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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#1
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100511/higher-dietary-flavonoid-intakes-are-associated-with-lower-objectively-measured-body-composition-in-women-evidence-from-discordant-monozygotic-twins
#2
Amy Jennings, Alex MacGregor, Tim Spector, Aedín Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Although dietary flavonoid intake has been associated with less weight gain, there are limited data on its impact on fat mass, and to our knowledge, the contribution of genetic factors to this relation has not previously been assessed. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between flavonoid intakes and fat mass. DESIGN: In a study of 2734 healthy, female twins aged 18-83 y from the TwinsUK registry, intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, polymers, and proanthocyanidins) were calculated with the use of food-frequency questionnaires...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100510/the-nutritional-metabolomics-crossroads-how-to-ensure-success-for-dietary-biomarkers
#3
Lorraine Brennan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100509/determining-the-protein-needs-of-older-persons-one-meal-at-a-time
#4
Stuart M Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100508/challenges-in-accurately-modeling-the-complexity-of-human-ingestive-behavior-the-influence-of-portion-size-and-energy-density-of-food-on-fmri-food-cue-reactivity
#5
Martin Binks, Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100507/efficacy-of-iron-supplement-bars-to-reduce-anemia-in-urban-indian-women-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Rajvi Mehta, Alyssa C Platt, Xizi Sun, Mukesh Desai, Dennis Clements, Elizabeth L Turner
BACKGROUND: India's high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia has largely been attributed to the local diet consisting of nonheme iron, which has lower absorption than that of heme iron. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the efficacy of the consumption of iron-supplement bars in raising hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages in anemic (hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL) Indian women of reproductive age. DESIGN: The Let's be Well Red study was a 90-d, pair-matched, cluster-randomized controlled trial...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077381/metabolic-syndrome-increases-dietary-%C3%AE-tocopherol-requirements-as-assessed-using-urinary-and-plasma-vitamin-e-catabolites-a-double-blind-crossover-clinical-trial
#7
Maret G Traber, Eunice Mah, Scott W Leonard, Gerd Bobe, Richard S Bruno
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E supplementation improves liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We reported previously that α-tocopherol bioavailability in healthy adults is higher than in those with MetS, thereby suggesting that the latter group has increased requirements. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that α-tocopherol catabolites α-carboxyethyl hydroxychromanol (α-CEHC) and α-carboxymethylbutyl hydroxychromanol (α-CMBHC) are useful biomarkers of α-tocopherol status...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077380/metabolomic-profiles-as-reliable-biomarkers-of-dietary-composition
#8
Tõnu Esko, Joel N Hirschhorn, Henry A Feldman, Yu-Han H Hsu, Amy A Deik, Clary B Clish, Cara B Ebbeling, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol. DESIGN: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10-15% of initial body weight...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077379/effects-of-supplementation-with-nondigestible-carbohydrates-on-fecal-calprotectin-and-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-sfrp1-expression-in-the-large-bowel-mucosa-of-healthy-individuals
#9
Fiona C Malcomson, Naomi D Willis, Iain McCallum, Long Xie, Idoia Ibero-Baraibar, Wing C Leung, Seamus Kelly, D Michael Bradburn, Nigel J Belshaw, Ian T Johnson, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND: Hyperactive Wnt signaling is frequently observed in colorectal cancer. Higher intakes of dietary fiber [nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs)] and the fermentation product butyrate are protective against colorectal cancer and may exert their preventative effects via modulation of the Wnt pathway. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of supplementing healthy individuals with 2 NDCs [resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose] on fecal calprotectin concentrations and Wnt pathway-related gene expression...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077378/peripheral-skeleton-bone-strength-is-positively-correlated-with-total-and-dairy-protein-intakes-in-healthy-postmenopausal-women
#10
Claire Durosier-Izart, Emmanuel Biver, Fanny Merminod, Bert van Rietbergen, Thierry Chevalley, François R Herrmann, Serge L Ferrari, René Rizzoli
BACKGROUND: Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) are positively correlated with dietary protein intakes, which account for 1-8% of BMC and BMD variances. However, the relation between bone strength and microstructure, which are variables that are not captured by areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and dietary protein intakes, particularly from specific dietary sources, has not been clearly established. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between the peripheral skeleton-predicted failure load and stiffness, bone microstructure, and dietary protein intakes from various origins (animal, divided into dairy and nondairy, and vegetable origins) in healthy postmenopausal women...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077377/a-new-universal-dynamic-model-to-describe-eating-rate-and-cumulative-intake-curves
#11
Diana M Thomas, Jonathan Paynter, Courtney M Peterson, Steven B Heymsfield, Ann Nduati, John W Apolzan, Corby K Martin
BACKGROUND: Attempts to model cumulative intake curves with quadratic functions have not simultaneously taken gustatory stimulation, satiation, and maximal food intake into account. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop a dynamic model for cumulative intake curves that captures gustatory stimulation, satiation, and maximal food intake. DESIGN: We developed a first-principles model describing cumulative intake that universally describes gustatory stimulation, satiation, and maximal food intake using 3 key parameters: 1) the initial eating rate, 2) the effective duration of eating, and 3) the maximal food intake...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077376/dietary-intake-and-peripheral-arterial-disease-incidence-in-middle-aged-adults-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#12
