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Journal of Social Psychology

Konstantinos Kafetsios, Ursula Hess, John B Nezlek
In two samples, one from Greece and another from Germany, we examined relationships between self-construal, emotional experience, and the quality of social interactions. In Greece, a more collectivistic culture, the negative affect people experienced in social interactions was more weakly related to the quality of social interactions for those higher in interdependent self-construal than it was for those lower in interdependent self-construal. In Germany, a more independent culture, a contrasting pattern was observed such that the positive affect people experienced in social interaction was more strongly related to the quality of social interactions for those higher in independent self-construal than it was for those lower in independent self-construal...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Xiaoming Li, Qiuling Ye, Guoqing Yang
The present study aimed to explore whether emotional dominance can also account for choice deferral. This research manipulated emotional dominance through the difference in attractiveness among current alternatives in Experiment 1 and the readability of fonts for describing current options in Experiment 2, to investigate the role of dominance in choice deferral. The results revealed that increasingly submissive decision environments were related to more choice of deferral options. Mediation analyses indicated that dominance could mediate the effects of experimental manipulations on choice deferral, and that the actual choice of a deferral option was associated with more increase in dominance of retrospective emotion...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Shelly Sadek McCoy, Misaki N Natsuaki
This study investigated changes in risk-taking propensity on a behavioral decision-making task as a function of varying social conditions with peers. In contrast to the effects of direct peer influence (pro-risk and anti-risk messages by peers), we included a socially ambiguous context (neutral messages by peers) and a no-peer control (participants alone) as comparison conditions. Using a counterbalanced mixed factorial design, college students (N = 187) completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth (BART-Y) twice during two consecutive sessions, including once alone and once with a confederate; the control group completed two sessions of the task alone...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
John Tawa
Black, Asian, and White participants (N = 210) created self-resembling avatars and engaged in peer-selection tasks during social events in the virtual world, Second Life, that were designed to simulate various types of resource competition. Participants in merit-based resource competition settings had less diversity in their peer groups compared to participants in settings where no resource competition was present, and Asian participants had lower preference for Black peers. Furthermore, these relationships were mediated by out-group discomfort...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Tobias Greitemeyer, Christina Sagioglou
In most Western societies, wealth inequality is increasing, which in turn could increase people's belief that one's standing is relatively disadvantaged. Based on relative deprivation theory, we argue that such an experience of personal relative deprivation should causally lead to greater interpersonal hostility. Indeed, three experiments show that participants in a personal relative deprivation condition reported higher levels of aggressive affect and behaved more aggressively than did participants in a personal relative gratification condition...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Xiao-Ping Chen, Marion B Eberly, Daniel G Bachrach, Keke Wu, Qing Qu
In this research, we examine the phenomenon of egocentric reciprocity, where individuals protect self-interest by adopting an eye-for-an-eye strategy in negatively imbalanced exchanges, and by taking advantage of overly generous treatment in positively imbalanced exchanges. We conducted two experiments using a modified ultimatum game examining attitudinal and behavioral responses to imbalanced exchanges. The experiments allowed us to explore the moderating role of relational closeness (i.e., whether the game partner was a friend or a stranger) and the mediating role of anger and indebtedness in these moderated relationships...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Martina Hřebíčková, Sylvie Graf, Tamás Tegdes, Ivan Brezina
The content of stereotypes can be shaped by multiple mechanisms, one of them possibly being the "mirroring effect" (Realo et al., 2009; Terracciano & McCrae, 2007). Mirroring describes a phenomenon whereby people rate their ingroup characteristics as opposite to characteristics typical of a relevant outgroup. The aim of our study was to explore mirroring in three intergroup contexts - in national, regional and ethnic stereotypes. In Study 1, 2,241 participants rated national ingroup stereotype and outgroup stereotypes of five Central European countries...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Terrence Glenn Horgan, Marianne Patricia McGrath, Carl Bastien, Patrick Wegman
Which aspects of people's appearance do women remember better than men do? Women were predicted to remember the dress-related items but not the physical characteristics of targets more accurately than men, given that the former might be a more female-relevant domain of interest among perceivers. Participants watched a videotaped target and then completed a surprise test of their memory for her/his appearance. Men were as accurate as women at remembering the target's physical features, but less accurate than woman at recalling what the target was wearing...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Marzena Cypryańska, John B Nezlek, Aleksandra Jaskółowska, Magdalena Maria Formanowicz
Self-humanization is defined as the tendency to view oneself as more essentially human than others. Researchers have claimed that people attribute human nature traits more strongly to themselves than to others, but not uniquely human traits. In this article we suggest that such claims are based on the misinterpretation of results. Most studies have not presented mean comparative judgments, making it impossible to determine whether people thought they possessed characteristics less strongly or more strongly than the average person...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Marzena Cypryańska, John B Nezlek, Aleksandra Jaskółowska, Magdalena Maria Formanowicz
