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Journal of Social Psychology

Saori Tsukamoto, Susan T Fiske
The present research examined the psychological reasons behind Americans' (un)willingness to accept immigrants. Participants read a scenario depicting immigrant groups allegedly expected to arrive in the U.S. and evaluated how much the immigrants would influence two types of American national values: civic values (e.g., political ideology) and ethnic values (e.g., shared culture and customs). Across three studies, competitive immigrant groups were stereotyped to be untrustworthy, and perceived to threaten American civic values but not ethnic values...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Virginie Bonnot, Silvia Krauth-Gruber
Research based on system justification theory has shown that women's self-perceptions may be altered by the motivation to justify the system and its inequalities. Self-perceptions being built on past experiences, the present study aimed to explore how system justification motivation induced through a system dependency manipulation may alter both women's recall of autobiographical memories, and their behavior. Women who were led to feel highly dependent on the social system perceived themselves as more competent and recalled memories of higher competence in the verbal domain compared with the negatively stereotyped scientific domain...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Megan K McCarty, Nicole E Iannone, Eric Jones, Janice Kelly
We explored conditions under which being in the loop may be an undesirable experience. We tested whether information valence moderates the effects of being in vs. out of the loop in four studies. In a pilot study, participants imagined positive and negative events, and indicated the degree to which they would like to know this information. In Study 1, participants imagined being in or out of the loop on positive or negative information and indicated how they would feel. In Study 2 participants relived an actual experience when they were in or out of the loop on positive or negative information...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Breanne R Helmers, Collin Harbke, Julie C Herbstrith
Sex is ubiquitous in the media but only a fraction depicts sexual interactions between same-sex partners. This field study, conducted outside of bars in the Midwestern United States, examined 83 heterosexuals' sexual willingness with a same- or other-sex partner. Participants viewed a randomly assigned video vignette of a same- or other-sex partner. Alcohol intake, partner attractiveness, and sexual willingness were measured. Using moderated regression analysis, we found that alcohol intake predicted sexual willingness with the male target for both men and women, but not with the female target...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Konstantinos Kafetsios, Ursula Hess, John B Nezlek
In two samples, one from Greece and another from Germany, we examined relationships between self-construal, emotional experience, and the quality of social interactions. In Greece, a more collectivistic culture, the negative affect people experienced in social interactions was more weakly related to the quality of social interactions for those higher in interdependent self-construal than it was for those lower in interdependent self-construal. In Germany, a more independent culture, a contrasting pattern was observed such that the positive affect people experienced in social interaction was more strongly related to the quality of social interactions for those higher in independent self-construal than it was for those lower in independent self-construal...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Xiao Wang
The Chinese government has recently pledged to reduce its CO2 emissions by 2030. Industrial use of energy, however, is just one source of greenhouse gas emissions. Chinese consumers' more affluent lifestyles also lead to increased consumption of energy, which can result in greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a survey of 516 Chinese consumers, the present investigation examined whether their attitudinal motivations and collective efficacy are related to their intentions to engage in personal actions that may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Robin M Kowalski, Allison Toth, Megan Morgan
Two studies generated profiles of cyberbullying/cyberincivility and traditional bullying/incivility in adults, particularly within the workplace. In Study 1, 20% of 3,699 participants had the majority of cyberbullying victimization and 7.5% had the majority of traditional bullying victimization occur in adulthood, with 30% saying they were bullied at work. Relationships between bullying and negative outcomes were found. Because of the clear evidence of bullying and cyberbullying in the workplace in Study 1, Study 2 addressed the relationship of these constructs to workplace incivility...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Rebecca M Horne, Matthew D Johnson
Drawing from the intimacy process model and data from 5,042 individuals who remained partnered across Waves 1 and 2 of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), this study examined the contributions of traditional gender role attitudes and relationship efficacy in predicting levels of self-disclosure within an intimate relationship. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated females scored higher than males on self-disclosure and relationship efficacy measures but lower on traditional gender role attitudes...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Colin A Zestcott, Tanya L Tompkins, Megan Kozak Williams, Kay Livesay, Kin L Chan
Tattoos are increasing in popularity, yet minimal research has examined implicit attitudes or the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Seventy-seven online participants (Mage = 36.09, 52% women, 78% white, 26% tattooed) completed measures assessing implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Results revealed evidence of negative implicit attitudes, which were associated with less perceived warmth, competence, and negative explicit evaluations. However, implicit attitudes were not correlated with measures of disgust or social distance...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Heng Li, Yu Cao
It has long been observed that speakers employ spatial concepts "front" and "back" to talk about temporal concepts "past" and "future." However, the direction of space-time mappings varies across cultures. According to Temporal Focus Hypothesis (TFH), people's implicit associations between space and time are conditioned by their temporal focus. Here we tested whether pregnancy can affect Chinese women's temporal focus and thereby influence their space-time mappings. One of the most striking characteristics of pregnant women noted by previous research is their future-oriented thought...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Matthew Findley, Ryan Brown
