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Nutrition Reviews

Carolina Q Camargo, Henver S Brunetta, Everson A Nunes
Context: Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, demonstrate possible beneficial effects as adjuvants in cancer treatment. One mechanism seems to be related to alterations in the redox status of cancer cells. Such alterations are thought to act in synergy with conventional anticancer agents. Objective: This review examines published data on the effects of cotreatment with anticancer agents and n-3 PUFAS on oxidative stress parameters to determine whether any patterns of oxidative stress alterations can be identified...
July 13, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Lauren K Murray, Mark J Smith, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folic acid, a B vitamin, is vital for early neurodevelopment and is well known for its protective effect against neural tube defects. Various national health agencies worldwide recommend that women of childbearing age take approximately 0.4 to 1 mg of supplemental folic acid daily to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. Several countries have tried to promote folic acid intake through mandatory fortification programs to reduce neural tube defects. Supplementation combined with mandatory fortification of foods has led to high levels of folic acid and related metabolites in women of childbearing age...
July 13, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Katherine M Ranard, John W Erdman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Harri Hemilä
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Rosalind S Gibson, Victor Raboy, Janet C King
Plant-based diets in low-income countries (LICs) have a high content of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate [InsP6]) and associated magnesium, potassium, and calcium salts. Together, InsP6 acid and its salts are termed "phytate" and are potent inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Traditional food processing can reduce the InsP6 content through loss of water-soluble phytate or through phytase hydrolysis to lower myo-inositol phosphate forms that no longer inhibit iron and zinc absorption. Hence, some processing practices can reduce the need for high-dose iron fortificants in plant-based diets and alleviate safety concerns...
July 13, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Haowen Qiu, Vicki Schlegel
Nutrient overload occurs worldwide as a consequence of the modern diet pattern and the physical inactivity that sometimes accompanies it. Cells initiate multiple protective mechanisms to adapt to elevated intracellular metabolites and restore metabolic homeostasis, but irreversible injury to the cells can occur in the event of prolonged nutrient overload. Many studies have advanced the understanding of the different detrimental effects of nutrient overload; however, few reports have made connections and given the full picture of the impact of nutrient overload on cellular metabolism...
June 20, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Alex Brito, Edwin Habeych, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Nicola Galaffu, Lindsay H Allen
Vitamin B-12 (B-12) deficiency is still relatively common in low-, medium-, and high-income countries, mainly because of dietary inadequacy and, to a lesser extent, malabsorption. This narrative review is based on a systematic search of evidence on methods to assess B-12 bioavailability and technologies to enhance its absorption. A total of 2523 scientific articles identified in PubMed and 1572 patents identified in Orbit Intelligence were prescreened. Among the reviewed methods, Schilling's test and/or its food-based version (using cobalamin-labeled egg yolk) were used for decades but have been discontinued, largely because they required radioactive cobalt...
June 20, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Kathy Musa-Veloso, Carolina Venditti, Han Youl Lee, Maryse Darch, Seth Floyd, Spencer West, Ryan Simon
Context: Treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are needed. Objective: The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effects of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, on liver-related and metabolic outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with NAFLD. Data Sources: The online information service ProQuest Dialog was used to search 8 literature databases...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Anthony F Juritsch, Régis Moreau
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with IBD present with debilitating symptoms that alter the quality of life and can develop into severe complications requiring surgery. Epidemiological evidence indicates Westernized societies have an elevated IBD burden when compared with Asian societies. Considering the stark contrast between the typical Western and Eastern dietary patterns, it is postulated that differences in food and lifestyle contribute to lower IBD incidence in Asian countries...
May 24, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Mary W Murimi, Ana Florencia Moyeda-Carabaza, Bong Nguyen, Sanjoy Saha, Ruhul Amin, Valentine Njike
Context: Establishing healthy dietary practices at an early age is crucial, as dietary behaviors in childhood track to adulthood. Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify factors associated with successful nutrition education interventions conducted in children and published between 2009 and 2016. Data Sources: Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, relevant studies were identified through the PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) databases...
