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Journal of Social Psychology

Sarah E Gaither, Jacqueline M Chen, Kristin Pauker, Samuel R Sommers
Multiracial research emphasizes hypodescent categorizations and relies on computer-generated stimuli. Four experiments showed that real biracial faces in a 2-Choice categorization task (White, Black) elicited hypodescent more than computer-generated faces. Additionally, Experiment 2 showed a 2-Choice categorization task with real biracial faces increased racial essentialism more than a 3-Choice categorization task. Experiment 3 showed that mere exposure to real biracial faces did not increase essentialism. Finally, Experiments 4a and 4b replicated hypodescent outcomes when comparing real biracial faces to computer-generated versions of those same faces...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Peter Karl Jonason, Jordi Tome
In samples of Americans (N = 273) and Indians (N = 194) paid through Mechanical Turk (Study 1) and British (N = 132) volunteers contacted through Reddit (Study 2), we examined how the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) were associated with happiness expectations when participants imagined solving adaptive tasks. In Study 1, the traits were linked to forecasted happiness in achieving status and power and mate-seeking, with psychopathy demonstrating less happiness when pursuing slow life history tasks (e...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Shuji Suzuki
The present study demonstrated that psychological distance influences the attraction effect by changing the weights of the attributes of options. Construal level theory proposes that the weight of a superordinate attribute increases with psychological distance, whereas the weight of a subordinate attribute decreases with psychological distance. The present hypothesis proposed that an asymmetrical change of weights of attributes would influence the relationship between options, and, consequently, the attraction effect would vary...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Hsin-Hsien Liu, Hsuan-Yi Chou
The inaction inertia effect describes situations in which a person rejects an opportunity after having forgone a relatively superior opportunity. This study explores whether product format (hedonic vs. utilitarian) affects the inaction inertia effect. The authors build on previous findings that show comparisons of utilitarian benefits are easier than hedonic benefits, and hedonic consumption (vs. utilitarian consumption) usually generates greater pleasure. The authors propose that people show higher inaction inertia after they have missed a superior utilitarian consumption opportunity than after they have missed a superior hedonic consumption opportunity...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Jared Weintraub, Murugan Pattusamy, Scott B Dust
This study seeks to disentangle the effect of polychronicity on work-home conflict, home-work conflict, and life satisfaction, by evaluating mindfulness as a moderator. We propose that mindfulness moderates the relationship between polychronicity and work-home and home-work conflict such that the relationship will be negative when mindfulness is high and positive when mindfulness is low. Additionally, we propose that mindfulness moderates the relationship between polychronicity and life satisfaction such that the relationship will be positive when mindfulness is high and negative when mindfulness is low...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Michaela Pfundmair, Geoffrey Wetherell
Sharing beliefs, particularly moral beliefs, is a way to establish social connections. We hypothesized that ostracism leads people who are high in the need to belong to adhere to the moral beliefs of an ingroup, and that moralizing the beliefs of one's group increases the willingness to endorse extreme behavior on behalf of the group. Across two studies, participants were ostracized or included, rated the moral relevance of their group values, and indicated their endorsement of extreme behavior on behalf of the group...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Niels van de Ven, Alfred T M Archer, Bart Engelen
Admiring a moral role model has been found to inspire people to become better persons themselves. But what are the antecedents that trigger admiration and thus make inspiration more likely? In three studies, we tested the effect of perceived importance and perceived surprisingness of the moral action on resulting admiration and inspiration. Study 1 finds that perceived importance, and to a lesser extent, the perceived surprisingness of a moral action, are related to stronger admiration. Manipulating the perceived importance of the same moral action by only providing a little more detail about the moral action, could increase the admiration and inspiration the role models elicit (Studies 2 and 3)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Fu Fwen Kuo, Shu Ching Yang
This study examined the moderation of classroom ethnic composition and the mediation of group identification in the relationships between upward comparisons, depression, and self-efficacy in a sample of 359 Taiwanese aboriginal students. A stronger negative effect was found in highly ethnically concentrated classes. Upward comparisons were found to reinforce depression, decrease self-esteem, and reduce school belonging in aborigines-only classes but not in mainstream classes. Two pathways-self-esteem and school belonging-were found to process the negative indirect effects on depression and academic and social self-efficacy...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Sally D Farley, Jennifer Kelly, Santokh Singh, Charles Thornton, Taylor Young
The evoking freedom or "but you are free" (BYAF) technique is a social influence tactic that offers recipients the freedom to accept or decline a request. This research tested the effectiveness of the evoking freedom technique in two field experiments. Participants were asked either to complete a survey (Experiment 1) or to allow a stranger to borrow their mobile phone to make a call (Experiment 2) on an urban university campus. Half of the requests involved language that evoked freedom, and half of the requests were direct...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Mally Shechory Bitton, Liza Zvi
The chivalry hypothesis and attractiveness bias were evaluated among 323 police officers and 364 students, serving as a control group. The participants were asked to read a description of a swindle, where the offender was either physically attractive or unattractive. They then had to assign a punishment to the offender and judge the blame ascribed to both offender and victim. The findings showed that the offender's sex, more than his or her external appearance, affects differences in punishment severity. Female offenders were treated more forgivingly than male offenders...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Jeffrey M Osgood
