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Journal of Psychiatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775916/cortisol-trajectory-melancholia-and-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy
#1
Brian J Mickey, Yarden Ginsburg, Adam F Sitzmann, Clara Grayhack, Srijan Sen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Daniel F Maixner, James L Abelson
While biomarkers have been used to define pathophysiological types and to optimize treatment in many areas of medicine, in psychiatry such biomarkers remain elusive. Based on previously described abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in severe forms of depression, we hypothesized that the temporal trajectory of basal cortisol levels would vary among individuals with depression due to heterogeneity in pathophysiology, and that cortisol trajectories that reflect elevated or increasing HPA activity would predict better response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783079/altered-neural-encoding-of-prediction-errors-in-assault-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Marisa C Ross, Jennifer K Lenow, Clinton D Kilts, Josh M Cisler
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is widely associated with deficits in extinguishing learned fear responses, which relies on mechanisms of reinforcement learning (e.g., updating expectations based on prediction errors). However, the degree to which PTSD is associated with impairments in general reinforcement learning (i.e., outside of the context of fear stimuli) remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate brain and behavioral differences in general reinforcement learning between adult women with and without a current diagnosis of PTSD...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783077/effects-of-prolonged-exposure-and-virtual-reality-exposure-on-suicidal-ideation-in-active-duty-soldiers-an-examination-of-potential-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Aaron M Norr, Derek J Smolenski, Greg M Reger
OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to investigate the effects of exposure therapy on suicidal ideation (SI), as well as potential mechanistic pathways of SI reduction among active duty military personnel. METHODS: Active duty army soldiers (N = 162) were recruited from a military base in the U.S. and were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing Prolonged Exposure (PE), Virtual Reality Exposure (VRE), and a wait-list control for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stemming from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783076/disrupted-reward-and-cognitive-control-networks-contribute-to-anhedonia-in-depression
#4
Liang Gong, Cancan He, Haisan Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Zhijun Zhang, Chunming Xie
Neuroimaging studies have identified that anhedonia, a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), is associated with dysfunction in reward and cognitive control processing. However, it is still not clear how the reward network (β-network) and the cognitive control network (δ-network) are linked to biased anhedonia in MDD patients. Sixty-eight MDD patients and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A 2*2 ANCOVA analysis was used to explore the differences in the nucleus accumbens-based, voxelwise functional connectivity (FC) between the groups...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778071/anxious-distress-in-depressed-outpatients-prevalence-comorbidity-and-incremental-validity
#5
Anthony J Rosellini, Michelle L Bourgeois, Jeannette Correa, Esther S Tung, Svetlana Goncharenko, Timothy A Brown
The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (AD) among depressed outpatients, to examine associations of AD with comorbid diagnoses, and to test the incremental validity of AD over comorbidity in predicting functional impairment and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms. The sample was 237 outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) or persistent depressive disorder (PDD), with and without AD, using the Anxiety and Related Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-5...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772483/the-influence-of-deployment-stress-and-life-stress-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-diagnosis-among-military-personnel
#6
Janeese A Brownlow, Gerard A Zitnik, Carmen P McLean, Philip R Gehrman
There is increasing recognition that traumatic stress encountered throughout life, including those prior to military service, can put individuals at increased risk for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of both traumatic stress encountered during deployment, and traumatic stress over one's lifetime on probable PTSD diagnosis. Probable PTSD diagnosis was compared between military personnel deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF; N = 21,499) and those who have recently enlisted (N = 55,814), using data obtained from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754106/the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-psychotic-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-is-associated-with-oxy-hemoglobin-concentrations-in-the-brain-as-measured-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-pilot-study
#7
