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Journal of Psychiatric Research

Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Søren Brage, Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a validated measure of sympato-vagal balance in the autonomic nervous system. HRV appears decreased in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals, but the extent of state-related alterations has been sparingly investigated. The present study examined differences in HRV between affective states in BD. A heart rate and movement sensor weighing 8 g collected average acceleration, heart rate and the two slowest and fastest heart beats (of the most recent 16 beats) every 30 s over a period of at least three consecutive weekdays and nights in a prospective longitudinal design from a total of 31 different affective states in 16 outpatients with BD...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ian H Stanley, Thomas E Joiner, Craig J Bryan
Research has demonstrated a robust link between traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and suicide risk. Yet, few studies have investigated factors that account for this link. Utilizing a clinical sample of deployed military personnel, this study aimed to examine a serial meditation model of anger and depression in the association of mild TBI and suicide risk. A total of 149 military service members referred for evaluation/treatment of a suspected head injury at a military hospital participated in the present study (92...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Steve Kisely, Karolina Katarzyna Alichniewicz, Emma B Black, Dan Siskind, Geoffrey Spurling, Maree Toombs
Indigenous populations are considered at higher risk of psychiatric disorder but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies that compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in Indigenous populations in the Americas with those of non-Indigenous groups with similar socio-demographic features (Registration number: CRD42015025854). A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and article bibliographies was performed...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Eric D Hill, Maria Petukhova, Ben Y Reis, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
Growing concerns exist about violent crimes perpetrated by U.S. military personnel. Although interventions exist to reduce violent crimes in high-risk populations, optimal implementation requires evidence-based targeting. The goal of the current study was to use machine learning methods (stepwise and penalized regression; random forests) to develop models to predict minor violent crime perpetration among U.S. Army soldiers. Predictors were abstracted from administrative data available for all 975,057 soldiers in the U...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Minkyung Park, Laura E Newman, Philip W Gold, David A Luckenbaugh, Peixiong Yuan, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Carlos A Zarate
Several pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in depression and in antidepressant response. This exploratory analysis assessed: 1) the extent to which baseline cytokine levels predicted positive antidepressant response to ketamine; 2) whether ketamine responders experienced acute changes in cytokine levels not observed in non-responders; and 3) whether ketamine lowered levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, analogous to the impact of other antidepressants. Data from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) who received a single infusion of sub-anesthetic dose ketamine were used (N = 80)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Thaíse Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
BACKGROUND: It is known that sleep disturbance has been considered a trait-marker of mood disorders. However, the role of disruptions in biological rhythms, such as eating, activity, and social patterns, needs to be better understood. AIM: To assess the differences in biological rhythms in subjects with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy controls. We also tested the association between disruptions of biological rhythms and circadian preferences...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
John R Keefe, Jay Amsterdam, Qing S Li, Irene Soeller, Robert DeRubeis, Jun J Mao
OBJECTIVE: Patient expectancies are hypothesized to contribute to the efficacy and side effects of psychiatric treatments, but little research has investigated this hypothesis in the context of psychopharmacological therapies for anxiety. We prospectively investigated whether expectancies predicted efficacy and adverse events in oral therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), controlling for confounding patient characteristics correlating with outcomes. METHODS: Expectancies regarding treatment efficacy and side effects were assessed at baseline of an eight week open-label phase of a trial of chamomile for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jeremy G Stewart, Erika C Esposito, Catherine R Glenn, Stephen E Gilman, Bryan Pridgen, Joseph Gold, Randy P Auerbach
Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13-18 years (M = 15...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
B Etain, M Lajnef, F Bellivier, C Henry, K M'bailara, J P Kahn, M Leboyer, H L Fisher
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been associated with a more severe clinical expression of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the results that specifically associated traumatic events and psychotic features in BD have been inconsistent, possibly due to the low resolution of the phenotypes being used. METHODS: 270 normothymic patients with BD completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Peters Delusion Inventory (PDI) that assessed 21 delusional beliefs...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann Wichmann, Tobias Stalder, Kevin Hilbert, Markus Muehlhan, Ulrike Lueken, Katja Beesdo-Baum
Studies investigating cortisol secretion in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have reported heterogeneous findings. Further, current knowledge on the specificity of endocrine changes for GAD and/or comorbid major depression (MD) is limited. Hence, the current study investigated long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as indexed by hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity in relation to GAD, MD and their comorbidity. Carefully characterized groups of 17 GAD patients including 8 with comorbid MD (GAD-MD), 12 MD patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Vanja Rozenblat, Deborah Ong, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Kirsti Akkermann, David Collier, Rutger C M E Engels, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Jaanus Harro, Judith R Homberg, Andreas Karwautz, Evelyn Kiive, Kelly L Klump, Christine L Larson, Sarah E Racine, Jodie Richardson, Howard Steiger, Scott F Stoltenberg, Tatjana van Strien, Gudrun Wagner, Janet Treasure, Isabel Krug
OBJECTIVES: To summarize and synthesize the growing gene x environment (GxE) research investigating the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) in the eating disorders (ED) field, and overcome the common limitation of low sample size, by undertaking a systematic review followed by a secondary data meta-analysis of studies identified by the review. METHOD: A systematic review of articles using PsycINFO, PubMed, and EMBASE was undertaken to identify studies investigating the interaction between 5-HTTLPR and an environmental or psychological factor, with an ED-related outcome variable...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Leopoldo J Cabassa, David Camacho, Carolina M Vélez-Grau, Ana Stefancic
