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Journal of Psychiatric Research

Deepthi Venugopal, Venkataram Shivakumar, Manjula Subbanna, Sunil V Kalmady, Anekal C Amaresha, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Moinak Banerjee, Monojit Debnath, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Immunopathogenesis of schizophrenia has emerged as one of the predominant research paradigms in recent times. Based on the altered serum levels as well as gene expression, IL-6 has been considered as a peripheral biomarker of schizophrenia. However, the precise mechanism underlying the altered expression of IL6 in schizophrenia is inadequately known. Given the profound influence of environmental factors on schizophrenia risk, it is important to understand the effect of epigenetic changes on schizophrenia risk...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Creatine has been shown to play a significant role in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the biological mechanisms underlying its antidepressant effect is still not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effect of creatine (p.o.) administered for 21 days in the behavior of mice submitted to tail suspension test (TST), a predictive test of antidepressant activity. Creatine reduced the immobility time in the TST (1-10 mg/kg), without affecting locomotor activity, a finding consistent with an antidepressant profile...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Michal Hajdúk, Philip D Harvey, David L Penn, Amy E Pinkham
Social cognitive deficits are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and have been confirmed by several meta-analyses; however, the uniformity of these impairments across individuals remains unknown. The present study evaluated the heterogeneity of social cognitive impairment. A secondary aim was to identify a subset of measures to quickly identify those individuals who are most in need of remediation. Two independent samples of people with schizophrenia (n = 176; n = 178) and their respective healthy control groups (n = 104; n = 154) were selected from two phases of the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) project, which assessed multiple domains of social cognition...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
E Finzi, L Kels, J Axelowitz, B Shaver, C Eberlein, T H Krueger, M A Wollmer
We and others have recently found that botulinum toxin injected into the brow muscles has significant antidepressant properties as compared to placebo in randomized controlled trials in patients with major depressive disorder. However, data for the treatment of bipolar depression with botulinum toxin is lacking. We report here six patients with bipolar disorder experiencing moderate to severe depressive episodes who were treated on a compassionate basis with botulinum toxin given their persistent depressive symptoms and adverse side effects from medications...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Caroline W Oppenheimer, Lindsey B Stone, Benjamin L Hankin
Family factors are associated with suicidal behavior in youth, but little is known about how the joint influence of multiple family factors prospectively predicts onsets of suicidal ideation (SI) in adolescence, a developmental period characterized by increases in SI and risk for suicide. This study investigated whether parent history of SI interacted with either positive or negative parent-child relationship quality to longitudinally predict time to SI onsets during the transition into and across adolescence...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Alessandra Minelli, Chiara Magri, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Massimo Gennarelli
Childhood trauma (CT) increases the likelihood of developing severe mental illnesses, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), during adulthood. Several studies have suggested an inflammatory immune system dysregulation as a biological mediator; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship remain largely undetermined. Moreover, different types of CT, in particular, emotional abuse and neglect, confer a higher risk of developing MDD, and recent meta-analyses showed that each CT can be associated with different pro-inflammatory biomarkers...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Giuseppina Patriciello, Valeria Ruzzi, Monica Cimino, Chiara Del Giorno, Luca Steardo, Palmiero Monteleone, Mario Maj
Exposure to trauma in the childhood and abnormal interpersonal stress reactivity are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN), which suggests a possible role of the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Although an effect of early traumatic experiences on the cortisol awakening response has been proved in patients with AN, the consequences of childhood trauma exposure on HPA axis reactivity to psychosocial stressors has been never investigated in such individuals. Therefore, we have assessed emotional and cortisol responses to an acute psycho-social stress in AN patients with a history of childhood trauma exposure...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
L Ustohal, N Hlavacova, M Mayerova, E Ceskova, D Jezova
We have previously shown that patients with severe depressive episode exhibit higher aldosterone concentrations compared to those with moderate depressive episode. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that circulating concentration of aldosterone reflect the clinical state in patients with schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 36 hospitalized patients (25 men, 11 women) with the first episode or long-term course of schizophrenia. The severity of psychopathology was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Eloise Crush, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt, Andrea Danese, Avshalom Caspi, Sara R Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Helen L Fisher
Experiencing multiple types of victimization (poly-victimization) during adolescence is associated with the onset of psychotic experiences (such as hearing voices, having visions, or being extremely paranoid). However, many poly-victimized adolescents will not develop such subclinical phenomena and the factors that protect them are unknown. This study investigated whether individual, family, or community-level characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic experiences amongst poly-victimized adolescents...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Cliff Lin, Vasiliki Michopoulos, Abigail Powers, Aliza P Wingo, Ann Schwartz, Bekh Bradley, Kerry J Ressler, Charles F Gillespie
Positive and negative affect are both associated with health outcomes. Using validated measures, we examined associations between affect, self-reported measures of health, and objective measures of systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional sample of outpatient subjects recruited from an urban county hospital. Participants (n = 1055) recruited from the Grady Trauma Project in Atlanta, GA underwent standardized interviews including self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms and physical health. A subset (n = 246) consented to an assay of serum C-reactive protein (CRP)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Federico M Daray, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Suicide and nonfatal suicidal behaviors are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Variability in rates of suicide and suicidal behaviors within and between countries has been attributed to population and individual risk factors, including economic status and cultural differences, both of which can have suicide risk effects mediated through a variety of factors, of which perhaps the least understood is the role of diet. We therefore review the scientific literature concerning two major dietary lipid classes, cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), that have been associated with higher risk of suicide attempts and suicide...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Roseann F Titcombe-Parekh, Jingyun Chen, Nadia Rahman, Nicole Kouri, Meng Qian, Meng Li, Richard A Bryant, Charles R Marmar, Adam D Brown
