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Journal of Psychiatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898323/peripheral-blood-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-major-psychiatric-disorders
#1
Shuquan Rao, Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Yao Yao, Zhiyun Guo, Qi Xu, Suiyan Li, Xianli Zhou, Fuquan Zhang
Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays crucial roles in promoting neural growth and survival, and mediating synaptic and morphological plasticity. Several studies investigated the correlation between peripheral NGF levels and major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD); however, the findings were inconsistent. This meta-analysis sought to investigate blood NGF levels in patients with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy subjects and examined potential effects of blood fraction, medication and disease status...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898324/longitudinal-trajectory-of-clinical-insight-and-covariation-with-cortical-thickness-in-first-episode-psychosis
#2
Lisa Buchy, Carolina Makowski, Ashok Malla, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
Among people with a first-episode of psychosis, those with poorer clinical insight show neuroanatomical abnormalities in frontal, temporal and parietal cortices compared to those with better clinical insight. Whether changes in clinical insight are associated with progressive structural brain changes is unknown. We aimed to evaluate 1) associations between clinical insight and cortical thickness at a baseline assessment, 2) covariation between clinical insight and cortical thickness across baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up assessments, and 3) the predictive value of clinical insight for cortical thickness at one-year and two-year follow-ups...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894002/polymorphism-in-crhr1-gene-affects-the-il-1%C3%AE-levels-in-suicidal-attempters
#3
Clarissa R Bastos, Marta Gazal, Luciana de A Quevedo, Joice Luisa Costa, Carolina D Wiener, Karen Jansen, Christian Loret de Mola, Jean P Oses, Luciano D M Souza, Luiz Valmor Portela, Ricardo T Pinheiro, Ricardo A da Silva, Diogo R Lara, Gabriele Ghisleni
Approximately one million people commit suicide every year, being suicide attempts and ideation even more common. Changes in stress response and activation of the immune system have been associated with suicide risk. Here we investigated the interaction between immune system and HPA axis alterations in the suicide risk, looking for the influence of rs110402 CRHR1 SNP in the IL-1β levels according to suicide ideation and attempt. This study evaluated 171 subjects of which 15 had suicidal ideation, 20 had suicide attempt and 136 were controls...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886638/preliminary-evidence-that-negative-symptom-severity-relates-to-multilocus-genetic-profile-for-dopamine-signaling-capacity-and-d2-receptor-binding-in-healthy-controls-and-in-schizophrenia
#4
Sarah A Eisenstein, Ryan Bogdan, Ling Chen, Stephen M Moerlein, Kevin J Black, Joel S Perlmutter, Tamara Hershey, Deanna M Barch
Deficits in central, subcortical dopamine (DA) signaling may underlie negative symptom severity, particularly anhedonia, in healthy individuals and in schizophrenia. To investigate these relationships, we assessed negative symptoms with the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and self-reported anhedonia with the Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia (SPSA), Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale in 36 healthy controls (HC), 27 siblings (SIB) of individuals with schizophrenia, and 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886637/handling-clinical-comorbidity-in-randomized-clinical-trials-in-psychiatry
#5
Ruth O'Hara, Sherry A Beaudreau, Christine E Gould, Wendy Froehlich, Helena C Kraemer
The purpose of this paper is to a) outline the importance of including patients with clinical comorbidities in Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) of psychiatric treatments; and b) to propose a specific approach for best handling, analyzing and interpreting the data on clinical comorbidities in terms of their impact on treatment outcomes. To do this we first define and describe clinical comorbidity and differentiate it from other forms of comorbidity. We then describe the methodological and analytical problems associated with excluding patients with clinically comorbid conditions from RCTs, including the impact on the outcomes of RCTs in psychiatry and the impact on evidence-based clinical decision-making...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886636/the-impact-of-social-support-unit-cohesion-and-trait-resilience-on-ptsd-in-treatment-seeking-military-personnel-with-ptsd-the-role-of-posttraumatic-cognitions
#6
Yinyin Zang, Thea Gallagher, Carmen P McLean, Hallie S Tannahill, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Edna B Foa
BACKGROUND: The personal resources of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience have been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are unclear. We hypothesized that negative posttraumatic cognitions, which are associated with PTSD, mediate the relationships between these personal resources and PTSD. METHODS: The relationship between PTSD symptom severity and a latent factor comprised of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 366 treatment-seeking active duty military personnel with PTSD following deployments to or near Iraq or Afghanistan...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883923/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-gene
#7
Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Gesa Loeber, Alexandra Kotsiari, Linda Müller-Engling, Helge Frieling
