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Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

Antonio Di Matteo, Rosa Russo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Claudio Di Vaio
BACKGROUND: Characterizing germplasm collections of autochthonous cultivars for fruit quality traits could be a successful approach for selection, enhance the organoleptic quality and the level of antioxidants of crop produce, develop new market opportunity and coherent strategies of conservation and valorization. The aim of the study was the evaluation of fruit physico-chemical traits as well as the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in 25 sweet cherry autochthonous cultivars...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Clara Martín-Fernández, Sandra López-Rayo, Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza, Juan J Lucena
BACKGROUND: An efficient use of Fe chelates is crucial to avoid environmental risks and reduce economic losses. The HBED/Fe(3+) has been recently approved by the EU for soil fertilization, but studies delving into the best timing for its application are necessary. In this work, a batch incubation experiment and two biological experiments were developed to determine the optimal physiological stage for a sustainable application of HBED/Fe(3+) in soil fertilization compared with EDDHA/Fe(3+) fertilizers using (57) Fe...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
XianJun Yuan, AiYou Wen, Seare T Desta, ZhiHao Dong, Tao Shao
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of 4 chemical compounds with antimicrobial property on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage. RESULTS: Potassium diformate and formic acid rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Gema Flores, Gracia Patricia Blanch, María Luisa Ruiz Del Castillo
BACKGROUND: The nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Oon Ha Shin, Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
BACKGROUND: The importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesized that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration. RESULTS: The results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xu Han, Zhihui Cheng, Huanwen Meng
BACKGROUND: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered to be a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilise this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development. RESULTS: The effect of decomposed garlic stalk for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Urtzi Leibar, Inmaculada Pascual, Fermín Morales, Ana Aizpurua, Olatz Unamunzaga
BACKGROUND: Global warming influence on grape quality is a great concern among grapegrowers and enologists. The effects of simulated year 2100 expected CO2 , T and RH conditions (FCC; 700 µmol CO2 /mol air, 28/18 °C day/night and 33/53% RH, day/night) vs. the current condition situation (Curr; 390 µmol CO2 /mol air, 24/14 °C and 45/65% RH); well-irrigated vs. expected future water deficits and three soils with different clay contents (41, 19 and 8%) on yield and berry quality of grapevine cv...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xiao-Peng Wang, Xin-Huai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Glycation of food proteins via the Maillard reaction is widely studied in the recent years; however, saccharide amount connected into proteins is usually not determined. An enzymatic galactose assay was proposed firstly in this study to detect lactose glycation extents of caseinate and soybean protein isolate (SPI) during the Maillard reaction at two temperatures and different times. RESULTS: The separated glycated proteins were hydrolyzed to release galactose necessary for the enzymatic assay and glycation calculation...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zhenbin Wang, Qing Wang, Lin Wang, Weidong Xu, Yuanqing He, Yunliang Li, Song He, Haile Ma
BACKGROUND: Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) has been demonstrated to have positive effect on skin photo-aging by topical application or oral ingestion. However, there's little report about its influence on skin chronological aging so far. RESULTS: Nine-month-old female ICR mice were given normal AIN-93M diets containing the CHs (2.5%, 5% and 10%, respectively) from Nile tilapia scale. After 6 months, the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly increased (p < 0...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Isabelle Dm Gangnat, Pierre-Alain Dufey, Paolo Silacci, Jessika Messadene-Chelali, Michael Kreuzer, Joel Berard
BACKGROUND: Compared to weaned calves, nursed calves benefit from access to milk as nutrient-dense feed and mentoring by their dams. Both may be decisive for growth under difficult conditions such as grazing on alpine pastures, where experience will play an essential role. These factors were investigated separately by comparing nursed calves with calves weaned at 3 months of age and grazing with or without mentor cow (n = 8 calves). RESULTS: Weaned calves with mentor cows spent less time lying and walked more than nursed calves...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jiangang Liu, Guangyao Wang, Qingquan Chu, Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: The nitrogen significantly increases the maize yield; however, the unreasonable use of nitrogen is common in China. An analysis of crop yield gaps can reveal the limiting factors for yield improvement; however, there's a lack of practical strategies for narrowing the yield gaps of household farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the yield gap of summer maize using an integrative method and to develop strategies for narrowing the maize yield gap through precise nitrogen fertilization...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Qunying Lin, Liangkun Long, Liangliang Wu, Fenglun Zhang, Shuling Wu, Weiming Zhang, Xiaoming Sun
BACKGROUND: In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), usually cereal grains were utilized as cultivation substrates. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Massimiliano Alessandrini, Federica Gaiotti, Nicola Belfiore, Fabiola Matarese, Claudio D'Onofrio, Diego Tomasi
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors have been acknowledged as greatly influencing grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has been scarcely debated in literature, to date. In this study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). RESULTS: The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest one (200 m a...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Thomas F Boudreau, Gregory M Peck, Sean F O'Keefe, Amanda C Stewart
BACKGROUND: Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation, but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. This study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S(0) ), (known to result in increased H2 S in wine), fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples)...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Wen-Hua Yang, Zong-Cai Tu, Hui Wang, Xue Li, Ming Tian
BACKGROUND: Hen's egg is widely used in food industry due to its excellent nutritional and processing properties, and Ovalbumin (OVA) is the major allergen of hen's egg white. Ultrasound has been widely used in food processing industry, but effect of high intensity ultrasound on the immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding and conformational structure of OVA remains unclear. RESULTS: Ultrasound treatment at 600 - 800 W dramatically increased the IgG and IgE binding of OVA with the highest values observed at 600 W...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ehsan Mottaghianpour, Firouzeh Nazari, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), as a toxic fungal metabolite, can be found in baby foods, which can lead to serious complications for children's health. In this study, 48 commercial baby foods available in the Iranian market were investigated for the presence of AFB1 , using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with post-column photochemical derivatization and a fluorescence detector. RESULTS: In this study, 33 out of 48 samples (68...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
J Luo, L Y Shen, H G Lei, K P Zhu, Y Z Jiang, L Bai, M Z Li, G Q Tang, X W Li, S H Zhang, L Zhu
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations among muscle concentration of three glycometabolic-related hormones (insulin, epinephrine and glucagon), muscle glycolysis and meat quality in representative muscles of either glycolytic or oxidative types. Moreover, the relative glycometabolic-related gene expression was measured. One Western crossbreed DLY (Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)), one crossbreed with half-Chinese native-pig origin DL (Duroc × LiangShan) and one pure Chinese native pig TP (Tibetan pig) were used in this study...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kostas Ioannidis, Eleni Melliou, Paraskevi Alizoti, Prokopios Magiatis
BACKGROUND: Recently published studies have demonstrated the strong anti-inflammatory properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) heartwood extracts, related to its stilbene content. In order to find alternative sources of Pinus heartwood extracts rich in stilbenes, a large number of samples was investigated, using a new developed high throughput screening method based on qNMR. RESULTS: The new method enabled us to measure the levels of pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether and pinosylvin dimethylether in heartwood extracts in only 45 seconds per sample...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Maja Turinek, Martina Bavec, Milan Repič, Matjaž Turinek, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, Christian Moellers, Alba Tres, Franc Bavec
BACKGROUND: Organic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. 'Siska' seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Khouloud Saidani, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Bruno Eto, Lamjed Marzouki
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the effects of immature carob pods aqueous extract (ICPAE) on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro and in vivo using an oral glucose tolerance test as well as the potential anti-diabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried by administering of glucose (2g kg(-1) , p.o.) and after treatment with extract (50, 100 and 200mg kg(-1) , b.w.). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150mg kg(-1) )...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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