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Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925030/drug-repurposing-may-generate-novel-approaches-to-treating-depression
#1
REVIEW
Mohamed Elsaed Ebada
OBJECTIVES: The breakthrough advancements in scientific medical research have greatly improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, encouraging drug discoverers to take a shorter path than ever through drug repurposing to generate new antidepressant medications. In addition to reduced noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain, other coincidence features such as glutamate neurotoxicity, inflammation and/or cerebrovascular insufficiency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder and late-life depression...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879679/antioxidant-activity-of-oleuropein-and-semisynthetic-acetyl-derivatives-determined-by-measuring-malondialdehyde-in-rat-brain
#2
Milena Rizzo, Domenica Ventrice, Francesca Giannetto, Salvatore Cirinnà, Natale Alfredo Santagati, Antonio Procopio, Vincenzo Mollace, Carolina Muscoli
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of natural and semisynthetic polyphenol derivatives from Olea europea L., by assessing malondialdehyde (MDA), an important marker of oxidative stress. METHODS: Polyphenol as hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone as mix of four tautomeric forms and their respective acetyl-derivatives were obtained from olive leaves using semisynthetic protocols. These compounds were administered intraperitoneally to Wistar rats treated with paraquat, an herbicide which is able to cause oxidative stress after central administration...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872694/alkaline-extractive-crude-polysaccharide-from-russula-senecis-possesses-antioxidant-potential-and-stimulates-innate-immunity-response
#3
Somanjana Khatua, Krishnendu Acharya
OBJECTIVES: Over past decades, investigation on bioactive polysaccharides extracted from mushroom by heated water reflux has been an emerging field of biomedicine especially in the area of immune stimulation. While studies with macromolecules isolated from remainder residue of aqueous extraction are scarce. In this context, crude polysaccharide from a traditionally edible macrofungus, Russula senecis, was prepared (RuseCap) by alkaline solvent using leftover residue of that conventional process and its structural along with therapeutic properties were evaluated...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872689/metabolic-interactions-between-acetaminophen-paracetamol-and-two-flavonoids-luteolin-and-quercetin-through-in-vitro-inhibition-studies
#4
Lei Cao, Awewura Kwara, David J Greenblatt
OBJECTIVES: Excessive exposure to acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) can cause liver injury through formation of a reactive metabolite that depletes hepatic glutathione and causes hepatocellular oxidative stress and damage. Generation of this metabolite is mediated by Cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoforms, mainly CYP2E1. A number of naturally occurring flavonoids can mitigate APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Our objective was to determine the mechanism of these protective effects and to evaluate possible human applicability...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872688/liposomal-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-is-taken-up-by-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-and-stimulates-local-and-systemic-immune-responses
#5
Kan Kaneko, Arlene McDowell, Yasuyuki Ishii, Sarah Hook
OBJECTIVES: α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid that exhibits potent immunostimulatory effects through activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells, can be used to treat conditions such as atopy, cancer, infection and autoimmunity. Administration of therapeutics through the oral route has advantages such as patient convenience, safety and reduced cost; however, there has been little research to investigate whether oral delivery of α-GalCer is possible. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether α-GalCer formulated in either DMSO/Tween 80 or in liposomes, could access lymphoid tissue and stimulate immune activation following oral administration...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872687/development-of-extended-release-solid-dispersion-granules-of-tacrolimus-evaluation-of-release-mechanism-and-human-oral-bioavailability
#6
Daisuke Tsunashima, Kazunari Yamashita, Ken-Ichi Ogawara, Kazuhiro Sako, Tadashi Hakomori, Kazutaka Higaki
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prepare a once-daily modified-release oral formulation of tacrolimus by utilizing an extended-release granules (ERG). METHODS: Extended-release granules were prepared using ethylcellulose (EC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and lactose via a solvent evaporation method with ethanol. Physicochemical and biopharmaceutical studies were performed to determine the formulation with optimum release profile of tacrolimus from ERG. KEY FINDINGS: Tacrolimus existed in an amorphous state in ERG...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872686/weak-bones-in-diabetes-mellitus-an-update-on-pharmaceutical-treatment-options
#7
REVIEW