Several lines of evidence support a "dopaminergic hypothesis" in the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time epigenetic changes in DNA methylation in different dopamine genes in adult patients with TS. We included 51 well characterized adult patients with TS (41 males, 10 females, mean age = 35 ± 12.6 years, range, 18-71 years) and compared results with data from a group of 51 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Bisulfite sequencing was used to measure peripheral DNA methylation of the dopamine transporter (DAT), the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837660/combined-top-down-and-bottom-up-intervention-for-anxiety-sensitivity-pilot-randomized-trial-testing-the-additive-effect-of-interpretation-bias-modification
#8
Daniel W Capron, Aaron M Norr, Nicholas P Allan, Norman B Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety disorders contribute substantially to the overall public health burden. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a fear of anxiety-related sensations, is one of the few known malleable risk factors for anxiety pathology. Previous AS reduction treatments have primarily utilized "top-down" (e.g., psychoeducation) interventions. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of adding a "bottom-up" (interpretation bias modification; CBM-I) intervention to an AS psychoeducation intervention...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837658/an-assessor-blinded-randomized-comparison-of-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-switching-from-olanzapine-to-ziprasidone-and-the-combination-of-both-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#9
Huai-Hai Wang, Min Cai, Hua-Ning Wang, Yun-Chun Chen, Rui-Guo Zhang, Ying Wang, Grainne M McAlonan, Yuan-Han Bai, Wen-Jun Wu, Li Guo, Ya-Hong Zhang, Qing-Rong Tan, Zhang-Jin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ziprasidone (ZIP) is often used with olanzapine (OLZ) in 'switch' and combination therapy but empirical evidence to support these strategies is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study was therefore designed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of switching from OLZ to ZIP, the combination of both medications, and OLZ and ZIP monotherapy, in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). METHODS: In this 12 week open-label, assessor-blinded randomized trial, 148 patients with SSD who had not used antipsychotics for at least 3 months were assigned to ZIP (n = 49) or OLZ monotherapy (n = 31); OLZ for 4 weeks then a switch to ZIP (OLZ/ZIP, n = 35); or combination therapy (OLZ + ZIP, n = 33)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837659/cortisol-response-patterns-in-depressed-women-and-their-healthy-daughters-at-risk-comparison-with-healthy-women-and-their-daughters
#10
Ali Saffet Gonul, Sevki Cetinkalp, Sebnem Tunay, Irmak Polat, Fatma Simsek, Burcu Aksoy, Gozde Kizilates, Yigit Erdogan, Kerry L Coburn
A dysfunctional hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is widely accepted as a significant pathophysiological aspect of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Despite studies suggesting that a dysfunctional HPA axis might be present before the clinical syndrome becomes apparent, the functioning of the HPA axis in high-risk populations has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the HPA axis functioning of mothers suffering from MDD and their healthy daughters compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863280/smoking-status-and-its-relationship-to-demographic-and-clinical-characteristics-in-first-episode-psychosis
#11
Michael Grossman, Christopher R Bowie, Martin Lepage, Ashok K Malla, Ridha Joober, Srividya N Iyer
Elevated rates of cigarette smoking are observed prior to the onset of psychosis and remain stable early in the illness. Cannabis use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and is independently associated with distinct clinical outcomes. However, past research has not controlled for cannabis use in cigarette smokers with first episode psychosis (FEP), limiting conclusions on the unique relationship of cigarette smoking to the demographic and clinical profiles of these patients. The present study therefore aimed to: (1) Determine the prevalence and patterns of cigarette smoking and its co-use with cannabis in FEP, and (2) Examine the demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics associated with cigarette smoking status, after adjusting for frequency of cannabis use...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821270/bipolar-disorder-moderates-associations-between-linoleic-acid-and-markers-of-inflammation
#12
Ya-Wen Chang, Shervin Assari, Alan R Prossin, Laura Stertz, Melvin G McInnis, Simon J Evans
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and inflammatory proteins associate with immune activation and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We have previously reported that individuals with bipolar disorder (BPD) have decreased PUFA intake, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA); and decreased PUFA concentration of plasma EPA and linoleic acid (LA). We have also reported an association between plasma LA and its metabolites and burden of disease measures in BPD...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821271/screening-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand-among-hiv-positive-patients-attending-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-wollo-ethiopia
#13
Million Tsegaw, Gashaw Andargie, Getnet Alem, Minale Tareke