Zui Narita, Takamasa Noda, Shiori Setoyama, Kazuki Sueyoshi, Takuma Inagawa, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to be effective in treating some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. In the current study, we sought to determine whether oxy-hemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]), measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), is associated with effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients underwent tDCS (2 mA × 20 min) two times per day for five consecutive days. The anodal electrode was placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while the cathodal electrode was placed over the right supraorbital region...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758472/contributions-of-depression-and-body-mass-index-to-body-image
#8
Nadine P G Paans, Mariska Bot, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Brenda W J H Penninx
Depression and body mass index (BMI) are known to be associated with body image, however, their independent or joint effects on body image in adults are largely unknown. Therefore, we studied associations of depression diagnosis, severity, and BMI with perceptual body size (PBS) and body image dissatisfaction (BID). Cross-sectional data from 882 remitted depressed patients, 242 currently depressed patients and 325 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview), standardized self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) and BMI were separately and simultaneously related to body image (the Stunkard Figure Rating scale) using linear regression analyses...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753192/circadian-activity-rhythm-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Lorenzo Tonetti, Andreas Conca, Giancarlo Giupponi, Marco Filardi, Vincenzo Natale
The aim of the present study was to analyze the features of circadian motor activity rhythm of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients, by means of functional linear modeling, within the theoretical framework of the two-process model of sleep regulation. Thirty-two ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs) participated the study. Actiwatch AW64 actigraph was used to quantify motor activity data in 1-min epochs. Participants wore the actigraph on the non-dominant wrist for seven consecutive days...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772485/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#10
Wei Zheng, Qing-E Zhang, Dong-Bin Cai, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Findings of neurocognitive dysfunction in subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) have been controversial. This meta-analysis systematically examined studies of neurocognitive functions using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in CHR-P. An independent literature search of both English and Chinese databases was conducted by two reviewers. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated using a random effects model to evaluate the effect size of the meta-analytic results. Six case-control studies (n = 396) comparing neurocognitive functions between CHR-P subjects (n = 197) and healthy controls (n = 199) using the MCCB were identified; 4 (66...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783078/delayed-bipolar-and-ganglion-cells-neuroretinal-processing-in-regular-cannabis-users-the-retina-as-a-relevant-site-to-investigate-brain-synaptic-transmission-dysfunctions
#11
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Anne Giersch, Laurence Lalanne, Eliane Albuisson, Vincent Laprevote
Cannabis use is widespread worldwide, but the impact of smoking cannabis regularly on brain synaptic transmission has only been partially elucidated. The retina is considered as an easy means of determining dysfunction in brain synaptic transmission. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating retinal synaptic transmission, which might also be affected by tobacco. Previous preliminary results have shown impairments in retinal ganglion cell response in cannabis users. Here, we test the extent to which earlier retinal levels-bipolar cells and photoreceptors-are affected in cannabis users, i...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772484/does-informed-consent-given-by-healthy-individuals-when-enrolling-in-clinical-research-feel-less-voluntary-than-for-ill-individuals
#12
Laura Roberts, Jane Paik Kim
Clinical research is predicated ethically on the authentic voluntarism of individuals who choose to enroll in human studies. Existing literature has focused on aspects of informed consent for clinical research other than voluntarism. The objective of this study was to compare the perspectives of clinical research participants who are in good health and who are ill regarding voluntarism-related aspects of informed consent and to assess situational influences that enable voluntarism in the process of obtaining clinical research consent...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758471/the-predictive-specificity-of-psychological-vulnerability-markers-for-the-course-of-affective-disorders
#13
Sascha Y Struijs, Femke Lamers, Philip Spinhoven, Willem van der Does, Brenda W J H Penninx
High scores on markers of psychological vulnerability have been associated with a worse course of affective disorders. However, little is known about the specificity of those associations in predicting the course of different depressive and anxiety disorders. We examined the impact of psychological vulnerability on the short- and long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety with a current diagnosis of depression or anxiety (n = 1256) were reassessed after 2 and 6 years...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753198/prefrontal-alterations-in-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-gene-expression-in-relation-to-depression-and-suicide