May 24, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Hannah M Brown, Megan E Rollo, Nienke M de Vlieger, Clare E Collins, Tamara Bucher
Context: In recent decades, portion sizes have increased significantly. Although previous research indicates that food labels impact on product choice and healthiness perception, their impact on portion sizes consumed is less clear. Objective: This systematic review examined whether food label information influenced portion size consumption. Data sources: A search of 7 major electronic databases for studies published from 1980 to April 2016 was conducted...
May 14, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Anouk C Tengeler, Tamas Kozicz, Amanda J Kiliaan
The human intestinal microbiota, comprising trillions of microorganisms, exerts a substantial effect on the host. The microbiota plays essential roles in the function and development of several physiological processes, including those in the brain. A disruption in the microbial composition of the gut has been associated with many metabolic, inflammatory, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. Nutrition is one of several key factors that shape the microbial composition during infancy and throughout life, thereby affecting brain structure and function...
April 28, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Robert E Bergia, Joshua L Hudson, Wayne W Campbell
Context: A preponderance of evidence supports the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on body composition in men; however, there is currently insufficient evidence to make an equivalent claim in women. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of WP supplementation with or without energy restriction (ER) and resistance training (RT) on changes in body mass, lean mass, and fat mass in women. Data Sources: Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched using the keywords "whey protein," "body composition," and "lean mass...
April 23, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Jodie M Dodd, Andrea R Deussen, Cecelia M O'Brien, Danielle A J M Schoenaker, Amanda Poprzeczny, Adrienne Gordon, Suzanne Phelan
Context: Many international clinical guidelines recommend that overweight and obese women lose weight prior to pregnancy to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Women who have recently given birth and plan future pregnancies are an important target population for preconception weight-loss interventions. Objective: A systematic review to evaluate postpartum dietary and/or physical activity interventions to promote weight loss and improve health in a subsequent pregnancy was conducted...
August 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Emily K Tarleton
The negative health effects of inadequate magnesium intake are well established, but the extent of the problem of deficiency warrants further exploration. This review explores the dietary factors, such as changes in agricultural practices and dietary patterns, that affect magnesium consumption over time and examines the current adequacy of magnesium intake among adults in the United States. Large, cross-sectional, population-based data sets confirm over half the adult population in the United States does not consume adequate amounts of magnesium, although recent population-based studies show a steady and consistent recovery in magnesium consumption over the last several decades...
July 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Mark Lucock, Patrice Jones, Charlotte Martin, Zoe Yates, Martin Veysey, John Furst, Emma Beckett
This review explores contemporary ideas about the relationship between light exposure and vitamin biology. Nutritional biochemistry has long recognized the relationship between vitamins A and D and light exposure, but in recent years other vitamins have also been implicated in photoresponsive biological mechanisms that influence health, well-being, and even evolutionary processes. Interactions between light and vitamins can modify genotype-phenotype relationships across the life cycle, providing a basis for interesting new explanations relevant to wide aspects of human biology...
July 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
M Hasan Mohajeri, Giorgio La Fata, Robert E Steinert, Peter Weber
It has become increasingly evident in recent years that the gut microbiome and the brain communicate in a bidirectional manner, with each possibly affecting the other's functions. Substantial research has aimed to understand the mechanisms of this interaction and to outline strategies for preventing or treating nervous system-related disturbances. This review explores the evidence demonstrating how the gut microbiome may affect brain function in adults, thereby having an impact on stress, anxiety, depression, and cognition...
July 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Sarah E McKee, Teresa M Reyes
Pregnancy represents a critical period in fetal development, such that the prenatal environment can, in part, establish a lifelong trajectory of health or disease for the offspring. Poor nutrition (macro- or micronutrient deficiencies) can adversely affect brain development and significantly increase offspring risk for metabolic and neurological disease development. The concentration of dietary methyl-donor nutrients is known to alter DNA methylation in the brain, and alterations in DNA methylation can have long-lasting effects on gene expression and neuronal function...
July 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Joshua L Hudson, Robert E Bergia, Wayne W Campbell
Context: The impact of timing the consumption of protein supplements in relation to meals on resistance training-induced changes in body composition has not been evaluated systematically. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of consuming protein supplements with meals, vs between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults. Data Sources: Studies published up to 2017 were identified with the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases...
June 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
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