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Journal of Psychiatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343067/reading-problems-and-major-mental-disorders-co-occurrences-and-familial-overlaps-in-a-swedish-nationwide-cohort
#1
Martin Cederlöf, Barbara Maughan, Henrik Larsson, Brian M D'Onofrio, Robert Plomin
Reading problems often co-occur with ADHD and conduct disorder. However, the patterns of co-occurrence and familial overlap between reading problems and other psychiatric disorders have not been systematically explored. We conducted a register-based cohort study including 8719 individuals with reading problems and their siblings, along with matched comparison individuals. Conditional logistic regressions estimated risks for ADHD, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and violent/non-violent criminality in individuals with reading problems and their siblings...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343068/the-role-of-trail-in-fatigue-induced-by-repeated-stress-from-radiotherapy
#2
Li Rebekah Feng, Simeng Suy, Sean P Collins, Leorey N Saligan
Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating side effects of cancer and cancer treatment, and yet its etiology remains elusive. The goal of this study is to understand the role of chronic inflammation in fatigue following repeated stress from radiotherapy. Fatigue and non-fatigue categories were assessed using ≥ 3-point change in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue questionnaire (FACT-F) administered to participants at baseline/before radiotherapy and one year post-radiotherapy. Whole genome microarray and cytokine multiplex panel were used to examine fatigue-related transcriptome and serum cytokine changes, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329715/psychological-distress-and-prejudice-following-terror-attacks-in-france
#3
Robin Goodwin, Krzysztof Kaniasty, Shaojing Sun, Menachem Ben-Ezra
Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327445/nine-differentially-expressed-genes-from-a-post-mortem-study-and-their-association-with-suicidal-status-in-a-sample-of-suicide-completers-attempters-and-controls
#4
Martina Balestri, Concetta Crisafulli, Luigi Donato, Ina Giegling, Raffaella Calati, Niki Antypa, Barbara Schneider, Dragan Marusic, Maria Eugenia Tarozzi, Dorjan Marusic, Metka Paragi, Annette M Hartmann, Bettina Konte, Agnese Marsano, Alessandro Serretti, Dan Rujescu
Several lines of evidence indicate that suicidal behaviour is partly heritable, with multiple genes implicated in its aetiology. We focused on nine genes (S100A13, EFEMP1, PCDHB5, PDGFRB, CDCA7L, SCN2B, PTPRR, MLC1 and ZFP36) which we previously detected as differentially expressed in the cortex of suicide victims compared to controls. We investigated 84 variants within these genes in 495 suicidal subjects (299 completers and 196 attempters) and 1513 controls (109 post-mortem and 1404 healthy). We evaluated associations with: 1) suicidal phenotype; 2) possible endophenotypes for suicidal behaviour...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325680/prefrontal-activity-and-impaired-memory-encoding-strategies-in-schizophrenia
#5
Synthia Guimond, Colin Hawco, Martin Lepage
Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327444/unblending-borderline-personality-and-bipolar-disorders
#6
Ester di Giacomo, Flora Aspesi, Maria Fotiadou, Arnoud Arntz, Eugenio Aguglia, Lavinia Barone, Silvio Bellino, Bernardo Carpiniello, Fabrizia Colmegna, Marina Lazzari, Liliana Lorettu, Federica Pinna, Aldo Sicaro, Maria Salvina Signorelli, Massimo Clerici
Borderline Personality (BPD) and Bipolar (BP) disorders stimulate an academic debate between their distinction and the inclusion of Borderline in the Bipolar spectrum. Opponents to this inclusion attribute the important differences and possible diagnostic incomprehension to overlapping symptoms. We tested 248 Borderline and 113 Bipolar patients, consecutively admitted to the Psychiatric Unit, through DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I/II), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV (BPDSI-IV)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334615/the-ncam1-gene-set-is-linked-to-depressive-symptoms-and-their-brain-structural-correlates-in-healthy-individuals
#7
Jana Petrovska, David Coynel, Matthias Fastenrath, Annette Milnik, Bianca Auschra, Tobias Egli, Leo Gschwind, Francina Hartmann, Eva Loos, Klara Sifalakis, Christian Vogler, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, Angela Heck
Depressive symptoms exist on a continuum, the far end of which is found in depressive disorders. Utilizing the continuous spectrum of depressive symptoms may therefore contribute to the understanding of the biological underpinnings of depression. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) is an important tool for the identification of gene groups linked to complex traits, and was applied in the present study on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of depression scores and their brain-level structural correlates in healthy young individuals...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#8
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292649/increased-methylation-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-promoter-1f-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#10
Wei Wang, Junqin Feng, Cui Ji, Xin Mu, Qingyan Ma, Yajuan Fan, Ce Chen, Chengge Gao, Xian-Cang Ma, Feng Zhu
Previous findings on the dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are controversial, and the molecular mechanisms underlying such dysfunction remain unclear. We analyzed the methylation status of the NR3C1 1F promoter and the expression of glucocorticoid receptor-α isoform (GRα) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs), the basal cortisol level in serum, and a functional neuroendocrine marker for GR sensitivity in the PMBCs in 64 patients with current GAD and 85 healthy controls...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288306/challenges-in-comparing-the-acute-cognitive-outcomes-of-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-hf-rtms-vs-electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-in-major-depression-a-systematic-review
#11
Karina Karolina Kedzior, Maria Schuchinsky, Imke Gerkensmeier, Colleen Loo
The present study aimed to systematically compare the cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in head-to-head studies with major depression (MDD) patients. A systematic literature search identified six studies with 219 MDD patients that were too heterogeneous to reliably detect meaningful differences in acute cognitive outcomes after ECT vs. HF-rTMS. Cognitive effects of brain stimulation vary depending on the timeframe and methods of assessment, stimulation parameters, and maintenance treatment...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325681/alcohol-cannabis-and-other-drugs-and-subsequent-suicide-ideation-and-attempt-among-young-mexicans
#12
Guilherme Borges, Corina Benjet, Ricardo Orozco, Maria-Elena Medina-Mora, David Menendez
