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Nutrition Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767760/influence-of-the-nutrition-and-health-information-presented-on-food-labels-on-portion-size-consumed-a-systematic-review
#1
Hannah M Brown, Megan E Rollo, Nienke M de Vlieger, Clare E Collins, Tamara Bucher
Context: In recent decades, portion sizes have increased significantly. Although previous research indicates that food labels impact on product choice and healthiness perception, their impact on portion sizes consumed is less clear. Objective: This systematic review examined whether food label information influenced portion size consumption. Data sources: A search of 7 major electronic databases for studies published from 1980 to April 2016 was conducted...
May 14, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718511/relationship-between-diet-the-gut-microbiota-and-brain-function
#2
Anouk C Tengeler, Tamas Kozicz, Amanda J Kiliaan
The human intestinal microbiota, comprising trillions of microorganisms, exerts a substantial effect on the host. The microbiota plays essential roles in the function and development of several physiological processes, including those in the brain. A disruption in the microbial composition of the gut has been associated with many metabolic, inflammatory, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. Nutrition is one of several key factors that shape the microbial composition during infancy and throughout life, thereby affecting brain structure and function...
April 28, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718444/photobiology-of-vitamins
#3
Mark Lucock, Patrice Jones, Charlotte Martin, Zoe Yates, Martin Veysey, John Furst, Emma Beckett
This review explores contemporary ideas about the relationship between light exposure and vitamin biology. Nutritional biochemistry has long recognized the relationship between vitamins A and D and light exposure, but in recent years other vitamins have also been implicated in photoresponsive biological mechanisms that influence health, well-being, and even evolutionary processes. Interactions between light and vitamins can modify genotype-phenotype relationships across the life cycle, providing a basis for interesting new explanations relevant to wide aspects of human biology...
April 28, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701810/relationship-between-the-gut-microbiome-and-brain-function
#4
M Hasan Mohajeri, Giorgio La Fata, Robert E Steinert, Peter Weber
It has become increasingly evident in recent years that the gut microbiome and the brain communicate in a bidirectional manner, with each possibly affecting the other's functions. Substantial research has aimed to understand the mechanisms of this interaction and to outline strategies for preventing or treating nervous system-related disturbances. This review explores the evidence demonstrating how the gut microbiome may affect brain function in adults, thereby having an impact on stress, anxiety, depression, and cognition...
April 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701796/effect-of-supplementation-with-methyl-donor-nutrients-on-neurodevelopment-and-cognition-considerations-for-future-research
#5
Sarah E McKee, Teresa M Reyes
Pregnancy represents a critical period in fetal development, such that the prenatal environment can, in part, establish a lifelong trajectory of health or disease for the offspring. Poor nutrition (macro- or micronutrient deficiencies) can adversely affect brain development and significantly increase offspring risk for metabolic and neurological disease development. The concentration of dietary methyl-donor nutrients is known to alter DNA methylation in the brain, and alterations in DNA methylation can have long-lasting effects on gene expression and neuronal function...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697807/effects-of-protein-supplements-consumed-with-meals-versus-between-meals-on-resistance-training-induced-body-composition-changes-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#6
Joshua L Hudson, Robert E Bergia, Wayne W Campbell
Context: The impact of timing the consumption of protein supplements in relation to meals on resistance training-induced changes in body composition has not been evaluated systematically. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of consuming protein supplements with meals, vs between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults. Data Sources: Studies published up to 2017 were identified with the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688559/effect-of-whey-protein-supplementation-on-body-composition-changes-in-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Robert E Bergia, Joshua L Hudson, Wayne W Campbell
Context: A preponderance of evidence supports the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on body composition in men; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to make an equivalent claim in women. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of WP supplementation with or without energy restriction (ER) and resistance training (RT) on changes in body mass, lean mass, and fat mass in women. Data Sources: Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched using the keywords "whey protein," "body composition," and "lean mass...
April 23, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617841/applications-for-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-in-human-nutrition
#8
Donald K Layman, Bo Lönnerdal, John D Fernstrom
α-Lactalbumin is a whey protein that constitutes approximately 22% of the proteins in human milk and approximately 3.5% of those in bovine milk. Within the mammary gland, α-lactalbumin plays a central role in milk production as part of the lactose synthase complex required for lactose formation, which drives milk volume. It is an important source of bioactive peptides and essential amino acids, including tryptophan, lysine, branched-chain amino acids, and sulfur-containing amino acids, all of which are crucial for infant nutrition...
March 29, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596658/effect-of-resveratrol-supplementation-on-cognitive-performance-and-mood-in-adults-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Wolfgang Marx, Jaimon T Kelly, Skye Marshall, Jennifer Cutajar, Brigitte Annois, Andrew Pipingas, Audrey Tierney, Catherine Itsiopoulos
Context: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate clinical trial data regarding the effect of resveratrol supplementation on cognitive performance and mood in populations that are healthy and in the clinical setting. Data Sources: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Data Extraction: A meta-analysis was also conducted to determine treatment effect on the following cognitive domains and mental processes: processing speed, number facility, memory, and mood...
