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Nutrition Reviews

Mohammad M H Abdullah, Stephanie Jew, Peter J H Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Frédéric Fumeron, Jean-Marie Bard, Jean-Michel Lecerf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Radhika Loganathan, Kanthimathi M Subramaniam, Ammu K Radhakrishnan, Yuen-May Choo, Kim-Tiu Teng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Cristiana Berti, Carlo Agostoni, Riccardo Davanzo, Elina Hyppönen, Erika Isolauri, Helle M Meltzer, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Irene Cetin
Pregnancy and infancy comprise the most critical stages for conditioning an individual's health, with a number of implications for subsequent risks of morbidity, mortality, and reproductive health. Nutrition may influence both the overall pregnancy outcome and the growth trajectory and immune system of the fetus and infant, with short- and long-term effects on the health of the offspring. Within this context, leading experts at Expo Milano 2015 in Milan, Italy, discussed up-to-date knowledge while providing suggestions and challenges before, during, and after pregnancy...
January 27, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Tara B Loader, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Peter J H Jones
The consumption of coffee has been associated with a number of health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Coffee may help reduce blood pressure (BP) in humans, which might be attributable to its polyphenolic compound, chlorogenic acid. The high incidence of hypertension among Canadians underscores the need for new and effective strategies to reduce BP. Dietary interventions may constitute such a strategy, but consumers need to be informed about which foods are most effective for regulating BP...
January 27, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Hector Bourges Rodriguez, Ernestina Polo Oteyza
The Tenth Nestlé Nutrition Conference, held in Mexico City in November 2014, focused on prevention of type 2 diabetes considering environment, lifestyles, and nutrition. Based on the evidence and recommendations presented during the conference, which are summarized in another article within this supplemental issue, a series of pragmatic proposals to address the environmental, social, and medical factors that have contributed to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Mexico was formulated. For this article, the actions were organized into 2 conceptual models: one that is applicable for the whole population and the other for at-risk individuals...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Bruce Y Lee, Sarah M Bartsch, Yeeli Mui, Leila A Haidari, Marie L Spiker, Joel Gittelsohn
Obesity has become a truly global epidemic, affecting all age groups, all populations, and countries of all income levels. To date, existing policies and interventions have not reversed these trends, suggesting that innovative approaches are needed to transform obesity prevention and control. There are a number of indications that the obesity epidemic is a systems problem, as opposed to a simple problem with a linear cause-and-effect relationship. What may be needed to successfully address obesity is an approach that considers the entire system when making any important decision, observation, or change...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Elizabeth M Venditti
Lifestyle behaviors in overweight and obese individuals are closely linked to the development, course, and outcomes of type 2 diabetes and multiple comorbid health conditions. Behavior change theory and many randomized controlled studies offer strong support for screening and identifying adults at increased cardiometabolic risk and for providing early intervention to mitigate risk factors to prevent or delay the onset of disease. The current article reviews key lifestyle intervention efficacy and dissemination trials conducted with individuals deemed to be at increased risk for diabetes and describes the rationale for training teams of professionals and community health workers (e...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Elissa Jelalian, E Whitney Evans
Pediatric obesity is a worldwide health epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Mexico ranks second to the United States in rates of pediatric obesity. Obesity among youth has immediate and long-term consequences on physical and psychosocial development, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and health-related quality of life. Eventual amelioration of this epidemic will require change at the level of the family and community, along with policy initiatives to support healthier eating and activity habits...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Ernestina Polo-Oteyza, Mónica Ancira-Moreno, Cecilia Rosel-Pech, María Teresa Sánchez-Mendoza, Vicente Salinas-Martínez, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega
Physical activity is an important component of strategies for health promotion and prevention of noncommunicable diseases. It is also associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese adults and children. This article addresses the initial description of a physical activity intervention for children attending public elementary schools in Mexico. The objective was to develop a replicable model based on a strategic public, private, academic, and social partnership that would have a short-term impact on the metabolic health of children and be useful for building effective public policy...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Joel Gittelsohn, Angela Trude
Innovative approaches are needed to impact obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases, including interventions at the environmental and policy levels. Such interventions are promising due to their wide reach. This article reports on 10 multilevel community trials that the present authors either led (n = 8) or played a substantial role in developing (n = 2) in low-income minority settings in the United States and other countries that test interventions to improve the food environment, support policy, and reduce the risk for developing obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Andrea Garfinkel-Castro, Keuntae Kim, Shima Hamidi, Reid Ewing
