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Nutrition Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30445479/facts-and-hypotheses-about-the-programming-of-neuroplastic-deficits-by-prenatal-malnutrition
#1
Rafael Barra, Carlos Morgan, Patricio Sáez-Briones, Miguel Reyes-Parada, Héctor Burgos, Bernardo Morales, Alejandro Hernández
Studies in rats have shown that a decrease in either protein content or total dietary calories results in molecular, structural, and functional changes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, among other brain regions, which lead to behavioral disturbances, including learning and memory deficits. The neurobiological bases underlying those effects depend at least in part on fetal programming of the developing brain, which in turn relies on epigenetic regulation of specific genes via stable and heritable modifications of chromatin...
November 15, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380124/dietary-restrictions-for-people-with-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#2
Sébastien La Vieille, David E Lefebvre, Ahmad Firas Khalid, Matthew R Decan, Samuel Godefroy
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in the world and renders those affected susceptible to potentially severe oxidative hemolysis. Although the resulting hemolysis is most often associated with drug exposure, it has also been reported after consumption of certain foods. With the exception of review articles that reiterated the historical knowledge that fava beans can provoke severe oxidative hemolysis in individuals with G6PD deficiency, very few articles have examined the safety of other food ingredients and food additives for people with G6PD deficiency...
October 31, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376075/veganism-vegetarianism-bone-mineral-density-and-fracture-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Isabel Iguacel, María L Miguel-Berges, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Luis A Moreno, Cristina Julián
Context: The numbers of vegans and vegetarians have increased in the last decades. However, the impact of these diets on bone health is still under debate. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to study the impact of vegetarian and vegan diets on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Data Sources: A systematic search was conducted of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, covering the period from the respective start date of each database to November 2017...
October 29, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307550/fatty-acids-as-biomarkers-of-total-dairy-and-dairy-fat-intakes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Ilse G Pranger, Monica L Joustra, Eva Corpeleijn, Frits A J Muskiet, Ido P Kema, Stefanie J W H Oude Elferink, Cecile Singh-Povel, Stephan J L Bakker
Context: Dairy intake in humans is commonly assessed using questionnaires, but the data collected are often biased. As a result, there is increasing interest in biomarkers of dairy fat. To date, there has been no overview of the fatty acids suitable for use as biomarkers of dairy fat intake. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was performed to identify circulating fatty acids as biomarkers of total dairy and dairy fat intakes in the general population...
October 10, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202882/carotenoids-vitamin-a-and-their-association-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
May A Beydoun, Xiaoli Chen, Kanishk Jha, Hind A Beydoun, Alan B Zonderman, Jose A Canas
Context: Modifiable factors that reduce the burden of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), particularly plant-derived biomarkers, have been a recent focus of rising interest. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis, which follows PRISMA guidelines, evaluates evidence from a period of 20 years that links vitamin A and carotenoids with the occurrence of MetS and following the PRISMA guidelines. Data Sources: PubMed and Cochrane databases (January 1997 through March 2017) were systematically assessed for studies, including case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies, that evaluated the associations of MetS with carotenoids and retinyl esters and retinol (vitamin A)...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165672/food-sources-and-biomolecular-targets-of-tyramine
#6
Gaby Andersen, Patrick Marcinek, Nicole Sulzinger, Peter Schieberle, Dietmar Krautwurst
Tyramine is a biogenic trace amine that is generated via the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine. At pico- to nanomolar concentrations, it can influence a multitude of physiological mechanisms, exhibiting neuromodulatory properties as well as cardiovascular and immunological effects. In humans, the diet is the primary source of physiologically relevant tyramine concentrations, which are influenced by a large number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among these factors are the availability of tyrosine in food, the presence of tyramine-producing bacteria, the environmental pH, and the salt content of food...
August 27, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165599/effect-of-high-carbohydrate-or-high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-diets-on-blood-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Elena Jovanovski, Any de Castro Ruiz Marques, Dandan Li, Hoang V T Ho, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Andreea Zurbau, Allison Komishon, Lea Duvnjak, Roberto B Bazotte, Vladimir Vuksan
Context: Current dietary guidelines for cardiovascular disease risk management recommend restricting intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs). However, the optimal macronutrient profile, in the context of a low-SFA diet, remains controversial. The blood-pressure effect of replacing SFAs in diets with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) compared with carbohydrate has not been quantified to date. Objective: To synthesize the evidence for the effect of substituting a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet for a high-monounsaturated fatty acid (high-MUFA) diet on blood pressure, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in a population without health restrictions was conducted...
