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Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Salwa Mansur Ali, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
OBJECTIVES: Whether vertebrates/invertebrates living in polluted environments are an additional source of antimicrobials. KEY FINDINGS: Majority of antimicrobials have been discovered from prokaryotes and those which are of eukaryotic origin are derived mainly from fungal and plant sources. With this in mind, it is important to note that pests, such as cockroaches come across pathogenic bacteria routinely, yet thrive in polluted environments. Other animals, such as snakes thrive from feeding on germ-infested rodents...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Ines van Dooren, Kenn Foubert, Sebastiaan Bijttebier, Annelies Breynaert, Mart Theunis, Vasiliki Exarchou, Magda Claeys, Nina Hermans, Sandra Apers, Luc Pieters
OBJECTIVES: The isolation and identification of the flavonoids present in a decoction of Desmodium adscendens was performed. In view of the oral use of the decoction, this work focused on the stability in gastrointestinal conditions and biotransformation by intestinal microflora in the colon of D-pinitol, vitexin and the flavonoid fraction of the decoction, as a first step in unravelling its behaviour in the human body. METHODS: The freeze-dried decoction was first subjected to column chromatography...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Yong Seong Kim, Young Taek Han, Hoon Jeon, Dong Seok Cha
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the longevity potential of damaurone D (DaD), a component of the damask rose, in the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODS: To investigate the effect of DaD on the longevity, lifespan assay was carried out. Fluorescence intensity of transgenic mutants was quantified to test the expression levels of stress proteins. A genetic study using single gene knockout mutants was designed to determine the target genes of DaD...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Mehmet Evren Okur, Şule Ayla, Derya Çiçek Polat, Mehmet Y Günal, Ayşegül Yoltaş, Özge Biçeroğlu
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the wound healing activity of Capparis ovata var. palaestina fruit extract in mice. For this aim, wound healing, in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, HPLC, phenolic and flavonoid compounds analyses were performed. METHODS: The wound healing effect was tested by excisional wound model. Wound closure was measured for 14 days and at 14th day wound healing was assessed by levels of TGF-β, VEGF, COL1A1 and angiogenesis, granulation tissue thickness, epidermal and dermal regeneration...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Komal M Parmar, Priyanka R Shende, Nitin Katare, Mahaveer Dhobi, Satyendra K Prasad
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate wound healing potential of Solanum xanthocarpum extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Alcoholic extract of the aerial parts (ESX) was subjected to phytochemical estimations and its standardization with chlorogenic acid using HPLC. ESX was then evaluated for wound healing potential in, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using excision and incision wound models on topical and oral treatment Various biochemical evaluations, such as collagen, hexosamine, hyaluronic acid, protein, DNA along with antioxidant parameters, proinflammatory cytokines, VEGF and histopathological examination were also evaluated...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Mia Baxter-Holland, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a multifunctional endogenous glycoprotein, has a very wide range of biological actions, notably in bone homeostasis. The question has been raised regarding the place of PEDF in the treatment of bone disorders and osteosarcoma, and its potential for tumour growth suppression. METHODS: The PubMed database was used to compile this review. KEY FINDINGS: Pigment epithelium-derived factor's actions in osteoid tissues include promoting mesenchymal stem cell commitment to osteoblasts, increasing matrix mineralisation, and promoting osteoblast proliferation...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Sandra Jankovic, Georgia Tsakiridou, Felix Ditzinger, Niklas J Koehl, Daniel J Price, Alexandra-Roxana Ilie, Lida Kalantzi, Kristof Kimpe, René Holm, Anita Nair, Brendan Griffin, Christoph Saal, Martin Kuentz
OBJECTIVES: Solubility parameters have been used for decades in various scientific fields including pharmaceutics. It is, however, still a field of active research both on a conceptual and experimental level. This work addresses the need to review solubility parameter applications in pharmaceutics of poorly water-soluble drugs. KEY FINDINGS: An overview of the different experimental and calculation methods to determine solubility parameters is provided, which covers from classical to modern approaches...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Ranjith Kumar Velusamy, Ramasamy Tamizhselvi