The effect of ego-depletion on self-control conflict identification is the subject of ongoing debate with only limited and indirect empirical assessment. The present research used behavioral and self-report measures to test if ego-depletion affects self-control conflict identification across two studies: in an economic social dilemma game and a probe reaction task. In the social dilemma game, ego-depleted participants acted more selfishly, but also reported feeling more conflicted about their decisions and were more likely to go back and change choices they had made earlier in the game...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Maria Giuseppina Pacilli, Federica Spaccatini, Ilaria Giovannelli, Delia Centrone, Michele Roccato
In an experimental vignette study performed with 92 Portuguese women, we analyzed the relations between exposure to hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) in a workplace context, system justification (SJ), and anxiety, measured after participants were exposed to an HS, a BS, or a neutral communication about the context of the industry they would have worked in, if selected. The results indicated that both HS and BS fostered participants' anxiety, and that SJ moderated the relation between HS and anxiety...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Kyriaki Fousiani, Michalis Michaelides, Panagiota Dimitropoulou
The purpose of this experiment was to test how ethnic group membership of both the bullies and the victims influence the way that observers attribute human characteristics to bullies. Ethnic group membership was manipulated in terms of bullies' and victims' ethnicity (ingroup-majority group versus outgroup-minority group). Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of empathic concern towards the victim and perspective taking of the bully in the relation between ethnic group membership of bullies and victims and attributions of humanness to the bullies...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Huanhuan Zhao, Heyun Zhang, Yan Xu
This study aims to explore the relationship between social face consciousness and corrupt intention. Based on social cognitive theory, we established a mediated moderation model in which Honesty-Humility moderated the link between social face consciousness and corrupt intention, and moral disengagement mediated this moderating effect. Data were collected from an online survey of Chinese adults (N = 1,061) using self-administered questionnaires. Results revealed that Honesty-Humility cushioned the effect of social face consciousness on corrupt intention, such that this effect was stronger for individuals with low Honesty-Humility than for those with high Honesty-Humility...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Dariusz Dolinski, Tomasz Grzyb
The Milgram experiments are among the most well-known and important in the history of psychology. Since first published, there have been countless discussions held on the subject of what factors induce people to exhibit extreme obedience towards authority. One such potential factor, not yet explored empirically, is the receipt in advance of financial gratification by a study participant. In our experiment we compare obedience among participants in classic Milgram paradigm conditions with obedience in a situation where the participant does not receive financial gratification in advance...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Abbas Zabihzadeh, Mohammad Ali Mazaheri, Javad Hatami, Mohammad Reza Nikfarjam, Leili Panaghi, Telli Davoodi
Culture consists of shared conceptual representations in an individual's cognition. Thus, there may be cultural differences in the representation of a concept. To assess this possibility, we compared the subjective semantic structure of "privacy" in Iran and the United States. Participants were 200 adults, 100 from Iran and 100 from the United States. In the first phase of the experiment, using the associative terms task, we detected nine of the most frequent terms that were associated with the concept of "privacy" in each culture...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Marian M Morry, Tamara A Sucharyna
How an individual interprets a relationship social comparison may have important implications for the self and one's relationship. We asked whether these interpretations significantly mediated the relation between the manipulated social comparison direction and relationship satisfaction, relationship commitment, satisfaction with life, and happiness for both dating (Studies 1 and 2) and married (Study 2) individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to make an upward or downward comparison to a friend's romantic relationship and completed measures of their interpretations, relationship quality, satisfaction with life, and happiness...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Regan A R Gurung, Rosalyn Stoa, Alese Nelson, Devan Schultz
Do graphics on clothing drive perceptions? We used a between group design to test if athletic, academic, or suggestive graphics on clothing differentially influence perceptions and behavioral intentions. In study 1, participants (N = 199) rated five female t-shirt models, and in study 2 and 3, participants rated five male t-shirt models (N = 120) or university students (N = 50). Analyses of variance controlling for sex (ANCOVA) showed participants were least likely to want to interact with models/students wearing sexually suggestive graphics: Study 1, F(3,165) = 30...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Melissa M McDonald, Samantha Brindley, Eran Halperin, Tamar Saguy
Exposure to an outgroup member voicing criticism of his or her own group fosters greater openness to the outgroup's perspective. Research suggests that this effect owes its influence to a serial process in which participants' perception of the risk involved in voicing internal criticism leads to an increase in the perceived credibility of the speaker. The credibility makes it possible for the speaker to be viewed as open-minded, which subsequently inspires greater hope. This process culminates in an increased openness to the outgroup...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Anne Katrin Schwab, Christina Sagioglou, Tobias Greitemeyer
One correlational study examined whether virtual contact via Facebook is positively related to intergroup relations. The followers of two online campaigns from Iran and Israel-whose countries have been in a politically hostile relationship since the 1980s-indicated the amount of direct and indirect virtual (Facebook) and real-life outgroup contact they have had, a number of quality and affective judgments about that contact, and completed an affective prejudice measure about the respective outgroup. Overall, contact was negatively associated with affective prejudice, providing support for the contact hypothesis in a specific and exclusively virtual setting with citizens of hostile nations...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
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