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Journal of Psychiatric Research

Luiza Wanick Di Giorgio Silva, Danielle Aprigio, Jesse Di Giacomo, Mariana Gongora, Henning Budde, Juliana Bittencourt, Mauricio Cagy, Silmar Teixeira, Pedro Ribeiro, Marcele Regine de Carvalho, Rafael Freire, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Luis Fernando Basile, Bruna Velasques
Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by repeated and unexpected attacks of intense anxiety, which are not restricted to a determined situation or circumstance. The coherence function has been used to investigate the communication among brain structures through the quantitative EEG (qEEG). The objective of this study is to analyze if there is a difference in frontoparietal gamma coherence (GC) between panic disorder patients (PDP) and healthy controls (HC) during the Visual oddball paradigm; and verify if high levels of anxiety (produced by a computer simulation) affect PDP's working memory...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Hans C van Mierlo, Catharina G K Wichers, Yujie He, Marjolein A M Sneeboer, Timothy R D J Radstake, René S Kahn, Jasper C A Broen, Lot D de Witte
Recent imaging studies have suggested that accelerated aging occurs in schizophrenia. However, the exact cause of these findings is still unclear. In this study we measured telomere length, a marker for cell senescence, in gray and white matter brain tissue from the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) of 9 patients with schizophrenia and 11 controls. No alterations in telomere length were found in MFG gray and white matter and in STG gray matter. A significant reduction in telomere length was observed in STG white matter of patients with schizophrenia as compared to controls (fold change of -0...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Menachem Ben-Ezra, Yaira Hamama-Raz, Michal Mahat-Shamir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Gislaine Z Réus, Gabrielly C Fernandes, Airam B de Moura, Ritele H Silva, Ana Caroline Darabas, Thays G de Souza, Helena M Abelaira, Celso Carneiro, Diogo Wendhausen, Monique Michels, Bruna Pescador, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Danielle S Macêdo, João Quevedo
This study used an animal model of depression induced by maternal care deprivation (MCD) to investigate whether depressive behaviour, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were underlying factors in developmental programming after early life stress. At postnatal days (PND) 20, 30, 40, and 60, individual subsets of animals were evaluated in behavioural tests and then euthanized to assess cytokine levels and oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and serum. The results showed that MCD did not induce behavioural changes at PND 30 and 40...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Zhangying Wu, Xiaomei Zhong, Qi Peng, Ben Chen, Naikeng Mai, Yuping Ning
Negative bias in cognition is closely associated with susceptibility to recurrent episodes of depression. Given the high recurrence rate of depression, previous studies have focused on the attentive level in late-life depression (LLD), but depression relapse is difficult to detect as a lower chief complaint in elderly people. Facial expression mismatch negativity (EMMN) is a tool that can measure cognitive bias in pre-attentive processing. In this study, we sought to explore the cognitive bias in pre-attentive emotional information processing in LLD...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Anna Butjosa, Juana Gómez-Benito, Inez Myin-Germeys, Ana Barajas, Iris Baños, Judith Usall, Norma Grau, Luis Granell, Andrea Sola, Janina Carlson, Montserrat Dolz, Bernardo Sánchez, Josep Maria Haro, Susana Ochoa
Stressful life events (SLEs) are important indicators prior to the onset of first-episode psychosis (FEP). Although there are well-validated interviews and self-reports for assessing SLE on proximate events, unfortunately there are no instruments to assess SLE covering an entire lifetime. This study includes detailed specific items of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood focused on the presence of SLE, emotional impact (stressfulness), and the age at which the event occurred. Our research describes 2 studies designed to develop and validate a new scale to assess SLE: the Questionnaire of Stressful Life Events (QSLE)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Andres R Schneeberger, Eva Kowalinski, Daniela Fröhlich, Katrin Schröder, Stefanie von Felten, Martin Zinkler, Karl H Beine, Andreas Heinz, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Donald A Bux, Christian G Huber
Aggressive behavior and violence in psychiatric patients have often been quoted to justify more restrictive settings in psychiatric facilities. However, the effects of open vs. locked door policies on aggressive incidents remain unclear. This study had a naturalistic observational design and analyzed the occurrence of aggressive behavior as well as the use of seclusion or restraint in 21 German hospitals. The analysis included data from 1998 to 2012 and contained a total of n = 314,330 cases, either treated in one of 17 hospitals with (n = 68,135) or in one of 4 hospitals without an open door policy (n = 246,195)...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Claudio Gentili, Simone Messerotti Benvenuti, Daniela Palomba, Alberto Greco, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza
BACKGROUND: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is reduced both in depression and in coronary heart disease (CHD) suggesting common pathophysiological mechanisms for the two disorders. Within CHD, cardiac surgery patients (CSP) with postoperative depression are at greater risk of adverse cardiac events. Therefore, CSP would especially benefit from depression early diagnosis. Here we tested whether HRV-multi-feature analysis discriminates CSP with or without depression and provides an effective estimation of symptoms severity...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Diana M Lindquist, Ruth H Asch, Jennifer D Schurdak, Robert K McNamara
Evidence from (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS) studies suggest that different psychiatric disorders, which typically emerge during adolescence and young adulthood, are associated with abnormalities in mitochondrial bioenergetics and membrane phospholipid metabolism. These disorders are also associated with deficits in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which accumulates in mitochondrial and synaptic membranes. The present study investigated the effects of dietary-induced alterations in brain DHA accrual during adolescence on phospholipid metabolism and bioenergetics in the adult rat brain using (31)P MRS...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Michaela C Pascoe, David R Thompson, Zoe M Jenkins, Chantal F Ski
