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Journal of Social Psychology

Alexandra N Davis, Gustavo Carlo, Sam Hardy, Janine Olthius, Byron L Zamboanga
Bidirectional, longitudinal relations between alcohol and marijuana use and prosocial behaviors in women college student athletes were examined. Participants were 187 female college students (Mage = 19.87 years; 91% White) who completed questionnaires on their use of marijuana and alcohol, and six forms of prosocial behaviors across 6 years (2004-2010). The findings yield overall evidence that earlier marijuana use predicted lower levels of most specific forms of prosocial behaviors for women athletes in later young adulthood...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Steven G Buzinski, Michael B Kitchens
Self-regulation constrains the expression of prejudice, but when self-regulation falters, the immediate environment can act as an external source of prejudice regulation. This hypothesis derives from work demonstrating that external controls and internal self-regulation can prompt goal pursuit in the absence of self-imposed controls. Across four studies we found support for this complementary model of prejudice regulation. In Study 1, self-regulatory fatigue resulted in less motivation to be non-prejudiced, compared to a non-fatigued control...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Adrian Stanciu, J Christopher Cohrs, Katja Hanke, Alin Gavreliuc
There is little and unsystematic evidence about whether the content of stereotypes can vary within a culture. Using the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) as a theoretical framework, in two studies we examined the content of stereotypes in an Eastern European culture, namely Romania. Data were collected from four regions prototypical in terms of economic and social development in Romania, and we examined whether the content of stereotypes varies across these regions. As expected, the findings confirm the applicability of the SCM in Romania to reveal culture-specific stereotypes, and provide initial support for within-culture variation in the content of stereotypes...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Caleb T Carr
This research expands on prior research into the effects of religious disclosures on interpersonal attraction by drawing from social identification theory to explain attributions stemming from religious disclosures in professionals' e-mail signature blocks. Participants (N = 268) were randomly exposed to one of three experimental conditions (a Christian, Islamic, or secular quotation in a signature block) and completed measures of social identification and perceptions of professionalism. Results indicate that, contrary to prior research, merely disclosing one's religion does not increase attributions; rather, attributions of a sender's professionalism are positively derived from the receiver's social identification with the sender's religion...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Robin Marie Kowalski, Megan Morgan, Katlyn Taylor
Research has shown the stigma attached to mental disabilities; yet, little research has directly compared the experiences of people with physical disabilities and those with mental disabilities. Not only are both conditions likely perceived as stigmatizing, but the pervasive use of mobile technology may be one means by which people with disabilities can manage and understand their disability. Four hundred eighty seven individuals with physical and/or psychological disabilities completed a survey examining whether they would be willing to use mobile technology to manage their disability, and how stigmatizing they perceived their disability to be...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
James M Bradley, Mahzad Hojjat
This article examined the hypothesis that resilience mediates the relationship between marital satisfaction and a host of relevant variables, including spousal attachment, social support, and affect. Participants were 195 married individuals, who completed online surveys about their marriage. Importantly, the findings indicated that resilience has a direct effect on marital satisfaction. In addition, affect and social support were each shown to indirectly impact satisfaction through resilience. The relationships between spousal attachment, resilience, and satisfaction were more complicated than predicted and are further discussed...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Cristina Aelenei, Céline Darnon, Delphine Martinot
Due to gender socialization, girls are more likely compared to boys to endorse self-transcendence values (e.g., helping people), whereas boys are more likely compared to girls to endorse self-enhancement values (e.g., wanting to be in charge). In two studies, we investigated teachers' judgment regarding the display of these values in school and students' endorsement of the self-transcendence and self-enhancement values in two contexts: home and school. In Study 1 (N = 240), teachers evaluated a student perceived as strongly endorsing the self-transcendence values more positively compared to a student perceived as strongly endorsing the self-enhancement values, regardless of the student's gender...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Marcel S Yoder, Lara K Ault, Maureen A Mathews
Facial attractiveness (FA) is a highly agreed upon and socially important characteristic, but contemporary research has not fully investigated individuals' enhancement of their FA. We used the social relations model (SRM) to analyze data from 187 participants. In face-to-face groups of four, participants rated their own and others' FA. We assessed the degree of FA enhancement using unconfounded measures of both self-insight and social comparison. Results indicated African Americans and men enhanced more than Caucasians and women...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Eugene Tartakovsky, Ayat Abu Kheit
The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area, and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Qingzhou Sun, Yongfang Liu, Huanren Zhang, Jingyi Lu
Individuals are consistently observed to be risk averse over gains and risk seeking over losses. This study examined whether increased social distance would change these behavioral patterns. To test our hypothesis, social distance was manipulated by asking the participants to make decisions either for themselves or for another person (Experiment 1), either for a known person or for an unknown person (Experiment 2), and either for a close friend or for a distant friend (Experiment 3). The results of Experiments 1 and 3 showed that increased social distance made people more risk neutral, and such an effect was stronger in the gain domain than in the loss domain...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Blake Victor Kent
