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Nutrition Reviews

Ewelina Kurtys, Ulrich L M Eisel, Robert J J Hageman, J Martin Verkuyl, Laus M Broersen, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Erik F J de Vries
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathology of various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that food components can modulate inflammatory processes, and therefore it could be hypothesized that such nutrients might exhibit therapeutic efficacy against these brain diseases. Rice bran is often discarded as a waste product, although it contains a wide range of potentially useful substances. Several rice fiber components from rice bran have been described as having antiinflammatory properties...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Janelle A Skinner, Manohar L Garg, Christopher V Dayas, Sasha Fenton, Tracy L Burrows
Context: Oxytocin plays an important hormonal role in the regulation of feeding and energy intake. Objective: The aims of this review were to 1) determine the effects of dietary intake/behaviors on endogenous oxytocin and 2) examine the effect of exogenous oxytocin on dietary intake/behaviors. Data sources: Published studies up to December 2016 were identified through searches of 5 electronic databases. Data extraction: Eligible studies included those in adults that included a measure related to an individual's diet and a measure of oxytocin and the relationship between the 2 outcomes...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Malgorzata A Desmond, Jakub Sobiecki, Mary Fewtrell, Jonathan C K Wells
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest contributor to global mortality, and this trend is expected to continue. Although mortality rates have been falling, adverse developments in obesity and diabetes threaten to reverse this. It has been estimated that the only viable strategy to reduce the epidemic is to focus on population-wide risk factor reduction. Primordial prevention, a strategy aimed at avoiding the development of risk factors before the disease onset, has been shown to reduce the CVD epidemic substantially...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Jacklyn K Jackson, Amanda J Patterson, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mark A McEvoy
Context: Depleted nitric oxide levels in the human body play a major role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Inorganic nitrate/nitrite (rich dietary sources include beetroot and spinach) can act as a nitric oxide donor because nitrate/nitrite can be metabolized to produce nitric oxide. Objective: This review and meta-analysis sought to investigate the role of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Data Sources: Electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, and Scopus, were searched...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Helena Teede, Robert Scragg, Barbora de Courten
Background: Vitamin D has been proposed to have anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation in type 2 diabetes has not been established. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify relevant gaps in knowledge. Data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and EBM Reviews were searched systematically from inception to January 25, 2017...
February 27, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Siew Li Teoh, Nai Ming Lai, Possatorn Vanichkulpitak, Vladimir Vuksan, Hoang Ho, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
Context: Chia seed is a popular dietary supplement, taken mainly for its high content of alpha-linolenic acid, vegetable protein, and dietary fiber, yet information about its clinical effects is lacking. Objective: This review aims to summarize the clinical evidence regarding the use of chia seed for a wide variety of health conditions. Data Sources: A number of databases, including PubMed and Embase, were searched systematically. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials that assessed the clinical effects of chia seed consumption in human participants were included...
February 14, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Bob Murray, Christine Rosenbloom
The ability of athletes to train day after day depends in large part on adequate restoration of muscle glycogen stores, a process that requires the consumption of sufficient dietary carbohydrates and ample time. Providing effective guidance to athletes and others wishing to enhance training adaptations and improve performance requires an understanding of the normal variations in muscle glycogen content in response to training and diet; the time required for adequate restoration of glycogen stores; the influence of the amount, type, and timing of carbohydrate intake on glycogen resynthesis; and the impact of other nutrients on glycogenesis...
February 10, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Phillipa Blake, Solange Durão, Celeste E Naude, Lisa Bero
Evidence-informed guideline development methods underpinned by systematic reviews ensure that guidelines are transparently developed, free from overt bias, and based on the best available evidence. Only recently has the nutrition field begun using these methods to develop public health nutrition guidelines. Given the importance of following an evidence-informed approach and recent advances in related methods, this study sought to describe the methods used to synthesize evidence, rate evidence quality, grade recommendations, and manage conflicts of interest (COIs) in national food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs)...
February 7, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Mary J Christoph, Ruopeng An
Context: College students are at an elevated risk of poor nutrition and eating habits. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to examine and quantify the effect of nutrition labels on diet quality in college students. Data Sources: Literature searches were conducted in 4 electronic databases. Study Selection: Peer-reviewed publications that assessed the effect of nutrition label use on food choice or dietary intake in college students were included...
January 24, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Naomi Osakabe, Junji Terao
Foods rich in flavan 3-ols are known to prevent cardiovascular diseases by reducing metabolic syndrome risks, such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. However, the mechanisms involved in this reduction are unclear, particularly because of the poor bioavailability of flavan 3-ols. Recent metabolome analyses of feces produced after repeated ingestion of foods rich in flavan 3-ols may provide insight into the chronic physiological changes associated with the intake of flavan 3-ols. Substantial postprandial changes have been reported after flavan 3-ol ingestion, including hemodynamic and metabolic changes as well as autonomic and central nervous alterations...
