona Low Dog, Dennis K J Gorecki, Marilyn L Barrett, Louis Cantilena, Mei Chung, Rebecca B Costello, Johanna Dwyer, Mary L Hardy, Scott A Jordan, Ronald J Maughan, Robin J Marles, Robert E Osterberg, Bruce E Rodda, Robert R Wolfe, Jorge M Zuniga, Luis G Valerio, Donnamaria Jones, Patricia Deuster, Gabriel I Giancaspro, Nandakumara D Sarma
CONTEXT: Dietary supplements are widely used by military personnel and civilians for promotion of health. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this evidence-based review was to examine whether supplementation with l-arginine, in combination with caffeine and/or creatine, is safe and whether it enhances athletic performance or improves recovery from exhaustion for military personnel. DATA SOURCES: Information from clinical trials and adverse event reports were collected from 17 databases and 5 adverse event report portals...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Bernadene A Magnuson, Michael C Carakostas, Nadia H Moore, Sylvia P Poulos, Andrew G Renwick
With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Jéssica V Mansson, Fernanda D Alves, Andréia Biolo, Gabriela C Souza
CONTEXT: Ghrelin is a hormone that stimulates weight gain and increases appetite. For these reasons, it has been used for treatment of cachexia syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the use of ghrelin in cachexia patients to better understand the most prevalent clinical outcomes, particularly since the type and dosage of hormone used and the route and duration of administration often varies. DATA SOURCES: A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, SciELO, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Lars Bode, Nikhat Contractor, Daniela Barile, Nicola Pohl, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Yong-Su Jin, Stefan Jennewein
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex sugars highly abundant in human milk but currently not present in infant formula. Rapidly accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies, combined with epidemiological associations and correlations, suggests that HMOs benefit infants through multiple mechanisms and in a variety of clinical contexts. Until recently, however, research on HMOs has been limited by an insufficient availability of HMOs. Most HMOs are found uniquely in human milk, and thus far it has been prohibitively tedious and expensive to isolate and synthesize them...
October 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Francesca Pistollato, Sandra Sumalla Cano, Iñaki Elio, Manuel Masias Vergara, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
It has been hypothesized that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota might be associated with the onset of certain human pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease, a neurodegenerative syndrome associated with cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β fibrils. It has been shown that bacteria populating the gut microbiota can release significant amounts of amyloids and lipopolysaccharides, which might play a role in the modulation of signaling pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease...
October 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Sedigheh Yamini, Paula R Trumbo
The objective of this review is to explain how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used its evidence-based review system to evaluate the scientific evidence for a qualified health claim on the role of whole-grain consumption in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. The labeling of health claims, including qualified health claims, on conventional foods and dietary supplements requires premarket approval by the FDA. Health claims characterize the relationship between a substance (food or food component) and a disease (eg, diabetes or cardiovascular disease) or a health-related condition (eg, hypertension)...
October 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Violeta Moya-Alvarez, Florence Bodeau-Livinec, Michel Cot
Malaria increases the burden of anemia in low-income countries, where, according to 2012 data from the World Health Organization, 40% of children are anemic. Moreover, iron is a cofactor for Plasmodium falciparum development, raising fears that iron supplementation might be harmful in patients with P. falciparum infection. The primary objective of this narrative review is to describe current knowledge on the iron-malaria association, including recent findings and substantive qualitative results. Between 2012 and 2016 the MEDLINE database was searched for literature published about malaria and iron levels...
October 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Leta Pilic, Charles R Pedlar, Yiannis Mavrommatis
Salt sensitivity, which is an increase in blood pressure in response to high dietary salt intake, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. It is associated with physiological, environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. This review focuses on the physiological mechanisms of salt sensitivity in populations at particular risk, along with the associated dietary factors. The interplay of mechanisms such as the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, ion transport, and estrogen decrease in women contributes to development of salt sensitivity...
October 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Jessy El Hayek Fares, Hope A Weiler
Aboriginal Canadians have low intakes of vitamin D and are shifting away from consumption of traditional foods. Higher body mass index, skin pigmentation, and geographic latitude of residence further predispose Canadian Aboriginal populations to low vitamin D status. Low vitamin D status could compromise bone health and other health outcomes. Studies assessing vitamin D status of different Aboriginal groups are limited. The aim of this review is to examine the literature on vitamin D status and intakes of Canadian Aboriginal populations living in the Arctic...
September 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Lana P Franco, Carla C Morais, Cristiane Cominetti
The growing concern about the impact of overweight on health has led to studies that shed light on types of obesity other than the classic model based on body mass index. Normal-weight obesity syndrome is characterized by excess body fat in individuals with adequate body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). This condition increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and other conditions associated with chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The aims of this review are to define the diagnostic criteria for normal-weight obesity syndrome and to examine the risks associated with this condition in order to promote preventive measures and early treatment for affected individuals...
