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Journal of Social Psychology

Cristina Aelenei, Céline Darnon, Delphine Martinot
Due to gender socialization, girls are more likely compared to boys to endorse self-transcendence values (e.g., helping people), whereas boys are more likely compared to girls to endorse self-enhancement values (e.g., wanting to be in charge). In two studies, we investigated teachers' judgment regarding the display of these values in school and students' endorsement of the self-transcendence and self-enhancement values in two contexts: home and school. In Study 1 (N = 240), teachers evaluated a student perceived as strongly endorsing the self-transcendence values more positively compared to a student perceived as strongly endorsing the self-enhancement values, regardless of the student's gender...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Marcel S Yoder, Lara K Ault, Maureen A Mathews
Facial attractiveness (FA) is a highly agreed upon and socially important characteristic, but contemporary research has not fully investigated individuals' enhancement of their FA. We used the social relations model (SRM) to analyze data from 187 participants. In face-to-face groups of four, participants rated their own and others' FA. We assessed the degree of FA enhancement using unconfounded measures of both self-insight and social comparison. Results indicated African Americans and men enhanced more than Caucasians and women...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Eugene Tartakovsky, Ayat Abu Kheit
The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area, and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Qingzhou Sun, Yongfang Liu, Huanren Zhang, Jingyi Lu
Individuals are consistently observed to be risk averse over gains and risk seeking over losses. This study examined whether increased social distance would change these behavioral patterns. To test our hypothesis, social distance was manipulated by asking the participants to make decisions either for themselves or for another person (Experiment 1), either for a known person or for an unknown person (Experiment 2), and either for a close friend or for a distant friend (Experiment 3). The results of Experiments 1 and 3 showed that increased social distance made people more risk neutral, and such an effect was stronger in the gain domain than in the loss domain...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Blake Victor Kent
Research on organizational commitment suggests there is an association between American theists' emotional attachment to God and their emotional commitment to the workplace. A sense of divine calling has been shown to partially mediate this association, but beyond that, little is known. The purpose of this study is to shed further light on the relationship between secure attachment to God and affective organizational commitment. I do so by testing whether the employee's religious tradition is associated with affective organizational commitment and whether the employee's firm attributes moderate the relationship between attachment to God and organizational commitment...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
April Bailey, Spencer Kelly
Judging others' power facilitates successful social interaction. Both gender and body posture have been shown to influence judgments of another's power. However, little is known about how these two cues interact when they conflict or how they influence early processing. The present study investigated this question during very early processing of power-related words using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants viewed images of women and men in dominant and submissive postures that were quickly followed by dominant or submissive words...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Luca Caricati
The status-legitimacy hypothesis was tested by analyzing cross-national data about social inequality. Several indicators were used as indexes of social advantage: social class, personal income, and self-position in the social hierarchy. Moreover, inequality and freedom in nations, as indexed by Gini and by the human freedom index were considered. Results from 36 nations worldwide showed no support for the status-legitimacy hypothesis. The perception that income distribution was fair tended to increase as social advantage increased...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Anson E Long, Elizabeth C Pinel, Geneva C Yawger
Ingroup favoritism is pervasive. It emerges even in the minimal group paradigm, where participants are assigned to novel groups based on seemingly insignificant characteristics. Yet many of the grouping schemes used in minimal group research may imply something significant: namely, that ingroup members will share in-the-moment subjective experience, or I-share. Two studies examine the role of inferred I-sharing in the minimal group paradigm. We found that (1) people inferred that they would I-share with ingroup members more than outgroup members; (2) inferred I-sharing increased ingroup favoritism; and (3) inferred I-sharing accounted for this ingroup favoritism...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Silvia Russo, Claudia Manzi, Michele Roccato
Exposure to societal threat can elicit an increase in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In this study, using a quasi-experimental vignette design (Italian community sample, N = 86), we tested the moderating role of self-concept clarity (SCC). A moderated regression showed that manipulated societal threat to safety fostered RWA only among low SCC scorers. It is concluded that SCC is an important resource for individuals facing threat conditions.