Daphne P L Lin, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus is often associated with a number of complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and foot ulcers. However, weak bone is a diabetic complication that is often overlooked. Although the exact mechanism for weak bones within diabetes mellitus is unclear, studies have shown that the mechanism does differ in both type I (T1DM) and type II diabetes (T2DM). This review, however, investigates the application of mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, teriparatide, insulin administration and the effectiveness of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-ϒ modulator, netoglitazone in the context of diabetic weak bones...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872683/phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-potential-of-cassia-absus-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Saeed Ahmad, Ayesha Hassan, Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi, Tayyeba Rehman
OBJECTIVES: Cassia absus is a plant of the family fabaceae with Ayurvedic ethnomedical records. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, cough, conjunctivitis, leucoderma, renal and hepatic diseases, constipation, tumors, venereal ulcer, headache, hemorrhoids and wound healing. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies have provided valuable scientific evidence for its use. This review aims to summarize reported pharmacognosy, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological potential of C...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872682/%C3%AE-2-himachalen-6-ol-protects-against-skin-cancer-development-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#9
Hamid E Daaboul, Costantine F Daher, Robin I Taleb, Joelle Boulos, Kikki Bodman-Smith, Petra Boukamp, Wassim N Shebaby, Carol Dagher, Mirvat El-Sibai, Mohamad A Mroueh
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) possesses remarkable in-vitro anticancer activity and antitumour promoting effect against DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis in mice. Chemical analysis of DCOE led to the isolation of the β-2-himachalen-6-ol (HC), major sesquiterpene with a potent anticancer activity against various colon, breast, brain and skin cancer cells. This study investigated the anticancer activity of HC against invasive epidermal squamous cell carcinoma cells and evaluated its effect in a DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis Balb/c murine model...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872681/development-of-a-direct-contact-astrocyte-human-cerebral-microvessel-endothelial-cells-blood-brain-barrier-coculture-model
#10
Chris Kulczar, Kelsey E Lubin, Sylvia Lefebvre, Donald W Miller, Gregory T Knipp
OBJECTIVES: In conventional in-vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models, primary and immortalized brain microvessel endothelial cell (BMEC) lines are often cultured in a monolayer or indirect coculture or triculture configurations with astrocytes or pericytes, for screening permeation of therapeutic or potentially neurotoxic compounds. In each of these cases, the physiological relevancy associated with the direct contact between the BMECs, pericytes and astrocytes that form the BBB and resulting synergistic interactions are lost...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872680/current-and-novel-anti-inflammatory-drug-targets-for-inhibition-of-cytokines-and-leucocyte-recruitment-in-rheumatic-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Doreen E Szollosi, Mohammed K Manzoor, Andrea Aquilato, Patricia Jackson, Ola M Ghoneim, Ivan O Edafiogho
OBJECTIVES: Many studies of disease state mechanisms reveal that unbridled inflammation is to blame for many of the symptoms associated with autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). While therapies aimed at decreasing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines exist, some have failed clinically or have extensive adverse effects. The aim of this review is to discuss common drug targets for anti-inflammatory therapies as well as explore potential mechanisms of action for new therapies...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872678/characterization-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-itraconazole-solid-dispersions-prepared-by-solvent-controlled-precipitation-and-spray-dry-methods
#12
Taehoon Sim, Chaemin Lim, Jun Won Lee, Dong Wuk Kim, Youngsam Kim, Minsoo Kim, Seungmok Choi, Han-Gon Choi, Eun Seong Lee, Kil-Soo Kim, Wonku Kang, Kyung Taek Oh
OBJECTIVES: Solid dispersion formulations have attracted attention to improve solubility and bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. In this study, the variation of solubility and bioavailability by different preparation methods were studied using itraconazole (ITZ) solid dispersions. METHODS: Itraconazole solid dispersions were prepared by a solvent-controlled precipitation method (SCPM) using HPMCAS-LF, HCl antisolvent or a spray-drying method (SDM) for comparison...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872677/immunogenicity-assessment-during-the-development-of-protein-therapeutics
#13
REVIEW
Amy S Rosenberg, Zuben E Sauna
OBJECTIVE: Here we provide a critical review of the state of the art with respect to non-clinical assessments of immunogenicity for therapeutic proteins. KEY FINDINGS: The number of studies on immunogenicity published annually has more than doubled in the last 5 years. The science and technology, which have reached a critical mass, provide multiple of non-clinical approaches (computational, in vitro, ex vivo and animal models) to first predict and then to modify or eliminate T-cell or B-cell epitopes via de-immunization strategies...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836276/the-expression-localization-and-function-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-rat-corpus
#14
Hedyeh Faghir-Ghanesefat, Nastaran Rahimi, Fatemeh Yarmohammadi, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Ali Reza Abdollahi, Shahram Ejtemaei Mehr, Ahmad R Dehpour
