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Nutrition Reviews

Adam Drewnowski, Benjamin Caballero, Jai K Das, Jeff French, Andrew M Prentice, Lisa R Fries, Tessa M van Koperen, Petra Klassen-Wigger, Barbara J Rolls
Public-private partnerships are an effective way to address the global double burden of malnutrition. While public-private partnerships operate in multiple forms, their leadership usually falls to governments, public health agencies, or nongovernmental organizations, with the private sector taking a subordinate role. The rapid ascent of social media and mass communications worldwide has provided a disruptive technology for new nutrition intervention programs. A new model, provisionally called private-public engagement, takes advantage of social media, mass media, and integrated social marketing to reach parents, families, and communities directly...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Christina Zorbas, Claire Palermo, Alexandra Chung, Isabel Iguacel, Anna Peeters, Rebecca Bennett, Kathryn Backholer
Context: Dietary risks are leading contributors to global morbidity and mortality and disproportionately burden individuals of lower socioeconomic positions. Objective: The aim of this review is to understand, holistically, what factors are perceived to influence healthy eating and to determine whether perceived factors differ when comparing the general population with lower socioeconomic subgroups. Data Sources: Four academic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library) and 3 gray literature databases were searched systematically, along with reference lists...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
May A Beydoun, Xiaoli Chen, Kanishk Jha, Hind A Beydoun, Alan B Zonderman, Jose A Canas
Context: Modifiable factors that reduce the burden of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), particularly plant-derived biomarkers, have been a recent focus of rising interest. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis, which follows PRISMA guidelines, evaluates evidence from a period of 20 years that links vitamin A and carotenoids with the occurrence of MetS and following the PRISMA guidelines. Data Sources: PubMed and Cochrane databases (January 1997 through March 2017) were systematically assessed for studies, including case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies, that evaluated the associations of MetS with carotenoids and retinyl esters and retinol (vitamin A)...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Cassandra M Johnson, Joseph R Sharkey, Mellanye J Lackey, Linda S Adair, Allison E Aiello, Sarah K Bowen, Wei Fang, Valerie L Flax, Alice S Ammerman
Context: Food insecurity matters for women's nutrition and health. Objective: This review sought to comprehensively evaluate how food insecurity relates to a full range of dietary outcomes (food groups, total energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, and overall dietary quality) among adult women living in Canada and the United States. Data sources: Peer-reviewed databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science) and gray literature sources from 1995 to 2016 were searched...
September 3, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Gaby Andersen, Patrick Marcinek, Nicole Sulzinger, Peter Schieberle, Dietmar Krautwurst
Tyramine is a biogenic trace amine that is generated via the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine. At pico- to nanomolar concentrations, it can influence a multitude of physiological mechanisms, exhibiting neuromodulatory properties as well as cardiovascular and immunological effects. In humans, the diet is the primary source of physiologically relevant tyramine concentrations, which are influenced by a large number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among these factors are the availability of tyrosine in food, the presence of tyramine-producing bacteria, the environmental pH, and the salt content of food...
August 27, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Elena Jovanovski, Any de Castro Ruiz Marques, Dandan Li, Hoang V T Ho, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Andreea Zurbau, Allison Komishon, Lea Duvnjak, Roberto B Bazotte, Vladimir Vuksan
Context: Current dietary guidelines for cardiovascular disease risk management recommend restricting intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs). However, the optimal macronutrient profile, in the context of a low-SFA diet, remains controversial. The blood-pressure effect of replacing SFAs in diets with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) compared with carbohydrate has not been quantified to date. Objective: To synthesize the evidence for the effect of substituting a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet for a high-monounsaturated fatty acid (high-MUFA) diet on blood pressure, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in a population without health restrictions was conducted...
August 24, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Andrea Bonvini, Audrey Y Coqueiro, Julio Tirapegui, Philip C Calder, Marcelo M Rogero
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with immunomodulation since the mid-1970s and 1980s and have been used in the nutritional therapy of critically ill patients. Evidence shows that BCAAs can directly contribute to immune cell function, aiding recovery of an impaired immune system, as well as improving the nutritional status in cancer and liver diseases. Branched-chain amino acids may also play a role in treatment of patients with sepsis or trauma, contributing to improved clinical outcomes and survival...
August 16, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Brett R Loman, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Ruopeng An, R Scott Rector
Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent and underdiagnosed comorbidity of many chronic diseases that is associated with altered intestinal bacterial communities. This association has prompted research into alternative treatments aimed at modulating intestinal microbiota. Given the novelty of these treatments, scarce evidence regarding their effectiveness in clinical populations exists. Objective: This meta-analysis sought to systemically review and quantitatively synthesize evidence on prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic therapies for patients with NAFLD in randomized controlled trials...
August 3, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
R Chris Skinner, Joseph C Gigliotti, Kang-Mo Ku, Janet C Tou
Apple processing results in peel, stem, seeds, and pulp being left as a waste product known as apple pomace. This review comprehensively assessed apple pomace composition for nutritional value and bioactive substances and evaluated potential health benefits and safety. Apple pomace is a rich source of health-benefitting nutrients, including minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants, and ursolic acid, which suggests it has potential use as a dietary supplement, functional food, and/or food additive. Preclinical studies have found apple pomace and its isolated extracts improved lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, and gastrointestinal function and had a positive effect on metabolic disorders (eg, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, etc...
