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Journal of Psychiatric Research

Lærke Stensgaard, Maria Kreutzmann Andersen, Merete Nordentoft, Carsten Hjorthøj
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the implementation of the Safewards model reduces the frequency of coercive measures in adult psychiatric inpatient units. Data on all coercive measures performed in psychiatric hospitals in the Region of Southern Denmark 1/1/2012-31/3/2017 were collected retrospectively through The Register of Coercive Measures in Psychiatric Treatment. Interrupted time series analysis by segmented regressions with poisson models were performed on overall coercive measures (n = 12,660), mechanical restraint (n = 2948) and forced sedation (n = 4373)...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Naser Ahmadi, Lori Moss, Peter Hauser, Charles Nemeroff, Nutan Atre-Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are prevalent and frequently comorbid. Approximately 42-48% of patients with PTSD also meet diagnostic criteria for MDD. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (mECT) has been found to be efficacious for the prevention of recurrence of MDD. This study investigated the efficacy of mECT in the treatment of MDD with and without comorbid syndromal PTSD. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 36 patients, 26 with MDD and 10 with comorbid MDD & PTSD receiving monthly mECT for a mean of 1...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Adam Dinoff, Nathan Herrmann, Walter Swardfager, Damien Gallagher, Krista L Lanctôt
Exercise interventions have been shown to successfully improve depression in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but like other forms of antidepressant treatment, exercise is not effective in all patients and its mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key mediator of neurogenesis and neuronal survival, has been shown to be decreased in individuals with MDD. One potential mechanism by which exercise alleviates depression is through an increase in BDNF...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Shintaro Ogawa, Shoko Tsuchimine, Hiroshi Kunugi
Altered monoaminergic functions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depressive disorder. However, previously reported cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations in major depression have been inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of historic evidence to determine whether CSF monoamine metabolite levels were different between patients with depression and normal controls, and could be used as depression biomarkers. Relevant studies that investigated CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels in patients with depression and normal controls were identified in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase databases through September 5, 2017, using a synonymous search for depression, CSF, normal, control, and each monoamine metabolite name, and in the reference lists of the acquired articles...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Simon Morand-Beaulieu, Kieron P O'Connor, Pierre J Blanchet, Marc E Lavoie
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) constitutes an empirically based treatment for tic disorders (TD), but much remains to be learned about its impact at the neural level. Therefore, we examined the electrophysiological correlates of CBT in TD patients, and we evaluated the utility of event-related potentials (ERP) as predictors of CBT outcome. ERPs were recorded during a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task in 26 TD patients and 26 healthy controls. Recordings were performed twice, before and after CBT in TD patients, and with a similar time interval in healthy controls...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Britta Stapel, Irina Sieve, Christine S Falk, Stefan Bleich, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Kai G Kahl
Schizophrenia and major depression are associated with alterations in peripheral inflammatory markers, and anti-inflammatory therapy has been proposed as a promising add-on approach in the pharmacologic treatment of both disorders. Second-generation atypical antipsychotics are currently first-line drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia and are also used as augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant major depression. Furthermore, these drugs have been reported to exhibit distinct metabolic side effects and to influence inflammatory processes...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jian Zhang, Wanjun Luo, Pengcheng Huang, Linrui Peng, Qitao Huang
The pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is unclear. Increasing evidence has suggested maternal immune system dysregulation may be implicated in offspring's early brain development and related to an increased risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association of maternal CRP and cytokine levels with offspring's neuropsychiatric disorders. We identified relevant studies following a search of PubMed, Web of Science, EMbase database between January 1971 and February 2018...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Masako Ohara, Masahiro Nakatochi, Takashi Okada, Branko Aleksic, Yukako Nakamura, Tomoko Shiino, Aya Yamauchi, Chika Kubota, Mako Morikawa, Satomi Murase, Setsuko Goto, Atsuko Kanai, Ryuji Kato, Masahiko Ando, Norio Ozaki
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have reported associations between bonding failure, depression, social support among mothers, and perceived rearing, the causal relationships remain unclear. METHODS: A total of 855 women (mean age, 32.4 ± 4.4 years) completed the Mother-Infant Bonding Questionnaire (MIBQ), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Japanese version of the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Parental Bonding Instrument in early pregnancy before week 25 (T1) and at 1 month after delivery (T2)...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Keri Ka-Yee Wong, Adrian Raine, Peter Venables
OBJECTIVE: Negative home environments are associated with both schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and crime, but whether this is due to the social or cognitive sequelae of such environments is unclear. This study investigates the effect of early home environments on adult mental health. METHOD: Using data from the Mauritius Child Health Project, a multiple time-point prospective study where all children born in 1969 in two towns (Quatre Bornes and Vacaos) were recruited at age 3 years (N = 1794), a group of children left home alone at age 3 (n = 34) were compared to children cared for by siblings/relatives (n = 222), or by mothers (n = 1498) on antisocial behavior and schizotypal personality at ages 11, 17, and 23 years...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ying Wang, Guanmao Chen, Shuming Zhong, Yanbin Jia, Liu Xia, Shunkai Lai, Lianping Zhao, Li Huang, Tiebang Liu