Meditation is a popular form of stress management, argued to mediate stress reactivity. However, many studies in this field commonly fail to include an active control group. Given the frequency with which people are selecting meditation as a form of self-management, it is important to validate if the practice is effective in mediating stress-reactivity using well-controlled studies. Thus, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis investigating the neurobiological effects of meditation, including focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending subtypes, compared to an active control, on markers of stress...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Tyler M Moore, Victoria B Risbrough, Dewleen G Baker, Gerald E Larson, Daniel E Glenn, Caroline M Nievergelt, Adam Maihofer, Allison M Port, Chad T Jackson, Kosha Ruparel, Ruben C Gur
The Marine Resiliency Study-II examined changes in symptomatology across a deployment cycle to Afghanistan. U.S. Servicemembers (N = 1041) received clinical testing at two time points either bracketing a deployment (855) or not (186). Factor analyses were used to generate summary and change scores from Time 1 to Time 2. A between-subject design was used to examine changes across the deployment cycle with deployment (low-trauma, high-trauma, and non-deployed) and social support (low vs. high) as the grouping variables...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Bianca Besteher, Christian Gaser, Robert Spalthoff, Igor Nenadić
Urbanicity has been linked to several psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest effects of urban upbringing and stress on brain structure and function. Here, we used surface-based and voxel-based morphometry to study the effects of urban upbringing in different environments on variation in brain structure in a non-clinical sample. We recruited 85 young and healthy individuals from the community and recorded urban vs. rural background in their first 15 years of live. All participants underwent T1-weighted 3T MRI, which were then processed via CAT12 toolbox (in SPM12) to analyse cortical volume, thickness and gyrification...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jingjing Xu, Rui Wang, Yuan Liu, Dexiang Liu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan
Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Anthony T Fojo, Katherine L Musliner, Peter P Zandi, Scott L Zeger
For psychiatric diseases, rich information exists in the serial measurement of mental health symptom scores. We present a precision medicine framework for using the trajectories of multiple symptoms to make personalized predictions about future symptoms and related psychiatric events. Our approach fits a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimates a population-average trajectory for all symptoms and individual deviations from the average trajectory, then fits a second model that uses individual symptom trajectories to estimate the risk of experiencing an event...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Sanjoy Ghosh, Roger A Dyer, Clare L Beasley
Brain imaging suggests that white matter abnormalities, including compromised white matter integrity in the frontal lobe, are shared across bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the precise molecular and cellular correlates remain to be elucidated. Given evidence for widespread alterations in cell membrane lipid composition in both disorders, we sought to investigate whether lipid composition is disturbed in frontal white matter in SCZ and BD. The phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were quantified in white matter adjacent to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in subjects with BD (n = 34), SCZ (n = 35), and non-psychiatric controls (n = 35) using high-pressure liquid chromatography...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Izabela Guimarães Barbosa, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Gokay Alpak, Erica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Rodrigo Barreto Huguet, Fabio Lopes Rocha, Breno Satler de Oliveira Diniz, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
AIM: Although accelerated aging profile has been described in bipolar disorder (BD), the biology linking BD and aging is still largely unknown. Reduced levels and/or activity of a protein named Klotho is associated with decreased life span, premature aging and occurrence of age-related diseases. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate plasma levels of Klotho in BD patients and controls. METHODS: Forty patients with type 1 BD and 30 controls were enrolled in this study...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jennifer C Kanady, Adriane M Soehner, Alexandra B Klein, Allison G Harvey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Vaitsa Giannouli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
K Droppa, H T Karim, D L Tudorascu, J F Karp, C F Reynolds, H J Aizenstein, M A Butters
Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with cognitive impairments and reduced gray matter volume (GMV); however the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in depression severity, cognitive function, and brain structure associated with pharmacologic antidepressant treatment for LLD. We administered a detailed neurocognitive battery and conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on 26 individuals with LLD, pre-/post-a 12-week treatment trial with venlafaxine...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Patricia Gassó, Sergi Mas, Natalia Rodríguez, Daniel Boloc, Susana García-Cerro, Miquel Bernardo, Amalia Lafuente, Eduard Parellada
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a chronic psychiatric disorder whose onset of symptoms occurs in late adolescence and early adulthood. The etiology is complex and involves important gene-environment interactions. Microarray gene-expression studies on SZ have identified alterations in several biological processes. The heterogeneity in the results can be attributed to the use of different sample types and other important confounding factors including age, illness chronicity and antipsychotic exposure. The aim of the present microarray study was to analyze, for the first time to our knowledge, differences in gene expression profiles in 18 fibroblast (FCLs) and 14 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and healthy controls...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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