Individual differences in self-control have been shown to reflect two underlying dimensions: initiation and inhibition. We examined the possibility that degrees of self-control might likewise be modeled at a broader social level, similar to other socio-cultural differences that operate at an individual level (e.g., collectivism). To test this notion, we used a variety of mundane behaviors measured at the level of U.S. states to create inhibitory and initiatory indices of self-control at a collective level. We show that statewide levels of initiatory and inhibitory self-control, despite being correlated with one another, exhibit unique patterns of association with a wide range of outcomes, including homicide, suicide, home foreclosures, divorce, and infidelity...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Xiaoming Li, Qiuling Ye, Guoqing Yang
The present study aimed to explore whether emotional dominance can also account for choice deferral. This research manipulated emotional dominance through the difference in attractiveness among current alternatives in Experiment 1 and the readability of fonts for describing current options in Experiment 2, to investigate the role of dominance in choice deferral. The results revealed that increasingly submissive decision environments were related to more choice of deferral options. Mediation analyses indicated that dominance could mediate the effects of experimental manipulations on choice deferral, and that the actual choice of a deferral option was associated with more increase in dominance of retrospective emotion...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Shelly Sadek McCoy, Misaki N Natsuaki
This study investigated changes in risk-taking propensity on a behavioral decision-making task as a function of varying social conditions with peers. In contrast to the effects of direct peer influence (pro-risk and anti-risk messages by peers), we included a socially ambiguous context (neutral messages by peers) and a no-peer control (participants alone) as comparison conditions. Using a counterbalanced mixed factorial design, college students (N = 187) completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth (BART-Y) twice during two consecutive sessions, including once alone and once with a confederate; the control group completed two sessions of the task alone...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
John Tawa
Black, Asian, and White participants (N = 210) created self-resembling avatars and engaged in peer-selection tasks during social events in the virtual world, Second Life, that were designed to simulate various types of resource competition. Participants in merit-based resource competition settings had less diversity in their peer groups compared to participants in settings where no resource competition was present, and Asian participants had lower preference for Black peers. Furthermore, these relationships were mediated by out-group discomfort...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Tobias Greitemeyer, Christina Sagioglou
In most Western societies, wealth inequality is increasing, which in turn could increase people's belief that one's standing is relatively disadvantaged. Based on relative deprivation theory, we argue that such an experience of personal relative deprivation should causally lead to greater interpersonal hostility. Indeed, three experiments show that participants in a personal relative deprivation condition reported higher levels of aggressive affect and behaved more aggressively than participants in a personal relative gratification condition...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Xiao-Ping Chen, Marion B Eberly, Daniel G Bachrach, Keke Wu, Qing Qu
In this research, we examine the phenomenon of egocentric reciprocity, where individuals protect self-interest by adopting an eye-for-an-eye strategy in negatively imbalanced exchanges, and by taking advantage of overly generous treatment in positively imbalanced exchanges. We conducted two experiments using a modified ultimatum game examining attitudinal and behavioral responses to imbalanced exchanges. The experiments allowed us to explore the moderating role of relational closeness (i.e., whether the game partner was a friend or a stranger) and the mediating role of anger and indebtedness in these moderated relationships...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Martina Hřebíčková, Sylvie Graf, Tamás Tegdes, Ivan Brezina
The content of stereotypes can be shaped by multiple mechanisms, one of them possibly being the "mirroring effect" (Realo et al., 2009; Terracciano & McCrae, 2007). Mirroring describes a phenomenon whereby people rate their ingroup characteristics as opposite to characteristics typical of a relevant outgroup. The aim of our study was to explore mirroring in three intergroup contexts - in national, regional and ethnic stereotypes. In Study 1, 2,241 participants rated national ingroup stereotype and outgroup stereotypes of five Central European countries...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Terrence Glenn Horgan, Marianne Patricia McGrath, Carl Bastien, Patrick Wegman
Which aspects of people's appearance do women remember better than men do? Women were predicted to remember the dress-related items but not the physical characteristics of targets more accurately than men, given that the former might be a more female-relevant domain of interest among perceivers. Participants watched a videotaped target and then completed a surprise test of their memory for her/his appearance. Men were as accurate as women at remembering the target's physical features, but less accurate than woman at recalling what the target was wearing...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Marzena Cypryańska, John B Nezlek, Aleksandra Jaskółowska, Magdalena Maria Formanowicz
Self-humanization is defined as the tendency to view oneself as more essentially human than others. Researchers have claimed that people attribute human nature traits more strongly to themselves than to others, but not uniquely human traits. In this article we suggest that such claims are based on the misinterpretation of results. Most studies have not presented mean comparative judgments, making it impossible to determine whether people thought they possessed characteristics less strongly or more strongly than the average person...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Marzena Cypryańska, John B Nezlek, Aleksandra Jaskółowska, Magdalena Maria Formanowicz
In his reply to our critique of research on self-humanizing, Haslam claims that we used a narrow definition of self-humanizing that ignored the evidence from the correlational research he and his colleagues have done. We disagree. First, we relied upon a definition of self-humanizing based upon comparative judgments that Haslam and colleagues have consistently used. Second, we were well aware of the correlational research he and his colleagues have done. We simply did not think, and do not think, these correlations verified the existence of self-humanizing as defined...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
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