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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202478/total-and-subtypes-of-dietary-fat-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-prevenci%C3%A3-n-con-dieta-mediterr%C3%A3-nea-predimed-study
#1
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Dolores Corella, Helmut Schröder, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Fernando Arós, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Miquel Fiol, Lluís Serra-Majem, José Lapetra, Josep Basora, Nerea Martín-Calvo, Olga Portoles, Montserrat Fitó, Frank B Hu, Lluís Forga, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202477/vitamin-d-is-not-associated-with-incident-dementia-or-cognitive-impairment-an-18-y-follow-up-study-in-community-living-old-men
#2
Erika Olsson, Liisa Byberg, Brita Karlström, Tommy Cederholm, Håkan Melhus, Per Sjögren, Lena Kilander
Background: Vitamin D has been implicated as being important for maintaining cognitive function in old age. Results from longitudinal studies examining the association of vitamin D with incident dementia and cognitive impairment have been inconsistent.Objective: We investigated the relation between vitamin D, assessed in 3 different ways, and the risk of dementia.Design: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, assessed dietary vitamin D intake with the use of 7-d dietary records, and created a vitamin D-synthesis genetic risk score (GRS) at baseline (1991-1995) in a cohort of 1182 Swedish men (mean age: 71 y)...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202476/substituting-whole-grain-for-refined-grain-what-is-needed-to-strengthen-the-scientific-evidence-for-health-outcomes
#3
Inge Tetens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202475/effect-of-macronutrients-and-fiber-on-postprandial-glycemic-responses-and-meal-glycemic-index-and-glycemic-load-value-determinations
#4
Huicui Meng, Nirupa R Matthan, Lynne M Ausman, Alice H Lichtenstein
Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed.Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values.Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179226/substituting-whole-grains-for-refined-grains-in-a-6-wk-randomized-trial-has-a-modest-effect-on-gut-microbiota-and-immune-and-inflammatory-markers-of-healthy-adults
#5
Sally M Vanegas, Mohsen Meydani, Junaidah B Barnett, Barry Goldin, Anne Kane, Helen Rasmussen, Carrie Brown, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, Satya Jonnalagadda, Katie Koecher, J Philip Karl, Michael Thomas, Gregory Dolnikowski, Lijun Li, Edward Saltzman, Dayong Wu, Simin Nikbin Meydani
Background: Observational studies suggest an inverse association between whole-grain (WG) consumption and inflammation. However, evidence from interventional studies is limited, and few studies have included measurements of cell-mediated immunity.Objective: We assessed the effects of diets rich in WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on immune and inflammatory responses, gut microbiota, and microbial products in healthy adults while maintaining subject body weights.Design: After a 2-wk provided-food run-in period of consuming a Western-style diet, 49 men and 32 postmenopausal women [age range: 40-65 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) <35] were assigned to consume 1 of 2 provided-food weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179225/influence-of-temperate-subtropical-and-tropical-fruit-consumption-on-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-asian-population
#6
Derrick Johnston Alperet, Lesley M Butler, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, Rob M van Dam
Background: Findings on the relation between fruit consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent.Objectives: We examined whether the consumption of total, temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit is associated with T2DM risk and whether differences in the carbohydrate quality of fruit influence T2DM risk in Asians.Design: We included 45,411 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were 45-74 y old and had no diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at recruitment (1993-1998)...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179224/dietary-protein-is-associated-with-musculoskeletal-health-independently-of-dietary-pattern-the-framingham-third-generation-study
#7
Kelsey M Mangano, Shivani Sahni, Douglas P Kiel, Katherine L Tucker, Alyssa B Dufour, Marian T Hannan
Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns.Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179223/substituting-whole-grains-for-refined-grains-in-a-6-wk-randomized-trial-favorably-affects-energy-balance-metrics-in-healthy-men-and-postmenopausal-women
#8
J Philip Karl, Mohsen Meydani, Junaidah B Barnett, Sally M Vanegas, Barry Goldin, Anne Kane, Helen Rasmussen, Edward Saltzman, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, C-Y Oliver Chen, Sai Krupa Das, Satya S Jonnalagadda, Simin N Meydani, Susan B Roberts
Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight changes, on energy-metabolism metrics and glycemic control.Design: The study was a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm controlled-feeding trial that was conducted in 81 men and postmenopausal women [49 men and 32 women; age range: 40-65 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): <35.0]. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179222/associations-of-maternal-macronutrient-intake-during-pregnancy-with-infant-bmi-peak-characteristics-and-childhood-bmi
#9
Ling-Wei Chen, Izzuddin M Aris, Jonathan Y Bernard, Mya-Thway Tint, Marjorelee Colega, Peter D Gluckman, Kok Hian Tan, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Fabian Yap, Keith M Godfrey, Rob M van Dam, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Yung Seng Lee
Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants.Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study.Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMIpeak; in kg/m(2)) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179221/frontostriatal-and-behavioral-adaptations-to-daily-sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Kyle S Burger
Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response.Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148504/identification-of-dietary-patterns-associated-with-obesity-in-a-nationally-representative-survey-of-canadian-adults-application-of-a-priori-hybrid-and-simplified-dietary-pattern-techniques
#11
Mahsa Jessri, Russell D Wolfinger, Wendy Y Lou, Mary R L'Abbé
BACKGROUND: Analyzing the effects of dietary patterns is an important approach for examining the complex role of nutrition in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dietary patterns of Canadians with the use of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques, and to compare the associations of these patterns with obesity risk in individuals with and without chronic diseases (unhealthy and healthy obesity)...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148503/effects-of-interpretive-nutrition-labels-on-consumer-food-purchases-the-starlight-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Ekaterina Volkova, Yannan Jiang, Helen Eyles, Jo Michie, Bruce Neal, Tony Blakely, Boyd Swinburn, Mike Rayner