The majority of people now live in an urban (or suburban) environment. The built (material) environment, its vehicular and pedestrian infrastructure, buildings, and public realm places, are the places used for working, living, and recreating. The environment currently favors and facilitates motorized vehicles generally, and private automobiles especially. The prioritization given to vehicles reduces opportunities for other, more active modes of travel such as walking and bicycling. Though the built environment cannot be said to directly affect human obesity, the built environment clearly has a relationship to obesity as a consequence of physical activity...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Tinu Mary Samuel, Jörg Spieldenner
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is currently defined as glucose intolerance that is of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study, including 25 000 nondiabetic pregnant women in 15 centers across the world, reported that an average of 17.8% of pregnancies are affected by GDM and its frequency can be as high as 25.5% in some countries, based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Nevertheless, true global prevalence estimates of GDM are currently lacking due to the high level of heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and differences in the characteristics of the populations that were studied...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Dariush Mozaffarian
Diet has become one of the top risk factors for poor health. The incidence of cardiometabolic disease in the United Sates, in Mexico, and in most countries is driven fundamentally by changes in diet quality. Weight gain has been typically framed as a problem of excess caloric intake, but, as reviewed in this paper, subtle changes in the quality of diet are associated with long-term weight gain. In order to successfully address obesity and diabetes, researchers and policy makers have to better understand how weight gain in the long term is modulated and to change the focus of research and public policy from one based on counting calories to one based on diet quality and its determinants at various levels...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
William H Herman
Diabetes represents an enormous and growing clinical and public health problem. Its financial burden is huge and growing and likely to be unsustainable. Lifestyle interventions are safe and effective for preventing diabetes, are associated with improved quality of life, and are cost-effective. Metformin is effective, safe, and cost-effective, if not cost-saving. National and international efforts are needed to identify at-risk individuals and to systematically apply these interventions. Research must focus on how best to implement diabetes prevention in diverse populations and settings...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Omar Y Bello-Chavolla, Rosalba Rojas-Martinez, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Mauricio Hernández-Avila
Type 2 diabetes is the main health problem in Mexico. The large and growing number of cases and the remarkable economic impact of the disease support this statement. The condition is expressed at an earlier age and at a lower body mass index in Mexican mestizos compared with the age and body mass index reported in Caucasians. In addition, Mexican mestizos have an increased susceptibility to developing diabetic nephropathy. The Mexican health system needs major adjustments in order to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Hector Bourges-Rodriguez, Ernestina Polo-Oteyza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Anna E Stanhewicz, W Larry Kenney
Folic acid is a member of the B-vitamin family and is essential for amino acid metabolism. Adequate intake of folic acid is vital for metabolism, cellular homeostasis, and DNA synthesis. Since the initial discovery of folic acid in the 1940s, folate deficiency has been implicated in numerous disease states, primarily those associated with neural tube defects in utero and neurological degeneration later in life. However, in the past decade, epidemiological studies have identified an inverse relation between both folic acid intake and blood folate concentration and cardiovascular health...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Andrew M Prentice, Yery A Mendoza, Dora Pereira, Carla Cerami, Rita Wegmuller, Anne Constable, Jörg Spieldenner
In light of evidence that high-dose iron supplements lead to a range of adverse events in low-income settings, the safety and efficacy of lower doses of iron provided through biological or industrial fortification of foodstuffs is reviewed. First, strategies for point-of-manufacture chemical fortification are compared with biofortification achieved through plant breeding. Recent insights into the mechanisms of human iron absorption and regulation, the mechanisms by which iron can promote malaria and bacterial infections, and the role of iron in modifying the gut microbiota are summarized...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
M Judith Sánchez-Peña, Fabiola Márquez-Sandoval, Ana C Ramírez-Anguiano, Sandra F Velasco-Ramírez, Gabriela Macedo-Ojeda, Luis J González-Ortiz
The current values for metabolizable energy of macronutrients were proposed in 1910. Since then, however, efforts to revise these values have been practically absent, creating a crucial need to carry out a critical analysis of the experimental methodology and results that form the basis of these values. Presented here is an exhaustive analysis of Atwater's work on this topic, showing evidence of considerable weaknesses that compromise the validity of his results. These weaknesses include the following: (1) the doubtful representativeness of Atwater's subjects, their activity patterns, and their diets; (2) the extremely short duration of the experiments; (3) the uncertainty about which fecal and urinary excretions contain the residues of each ingested food; (4) the uncertainty about whether or not the required nitrogen balance in individuals was reached during experiments; (5) the numerous experiments carried out without valid preliminary experiments; (6) the imprecision affecting Atwater's experimental measurements; and (7) the numerous assumptions and approximations, along with the lack of information, characterizing Atwater's studies...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
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