Health interventions delivered by peer specialists or co-facilitated by peer specialists and health professionals can help improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). Yet, the quality of the studies examining these health interventions and their impact on health outcomes remains unclear. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-based health interventions for people with SMI. We rated the methodological quality of studies, summarized intervention strategies and health outcomes, and evaluated the inclusion of racial and ethnic minorities in these studies...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Tatiane da Silva Araújo, Adriano Jose Maia Chaves Filho, Aline Santos Monte, Ana Isabelle de Góis Queiroz, Rafaela Carneiro Cordeiro, Michel de Jesus Souza Machado, Ricardo de Freitas Lima, David Freitas de Lucena, Michael Maes, Danielle Macêdo
Immune dysregulation observed in schizophrenia alters tryptophan metabolism. Tryptophan metabolism is triggered by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Tryptophan is converted to quinolinic acid, a potent neurotoxin, and to kynurenic acid, an NMDA antagonist. 1-Methyl-D-tryptophan (MDT) inhibits IDO. Melatonin is metabolized by IDO while inhibiting TDO. We evaluated the reversal of ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like behavioral and neurochemical alterations in mice by the administration of MDT (20 or 40 mg/kg, i...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Roxanne Gaspersz, Femke Lamers, Justine M Kent, Aartjan T F Beekman, Johannes H Smit, Albert M van Hemert, Robert A Schoevers, Brenda W J H Penninx
Evidence has shown that the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier captures a clinically valid construct that predicts a worse clinical course. Although of importance for treatment planning and monitoring, however, the specifier's ability to predict treatment outcome is unknown. This is the first study to examine the ability of the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier to predict treatment response and side effects in depressed patients who recently initiated antidepressant treatment. Patients were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, an ongoing longitudinal cohort study...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Zoë M Trout, Evelyn M Hernandez, Evan M Kleiman, Richard T Liu
Although considerable empirical work has been devoted to identifying risk factors for suicide attempts, most longitudinal research has studied recurrent attempts rather than first lifetime attempts. The present study sought to examine prospective predictors of first lifetime suicide attempts among adults receiving treatment for substance use. Data were drawn from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study, a study of addiction treatment programs. Data were collected at treatment intake, treatment exit, and one year post-treatment...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Michael A Hauser, Melanie E Garrett, Yutao Liu, Michelle F Dennis, Nathan A Kimbrel, Veterans Affairs Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research Education And Clinical Center Workgroup, Jean C Beckham, Allison E Ashley-Koch
The aim of the present study was to attempt to replicate the recently reported finding associating rs2400707 of the Adrenoceptor Beta 2, Surface (ADRB2) gene and childhood trauma on PTSD symptoms. Participants included a predominantly veteran cohort of non-Hispanic blacks (NHB; n = 949) and a pre-dominantly veteran cohort of non-Hispanic whites (NHW; n = 759). No main effects were observed for rs2400707 on PTSD diagnosis. Among the NHB participants, we observed an interaction between rs2400707 and history of childhood trauma, whereby with each additional A allele, the odds of having PTSD increased by 1...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Daniel Owusu, Yue Pan, Changchun Xie, Sam Harirforoosh, Ke-Sheng Wang
The PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) gene may play a role in alcohol dependence (AD), bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder; however, no study has identified shared genetic variants within PDLIM5 gene among AD, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and hypertension. This study investigated the association of 72 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) with AD (1066 AD cases and 1278 controls) in the Study of Addiction - Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample and 47 SNPs with T2D (878 cases and 2686 non-diabetic) and hypertension (825 cases and 2739 non-hypertensive) in the Marshfield sample...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Liang Gong, Yingying Yin, Cancan He, Qing Ye, Feng Bai, Yonggui Yuan, Haisan Zhang, Luxian Lv, Hongxing Zhang, Chunming Xie, Zhijun Zhang
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show blunted activity responses to reward-related tasks. However, whether abnormal reward circuits affect cognition and depression in MDD patients remains unclear. Seventy-five drug-naive MDD patients and 42 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) were selected as seeds to construct reward circuits across all subjects. A multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to investigate the neural substrates of cognitive function and depression severity on the reward circuits in MDD patients...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Zengjian Wang, Xiaoyun Wang, Jian Liu, Jun Chen, Xian Liu, Guangning Nie, Kristen Jorgenson, Ki Cheul Sohn, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu, Bo Liu, Jian Kong
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder with a high prevalence and significant social and economic impacts. Nevertheless, the treatment of MDD is far from satisfactory. Acupuncture treatment has emerged as a promising method for treating MDD. However, the neural mechanism by which acupuncture reduces depressive symptoms is not fully understood. Studies have shown that the corticostriatal reward circuitry is associated with the pathophysiology of MDD; thus, we investigated the corticostriatal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) before and after real and sham acupuncture treatments combined with the antidepressant fluoxetine...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Giacomo Grassi, Laura Micheli, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Elisa Compagno, Lorenzo Righi, Carla Ghelardini, Stefano Pallanti
Despite several studies suggested that inattention and impulsivity-compulsivity could represent two core dimensions of hoarding disorder (HD), only a small case series study investigated the effectiveness of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) medications in HD. The aim of the present study was to target attentional and inhibitory control networks in HD patients through the ADHD medication atomoxetine, moving from a preclinical investigation on an animal model of compulsive-like behavior (marble burying test) to a clinical investigation on both medicated and unmedicated patients with a primary diagnosis of HD without ADHD...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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