BACKGROUND: Nutrition labeling is a prominent policy to promote healthy eating. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of 2 interpretive nutrition labels compared with a noninterpretive label on consumer food purchases. DESIGN: In this parallel-group randomized controlled trial, we enrolled household shoppers across New Zealand who owned smartphones and were aged ≥18 y. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either traffic light labels (TLLs), Health Star Rating labels (HSRs), or a control [nutrition information panel (NIP)]...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148502/intragastric-infusion-of-denatonium-benzoate-attenuates-interdigestive-gastric-motility-and-hunger-scores-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#13
Eveline Deloose, Pieter Janssen, Maura Corsetti, Jessica Biesiekierski, Imke Masuy, Alessandra Rotondo, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Inge Depoortere, Jan Tack
BACKGROUND: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. OBJECTIVE: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. DESIGN: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148501/folic-acid-therapy-reduces-serum-uric-acid-in-hypertensive-patients-a-substudy-of-the-china-stroke-primary-prevention-trial-csppt
#14
Xianhui Qin, Youbao Li, Mingli He, Genfu Tang, Delu Yin, Min Liang, Binyan Wang, Jing Nie, Yong Huo, Xin Xu, Fan Fan Hou
BACKGROUND: The effect of folic acid supplementation on uric acid (UA) concentrations is still inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the efficacy of folic acid therapy in reducing serum UA in hypertensive patients. DESIGN: A total of 15,364 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment with a single tablet that contained 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 7685) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 7679)...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148500/the-influence-of-genetic-susceptibility-and-calcium-plus-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-fracture-risk
#15
Youjin Wang, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Leah Preus, Kathleen M Hovey, Jing Nie, Rebecca D Jackson, Samuel K Handelman, Rami Nassir, Carolyn J Crandall, Heather M Ochs-Balcom
BACKGROUND: Fracture is a complex trait, affected by both genetic and environmental factors. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified multiple bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture-associated loci. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a study to evaluate whether fracture genetic risk score (Fx-GRS) and bone mineral density genetic risk score (BMD-GRS) modify the association between the intake of calcium with vitamin D (CaD) and fracture risk. DESIGN: Data from 5823 white postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative CaD randomized trial were included...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122785/fifteen-year-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-barriers-to-healthy-eating-in-a-high-income-country
#16
Carlos de Mestral, Saman Khalatbari-Soltani, Silvia Stringhini, Pedro Marques-Vidal
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing levels of education and income in the Swiss population over time and greater food diversity due to globalization, adherence to dietary guidelines has remained persistently low. This may be because of barriers to healthy eating hampering adherence, but whether these barriers have evolved in prevalence over time has never been assessed, to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We assessed 15-y trends in the prevalence of self-reported barriers to healthy eating in Switzerland overall and according to sex, age, education, and income...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122784/validating-polyphenol-intake-estimates-from-a-food-frequency-questionnaire-by-using-repeated-24-h-dietary-recalls-and-a-unique-method-of-triads-approach-with-2-biomarkers
#17
Nasira M Burkholder-Cooley, Sujatha S Rajaram, Ella H Haddad, Keiji Oda, Gary E Fraser, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl
BACKGROUND: The assessment of polyphenol intake in free-living subjects is challenging, mostly because of the difficulty in accurately measuring phenolic content and the wide presence of phenolics in foods. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the validity of polyphenol intake estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) by using the mean of 6 measurements of a 24-h dietary recall (24-HR) as a reference and to apply a unique method-of-triads approach to assess validity coefficients (VCs) between latent "true" dietary estimates, total urinary polyphenol (TUP) excretion, and a surrogate biomarker (plasma carotenoids)...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122783/longitudinal-association-between-fasting-blood-glucose-concentrations-and-first-stroke-in-hypertensive-adults-in-china-effect-of-folic-acid-intervention
#18
Richard B Xu, Xiangyi Kong, Benjamin P Xu, Yun Song, Meng Ji, Min Zhao, Xiao Huang, Ping Li, Xiaoshu Cheng, Fang Chen, Yan Zhang, Genfu Tang, Xianhui Qin, Binyan Wang, Fan Fan Hou, Qiang Dong, Yundai Chen, Tianlun Yang, Ningling Sun, Xiaoying Li, Lianyou Zhao, Junbo Ge, Linong Ji, Yong Huo, Jianping Li
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a known risk factor for stroke, but data on its prospective association with first stroke are limited. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to protect against first stroke, but its role in preventing first stroke in diabetes is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This post hoc analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial tested the hypotheses that the fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration is positively associated with first stroke risk and that folic acid treatment can reduce stroke risk associated with elevated fasting glucose concentrations...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122782/a-metabolomic-study-of-biomarkers-of-meat-and-fish-intake
#19
William Cheung, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Nada Assi, Pietro Ferrari, Heinz Freisling, Sabina Rinaldi, Nadia Slimani, Raul Zamora-Ros, Milena Rundle, Gary Frost, Helena Gibbons, Eibhlin Carr, Lorraine Brennan, Amanda J Cross, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Carlotta Sacerdote, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Tilman Kühn, Rudolf Kaaks, Heiner Boeing, Anna Floegel, Francesca Mancini, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Laura Baglietto, Antonia Trichopoulou, Androniki Naska, Philippos Orfanos, Augustin Scalbert
BACKGROUND: Meat and fish intakes have been associated with various chronic diseases. The use of specific biomarkers may help to assess meat and fish intake and improve subject classification according to the amount and type of meat or fish consumed. OBJECTIVE: A metabolomic approach was applied to search for biomarkers of meat and fish intake in a dietary intervention study and in free-living subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#20
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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