Cognitive models suggest that posttraumtic stress disorder (PTSD) is maintained, in part, as a result of an individual's maladaptive beliefs about one's ability to cope with current and future stress. These models are consistent with considerable findings showing a link between low levels of self-efficacy and PTSD. A growing body of work has demonstrated that perceptions of self-efficacy can be enhanced experimentally in healthy subjects and participants with PTSD, and increasing levels of self-efficacy improves performance on cognitive, affective, and problem-solving tasks...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Pedro Zuzarte, Gustavo Scola, Angela Duong, Kari Kostiw, Maria L Figueira, Atilio Costa-Vitali
Depression and anxiety are prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF). Reduced ejection fraction (EF) and increased N-terminal-prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been shown to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may therefore increase HF disease progression and mortality. This study evaluated whether NT-proBNP mediated the impact of reduced EF on depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with HF. Participants (n = 124) were patients with a diagnosis of chronic HF enrolled in the Heart Failure Disease Management Program at Health Sciences North...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Nicola S Klein, Gea A Holtman, Claudi L H Bockting, Martijn W Heymans, Huibert Burger
OBJECTIVES: Many studies examined predictors of depressive relapse/recurrence but no simple tool based on well-established risk factors is available that estimates the risk within an individual. We developed and validated such a prediction tool in remitted recurrently depressed individuals. METHODS: The tool was developed using data (n = 235) from a pragmatic randomised controlled trial in remitted recurrently depressed participants and externally validated using data (n = 209) from a similar randomised controlled trial of remitted recurrently depressed participants using maintenance antidepressants...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
E Kjelby, R Gjestad, I Sinkeviciute, R A Kroken, E-M Løberg, H A Jørgensen, E Johnsen
Depression is common in schizophrenia and associated with negative outcomes. Previous studies have identified heterogeneity in treatment response in schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate different trajectories of depression in patients suffering from psychosis and predictors of change in depressive symptoms during antipsychotic treatment. Two hundred and twenty-six patients >18 years acutely admitted due to psychosis were consecutively included and the follow-up was 27 weeks. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) sum score was the primary outcome...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Julio Rodríguez-López, Gerardo Flórez, Vanessa Blanco, César Pereiro, José Manuel Fernández, Emilio Fariñas, Valentín Estévez, Jesús Gómez-Trigo, Xaquín Gurriarán, Raquel Calvo, Pilar Sáiz, Fernando Lino Vázquez, Manuel Arrojo, Javier Costas
Genetics plays an important role in alcohol abuse/dependence. Its heritability has been estimated as 45-65%. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) have been confirmed as relevant genetic factors in other neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or Tourette syndrome. In the present study, we analyzed the role of rare CNVs affecting exons of coding genes in a sample from Northwest Spain genotyped using the Illumina Infinium PsychArray Beadchip. After rigorous genotyping quality control procedure, 712 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 804 controls were used for CNV detection...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Annakarina Mundorf, Judith Schmitz, Onur Güntürkün, Nadja Freund, Sebastian Ocklenburg
New findings identified the MORC1 gene as a link between early life stress and major depression. In this study, MORC1 methylation was investigated in 60 healthy human adults (30 women, 30 men) between 19 and 33 years of age. For analysis, DNA was isolated from buccal cells. The results show that DNA methylation in the MORC1 promoter region significantly correlates with the Beck Depression Inventory score in the examined non-clinical population. Sum score of birth complications, however, seems to correlate negatively with methylation...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Juliana M Sartori, Ramiro Reckziegel, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Leticia S Czepielewski, Adam Fijtman, Leonardo A Sodré, Raffael Massuda, Pedro D Goi, Miréia Vianna-Sulzbach, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Flávio Kapczinski, Benson Mwangi, Clarissa S Gama
Neuroimaging studies have been steadily explored in Bipolar Disorder (BD) in the last decades. Neuroanatomical changes tend to be more pronounced in patients with repeated episodes. Although the role of such changes in cognition and memory is well established, daily-life functioning impairments bulge among the consequences of the proposed progression. The objective of this study was to analyze MRI volumetric modifications in BD and healthy controls (HC) as possible predictors of daily-life functioning through a machine learning approach...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Cristiano A Köhler, Evangelos Evangelou, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Lazaros Belbasis, Beatrice Bortolato, Matias C A Melo, Camila A Coelho, Brisa S Fernandes, Mark Olfson, John P A Ioannidis, André F Carvalho
The development of depression may involve a complex interplay of environmental and genetic risk factors. PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched from inception through August 3, 2017, to identify meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization (MR) studies of environmental risk factors associated with depression. For each eligible meta-analysis, we estimated the summary effect size and its 95% confidence interval (CI) by random-effects modeling, the 95% prediction interval, heterogeneity with I2 , and evidence of small-study effects and excess significance bias...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Bethan Dalton, Savani Bartholdy, Lauren Robinson, Marco Solmi, Mohammad A A Ibrahim, Gerome Breen, Ulrike Schmidt, Hubertus Himmerich
Cytokines are signalling molecules, which play an important role in both immune system function and brain development and function, and subsequently mental states and behaviour. Cytokines have been implicated in eating disorders (EDs) due to their role in psychological health, body weight and appetite regulation. This meta-analysis examined cross-sectional and longitudinal studies measuring concentrations of cytokines in individuals with EDs. Using PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed relevant articles in PubMed, Web of Science, and MEDLINE...
August 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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