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Journal of Social Psychology

Niels van de Ven, Alfred T M Archer, Bart Engelen
Admiring a moral role model has been found to inspire people to become better persons themselves. But what are the antecedents that trigger admiration and thus make inspiration more likely? In three studies, we tested the effect of perceived importance and perceived surprisingness of the moral action on resulting admiration and inspiration. Study 1 finds that perceived importance, and to a lesser extent, the perceived surprisingness of a moral action, are related to stronger admiration. Manipulating the perceived importance of the same moral action by only providing a little more detail about the moral action, could increase the admiration and inspiration the role models elicit (Studies 2 and 3)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Fu Fwen Kuo, Shu Ching Yang
This study examined the moderation of classroom ethnic composition and the mediation of group identification in the relationships between upward comparisons, depression, and self-efficacy in a sample of 359 Taiwanese aboriginal students. A stronger negative effect was found in highly ethnically concentrated classes. Upward comparisons were found to reinforce depression, decrease self-esteem, and reduce school belonging in aborigines-only classes but not in mainstream classes. Two pathways-self-esteem and school belonging-were found to process the negative indirect effects on depression and academic and social self-efficacy...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Sally D Farley, Jennifer Kelly, Santokh Singh, Charles Thornton, Taylor Young
The evoking freedom or "but you are free" (BYAF) technique is a social influence tactic that offers recipients the freedom to accept or decline a request. This research tested the effectiveness of the evoking freedom technique in two field experiments. Participants were asked either to complete a survey (Experiment 1) or to allow a stranger to borrow their mobile phone to make a call (Experiment 2) on an urban university campus. Half of the requests involved language that evoked freedom, and half of the requests were direct...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Mally Shechory Bitton, Liza Zvi
The chivalry hypothesis and attractiveness bias were evaluated among 323 police officers and 364 students, serving as a control group. The participants were asked to read a description of a swindle, where the offender was either physically attractive or unattractive. They then had to assign a punishment to the offender and judge the blame ascribed to both offender and victim. The findings showed that the offender's sex, more than his or her external appearance, affects differences in punishment severity. Female offenders were treated more forgivingly than male offenders...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Jeffrey M Osgood
The effect of ego-depletion on self-control conflict identification is the subject of ongoing debate with only limited and indirect empirical assessment. The present research used behavioral and self-report measures to test if ego-depletion affects self-control conflict identification across two studies: in an economic social dilemma game and a probe reaction task. In the social dilemma game, ego-depleted participants acted more selfishly, but also reported feeling more conflicted about their decisions and were more likely to go back and change choices they had made earlier in the game...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Maria Giuseppina Pacilli, Federica Spaccatini, Ilaria Giovannelli, Delia Centrone, Michele Roccato
In an experimental vignette study performed with 92 Portuguese women, we analyzed the relations between exposure to hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) in a workplace context, system justification (SJ), and anxiety, measured after participants were exposed to an HS, a BS, or a neutral communication about the context of the industry they would have worked in, if selected. The results indicated that both HS and BS fostered participants' anxiety, and that SJ moderated the relation between HS and anxiety...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Kyriaki Fousiani, Michalis Michaelides, Panagiota Dimitropoulou
The purpose of this experiment was to test how ethnic group membership of both the bullies and the victims influence the way that observers attribute human characteristics to bullies. Ethnic group membership was manipulated in terms of bullies' and victims' ethnicity (ingroup-majority group versus outgroup-minority group). Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of empathic concern towards the victim and perspective taking of the bully in the relation between ethnic group membership of bullies and victims and attributions of humanness to the bullies...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Huanhuan Zhao, Heyun Zhang, Yan Xu
This study aims to explore the relationship between social face consciousness and corrupt intention. Based on social cognitive theory, we established a mediated moderation model in which Honesty-Humility moderated the link between social face consciousness and corrupt intention, and moral disengagement mediated this moderating effect. Data were collected from an online survey of Chinese adults (N = 1,061) using self-administered questionnaires. Results revealed that Honesty-Humility cushioned the effect of social face consciousness on corrupt intention, such that this effect was stronger for individuals with low Honesty-Humility than for those with high Honesty-Humility...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Dariusz Dolinski, Tomasz Grzyb
The Milgram experiments are among the most well-known and important in the history of psychology. Since first published, there have been countless discussions held on the subject of what factors induce people to exhibit extreme obedience towards authority. One such potential factor, not yet explored empirically, is the receipt in advance of financial gratification by a study participant. In our experiment we compare obedience among participants in classic Milgram paradigm conditions with obedience in a situation where the participant does not receive financial gratification in advance...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Abbas Zabihzadeh, Mohammad Ali Mazaheri, Javad Hatami, Mohammad Reza Nikfarjam, Leili Panaghi, Telli Davoodi
Culture consists of shared conceptual representations in an individual's cognition. Thus, there may be cultural differences in the representation of a concept. To assess this possibility, we compared the subjective semantic structure of "privacy" in Iran and the United States. Participants were 200 adults, 100 from Iran and 100 from the United States. In the first phase of the experiment, using the associative terms task, we detected nine of the most frequent terms that were associated with the concept of "privacy" in each culture...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Marian M Morry, Tamara A Sucharyna
