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Journal of Social Psychology

Marzena Cypryańska, John B Nezlek, Aleksandra Jaskółowska, Magdalena Maria Formanowicz
Self-humanization is defined as the tendency to view oneself as more essentially human than others. Researchers have claimed that people attribute more strongly to themselves than to others human nature traits but not uniquely human traits. In this paper we suggest that such claims are based on the misinterpretation of results. Most studies have not presented mean comparative judgments making it impossible to determine whether people thought they possessed characteristics less strongly or more strongly than the average person...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Tobias Greitemeyer, Christina Sagioglou
In most Western societies, wealth inequality is increasing, which in turn could increase people's belief that one's standing is relatively disadvantaged. Based on relative deprivation theory, we argue that such an experience of personal relative deprivation should causally lead to greater interpersonal hostility. Indeed, three experiments show that participants in a personal relative deprivation condition reported higher levels of aggressive affect and behaved more aggressively than did participants in a personal relative gratification condition...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Marzena Cypryańska, John B Nezlek, Aleksandra Jaskółowska, Magdalena Formanowicz
In his reply to our critique of research on self-humanizing, Haslam claims that we used a narrow definition of self-humanizing that ignored the evidence from the correlational research he and his colleagues have done. We disagree. First, we relied upon a definition of self-humanizing, based upon comparative judgments, that Haslam and colleagues have consistently used. Second, we were well aware of the correlational research he and his colleagues have done. We simply did not think, and do not think, these correlations verified the existence of self-humanizing as defined...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Nick Haslam
Cypryańska and colleagues offer a critique of existing work on the self-humanizing effect and present some empirical findings motivated by their critique. In this commentary, I question their overly restrictive understanding of self-humanizing and argue that the phenomenon does not stand or fall on a definition based on a strict analogy to the better-than-average effect. I argue that defining self-humanizing exclusively in these terms is inappropriate: it fails to recognize the relationship between self-humanizing and self-enhancement, and the primary role of trait valence in comparative self-ratings...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Xiaoping Chen, Marion Eberly, Daniel G Bachrach, Keke Wu, Quing Qu
In this research we examine the phenomenon of egocentric reciprocity, where individuals protect self-interest by adopting an eye-for-an-eye strategy in negatively imbalanced exchanges, and by taking advantage of overly generous treatment in positively imbalanced exchanges. We conducted two experiments using a modified ultimatum game examining attitudinal and behavioral responses to imbalanced exchanges. The experiments allowed us to explore the moderating role of relational closeness (i.e., whether the game partner was a friend or a stranger) and the mediating role of anger and indebtedness in these moderated relationships...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Martina Hřebíčková, Sylvie Graf, Tamás Tegdes, Ivan Brezina
The content of stereotypes can be shaped by multiple mechanisms, one of them possibly being the "mirroring effect" (Realo et al., 2009; Terracciano & McCrae, 2007). Mirroring describes a phenomenon whereby people rate their ingroup characteristics as opposite to characteristics typical of a relevant outgroup. The aim of our study was to explore mirroring in three intergroup contexts - in national, regional and ethnic stereotypes. In Study 1, 2,241 participants rated national ingroup stereotype and outgroup stereotypes of five Central European countries...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Terrence Glenn Horgan, Marianne Patricia McGrath, Carl Bastien, Patrick Wegman
Which aspects of people's appearance do women remember better than men do? Women were predicted to remember the dress-related items but not the physical characteristics of targets more accurately than men, given that the former might be a more female-relevant domain of interest among perceivers. Participants watched a videotaped target and then completed a surprise test of their memory for her/his appearance. Men were as accurate as women at remembering the target's physical features, but less accurate than woman at recalling what the target was wearing...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Masi Noor, Hannah Reed, Bertjan Doosje
This study (N = 124) tested the main and interactive effects of alcohol consumption, egalitarianism, and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) in relation to prejudice suppression in the natural environment of a British Public House (pub). Employing a quasi-experimental between-subjects design, participants who had consumed alcohol were worse at suppressing their prejudice than participants with no alcohol consumption. Further, the more participants endorsed egalitarian values, the more they were able to suppress their prejudice...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Nicoletta G Dimitrova, Edwin A J Van Hooft, Cathy Van Dyck, Peter Groenewegen
Existing research comparing error management (a strategy focusing on increasing the positive and decreasing the negative consequences of errors) to error prevention (a strategy focusing on working faultlessly), has identified error management as beneficial for multiple outcomes. Yet, due to various methodological limitations, it is unclear whether the effects previously found are due to error prevention, error management, or both. We examine this in an experimental study with a 2 (error prevention: yes vs. no) x 2 (error management: yes vs...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Andrew A Abeyta, Clay Routledge, Michael Kersten, Cathy R Cox