September 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Robert R Wolfe, Shane M Rutherfurd, Il-Young Kim, Paul J Moughan
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently recommended the adoption of a new and improved scoring system (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [DIAAS]) to quantify dietary protein quality. The DIAAS is based on the relative digestible content of the indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the amino acid requirement pattern. Factors involved in calculation of the DIAAS include: use of the content and profile of IAAs as the basis for quality; methods for determination of the protein and amino acid content of the protein source; accuracy of individual requirement values for IAAs; normalization of IAA requirements by the estimated average requirement for protein; and basing the DIAAS on the true ileal digestibility of each IAA in the test protein...
September 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Lynne M Dalton, Deirdre M Ní Fhloinn, Gergana T Gaydadzhieva, Ola M Mazurkiewicz, Heather Leeson, Ciara P Wright
Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in women of childbearing age in both developing and developed countries. The need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, and the majority of pregnant women likely do not meet this increased need. Magnesium deficiency or insufficiency during pregnancy may pose a health risk for both the mother and the newborn, with implications that may extend into adulthood of the offspring. The measurement of serum magnesium is the most widely used method for determining magnesium levels, but it has significant limitations that have both hindered the assessment of deficiency and affected the reliability of studies in pregnant women...
September 2016: Nutrition Reviews
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September 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Ana C Fernandes, Renata C Oliveira, Rossana P C Proença, Cintia C Curioni, Vanessa M Rodrigues, Giovanna M R Fiates
CONTEXT: Evidence that menu labeling influences food choices in real-life settings is lacking. Reviews usually focus on calorie counts without addressing broader issues related to healthy eating. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review assessed the influence of diverse menu-labeling formats on food choices in real-life settings. DATA SOURCES: Several databases were searched: Cochrane Library, Scopus, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, EconLit, SciELO, and LILACS...
August 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Carlos A Montoya, Sharon J Henare, Shane M Rutherfurd, Paul J Moughan
The aim of this review is to identify the origin and implications of a nondietary material present in digesta and feces that interferes with the determination of dietary fiber in gastrointestinal contents. Negative values for ileal and fecal digestibility of dietary fiber are commonly reported in the literature for monogastric animal species, including humans. As negative values are not possible physiologically, this suggests the existence of a nondietary material in the gastrointestinal contents and feces that interferes with the accurate determination of dietary fiber digestibility when conventional methods of fiber determination are applied...
August 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Lieselot Y Hemeryck, Lynn Vanhaecke
The human diet contributes significantly to the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. It has become clear that the human diet contains several groups of natural foodborne chemicals that are at least in part responsible for the genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic potential of certain foodstuffs. Electrophilic chemicals are prone to attack nucleophilic sites in DNA, resulting in the formation of altered nucleobases, also known as DNA adducts. Since DNA adduct formation is believed to signal the onset of chemically induced carcinogenesis, the DNA adduct-inducing potential of certain foodstuffs has been investigated to gain more insight into diet-related pathways of carcinogenesis...
August 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Audry H Garcia, Trudy Voortman, Cristina P Baena, Rajiv Chowdhurry, Taulant Muka, Loes Jaspers, Samantha Warnakula, Myrte J Tielemans, Jenna Troup, Wichor M Bramer, Oscar H Franco, Edith H van den Hooven
CONTEXT: Infant feeding practices are influenced by maternal factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to examine the associations between maternal weight status or dietary characteristics and breastfeeding or complementary feeding. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of the Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Interventional and cohort studies in healthy mothers and infants that reported on maternal weight status, diet, or supplement use were selected...
August 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Abee L Boyles, Elizabeth A Yetley, Kristina A Thayer, Paul M Coates
Adequate folic acid intake is an effective dietary-based prevention tool for reducing the risk of neural tube defects. Achieving adequate intake for the prevention of neural tube defects frequently requires the consumption of foods fortified with folic acid and/or the use of folic acid-containing dietary supplements. To date, research on the potential for adverse effects of high intakes of folic acid has been limited. Without such research, it is difficult to define a value for high intake. In May 2015, an expert panel was tasked with examining the available scientific literature and making research recommendations within 4 general categories of potential folate-related adverse health effects: cancer, cognition in conjunction with vitamin B12 deficiency, hypersensitivity-related outcomes, and thyroid and diabetes-related disorders...
July 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Cynthia A Thomson, Emily Ho, Meghan B Strom
Diet is a modifiable factor associated with the risk of several cancers, with convincing evidence showing a link between diet and breast cancer. The role of bioactive compounds of food origin, including those found in cruciferous vegetables, is an active area of research in cancer chemoprevention. This review focuses on 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), the major bioactive indole in crucifers. Research of the cancer-preventive activity of DIM has yielded basic mechanistic, animal, and human trial data. Further, this body of evidence is largely supported by observational studies...
July 2016: Nutrition Reviews
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