September 16, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Michelle Hasan, Eddie M Clark
Individuals lacking fulfilling interpersonal interactions may experience feelings of loneliness. Consequently, these individuals may over-rely on their romantic partners to fulfill the need to belong. This study examined the effects of loneliness and social isolation on dependency on a romantic partner in a sample of college students (N = 104). Participants who were in a romantic relationship completed measures of loneliness, social isolation, and romantic dependency near the beginning of the semester (Time 1) and approximately 6 weeks later toward the end of the semester (Time 2)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Danney Rasco, Rebecca M Warner
Individuals with anxious and avoidant attachment tend to experience less satisfaction in their relationships. Past research suggests the negative effects of attachment on relationship satisfaction may be partially mediated by self-disclosure and self-concealment; the present study evaluated relationship authenticity as a potential additional mediator. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that relationship authenticity is distinct from self-disclosure and self-concealment. Relationship authenticity predicted additional variance in relationship satisfaction controlling for attachment, self-disclosure, and self-concealment...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Thomas E Ford, Sabrina R Teeter, Kyle Richardson, Julie Woodzicka
When people high in prejudice censor prejudice in one setting they can experience a prejudice rebound effect, subsequently responding with more prejudice than otherwise. Disparagement humor fosters the release rather than suppression of prejudice. Thus, two experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to disparagement humor attenuates rebound effects. Participants suppressed prejudice by writing fewer anti-gay thoughts about same-sex adoption (Experiment 1) or by reporting greater support for same-sex civil rights (Experiment 2) when expecting to share their responses with others (non-prejudice norm condition) but not if others first exchanged anti-gay jokes (prejudice norm condition)...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Adrian Stanciu
Alignment of individuals on more than one diversity attribute (i.e. faultlines) may lead to intergroup biases in teams, disrupting the efficiency expectancies. Research has yet to examine whether this can be a consequence of a stereotypical consistency between social and information attributes of diversity. The present study tests the hypothesis that in a team with a stereotype based faultline (a stereotypical consistency between gender and skills), there is increased out-group derogation compared to a team with a stereotype inconsistent faultline...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Alexander Maki, Alexander Rothman
To better understand the consistency of people's proenvironmental intentions and behaviors, we set out to examine two sets of research questions. First, do people perform (1) different types of proenvironmental behaviors consistently and (2) the same proenvironmental behavior consistently across settings? Second, are there consistent predictors of proenvironmental behavioral intentions across behavior and setting type? Participants reported four recycling and conservation behaviors across three settings, revealing significant variability in rates of behaviors across settings...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Anthony Cursan, Michael J Bernstein, Alexandre Pascual, Marie-Line Félonneau
This study investigated the impact of ostracism (vs inclusion) for women in a same-sex vs opposite-sex group on their cognitive performances. Female participants played Cyberball with other women or men and were either included or excluded. Participants then had to engage in the performance tasks. Results showed that women's performance was decreased by ostracism in a math task (but not a verbal task) yet only in the same-sex condition. Furthermore, this result was obtained only among participants who did the numeric task first...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, J Katherine Lee, Brian Renauer, Kris Henning, Greg Stewart
This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Jennifer Klatt, Sabrina C Eimler, Nicole C Krämer
Women are still underrepresented at the highest management levels. The think-manager-think-male phenomenon suggests that leadership is associated with male rather than female attributes. Although styling has been shown to influence the evaluation of women's leadership abilities, the relevant specific features have been left remarkably unaddressed. In a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 (skirt/pants, with/without jewelry, loose hair/braid, with/without makeup) between-subjects design, 354 participants evaluated a woman in a photograph...
September 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Daniela Renger, Alex Mommert, Sophus Renger, Bernd Simon
Past research has demonstrated that equality-based respect is an important antecedent of positive social interaction and group-serving behavior. In the present research we tested whether intragroup equality-based respect affects perceptions of being treated as a human as well as self-dehumanization. In Experiment 1, we found that high respect received from fellow work group members heightens group members' sense of being treated as a human being, while low respect diminishes it. In Experiment 2, we secured evidence that (dis)respect also affected recipients' self-views in terms of self-dehumanization...
September 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Nicola Hermanto, David Charles Zuroff
The aim of this study was to test social mentality theory, which views self-compassion/reassurance as a form of intrapersonal relating in which the interpersonal mentalities of care-seeking and caregiving are activated. Self-report measures of motivations, cognitions, and behaviors related to seeking and receiving care from others were administered to 195 students. Self-compassion/reassurance was predicted by the interaction of care-seeking and caregiving, with the positive effect of care-seeking intensified at high caregiving...
September 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Lisa S Moussaoui, Olivier Desrichard
Growing awareness of humanity's impact on the environment raises the question of how best to encourage pro-environmental actions. Numerous campaigns have been created to convince people to adopt environmentally friendly everyday behaviors, with varying success. The difficulty may be due, at least in part, to the huge gap between these small individual actions and the high-level goals, such as "saving the planet," often used as incentives. We tested this hypothesis via four experiments. Studies 1 and 2 showed that high-level goals were less effective than low-level goals in promoting paper- and energy-saving behaviors...
September 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
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