OBJECTIVE: To report results from a follow-up study of alcohol, cannabis and other drugs on suicidal behavior. METHOD: We estimated prospective associations of substance use as a risk factor for incident suicide ideation and attempt, from a follow-up conducted in 2013 (n = 1071) of the original Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey conducted in 2005. RESULTS: Cannabis use before age 15 (ideation risk ratio (RR) = 3.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314128/depression-care-among-adults-with-co-occurring-major-depressive-episodes-and-substance-use-disorders-in-the-united-states
#13
Beth Han, Mark Olfson, Ramin Mojtabai
OBJECTIVE: We examined 12-month prevalence and correlates of receiving depression care and perceiving helpfulness of depression care among U.S. adults with major depressive episodes (MDE) and substance use disorders (SUD). METHOD: Data were from 325,800 adults who participated in the 2008-2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Descriptive analyses and bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were applied. RESULTS: In the U...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314127/suicide-attempt-in-mental-disorders-medi-association-with-5-htt-il-10-and-tnf-alpha-polymorphisms
#14
Verônica de Medeiros Alves, Aline Cristine Pereira E Silva, Elaine Virgínia Martins de Souza, Leilane Camila Ferreira de Lima Francisco, Edilson Leite de Moura, Valfrido Leão de-Melo-Neto, Antonio E Nardi
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders (MeDi) and suicide attempts (SA) are influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Genetic polymorphism studies have identified some candidate genes for suicidal behaviour in people with MeDi. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate MeDi and SA in relation to the presence of rs2020933 (5-HTT), rs1800871 (IL-10) and rs1800629 (TNF-α) polymorphisms. METHODS: A questionnaire for identification and general data, a brief quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-brief), the scale of suicide ideation by Beck and the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used in this study...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284107/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-comorbid-anxiety-disorders-results-from-a-european-multicenter-study
#15
Markus Dold, Lucie Bartova, Daniel Souery, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti, Stefano Porcelli, Joseph Zohar, Stuart Montgomery, Siegfried Kasper
This naturalistic European multicenter study aimed to elucidate the association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid anxiety disorders. Demographic and clinical information of 1346 MDD patients were compared between those with and without concurrent anxiety disorders. The association between explanatory variables and the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders was examined using binary logistic regression analyses. 286 (21.2%) of the participants exhibited comorbid anxiety disorders, 10.8% generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 8...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278422/different-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Tingting Yan, Qinglian Xie, Zhong Zheng, Ke Zou, Lijuan Wang
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been found to be effective for treating PTSD, but whether different frequencies have different effects remains controversial. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to address this question. We searched the literature for studies written in English or Chinese in 9 electronic databases from the databases' inception to August 1, 2016. Additional articles were identified from the reference lists of identified studies and from personal reference collections...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325682/5-httlpr-moderates-the-association-between-attention-away-from-angry-faces-and-prospective-depression-among-youth
#17
Jessica L Jenness, Jami F Young, Benjamin L Hankin
Attention bias to emotion has been studied as a risk factor associated with depression. No study has examined whether attention bias within the context of measured genetic risk leads to increased risk for clinical depressive episodes over time. The current study investigated whether genetic risk, as indexed by the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), moderated the relationship between attention bias to emotional faces and clinical depression onset prospectively across 18-months in a community sample of youth (n = 428; mean age = 11...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292650/frontal-and-temporal-cortical-functional-recovery-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-depression-a-longitudinal-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#18
Jinichi Hirano, Akihiro Takamiya, Bun Yamagata, Syogo Hotta, Yukiko Miyasaka, Shenghong Pu, Akira Iwanami, Hiroyuki Uchida, Masaru Mimura
While the efficacy and tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression has been well established, the acute effects of ECT on brain function remain unclear. Particularly, although cognitive dysfunction has been consistently observed after ECT, little is known about the extent and time course of ECT-induced brain functional changes, as observed during cognitive tasks. Considering the acute antidepressant effects of ECT on depression, aberrant brain functional responses during cognitive tasks in patients with depression may improve immediately after this treatment...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284155/cortical-signature-of-clock-drawing-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Dusan Hirjak, Robert C Wolf, Barbara Pfeifer, Katharina M Kubera, Anne K Thomann, Ulrich Seidl, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Johannes Schröder, Philipp A Thomann
It is unclear whether clock drawing test (CDT) performance relies on a widely distributed cortical network, or whether this test predominantly taps into parietal cortex function. So far, associations between cortical integrity and CDT impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) largely stem from cortical volume analyses. Given that volume is a product of thickness and surface area, investigation of the relationship between CDT and these two cortical measures might contribute to better understanding of this cognitive screening tool for AD...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279877/a-model-based-analysis-of-decision-making-under-risk-in-obsessive-compulsive-and-hoarding-disorders
#20
Gabriel J Aranovich, Daniel R Cavagnaro, Mark A Pitt, Jay I Myung, Carol A Mathews
Attitudes towards risk are highly consequential in clinical disorders thought to be prone to "risky behavior", such as substance dependence, as well as those commonly associated with excessive risk aversion, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding disorder (HD). Moreover, it has recently been suggested that attitudes towards risk may serve as a behavioral biomarker for OCD. We investigated the risk preferences of participants with OCD and HD using a novel adaptive task and a quantitative model from behavioral economics that decomposes risk preferences into outcome sensitivity and probability sensitivity...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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