#14
J Zhao, R W H Verwer, S-F Gao, X-R Qi, P J Lucassen, H W Kessels, D F Swaab
People that committed suicide were reported to have enhanced levels of gene transcripts for synaptic proteins in their prefrontal cortex (PFC). Given the close association of suicide with major depressive disorder (MDD), we here assessed whether these changes are related to suicide or rather to depression per se. We used quantitative PCR to determine mRNA levels of 32 genes encoding for proteins directly involved in glutamatergic or GABAergic synaptic transmission in postmortem samples of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729620/volumetric-brain-analysis-as-a-predictor-of-a-worse-cognitive-outcome-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos, João Santos Pereira, Marcelo Adachi, Denise Greca, Manuela Cruz, Ana Lara Malak, Helenice Charchat-Fichman
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) results in significant morbidity and mortality being early diagnosis essential. Identification of patients who are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment based only on clinical data is not sufficient. To this end, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with automatic segmentation, such as FreeSurfer, could be a useful tool with high accuracy because it has histological validation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, neuropsychological and FreeSurfer variables that may be related to worse cognitive outcomes over 18 months in PD patients compared with controls...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723811/increased-mortality-among-people-with-schizophrenia-and-other-non-affective-psychotic-disorders-in-the-community-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Padraig Oakley, Steve Kisely, Amanda Baxter, Meredith Harris, Jocelyne Desoe, Alyona Dziouba, Dan Siskind
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence of excess mortality in schizophrenia but less information on other non-affective psychoses. We therefore generated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for community-dwelling people with schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses, relative to the general population, and examined changes to the SMR over time. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in which Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar and PsycINFO were searched for publications that reported SMRs for all-cause mortality among community-dwelling people with schizophrenia and psychotic disorders...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705489/rest-activity-rhythm-profiles-associated-with-manic-hypomanic-and-depressive-symptoms
#17
Stephen F Smagula, Robert T Krafty, Julian F Thayer, Daniel J Buysse, Martica H Hall
Rest-activity rhythm (RAR) disturbances are associated with mood disorders. But there remains a need to identify the particular RAR profiles associated with psychiatric symptom dimensions. Establishing such profiles would support the development of tools that track the 24-h sleep-wake phenotypes signaling clinical heterogeneity. We used data-driven clustering to identify RAR profiles in 145 adults aged 36-82 years (mean = 60, standard deviation = 9). Then we evaluated psychiatric symptom dimensions (including positive and negative affect, depressive, manic-hypomanic, panic-agoraphobic, and substance use symptoms) associated with these empirically-derived RAR profiles...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698922/suicidal-ideation-and-behavior-in-us-veterans-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder
#18
Philip D Harvey, Kelly Posner, Nallakkandi Rajeevan, Kseniya V Yershova, Mihaela Aslan, John Concato
OBJECTIVE: Using data from a Department of Veterans Affairs study of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BP), we evaluated lifetime risks for suicidal ideation and behavior. We were interested in the prevalence and correlates of these outcomes, in populations of patients with severe mental illness (SMI), who have not been compared directly in previous studies despite data on high risk in each group separately. METHOD: Data were collected on demographic factors, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and lifetime suicidal ideation or behavior in a study of veterans with SZ (N = 3942) or BP (N = 5414)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702432/altered-resting-state-connectivity-within-default-mode-network-associated-with-late-chronotype
#19
Charlotte Mary Horne, Ray Norbury
Current evidence suggests late chronotype individuals have an increased risk of developing depression. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this association are not fully understood. Forty-six healthy, right-handed individuals free of current or previous diagnosis of depression, family history of depression or sleep disorder underwent resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rsFMRI). Using an Independent Component Analysis (ICA) approach, the Default Mode Network (DMN) was identified based on a well validated template...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689517/neuropsychological-predictors-of-performance-based-measures-of-functional-capacity-and-social-skills-in-individuals-with-severe-mental-illness
#20
Zanjbeel Mahmood, Cynthia Z Burton, Lea Vella, Elizabeth W Twamley
Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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