Financial security (i.e., a person's sense that they can afford the things they need now and in the foreseeable future) contributes to psychological health and well-being. In the present research, we explored the implications of financial security for perceptions of meaning in life. In Study 1, we found that perceptions of financial insecurity predicted perceptions of meaning in life above and beyond income. Further, income only predicted perceptions of meaning to the extent that it was associated with reduced financial insecurity...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Alexandra N Davis, Gustavo Carlo, Sam Hardy, Janine Olthius, Byron L Zamboanga
Bidirectional, longitudinal relations between alcohol and marijuana use and prosocial behaviors in women college student athletes were examined. Participants were 187 female college students (Mage = 19.87 years; 91% White) who completed questionnaires on their use of marijuana and alcohol, and six forms of prosocial behaviors across 6 years (2004-2010). The findings yield overall evidence that earlier marijuana use predicted lower levels of most specific forms of prosocial behaviors for women athletes in later young adulthood...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Steven G Buzinski, Michael B Kitchens
Self-regulation constrains the expression of prejudice, but when self-regulation falters, the immediate environment can act as an external source of prejudice regulation. This hypothesis derives from work demonstrating that external controls and internal self-regulation can prompt goal pursuit in the absence of self-imposed controls. Across four studies, we found support for this complementary model of prejudice regulation. In Study 1, self-regulatory fatigue resulted in less motivation to be non-prejudiced, compared to a non-fatigued control...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
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2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Cynthia Willis-Esqueda, Rosa Hazel Delgado, Karina Pedroza
Patriotism and threat have been shown to predict immigration attitudes. We suggest that patriotism is influential in producing threat, and such threat drives anti-immigration attitudes, but this relationship is different for Whites and Latinos. All participants completed a patriotism scale (blind and constructive patriotism measures), a threat scale (realistic and symbolic threat), and anti-immigration attitude scale. Latinos showed lower blind patriotism, realistic threat, symbolic threat, and anti-immigration attitudes compared to Whites, with no differences in constructive patriotism...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Guy A Boysen
The current research explored the association of masculinity and stigma toward mental illness using theoretical predictions stemming from the stereotype content model and BIAS map. Two correlational studies (Ns = 245, 163) measured stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral intentions in relation to masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral disorders. Participants perceived masculine disorders as lacking personal warmth and competence. Masculine disorders also elicited more negative emotions and behavioral intentions...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Luca Caricati, Tiziana Mancini, Giuseppe Marletta
This research investigated the relationship among perception of ingroup threats (realistic and symbolic), conservative ideologies (social dominance orientation [SDO] and right-wing authoritarianism [RWA]), and prejudice against immigrants. Data were collected with a cross-sectional design in two samples: non-student Italian adults (n = 223) and healthcare professionals (n = 679). Results were similar in both samples and indicated that symbolic and realistic threats, as well as SDO and RWA, positively and significantly predicted anti-immigrant prejudice...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Shannon M Moore, Bert N Uchino, Brian R W Baucom, Arwen A Behrends, David Sanbonmatsu
Similarity and familiarity with partner's attitudes are linked to positive relationship outcomes, while interpersonal variables have been linked to mental health. Using multilevel models (MLMs), we modeled the associations between these attitudinal variables and mental health outcomes in 74 married couples. We found that higher levels of attitude similarity in couples were linked to lower depression, while higher levels of attitude familiarity in couples were associated with greater satisfaction with life. Mediational analyses indicated marital satisfaction and interpersonal stress mediated the link between attitude similarity and depression...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Amber DeBono, Rebekah L Layton, Nicholas Freeman, Mark Muraven
Logically, responding aggressively to rejection is maladaptive because one is unlikely to seek a relationship with an aggressor. We predict that when concealed, the illogical aggressive response to rejection is more likely, whereas when the rejected individuals' aggressive responses are perceived as public, the aggressive acts may be reduced. Participants were rejected by others (Experiment 1) or were either accepted or rejected during an online ball-tossing game (Experiment 2) and were then given an opportunity to aggress publicly or privately...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Ryan S Paquin, David M Keating
Several competing models have been put forth regarding the role of identity in the reasoned action framework. The standard model proposes that identity is a background variable. Under a typical augmented model, identity is treated as an additional direct predictor of intention and behavior. Alternatively, it has been proposed that identity measures are inadvertent indicators of an underlying intention factor (e.g., a manifest-intention model). In order to test these competing hypotheses, we used data from 73 independent studies (total N = 23,917) to conduct a series of meta-analytic structural equation models...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Roelie Mulder, Arjan E R Bos, Mieneke Pouwelse, Karen van Dam
Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
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