OBJECTIVES: Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), an emerging pharmacological target for a variety of medical conditions, is expressed in the most mammalian tissues with different effects. So, this study was designed to investigate the expression, localization and effect of α7-nAChR in rat corpus cavernosum (CC). METHODS & KEY FINDINGS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that α7-nAChR was expressed in rat CC and double immunofluorescence studies demonstrated the presence of α7-nAChR in corporal neurons...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836273/clotrimazole-microemulsion-and-microemulsion-based-gel-evaluation-of-buccal-drug-delivery-and-irritancy-using-chick-chorioallantoic-membrane-as-the-model
#15
Jarika Kaewbanjong, Paul Wan Sia Heng, Prapaporn Boonme
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of clotrimazole microemulsion (CTZ-ME) and its gel form, clotrimazole microemulsion-based gel (CTZ-MBG), for the treatment of oral candidiasis. METHODS: CTZ-ME and CTZ-MBG were characterized for droplet size and texture, respectively. The ex-vivo permeation study and irritancy assessment of CTZ-ME and CTZ-MBG were performed using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as the model. Antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10 231 of CTZ-ME and CTZ-MBG was determined by agar diffusion method compared to the blank counterparts...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815602/efficacy-and-safety-of-amphotericin-b-formulations-a-network-meta-analysis-and-a-multicriteria-decision-analysis
#16
Fernanda S Tonin, Laiza M Steimbach, Helena H Borba, Andreia C Sanches, Astrid Wiens, Roberto Pontarolo, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos
OBJECTIVES: Despite its broad spectrum, conventional amphotericin B (AB) is associated with serious adverse events. Lipid-based formulations may offer safer options. We aimed to synthesize the evidence of efficacy and safety of AB formulations. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare all available formulations: conventional AB; lipid complex or ABLC; colloidal dispersion or ABCD; liposomal or LAB; AB in Intralipid. Randomized controlled trials were searched in four databases...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815601/antimicrobial-synergism-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-citrus-limon-l-piper-nigrum-l-and-melaleuca-alternifolia-maiden-and-betche-cheel-essential-oils
#17
Miloš M Nikolić, Katarina K Jovanović, Tatjana Lj Marković, Dejan Lj Marković, Nevenka N Gligorijević, Siniša S Radulović, Marina Kostić, Jasmina M Glamočlija, Marina D Soković
OBJECTIVES: The chemical composition, antimicrobial and synergistic effect, and cytotoxic activity of Citrus limon (lemon), Piper nigrum (green pepper) and Melaleuca alternifoila (tea tree) essential oils (EOs) were investigated. METHODS: Chemical analyses of essential oils were tested by GC-FID and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity assay was conducted using microdilution method against several oral bacteria and Candida spp. originating from the humans with oral disorders...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809448/improved-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-attributes-of-artemether-lumefantrine-loaded-solid-smedds-for-oral-administration
#18
Sameer Bhandari, Vikram Bhandari, Jatin Sood, Sunil Jaswal, Vikas Rana, Neena Bedi, Rakesh Sehgal, Ashok K Tiwary
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in-vivo efficacy of solid SMEDDS containing combination of artemether and lumefantrine. METHODS: Formulation development of solid SMEDDS containing combination of artemether and lumefantrine was carried out using spray drying technique. These S-SMEDDS were evaluated for reduction in parasitemia and mortality as well as subacute toxicity in mice. Haematology, biochemical parameters and histopathology were performed for evaluating safety of formulation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809447/pulmonary-delivery-of-tea-tree-oil-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-inclusion-complexes-for-the-treatment-of-fungal-and-bacterial-pneumonia
#19
Miao Li, Lifei Zhu, Tongtong Zhang, Boming Liu, Lina Du, Yiguang Jin
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial pneumonia is a common cause of death worldwide. Tea tree oil (TTO) is a potent antimicrobial natural product, which is formulated in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for the treatment of fungal and bacterial pneumonia. METHODS: Tea tree oil-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (TTO-β-CD) were prepared and characterized. Aerodynamic properties of TTO-β-CD powders were measured. The rat models of fungal (Candida albicans) and bacterial (Acinetobacter baumannii) pneumonia were prepared...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809444/circannual-variation-of-mitotane-and-its-metabolites-plasma-levels-in-patients-with-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#20
Jessica Cusato, Silvia De Francia, Sarah Allegra, Simona Carrella, Elisa Pirro, Francesca Maria Piccione, Francesca De Martino, Anna Ferrero, Fulvia Claudia Daffara, Massimo Terzolo, Alfredo Berruti, Francesco Di Carlo, Marco Tampellini, Antonio D'Avolio
OBJECTIVES: Mitotane is the reference drug for the adrenocortical carcinoma treatment; its pharmacological activity seems to depend on drug transformation in two active metabolites: o,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenylethene) and o,p'-DDA (dichlorodiphenylacetate). Mitotane and metabolites are lipophilic agents; thus, they tend to accumulate into adipose tissues (white and brown), which change their prevalence seasonally. Aim of the work was to evaluate mitotane and metabolites plasma levels variation over the year, in adrenocortical cancer patients treated with Lysodren(®) for at least 6 months...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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