January 5, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Katherine M Ranard, John W Erdman
Of the 8 vitamin E analogues, RRR α-tocopherol likely has the greatest effect on health outcomes. Two sources of α-tocopherol, naturally sourced RRR α-tocopherol and synthetic all-racemic α-tocopherol, are commonly consumed from foods and dietary supplements in the United States. A 2016 US Food and Drug Administration ruling substantially changed the RRR to all-racemic α-tocopherol ratio of biopotency from 1.36:1 to 2:1 for food-labeling purposes, but the correct ratio is still under debate in the literature...
December 29, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
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April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Edoardo Capuano, Teresa Oliviero, Vincenzo Fogliano, Nicoletta Pellegrini
The energy content of food is calculated on the basis of general factors for fat, protein, and carbohydrates. These general factors were derived by W.O. Atwater in the late 19th century, while additional factors for dietary fiber, polyols, and organic acids were introduced more recently. These factors are applied indiscriminately to all types of foods, yet the same nutrient may be digested to different extents to generate energy, depending on the characteristics of the food matrix, the processing methods applied to foods, and the meal composition...
April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Heather M Francis, Richard J Stevenson
The pathophysiology of many neurological disorders involves oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is now substantial evidence that diet can decrease these forms of pathophysiology, and an emerging body of literature relatedly suggests that diet can also prevent or even remediate the cognitive deficits observed in neurological disorders that exhibit such pathology (eg, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, age-related cognitive decline, epilepsy). The current review summarizes the emerging evidence in relation to whole diets prominent in the scientific literature-ketogenic, caloric restriction, high polyphenol, and Mediterranean diets-and provides a discussion of the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Lauren M Touyz, Claire E Wakefield, Allison M Grech, Veronica F Quinn, Daniel S J Costa, Fang Fang Zhang, Richard J Cohn, Mona Sajeev, Jennifer Cohen
Context: Parent interventions delivered in the home represent a valuable approach to improving children's diets. Objective: This review aims to examine the effectiveness of parent-targeted in-home interventions in increasing fruit and vegetable intake in children. Data Sources: Five electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Study Selection: Randomized and nonrandomized trials conducted in children aged 2 to 12 years and published in English from 2000 to 2016 were eligible...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Karla A Bascuñán, Leda Roncoroni, Federica Branchi, Luisa Doneda, Alice Scricciolo, Francesca Ferretti, Magdalena Araya, Luca Elli
Gluten-related disorders (GRDs) are gradually emerging as epidemiologically relevant diseases, with a global prevalence estimated to be approximately 5% in the population. Conditions related to gluten ingestion include celiac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Although mediated by different pathogenic pathways, these 3 conditions share similar clinical manifestations and can present a difficult differential diagnosis. The gluten challenge (GC) is an important diagnostic tool for GRDs, but there is great variability in regards to deciding which patients should be challenged, what amount of gluten should be used, what the GC duration should be, when and where the GC should occur, and, sometimes, why to conduct a GC...
February 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Fernanda Oliveira Meller, Christian Loret de Mola, Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção, Antônio Augusto Schäfer, Darren Lawrence Dahly, Fernando Celso Barros
Context: The effect of both birth order and number of siblings on overweight and/or obesity has not been determined. Birth order and sibsize have been mathematically coupled to overweight and/or obesity, but thus far their respective effects have been estimated separately. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of both birth order and number of siblings on the risk of overweight/obesity. Data Sources: The electronic databases MEDLINE, Social Science, SocINDEX, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Academic Search Complete were searched systematically...
February 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Abir Abdel Rahman, Lamis Jomaa, Lara A Kahale, Pauline Adair, Cynthia Pine
Context: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) among children has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Numerous behavioral interventions aimed at reducing the intake of SSBs among children have been reported, yet evidence of their effectiveness is lacking. Objective: This systematic review explored the effectiveness of educational and behavioral interventions to reduce SSB intake and to influence health outcomes among children aged 4 to 16 years...
February 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Ondine van de Rest, Nikita L van der Zwaluw, Lisette C P G M de Groot
Context: Glucose is the main energy source for the brain, and as such, manipulation of glucose supply may affect brain function. It has been suggested that a change in blood glucose may influence mood. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate the potential effects of glucose and sucrose, compared with placebo, on mood. Data Sources: The electronic databases PubMed and Scopus were searched. Reference lists of selected articles were checked manually...
February 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
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