Disturbed hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, which leads to excessive and prolonged hypercortisolemia, is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationships between depression, brain structure and function, and cortisol levels are unclear. The current study examined the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with MDD and evaluated the association between functional connectivity and serum cortisol levels in MDD. A total of 93 unmedicated patients with MDD and 139 healthy control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Apoorva Bhandari, Jennifer I Lissemore, Tarek K Rajji, Benoit H Mulsant, Robin F H Cash, Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Jordan F Karp, Eric J Lenze, Charles F Reynolds, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
BACKGROUND: Studies using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a non-invasive method of brain stimulation, have implicated impaired neuroplasticity in the pathophysiology of depression in younger adults. The role of neuroplasticity in late-life depression (LLD) has not yet been explored using TMS. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating motor cortical neuroplasticity using paired associative stimulation (PAS). Single-pulse TMS was used to induce motor-evoked potentials (MEP) in the contralateral hand muscle before and after PAS...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Wei Zheng, Dong-Bin Cai, Xin-Hu Yang, Lu Li, Qing-E Zhang, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Xian-Bin Li, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Hui Ai, Marie-José van Tol, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Dick J Veltman, Henricus G Ruhé, Nic J A van der Wee, Esther M Opmeer, André Aleman
Suicidal behavior is highly prevalent in major depressive disorder (MDD), though not present in all patients. It is unclear whether the tendency for suicidal behavior is associated with a unique functional neuroanatomical signature identifiable through neuroimaging. In this study, we investigated brain activation in suicidal and non-suicidal patients with MDD during facial emotion processing and executive control. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from the NESDA-fMRI study (MDD patients N = 103, healthy controls N = 26, HC) were analyzed...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Kate E M Godfrey, Abby C Gardner, Sarah Kwon, William Chea, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
Dysfunction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate neurotransmitter systems have increasingly been implicated in the aetiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). It has been proposed that alterations in GABA and/or glutamate result in an imbalance of inhibition and excitation. In a review of the current literature, we identified studies using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to examine the neurotransmitters GABA, glutamate, and the composite glutamate/glutamine measure Glx in patients diagnosed with MDD and healthy controls...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Guilherme Borges, Corina Benjet, Ricardo Orozco, Maria Elena Medina-Mora
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies have documented a large co-occurrence of alcohol, drug and tobacco use and disorders with mood, anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders. Longitudinal research among adolescents is much more limited and inconsistent. We tested for possible prospective associations of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use and disorders with an array of anxiety, mood and disruptive behavior disorders from adolescence to early adulthood. METHODS: We estimated prospective associations from a follow-up conducted in 2013 (n = 1071; ages 19-26) of the original Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey conducted in 2005 (ages 12-17), by using Relative Risk (RR) estimates...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Alyson Zwicker, Chiara Fabbri, Marcella Rietschel, Joanna Hauser, Ole Mors, Wolfgang Maier, Astrid Zobel, Anne Farmer, Katherine J Aitchison, Peter McGuffin, Cathryn M Lewis, Rudolf Uher
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may play an important role in depression and its treatment. A previous study found that increased C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, is associated with worse response to the serotonergic antidepressant escitalopram and better response to the noradrenergic antidepressant nortriptyline. It is unclear whether this reflects genetic disposition to inflammation. METHODS: We analyzed genotype data and weekly Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores (MADRS) from 755 unrelated individuals obtained over a 12-week period in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
I Wielaard, M L Stek, H C Comijs, D Rhebergen
Controversy exists concerning the reliability of retrospective self-reports on childhood abuse since this method might be subject to under- or overreporting. Until now, no studies have been done in older adults, although reasons for under- or overreporting could be even more prominent in this age group. In this first study in older adults, test-retest reliability of retrospective measurements on childhood abuse and the influence of age, cognitive functioning and depression on this test-retest reliability was investigated...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Carlos Blanco, Melanie M Wall, Wilson M Compton, Shoshana Kahana, Tianshu Feng, Tulshi Saha, Jennifer C Elliott, H Irene Hall, Bridget F Grant
We used the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 34,653), to estimate the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV status. The diagnostic interview used was the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version. We found that in 2012-2013, the prevalence of a history of HIV testing was 53.0% among females and 47.0% among males. Among individuals tested, the prevalence of HIV was 1...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Gang Wang, Wei Zheng, Xian-Bin Li, Shi-Bin Wang, Dong-Bin Cai, Xin-Hu Yang, Gabor S Ungvari, Yu-Tao Xiang, Christoph U Correll
Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is common and debilitating. A subgroup of patients even has clozapine-resistant schizophrenia (CRS). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) augmentation of clozapine for CRS. Systematic literature search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on ECT augmentation of clozapine in CRS. Co-primary outcomes included symptomatic improvement at post-ECT assessment and study endpoint. Eighteen RCTs (n = 1769) with 20 active treatment arms were identified and meta-analyzed...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ragy R Girgis, Anthony W Zoghbi, Daniel C Javitt, Jeffrey A Lieberman
Since the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950's, antipsychotic drugs have been the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and all attenuate dopamine transmission at the dopamine-2 receptor. Drug development for schizophrenia since that time has led to improvements in side effects and tolerability, and limited improvements in efficacy, with the exception of clozapine. However, the reasons for clozapine's greater efficacy remain unclear, despite the great efforts and resources invested therewith. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to determine the fate of previously tested, non-dopamine-2 receptor experimental treatments...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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