How an individual interprets a relationship social comparison may have important implications for the self and one's relationship. We asked whether these interpretations significantly mediated the relation between the manipulated social comparison direction and relationship satisfaction, relationship commitment, satisfaction with life, and happiness for both dating (Studies 1 and 2) and married (Study 2) individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to make an upward or downward comparison to a friend's romantic relationship and completed measures of their interpretations, relationship quality, satisfaction with life, and happiness...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Regan A R Gurung, Rosalyn Stoa, Alese Nelson, Devan Schultz
Do graphics on clothing drive perceptions? We used a between group design to test if athletic, academic, or suggestive graphics on clothing differentially influence perceptions and behavioral intentions. In study 1, participants (N = 199) rated five female t-shirt models, and in study 2 and 3, participants rated five male t-shirt models (N = 120) or university students (N = 50). Analyses of variance controlling for sex (ANCOVA) showed participants were least likely to want to interact with models/students wearing sexually suggestive graphics: Study 1, F(3,165) = 30...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Melissa M McDonald, Samantha Brindley, Eran Halperin, Tamar Saguy
Exposure to an outgroup member voicing criticism of his or her own group fosters greater openness to the outgroup's perspective. Research suggests that this effect owes its influence to a serial process in which participants' perception of the risk involved in voicing internal criticism leads to an increase in the perceived credibility of the speaker. The credibility makes it possible for the speaker to be viewed as open-minded, which subsequently inspires greater hope. This process culminates in an increased openness to the outgroup...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Anne Katrin Schwab, Christina Sagioglou, Tobias Greitemeyer
One correlational study examined whether virtual contact via Facebook is positively related to intergroup relations. The followers of two online campaigns from Iran and Israel-whose countries have been in a politically hostile relationship since the 1980s-indicated the amount of direct and indirect virtual (Facebook) and real-life outgroup contact they have had, a number of quality and affective judgments about that contact, and completed an affective prejudice measure about the respective outgroup. Overall, contact was negatively associated with affective prejudice, providing support for the contact hypothesis in a specific and exclusively virtual setting with citizens of hostile nations...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Judith A Hall, Rachel Schwartz
The empathy concept has central significance for social and personality psychology and in many other domains, including neuroscience, clinical/abnormal psychology, and the health professions. However, the current diversity in conceptual and operational definitions, and the promiscuous use of the term "empathy," threaten the ability of researchers to advance the field. The present article provides a quantitative review and conceptual analysis of empathy definitions and usages by examining 393 studies published between 2001 and 2013, and 96 studies published in 2017...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Kathryn Bruchmann, Meghan C Evans
Previous work studying social comparisons suggests that people are likely to assimilate to ingroup members (e.g. Ledgerwood & Chaiken, 2007) but can also contrast from ingroup members if outgroup members are present (Blanton, Miller, & Dye, 2002). The present research built upon these findings by including a no-comparison control group to test for true contrast and assimilation effects. Across two studies, women primed with a gender-math stereotype received false feedback about their performance on a math task; and in some conditions, they learned of the performance of ostensible male and/or female co-participants...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Lee Rowland, Oliver Scott Curry
This experiment investigates the effects of a seven-day kindness activities intervention on changes in subjective happiness. The study was designed to test whether performing different types of kindness activities had differential effects on happiness. Our recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychological effects of kindness (Curry, et al. 2018) revealed that performing acts of kindness boosts happiness and well-being. However, we noted in that review that rarely had researchers specifically compared the effects of kindness to different recipients, such as to friends or to strangers...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Matthew Valle, K Michele Kacmar, Suzanne Zivnuska, Troy Harting
This paper draws from social exchange theory and social cognitive theory to explore moral disengagement as a potential mediator of the relationship between abusive supervision and organizational deviance. We also explore the moderating effect of leader-member exchange (LMX) on this mediated relationship. Results indicate that employees with abusive supervisors engaged in moral disengagement strategies and subsequently in organizational deviance behaviors. Additionally, this relationship was stronger for those higher in LMX...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Bradley M Okdie, David R Ewoldsen
Individuals have a need to maintain positive social interactions and with the advent of new media technologies, there are a myriad ways individuals can satisfy this need by engaging socially in mediated (non-face-to-face) communication, hence the need for a special issue on Relationships in the Digital Age. The articles in this special issue reflect the need to answer theoretical questions brought forth by the increased tendency for individuals to create and maintain interpersonal relationships through mediated forms of communication...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Joel Cooper, Lauren A Feldman, Shane F Blackman
The field of experimental social psychology is appropriately interested in using novel theoretical approaches to implement change in the social world. In the current study, we extended cognitive dissonance theory by creating a new framework of social influence: imagined vicarious dissonance. We used the framework to influence attitudes on an important and controversial political attitude: U.S. citizens' support for the Affordable Care Act (ACA). 36 Republicans and 84 Democrats were asked to imagine fellow Republicans and Democrats, respectively, making attitude discrepant statements under high and low choice conditions about support for the ACA...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
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