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Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness

Mark A Faghy, Mitch Lomax, Peter I Brown
BACKGROUND: Swimming requires sustained high performance, with limited recovery between heats, recovery strategies are essential to performance but are often self-regulated and sub- optimal. Accordingly, we investigated a physiologically determined recovery protocol. METHODS: Fifteen (m=9, f=6) international junior age group swimmers participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 15.8 ± 1.5 years. All participants completed a lactate elevation protocol (8 x 50 m sprints), followed by one of three recovery strategies, 1) velocity at lactate threshold (VLT), 2) coach prescribed protocol (COA) and 3) national governing body recommendations (NGB) and thereafter a 200-m time trial...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Asuman Saltan, Gül Baltaci, Handan Ankarali
BACKGROUND: The foot and ankle are important factors that provide balance and functional performance in older adults at risk of falling. It is important that proper posture of the foot via techniques such as taping and orthoses to increase contact with the ground. The purpose of this study was to investigate for a two-week period and prolonged effects (fourteen days) of 'Kinesio' tape on the level of functional performance, balance, muscle strength of the lower extremities, pain, and functional independence when 'Kinesio' tape was applied to the foot and ankle of older adults...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Jorge Arede, Rafael Vaz, Alberto Franceschi, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Nuno Leite
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an in-season strength and conditioning program on physical abilities in under-16 sub-elite basketball players. METHODS: Sixteen young male basketball players were assessed using countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), 10-meters sprint and Pro Agility test, before and after an 8-week in-season strength and conditioning program. Both the control group (BASK; n = 7) and the experimental group (SC; n = 9) were involved in regular basketball practice; additionally, the SC group performed 4 sessions per week of training intervention considering post-match days and prior days to next match...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Silvio Tafuri, Giuseppe Salatino, Paolo Napoletano, Antonio Monno, Angela Notarnicola
BACKGROUND: CrossFit is a strength and conditioning training program, that begin very popular in the last ten years. One of the most concerned characteristics of model is the high intensity activity performed under fatigue conditions that was proposed as potential risk of injuries; current literature on this topic was not conclusive. The purpose of this research was to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study carried out by an anonymous, self administered questionnaire in a convenience sample of CrossFit athletes...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Youcun Su, Jing Wang, Minghui Quan
BACKGROUND: Recent animal and clinical studies report that exercise training exert positive influences in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To give insight into the molecular mechanisms of the improvement effects, we performed gene expression analysis. METHODS: Three GEO datasets were analyzed, including peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) gene expression profiles of exercise training in men and patients with PAH...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Maria C Madueno, Joshua H Guy, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan
INTRODUCTION: Repeated-sprinting involves performing frequent short sprints (≤ 10 s) interspersed with brief recovery periods (≤ 60 s). Studies involving repeated-sprint protocols have typically employed active or passive recovery modes applied between running and cycling sprints. This review synthesized the literature to determine the acute physiological, perceptual, and performance effects of recovery mode applied between repeated-sprints during running and cycling protocols. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Robbie G Cochrum, Ryan T Conners, John M Coons
BACKGROUND: The impact of barefoot running and footwear choice on running economy (RE; steady state oxygen consumption) is heavily debated. Therefore, this study measured RE when running barefoot versus two shod conditions. METHODS: Recreational male runners (N = 8) with experience running in both five- toed minimal (FTMS) and standard cushioned running shoes (SCRS), participated in RE trials while barefoot, FTMS, and SCRS for 5 minutes each trial at both 50% and 70% of speed at VO2max (sVO2max), while RE and step frequency (Sf) were measured...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Matteo Cortesi, Giorgio Gatta, Ian Swaine, Paola Zamparo, Maria Konstantaki
INTRODUCTION: The first widely-available dry-land training machines for swimmers were introduced about 40 years ago. They were designed so that swimmers could perform resistance exercise whilst more-closely replicating the movements of swimming, than when using other gymnasium-based resistance training machines. These machines were subsequently adapted and used as measurement tools (ergometers) in an array swimming research studies. This narrative review categorises and summarises what has been shown by the research studies that have utilised this laboratory-based ergometry...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Charlie L Chen, Shujing Lan, Qian Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Ida Wiszomirska, Izabela Rutkowska, Waldemar Skowroński
BACKGROUND: Proper balance is crucial for postural control and physical activity performance. Issues related to balance as well as effects of various factors on balance are in the centre of attention of specialists in a number of fields including sport. Research results show that every sports discipline demands different motor preparation (including balance) and persons with visual impairments exhibit worse balance compared to their sighted counterparts. Therefore, this study sought to assess static balance in athletes with visual impairments with reference to the type of sport they did, the length of their training experience, training loadsand dysfunction level...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ettore Marini, Pietro G Mariani, Stefano Ministrini, Roberto Pippi, Cristina Aiello, Elisa Reginato, Donatella Siepi, Salvatore Innocente, Rita Lombardini, Rita Paltriccia, Meisam N Kararoudi, Graziana Lupattelli, Pierpaolo De Feo, Leonella Pasqualini