Research on organizational commitment suggests there is an association between American theists' emotional attachment to God and their emotional commitment to the workplace. A sense of divine calling has been shown to partially mediate this association, but beyond that, little is known. The purpose of this study is to shed further light on the relationship between secure attachment to God and affective organizational commitment. I do so by testing whether the employee's religious tradition is associated with affective organizational commitment and whether the employee's firm attributes moderate the relationship between attachment to God and organizational commitment...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
April Bailey, Spencer Kelly
Judging others' power facilitates successful social interaction. Both gender and body posture have been shown to influence judgments of another's power. However, little is known about how these two cues interact when they conflict or how they influence early processing. The present study investigated this question during very early processing of power-related words using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants viewed images of women and men in dominant and submissive postures that were quickly followed by dominant or submissive words...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Luca Caricati
The status-legitimacy hypothesis was tested by analyzing cross-national data about social inequality. Several indicators were used as indexes of social advantage: social class, personal income, and self-position in the social hierarchy. Moreover, inequality and freedom in nations, as indexed by Gini and by the human freedom index were considered. Results from 36 nations worldwide showed no support for the status-legitimacy hypothesis. The perception that income distribution was fair tended to increase as social advantage increased...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Anson E Long, Elizabeth C Pinel, Geneva C Yawger
Ingroup favoritism is pervasive. It emerges even in the minimal group paradigm, where participants are assigned to novel groups based on seemingly insignificant characteristics. Yet many of the grouping schemes used in minimal group research may imply something significant: namely, that ingroup members will share in-the-moment subjective experience, or I-share. Two studies examine the role of inferred I-sharing in the minimal group paradigm. We found that (1) people inferred that they would I-share with ingroup members more than outgroup members; (2) inferred I-sharing increased ingroup favoritism; and (3) inferred I-sharing accounted for this ingroup favoritism...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Silvia Russo, Claudia Manzi, Michele Roccato
Exposure to societal threat can elicit an increase in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In this study, using a quasi-experimental vignette design (Italian community sample, N = 86), we tested the moderating role of self-concept clarity (SCC). A moderated regression showed that manipulated societal threat to safety fostered RWA only among low SCC scorers. It is concluded that SCC is an important resource for individuals facing threat conditions.
September 16, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Michelle Hasan, Eddie M Clark
Individuals lacking fulfilling interpersonal interactions may experience feelings of loneliness. Consequently, these individuals may over-rely on their romantic partners to fulfill the need to belong. This study examined the effects of loneliness and social isolation on dependency on a romantic partner in a sample of college students (N = 104). Participants who were in a romantic relationship completed measures of loneliness, social isolation, and romantic dependency near the beginning of the semester (Time 1) and approximately 6 weeks later toward the end of the semester (Time 2)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
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November 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Martina Smorti, Silvia Guarnieri
The present study examined the contribution of impulsiveness and aggressive and negative emotional driving to the prediction of traffic violations and accidents taking into account potential mediation effects. Three hundred and four young drivers completed self-report measures assessing impulsiveness, aggressive and negative emotional driving, driving violations, and accidents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of impulsiveness on violations and accidents among young drivers through aggressive and negative emotional driving...
November 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Jean M Twenge, Kristin Donnelly
We examined generational differences in reasons for attending college among a nationally representative sample of college students (N = 8 million) entering college between 1971-2014. We validated the items on reasons for attending college against an established measure of extrinsic and intrinsic values among college students in 2014 (n = 189). Millennials (in college 2000s-2010s) and Generation X (1980s-1990s) valued extrinsic reasons for going to college ("to make more money") more, and anti-extrinsic reasons ("to gain a general education and appreciation of ideas") less than Boomers when they were the same age in the 1960s-1970s...
November 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Camilla S Øverup, Clayton Neighbors
Self-presentation represents behaviors used in establishing an identity with others; such behaviors may differ across various interpersonal relationships. The current article presents two studies examining differences in self-presentation to acquaintances, friends, and romantic partners among college students in relationships. Study 1 was an experiment, and Study 2 utilized a within-subject design. Results showed that individuals engaged in more self-presentation in more established types of relationships. Additionally, both closeness and trust served as moderators, such that those lower in closeness/trust reported more self-presentation in more established types of relationships than in less established types of relationships...
November 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
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