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we have elaborated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MSM through homing of CD34+ stem cells towards an inflamed region by regulating hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in an in vivo model of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) and associated lung injury. METHODS: Male Swiss mice were treated with hourly intraperitoneal injections of caerulein (50 μg/kg) for 6 h. MSM (500 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1 h after the first caerulein injection (therapeutic)...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Mariana Guimarães, Marina Statelova, René Holm, Christos Reppas, Moira Symilllides, Maria Vertzoni, Nikoletta Fotaki
OBJECTIVES: In this review, the current biopharmaceutical approaches for evaluation of oral formulation performance in paediatrics are discussed. KEY FINDINGS: The paediatric gastrointestinal (GI) tract undergoes numerous morphological and physiological changes throughout its development and growth. Some physiological parameters are yet to be investigated, limiting the use of the existing in vitro biopharmaceutical tools to predict the in vivo performance of paediatric formulations...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Raphael N Alolga, Maria A S C Chavez, Moses Muyaba
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the differences in the quality of dried ginger samples obtained from two places in Zambia, Lusaka and Copperbelt in terms of their secondary metabolite differences and heavy metals content. METHODS: Ten and eight batches of dried ginger obtained, respectively, from Lusaka and Copperbelt were analysed using untargeted Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). KEY FINDINGS: The metabolomics approach yielded 11 differential metabolites that clearly discriminated between the samples from the two locations...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Patrick J O'Dwyer, Chara Litou, Karl J Box, Jennifer B Dressman, Edmund S Kostewicz, Martin Kuentz, Christos Reppas
OBJECTIVES: Drug precipitation in vivo poses a significant challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. During the drug development process, the impact of drug supersaturation or precipitation on the in vivo behaviour of drug products is evaluated with in vitro techniques. This review focuses on the small and full scale in vitro methods to assess drug precipitation in the fasted small intestine. KEY FINDINGS: Many methods have been developed in an attempt to evaluate drug precipitation in the fasted state, with varying degrees of complexity and scale...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Letícia J Danielli, Bruna Pippi, Jonathaline A Duarte, Ana J Maciel, William Lopes, Michel M Machado, Luis Flávio S Oliveira, Marilene H Vainstein, Mário L Teixeira, Sérgio A L Bordignon, Alexandre M Fuentefria, Miriam A Apel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal, antichemotactic and antioxidant activities of Schinus lentiscifolius essential oil, as well as its combined effect with terbinafine and ciclopirox, against dermatophytes. METHODS: Essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. The antifungal activity and the mechanism of action were determined by broth microdilution, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, as well as scanning electron microscopy. The checkerboard method was used for evaluating the interactions with commercial antifungal agents...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Joseph P O'Shea, René Holm, Caitriona M O'Driscoll, Brendan T Griffin
OBJECTIVES: Co-ingestion of oral dosage forms with meals can cause substantial changes in bioavailability relative to the fasted state. Food-mediated effects on bioavailability can have significant consequences in drug development, regulatory and clinical settings. To date, the primary focus of research has focused on the ability to mechanistically understand the causes and predict the occurrence of these effects. KEY FINDINGS: The current review describes the mechanisms underpinning the occurrence of food effects, sheds new insights on the relative frequency for newly licensed medicines and describes the various methods by which they can be overcome...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Tatiana Borodina, Irina Marchenko, Daria Trushina, Yulia Volkova, Valerii Shirinian, Igor Zavarzin, Evgeny Kondrakhin, Georgy Kovalev, Mikhail Kovalchuk, Tatiana Bukreeva