BACKGROUND: Exercise intervention improves macrovascular function in Metabolic Syndrome (MeS) patients, but few studies have evaluated the effect of exercise on microcirculatory dysfunction, which plays a key role in the development of MeS and its correlated organ damage. We carried out this intervention study to evaluate the influence of an aerobic and resistance training on skin microvascular reactivity in MeS patients. METHODS: Post-Occlusive Reactive Hyperemia (PORH) of the forearm skin was evaluated, by laser- Doppler flowmetry, before and after a 12-week program of aerobic and resistance training in 15 MeS patients referring to our Lipid Metabolism Outpatients Clinic, together with anthropometric, fitness and metabolic parameters; 15 matched MeS patients who did not exercise, served as a control group...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Piero Volpi, Alessandro Quaglia, Giulia Carimati, Stefano Petrillo, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
AIM: The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of hip and knee arthroplasty in Italian male professional football (soccer) players who have played for a minimum 10 years in the Italian major football leagues. METHODS: The study group was formed by 104 male professional football players who were interviewed to evaluate the incidence of hip and knee arthroplasty. The data were collected through a questionnaire and the results collected were compared with a control group of 100 volunteers matched for age, weight and height, who did not present orthopaedic diseases but had never practiced sport...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Connor Read, Christopher Beaumont, Jonathan Isbell, Alex Dombrowsky, Eugene Brabston, Brent Ponce, Heath Hale, Kennieth Mccollough, Reed Estes, Amit Momaya
BACKGROUND: Injury documentation and prevention has largely focused on the athletes participating in the sporting event. However, spectators are at risk for injury as well depending on the sport and venue. No study to date has recorded and analyzed spectator injuries in sports. The purpose of this study was to document spectator injuries across different sports METHODS: Scholarly articles and internet search engines were used to generate a list of spectator injuries across a variety of sports...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Shirley S Fong, Leanne L Ng, Ada W Ma, Hsing-Kuo Wang, Young-Hyeon Bae, Timothy T Yam, W K Kam, Joanne W Chung
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the influence of kinesiology taping (KT), various overhead stroke techniques, and their interactions on shoulder girdle muscle activity and on sports performance in badminton players with shoulder impingement syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-five amateur badminton players with shoulder impingement syndrome participated in the study. Each was exposed to two KT conditions (no taping and taping) while performing four badminton strokes (defensive clear, attacking clear, smash, and drop shot) in a random order...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Andrzej Klusiewicz, Michał Starczewski, Dorota Sadowska, Maria Ładyga
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different kinds of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on work capacity and selected spirometric indices in trained male cross-country skiers. METHODS: The study involved 13 competitively trained, elite Polish male cross-country skiers. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups who completed 7 weeks of RMT: one with gradually increasing resistance (power RMT) and the other with constant resistance (endurance RMT)...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Zachary T Splinter, Patrick B Wilson
BACKGROUND: A common recommendation for assessing resting metabolic rate (RMR) is that measurements be undertaken while avoiding activities like reading and listening to music. Listening to music, however, is sometimes used to reduce boredom or keep subjects awake, although it remains unclear whether music significantly alters RMR. METHODS: This randomized crossover trial enrolled 32 subjects and examined the impact of relaxing music during RMR tests. Indirect calorimetry was used to quantify RMR, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production (VCO2), ventilation (VE), respiratory rate, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER); the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and boredom- excitement scale (BES) assessed perceptual responses...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Yosuke Tsuchiya, Hisashi Ueda, Eisuke Ochi
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the relationship between muscle fiber recruitment and the magnitude of muscle damage by isotonic eccentric contractions (ECCs). METHODS: Ten healthy men (age: 27.2 ± 6.0 y, height: 174. 0 ± 5.3 cm, body mass 70.1 ± 2.1 kg) were recruited in this study. Subjects performed 30 ECCs of the elbow flexors using a dumbbell adjusted to 40% and 80% one Repetition Maximum of each individual. The dependent variables maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), cross-sectional area (CSA) and transverse relaxation time (T2) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were measured immediately before, immediately after and 1, 3, and 5 days after each exercise...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Gerald S Zavorsky, Wendy L Newton
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable debate as to whether sexual activity prior to an athletic event can affect physical performance. The goal of the study was to determine if sexual activity the evening before several physical performance tests affected the results compared to the same performance tests after five days of abstinence. METHODS: Ten, monogamous, married young men (28 ± 7 years old, body mass index = 25.5 ± 2.7 kg/m2) underwent a six-physical performance / balance /agility tests (forearm grip strength, balance, lateral movement, reaction time, anaerobic power, and maximal oxygen uptake) on three different days...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Robert Prill, Robert Schulz, Sven Michel
OBJECTIVES: The symptomatic reduction of exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is of great interest in the fields of Sports Medicine and Physical Therapy. At this time, few therapeutic interventions have proven their effectiveness. One of the most promising interventions is Compression Therapy. The object of this study is Tissue Flossing, a therapeutic short-term compression method and whether its post-exercise application can reduce the extent of perceived DOMS. DESIGN: randomized, controlled, and double-blind pilot cross-over trial...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Jerrold Petrofsky, Michael Laymon, Haneul Lee
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that ageing and diabetes are associated with reduced balance and impaired gait. However, one important factor may be not just balance, but how long it takes to achieve balance equilibrium after a balance challenge. This study examined the relationship between balance, tremor, and time to achieve balance after a challenge to stability in young and old individuals without and without diabetes. METHODS: Twenty-four of the subjects were young controls, 22 were older controls, 23 were individuals with diabetes, and 21 were young people with diabetes...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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