March 27, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596650/micronutrients-iodine-status-and-concentrations-of-thyroid-hormones-a-systematic-review
#10
S Maria O'Kane, Maria S Mulhern, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, J J Strain, Alison J Yeates
Context: The metabolism of thyroid hormones, which are essential for normal development, involves many proteins and enzymes. It requires iodine as a key component but is also influenced by several other micronutrients, including selenium, zinc, iron, and vitamin A. Objective: This systematic review was designed to investigate the effect of micronutrient status and supplementation on iodine status and thyroid hormone concentrations. Data Sources: Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, electronic databases were searched from their inception to April 2016...
March 27, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590460/coffee-consumption-and-reduced-risk-of-developing-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#11
Mattias Carlström, Susanna C Larsson
Context: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health problem worldwide that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is increased interest in the value of different nutrition-based strategies for preventing the development of T2D. Objective: This review aims to cover current knowledge regarding the effects of coffee consumption on development of T2D or modulation of adverse complications. A meta-analysis on coffee consumption and the risk of T2D was conducted...
March 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529267/a-crucial-role-for-maternal-dietary-methyl-donor-intake-in-epigenetic-programming-and-fetal-growth-outcomes
#12
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
June 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562368/use-of-computational-modeling-combined-with-advanced-visualization-to-develop-strategies-for-the-design-of-crop-ideotypes-to-address-food-security
#13
A J Christensen, Venkatraman Srinivasan, John C Hart, Amy Marshall-Colon
Sustainable crop production is a contributing factor to current and future food security. Innovative technologies are needed to design strategies that will achieve higher crop yields on less land and with fewer resources. Computational modeling coupled with advanced scientific visualization enables researchers to explore and interact with complex agriculture, nutrition, and climate data to predict how crops will respond to untested environments. These virtual observations and predictions can direct the development of crop ideotypes designed to meet future yield and nutritional demands...
May 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534224/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-rice-bran-components
#14
Ewelina Kurtys, Ulrich L M Eisel, Robert J J Hageman, J Martin Verkuyl, Laus M Broersen, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Erik F J de Vries
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathology of various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that food components can modulate inflammatory processes, and therefore it could be hypothesized that such nutrients might exhibit therapeutic efficacy against these brain diseases. Rice bran is often discarded as a waste product, although it contains a wide range of potentially useful substances. Several rice fiber components from rice bran have been described as having antiinflammatory properties...
May 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534221/relationship-between-dietary-intake-and-behaviors-with-oxytocin-a-systematic-review-of-studies-in-adults
#15
Janelle A Skinner, Manohar L Garg, Christopher V Dayas, Sasha Fenton, Tracy L Burrows
Context: Oxytocin plays an important hormonal role in the regulation of feeding and energy intake. Objective: The aims of this review were to 1) determine the effects of dietary intake/behaviors on endogenous oxytocin and 2) examine the effect of exogenous oxytocin on dietary intake/behaviors. Data sources: Published studies up to December 2016 were identified through searches of 5 electronic databases. Data extraction: Eligible studies included those in adults that included a measure related to an individual's diet and a measure of oxytocin and the relationship between the 2 outcomes...
May 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506204/the-role-of-inorganic-nitrate-and-nitrite-in-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-human-evidence
#16
Jacklyn K Jackson, Amanda J Patterson, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mark A McEvoy
Context: Depleted nitric oxide levels in the human body play a major role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Inorganic nitrate/nitrite (rich dietary sources include beetroot and spinach) can act as a nitric oxide donor because nitrate/nitrite can be metabolized to produce nitric oxide. Objective: This review and meta-analysis sought to investigate the role of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Data Sources: Electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, and Scopus, were searched...
May 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490085/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-improvement-of-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Helena Teede, Robert Scragg, Barbora de Courten
Background: Vitamin D has been proposed to have anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation in type 2 diabetes has not been established. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify relevant gaps in knowledge. Data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and EBM Reviews were searched systematically from inception to January 25, 2017...
May 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546409/corrigendum-for-revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame-by-arbind-kumar-choudhary-and-etheresia-pretorius-nutrition-reviews-2017-75-9-718-730
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529265/role-of-the-food-matrix-and-digestion-on-calculation-of-the-actual-energy-content-of-food
#19
Edoardo Capuano, Teresa Oliviero, Vincenzo Fogliano, Nicoletta Pellegrini
The energy content of food is calculated on the basis of general factors for fat, protein, and carbohydrates. These general factors were derived by W.O. Atwater in the late 19th century, while additional factors for dietary fiber, polyols, and organic acids were introduced more recently. These factors are applied indiscriminately to all types of foods, yet the same nutrient may be digested to different extents to generate energy, depending on the characteristics of the food matrix, the processing methods applied to foods, and the meal composition...
April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506219/plant-based-diets-for-children-as-a-means-of-improving-adult-cardiometabolic-health
#20
Malgorzata A Desmond, Jakub Sobiecki, Mary Fewtrell, Jonathan C K Wells
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest contributor to global mortality, and this trend is expected to continue. Although mortality rates have been falling, adverse developments in obesity and diabetes threaten to reverse this. It has been estimated that the only viable strategy to reduce the epidemic is to focus on population-wide risk factor reduction. Primordial prevention, a strategy aimed at avoiding the development of risk factors before the disease onset, has been shown to reduce the CVD epidemic substantially...
April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
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