OBJECTIVES: Anxiolytic drug zolpidem was incorporated into the microcontainers based on mesoporous calcium carbonate particles modified by diethylaminoethyl-dextran/hyaluronic acid shell. The release of zolpidem in saline solution and in polymer film modelling nasal mucosa was investigated. The anxiolytic effect of zolpidem upon intranasal administration of microcontainers and free medicine was determined by in vivo experiments on mice. METHODS: The structures of all compounds during zolpidem synthesis were established using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Filipe Silveira Duarte, Marcelo Duzzioni, Rafael Luiz Prim, Alcíbia Maia Cardozo, Claudia Regina Dos Santos, Maria Goretti da Silva, Maria Beatriz Cacese Shiozawa, Beatriz Garcia Mendes, Tiago Tizziani, Inês Maria Costa Brighente, Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti, Thereza Christina Monteiro de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether mice develop tolerance to the anxiolytic-like and anticonvulsant effects of subchronic treatment with EA (the styryl-2-pyrones and dihydrostyryl-2-pyrones-rich fraction of Polygala sabulosa), as well as any withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation; to compare the effects of EA with those of diazepam (DZP) on withdrawal-induced anxiety; and to evaluate the toxicity of EA according to OECD guidelines. METHODS: Male or female mice were acutely or subchronically treated with EA or DZP, and their tolerance to anxiolytic (evaluated in the elevated plus maze, EPM) and anticonvulsant effects (measured against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions) were investigated...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Ran Kim, Seokyeon Lee, Chang Youn Lee, Hwayoung Yun, Hojin Lee, Min Young Lee, Jongmin Kim, Jee-Young Jeong, Kyungmin Baek, Woochul Chang
OBJECTIVES: To validate the enhanced therapeutic effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) for brain ischemic stroke through the anti-apoptotic and survival ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: The viability and the expression level of cell apoptotic and survival-related proteins in MSCs by treatment of SM were assessed in vitro. In addition, the infarcted brain region and the behavioural changes after treatment of MSCs with SM were confirmed in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) models...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Karolina Bogatko, Ewa Poleszak, Aleksandra Szopa, Elżbieta Wyska, Piotr Wlaź, Katarzyna Świąder, Aleksandra Wlaź, Urszula Doboszewska, Karol Rojek, Anna Serefko
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of our study was to investigate whether a selective antagonism of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors is able to enhance the antidepressant activity of commonly prescribed drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All experiments were carried out on male Albino Swiss mice. The forced swim test and the tail suspension test were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like potential. Drug concentrations in animals' serum and brains were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Tsz Yan Wong, Yan Qin Tan, Shu-Mei Lin, Lai K Leung
OBJECTIVES: Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended to hypercholesterolaemic patients. In this study, the hypocholesterolaemic effect of apigenin and luteolin was evaluated in a hamster model. METHODS: Hamsters were put on a high-cholesterol diet for 9 weeks, and apigenin or luteolin was administered in the diet at 60 and 300 ppm. KEY FINDINGS: Both apigenin and luteolin supplementations could attenuate the aorta plaque formation by 30% and 20%, respectively...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Shubhajit Paul, Paul Wan Sia Heng, Lai Wah Chan
OBJECTIVES: Chlorin e6 is a poorly water-soluble photoactive drug. Its monomers form aggregates at the tumour physiological pH, which drastically reduces its photodynamic efficacy. This study aimed to improve the dissolution rate and photodynamic efficacy of chlorin e6 by nanosuspension formulation using biodegradable sucrose esters as drug carrier. METHODS: A modified emulsion-solvent diffusion method was used to prepare the nanosuspension, where amount of Ce6, ratio of sucrose monopalmitate to sucrose monolaurate as carrier and ratio of dichloromethane to acetone as solvent, were varied using central composite design...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Eri Minanimo-Muta, Takao Kato, Tetsuo Shioi, Yohei Tanada, Takeshi Kimura
OBJECTIVES: Excessive use of uncoupling agents, previously used as weight loss agents, has led to the increase in body temperature and death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute cardiac effects of mitochondrial protonophore in a rat model at a high dose, and its specific influence on cardiac substrate uptake. METHODS: Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenyl hydrazone (CCCP; 4 mg/kg) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide)...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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