August 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Rosalind S Gibson, Victor Raboy, Janet C King
Plant-based diets in low-income countries (LICs) have a high content of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate [InsP6]) and associated magnesium, potassium, and calcium salts. Together, InsP6 acid and its salts are termed "phytate" and are potent inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Traditional food processing can reduce the InsP6 content through loss of water-soluble phytate or through phytase hydrolysis to lower myo-inositol phosphate forms that no longer inhibit iron and zinc absorption. Hence, some processing practices can reduce the need for high-dose iron fortificants in plant-based diets and alleviate safety concerns...
July 13, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Peter J H Jones, Maryam Shamloo, Dylan S MacKay, Todd C Rideout, Semone B Myrie, Jogchum Plat, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, David J Baer, Kara L Calkins, Harry R Davis, P Barton Duell, Henry Ginsberg, Helena Gylling, David Jenkins, Dieter Lütjohann, Mohammad Moghadasian, Robert A Moreau, David Mymin, Richard E Ostlund, Rouyanne T Ras, Javier Ochoa Reparaz, Elke A Trautwein, Stephen Turley, Tim Vanmierlo, Oliver Weingärtner
Current evidence indicates that foods with added plant sterols or stanols can lower serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This review summarizes the recent findings and deliberations of 31 experts in the field who participated in a scientific meeting in Winnipeg, Canada, on the health effects of plant sterols and stanols. Participants discussed issues including, but not limited to, the health benefits of plant sterols and stanols beyond cholesterol lowering, the role of plant sterols and stanols as adjuncts to diet and drugs, and the challenges involved in measuring plant sterols and stanols in biological samples...
October 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Christine Burggraf, Ramona Teuber, Stephan Brosig, Toni Meier
A multitude of indices measure the healthiness of dietary patterns. Because validation results with respect to health outcomes do not sufficiently facilitate the choice of a specific dietary quality index, the decision of which index to use for a particular research objective should be based on other criteria. This review aims to provide guidance on which criteria to focus upon when choosing a dietary index for a specific research question. A review of 57 existing specifications of dietary quality indices was conducted, taking explicitly into account relevant construction criteria explicated in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development handbook on constructing composite indicators...
October 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Carolina Q Camargo, Henver S Brunetta, Everson A Nunes
Context: Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, demonstrate possible beneficial effects as adjuvants in cancer treatment. One mechanism seems to be related to alterations in the redox status of cancer cells. Such alterations are thought to act in synergy with conventional anticancer agents. Objective: This review examines published data on the effects of cotreatment with anticancer agents and n-3 PUFAS on oxidative stress parameters to determine whether any patterns of oxidative stress alterations can be identified...
October 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Alex Brito, Edwin Habeych, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Nicola Galaffu, Lindsay H Allen
Vitamin B12 (B-12) deficiency is still relatively common in low-, medium-, and high-income countries, mainly because of dietary inadequacy and, to a lesser extent, malabsorption. This narrative review is based on a systematic search of evidence on methods to assess B-12 bioavailability and technologies to enhance its absorption. A total of 2523 scientific articles identified in PubMed and 1572 patents identified in Orbit Intelligence were prescreened. Among the reviewed methods, Schilling's test and/or its food-based version (using cobalamin-labeled egg yolk) were used for decades but have been discontinued, largely because they required radioactive cobalt...
October 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Elina Hyppönen, Barbara J Boucher
This review was conducted to clarify both the complex interrelationship between adiposity and vitamin D and the clinical implications of vitamin D status on metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Obesity increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, a finding consistently reported across all ages and in different population groups. According to genetic studies, this is driven by the effect of higher adiposity, which causes a reduction in circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D, used as an indicator of vitamin D status]...
September 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Lauren K Murray, Mark J Smith, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folic acid, a B vitamin, is vital for early neurodevelopment and is well known for its protective effect against neural tube defects. Various national health agencies worldwide recommend that women of childbearing age take approximately 0.4 to 1 mg of supplemental folic acid daily to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. Several countries have tried to promote folic acid intake through mandatory fortification programs to reduce neural tube defects. Supplementation combined with mandatory fortification of foods has led to high levels of folic acid and related metabolites in women of childbearing age...
September 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Katherine M Ranard, John W Erdman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Harri Hemilä
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Haowen Qiu, Vicki Schlegel
Nutrient overload occurs worldwide as a consequence of the modern diet pattern and the physical inactivity that sometimes accompanies it. Cells initiate multiple protective mechanisms to adapt to elevated intracellular metabolites and restore metabolic homeostasis, but irreversible injury to the cells can occur in the event of prolonged nutrient overload. Many studies have advanced the understanding of the different detrimental effects of nutrient overload; however, few reports have made connections and given the full picture of the impact of nutrient overload on cellular metabolism...
September 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Hannah M Brown, Megan E Rollo, Nienke M de Vlieger, Clare E Collins, Tamara Bucher
Context: In recent decades, portion sizes have increased significantly. Although previous research indicates that food labels impact on product choice and healthiness perception, their impact on portion sizes consumed is less clear. Objective: This systematic review examined whether food label information influenced portion size consumption. Data sources: A search of 7 major electronic databases for studies published from 1980 to April 2016 was conducted...
September 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
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