In his reply to our critique of research on self-humanizing, Haslam claims that we used a narrow definition of self-humanizing that ignored the evidence from the correlational research he and his colleagues have done. We disagree. First, we relied upon a definition of self-humanizing based upon comparative judgments that Haslam and colleagues have consistently used. Second, we were well aware of the correlational research he and his colleagues have done. We simply did not think, and do not think, these correlations verified the existence of self-humanizing as defined...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Nick Haslam
Cypryańska and colleagues offer a critique of existing work on the self-humanizing effect and present some empirical findings motivated by their critique. In this commentary, I question their overly restrictive understanding of self-humanizing and argue that the phenomenon does not stand or fall on a definition based on a strict analogy to the better-than-average effect. I argue that defining self-humanizing exclusively in these terms is inappropriate: It fails to recognize the relationship between self-humanizing and self-enhancement, as well as the primary role of trait valence in comparative self-ratings...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
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2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Barbra Zupan, Duncan R Babbage
Film clips and narrative text are useful techniques in eliciting emotion in a laboratory setting but have not been examined side-by-side using the same methodology. This study examined the self-identification of emotions elicited by film clip and narrative text stimuli to confirm that selected stimuli appropriately target the intended emotions. Seventy participants viewed 30 film clips, and 40 additional participants read 30 narrative texts. Participants identified the emotion experienced (happy, sad, angry, fearful, neutral-six stimuli each)...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Eyal Gamliel, Hamutal Kreiner, Todd McElroy
Construal level theory predicts that people will judge immoral events more harshly when these are presented in a way that elicits a higher construal level, relative to a lower construal level. Previous research supported this prediction using an Israeli sample but not a U.S. SAMPLE: This article compared Israeli and U.S. samples with respect to the interactive effect of utility and construal level on unethical behavioral intentions. We found that construal level did not affect unethical behavioral intentions in either the U...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Melissa Burkley, Edward Burkley, Angela Andrade, Angela C Bell
For over 50 years, a debate has existed over the use of Native American sports mascots; however, few empirical studies on the topic exist. The present study examined if supraliminal exposure to Native American mascots results in the application of negative stereotypes toward Native American people. Results indicated that the effect of Native American mascots was moderated by people's racial attitudes toward Native people. When exposed to Native mascots, people with a prejudiced attitude rated a Native American individual more stereotypically aggressive than those with a non-prejudiced attitude...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Loris Vezzali
Two experimental studies were conducted that aimed at testing whether the activation of positive meta-stereotypes among high-status group members involved in conflictual relationships with the low-status group is beneficial for intergroup relations. Results revealed that the activation of positive meta-stereotypes led Italian high-school students (high-status group) to anticipate greater enjoyment of an upcoming interaction with an African immigrant (low-status group) by increasing positive feelings about contact and concerns about being accepted...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Michaela Pfundmair, Nilüfer Aydin, Dieter Frey
The aversive state of social exclusion can result in a broad range of cognitive deficits. Being unable or unmotivated to process relevant information, we assumed that social exclusion would also affect the success of persuasive attempts. We hypothesized that socially excluded people would adopt attitudes regardless of persuasion quality. In three studies using different manipulations of social exclusion and persuasion, we showed that participants who were socially excluded adopted persuasive messages regardless of argument quality...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Rocío Martínez, Rosa Rodriguez-Bailon, Miguel Moya, Jeroen Vaes
The present research examines the relationship between the infrahumanization approach and the two-dimensional model of humanness: an issue that has received very little empirical attention. In Study 1, we created three unknown groups (Humanized, Animalized, and Mechanized) granting/denying them Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU) traits. The attribution of primary/secondary emotions was measured. As expected, participants attributed more secondary emotions to the humanized compared to dehumanized groups...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Cynthia Willis-Esqueda, Rosa Hazel Delgado, Karina Pedroza
Patriotism and threat have been shown to predict immigration attitudes. We suggest that patriotism is influential in producing threat, and such threat drives anti-immigration attitudes, but this relationship is different for Whites and Latinos. All participants completed a patriotism scale (blind and constructive patriotism measures), a threat scale (realistic and symbolic threat), and anti-immigration attitude scale. Latinos showed lower blind patriotism, realistic threat, symbolic threat, and anti-immigration attitudes compared to Whites, with no differences in constructive patriotism...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Agustin Echebarría Echabe, Saioa Perez
An experimental study was designed to ascertain whether three self-motives (death-thoughts avoidance, self-uncertainty reduction, and need-for-control) are irreducible motives or examples of a more basic primary motive with regard to their relationship to life-after-death (LAD) beliefs. The study explored the impact of the three self-motives on adherence to LAD beliefs through three mediators: self-esteem, feelings of disquiet, and thoughts-accessibility (thoughts of death, need-for-control, and uncertainty)...
2017: Journal of Social Psychology
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