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS reside in low and middle income countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Despite the huge number of service users in the local area, cognitive disorder among HIV patients has not been extensively studied and there is a dearth of knowledge on the subject. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816770/narcissistic-personality-disorder-and-suicidal-behavior-in-mood-disorders
#14
Daniel Coleman, Ryan Lawrence, Amrita Parekh, Hanga Galfalvy, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, David A Brent, J John Mann, Enrique Baca-Garcia, Maria A Oquendo
The relationship of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to suicidal behavior is understudied. The modest body of existing research suggests that NPD is protective against low-lethality suicide attempts, but is associated with high lethality attempts. Mood-disordered patients (N = 657) received structured interviews including Axis I and II diagnosis and standardized clinical measures. Following chi-square and t-tests, a logistical regression model was constructed to identify predictors of suicide attempt...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835739/examining-the-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-use-disorders-a-familial-risk-analysis
#15
Amy M Yule, MaryKate Martelon, Stephen V Faraone, Nicholas Carrellas, Timothy E Wilens, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to use familial risk analysis to examine the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) attending to sex effects and the specificity of alcohol and drug use disorder risks. METHODS: Subjects were derived from two longitudinal case-control family studies of probands aged 6-17 years with and without DSM-III-R ADHD of both sexes and their first degree relatives followed from childhood onto young adult years...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814502/psychological-resilience-in-u-s-military-veterans-a-2-year-nationally-representative-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Kayla Isaacs, Natalie P Mota, Jack Tsai, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Joan M Cook, Paul D Kirwin, John H Krystal, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
Although many cross-sectional studies have examined the correlates of psychological resilience in U.S. military veterans, few longitudinal studies have identified long-term predictors of resilience in this population. The current prospective cohort study utilized data from a nationally representative sample of 2157 U.S. military veterans who completed web-based surveys in two waves (2011 and 2013) as part of the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Cluster analysis of cumulative lifetime exposure to potentially traumatic events and Wave 2 measures of current symptoms of posttraumatic stress, major depressive, and generalized anxiety disorders was performed to characterize different profiles of current trauma-related psychological symptoms...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814455/mobile-devices-for-the-remote-acquisition-of-physiological-and-behavioral-biomarkers-in-psychiatric-clinical-research
#17
Zachary W Adams, Erin A McClure, Kevin M Gray, Carla Kmett Danielson, Frank A Treiber, Kenneth J Ruggiero
Psychiatric disorders are linked to a variety of biological, psychological, and contextual causes and consequences. Laboratory studies have elucidated the importance of several key physiological and behavioral biomarkers in the study of psychiatric disorders, but much less is known about the role of these biomarkers in naturalistic settings. These gaps are largely driven by methodological barriers to assessing biomarker data rapidly, reliably, and frequently outside the clinic or laboratory. Mobile health (mHealth) tools offer new opportunities to study relevant biomarkers in concert with other types of data (e...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835740/shattering-core-beliefs-psychological-reactions-to-mass-shooting-in-orlando
#18
LETTER
Menachem Ben-Ezra, Yaira Hamama-Raz, Michal Mahat-Shamir, Shani Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Krzysztof Kaniasty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835738/leukocyte-telomere-length-effects-of-schizophrenia-age-and-gender
#19
Owen M Wolkowitz, Dilip V Jeste, Averria Sirkin Martin, Jue Lin, Rebecca E Daly, Chase Reuter, Helena Kraemer
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is linked with early medical comorbidity and mortality. These observations indicate possible "accelerated biological aging" in schizophrenia, although prior findings are mixed, and few such studies have examined the role of gender. One putative marker of biological aging is leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which typically shortens with age. METHODS: We assessed LTL in phenotypically well characterized 134 individuals with schizophrenia (60 women and 74 men) and 123 healthy comparison subjects (HCs) (66 women and 57 men), aged 26 to 65 years...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810669/modafinil-for-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#20
Sheng-Min Wang, Changsu Han, Soo-Jung Lee, Tae-Youn Jun, Ashwin A Patkar, Prakash S Masand, Chi-Un Pae
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and a debilitating neuro-behavior disorder in the pediatric population. Although numerous effective psychostimulants are available, more than 30% of patients still do not show adequate treatment response rendering diverse pharmacological options. We aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of modafinil in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD by conducting a meta-analysis. An extensive search of databases and clinical trial registries resulted in five published short-term randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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