August 24, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452699/yogurt-and-other-fermented-foods-as-sources-of-health-promoting-bacteria
#8
Car Reen Kok, Robert Hutkins
Increased consumption of yogurt, kefir, and other fermented foods has been driven, in part, by the health benefits these products may confer. Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of fermented foods is associated with reduced risks of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease, along with improved weight management. The microorganisms present in these foods are suggested to contribute to these health benefits. Among these are the yogurt starter culture organisms Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus as well as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains that are added for their probiotic properties...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452698/the-role-of-yogurt-in-food-based-dietary-guidelines
#9
Carlos Gómez-Gallego, Miguel Gueimonde, Seppo Salminen
In the modern food technology era, one of the aims of food safety and quality is to eliminate or reduce the number of microorganisms in food. This may now be changing. In particular, the importance of live microorganisms as beneficial food constituents is now being recognized. Microorganisms present in food that contribute to the human diet include not only viable bacteria but also metabolites and bioactive components. Yogurt is one of the most biologically active foods consumed by humans. It is an excellent source of proteins, vitamins, and minerals...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452697/novel-perspectives-on-fermented-milks-and-cardiometabolic-health-with-a-focus-on-type-2-diabetes
#10
Melissa Anne Fernandez, André Marette
This review will explore the observational and mechanistic evidence supporting the hypothesis that fermented milk consumption has beneficial effects on metabolism. Live cultures in fermented dairy are thought to contribute to gut microbial balance, which is likely an instrumental mechanism that protects the host against gut dysbiosis and systemic inflammation associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) release bioactive metabolites, such as exopolysaccharides and peptides, that have the potential to exert a wide range of metabolic and regulatory functions...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452696/introduction-to-the-fifth-global-summit-on-the-health-effects-of-yogurt
#11
Sharon M Donovan, Robert Hutkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358857/9-cis-13-14-dihydroretinoic-acid-a-new-endogenous-mammalian-ligand-of-retinoid-x-receptor-and-the-active-ligand-of-a-potential-new-vitamin-a-category-vitamin-a5
#12
Ralph Rühl, Wojciech Krezel, Angel R de Lera
The identity of the endogenous RXR ligand has not been conclusively determined, even though several compounds of natural origin, including retinoids and fatty acids, have been postulated to fulfill this role. Filling this gap, 9-cis-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid (9CDHRA) was identified as an endogenous RXR ligand in mice. This review examines the physiological relevance of various potential endogenous RXR ligands, especially 9CDHRA. The elusive steps in the metabolic synthesis of 9CDHRA, as well as the nutritional/nutrimetabolic origin of 9CDHRA, are also explored, along with the suitability of the ligand to be the representative member of a novel vitamin A class (vitamin A5)...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285146/leptin-as-a-breast-milk-component-for-the-prevention-of-obesity
#13
Mariona Palou, Catalina Picó, Andreu Palou
Leptin ingested as a component of breast milk is increasingly recognized to play a role in the postnatal programming of a healthy phenotype in adulthood. Besides its primary function in controlling body weight, leptin may be an essential nutrient required during lactation to ensure that the system controlling fat accumulation and body composition is well organized from the early stages of development. This review delves into the following topics: (1) the imprinted protective function of adequate leptin intake during lactation in future metabolic health; (2) the consequences of a lack of leptin intake or of alterations in leptin levels; and (3) the mechanisms described for the effects of leptin on postnatal programming...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202944/factors-perceived-to-influence-healthy-eating-a-systematic-review-and-meta-ethnographic-synthesis-of-the-literature
#14
Christina Zorbas, Claire Palermo, Alexandra Chung, Isabel Iguacel, Anna Peeters, Rebecca Bennett, Kathryn Backholer
Context: Dietary risks are leading contributors to global morbidity and mortality and disproportionately burden individuals of lower socioeconomic positions. Objective: The aim of this review is to understand, holistically, what factors are perceived to influence healthy eating and to determine whether perceived factors differ when comparing the general population with lower socioeconomic subgroups. Data Sources: Four academic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library) and 3 gray literature databases were searched systematically, along with reference lists...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184168/relationship-of-food-insecurity-to-women-s-dietary-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#15
Cassandra M Johnson, Joseph R Sharkey, Mellanye J Lackey, Linda S Adair, Allison E Aiello, Sarah K Bowen, Wei Fang, Valerie L Flax, Alice S Ammerman
Context: Food insecurity matters for women's nutrition and health. Objective: This review sought to comprehensively evaluate how food insecurity relates to a full range of dietary outcomes (food groups, total energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, and overall dietary quality) among adult women living in Canada and the United States. Data sources: Peer-reviewed databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science) and gray literature sources from 1995 to 2016 were searched...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085116/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-the-composition-health-benefits-and-safety-of-apple-pomace
#16
R Chris Skinner, Joseph C Gigliotti, Kang-Mo Ku, Janet C Tou
Apple processing results in peel, stem, seeds, and pulp being left as a waste product known as apple pomace. This review comprehensively assessed apple pomace composition for nutritional value and bioactive substances and evaluated potential health benefits and safety. Apple pomace is a rich source of health-benefitting nutrients, including minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants, and ursolic acid, which suggests it has potential use as a dietary supplement, functional food, and/or food additive. Preclinical studies have found apple pomace and its isolated extracts improved lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, and gastrointestinal function and had a positive effect on metabolic disorders (eg, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, etc...
December 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304497/comments-from-the-international-sweeteners-association-isa-in-response-to-revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame-by-arbind-kumar-choudhary-and-etheresia-pretorius-nutrition-reviews-2017-75-718-730
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304496/corrigendum-for-revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame-by-arbind-kumar-choudhary-and-etheresia-pretorius-nutrition-reviews-2017-75-718-730
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304495/author-s-reply-to-comments-from-the-international-sweeteners-association-isa-in-response-to-revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame-by-arbind-kumar-choudhary-and-etheresia-pretorius-nutrition-reviews-2017-75-718-730
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203056/novel-public-private-partnerships-to-address-the-double-burden-of-malnutrition
#20
Adam Drewnowski, Benjamin Caballero, Jai K Das, Jeff French, Andrew M Prentice, Lisa R Fries, Tessa M van Koperen, Petra Klassen-Wigger, Barbara J Rolls
Public-private partnerships are an effective way to address the global double burden of malnutrition. While public-private partnerships operate in multiple forms, their leadership usually falls to governments, public health agencies, or nongovernmental organizations, with the private sector taking a subordinate role. The rapid ascent of social media and mass communications worldwide has provided a disruptive technology for new nutrition intervention programs. A new model, provisionally called private-public engagement, takes advantage of social media, mass media, and integrated social marketing to reach parents, families, and communities directly...
November 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
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