Rachel P Ogilvie, Pamela L Lutsey, Gerardo Heiss, Aaron R Folsom, Lyn M Steffen
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a costly source of morbidity and mortality among older persons in the United States. Dietary intake plays a role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, few studies have examined the relation of food intake or dietary patterns with PAD. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relation between habitual dietary intake at midlife and incident PAD over ∼20 y of follow-up. DESIGN: Among 14,082 participants enrolled in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study initially free of PAD, dietary intake was assessed at baseline in 1987-1989 by using a modified Harvard food-frequency questionnaire...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077375/body-composition-diet-and-physical-activity-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-preschoolers-with-cerebral-palsy
#13
Stina Oftedal, Peter Sw Davies, Roslyn N Boyd, Richard D Stevenson, Robert S Ware, Piyapa Keawutan, Katherine A Benfer, Kristie L Bell
BACKGROUND: Altered body composition in children with cerebral palsy (CP) could be due to differences in energy intake, habitual physical activity (HPA), and sedentary time. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the longitudinal relation between the weight-for-age z score (WZ), fat-free mass (FFM), percentage of body fat (%BF), and modifiable lifestyle factors for all Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels (I-V). DESIGN: The study was a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children with CP who were aged 18-60 mo (364 assessments in 161 children; boys: 61%; mean ± SD recruitment age: 2...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052888/food-insecurity-but-not-hiv-infection-status-is-associated-with-adverse-changes-in-body-composition-during-lactation-in-ugandan-women-of-mixed-hiv-status
#14
Elizabeth M Widen, Shalean M Collins, Hijab Khan, Claire Biribawa, Daniel Acidri, Winifred Achoko, Harriet Achola, Shibani Ghosh, Jeffrey K Griffiths, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important indicator of nutritional status and health. How body composition changes during 12 mo of breastfeeding in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether HIV or food insecurity was associated with adverse postpartum body-composition changes in Ugandan women. DESIGN: A cohort of 246 women [36.5% of whom were HIV positive (HIV+) and were receiving ART] were followed to 12 mo postpartum...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052887/impact-of-human-milk-pasteurization-on-gastric-digestion-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Samira C de Oliveira, Amandine Bellanger, Olivia Ménard, Patrick Pladys, Yann Le Gouar, Emelyne Dirson, Florian Kroell, Didier Dupont, Amélie Deglaire, Claire Bourlieu
BACKGROUND: Holder pasteurization has been reported to modify human milk composition and structure by inactivating bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) and partially denaturing some of its proteins, potentially affecting its subsequent digestion. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion (particularly for proteins and lipids) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' own milk either raw or pasteurized. DESIGN: In a randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control group in comparing the gastric digestion of raw human milk (RHM) with pasteurized human milk (PHM)...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052886/intestinal-rehabilitation-for-children-with-intestinal-failure-is-cost-effective-a-simulation-study
#16
Henk Groen, Esther G Neelis, Marten J Poley, Joanne F Olieman, René Scheenstra, Paul Fm Krabbe, Gerard Dijkstra, Edmond Hhm Rings
BACKGROUND: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness analysis in pediatric IF including IR. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of IR in terms of costs and life-years. DESIGN: We simulated the treatment of IF in children in a discrete-event model...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052885/a-micronutrient-fortified-young-child-formula-improves-the-iron-and-vitamin-d-status-of-healthy-young-european-children-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#17
Marjolijn D Akkermans, Simone Rbm Eussen, Judith M van der Horst-Graat, Ruurd M van Elburg, Johannes B van Goudoever, Frank Brus
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are common among young European children because of low dietary intakes and low compliance to vitamin D supplementation policies. Milk is a common drink for young European children. Studies evaluating the effect of milk fortification on iron and vitamin D status in these children are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of a micronutrient-fortified young-child formula (YCF) on the iron and vitamin D status of young European children...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052884/vitamin-b-12-fortified-toothpaste-improves-vitamin-status-in-vegans-a-12-wk-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#18
Anne-Kathrin Siebert, Rima Obeid, Stine Weder, Hussain M Awwad, Andreas Sputtek, Juergen Geisel, Markus Keller
BACKGROUND: The oral application of vitamin B-12 may prevent its deficiency if the vitamin is absorbed via the mucosal barrier. OBJECTIVES: We studied the effect of the use of a vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste on vitamin-status markers in vegans and assessed the efficiency of markers in the identification of vitamin-augmentation status. DESIGN: In this 12-wk, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 76 vegans received either a placebo (n = 34) or vitamin B-12 (n = 42) toothpaste...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052883/association-of-dietary-cholesterol-and-egg-intakes-with-the-risk-of-incident-dementia-or-alzheimer-disease-the-kuopio-ischaemic-heart-disease-risk-factor-study
#19
Maija Pt Ylilauri, Sari Voutilainen, Eija Lönnroos, Jaakko Mursu, Heli Ek Virtanen, Timo T Koskinen, Jukka T Salonen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jyrki K Virtanen
BACKGROUND: There is little information about the associations of intakes of cholesterol and eggs, a major source of dietary cholesterol, with the risk of cognitive decline in general populations or in carriers of apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APO-E4), a major risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of cholesterol and egg intakes with incident dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older men from Eastern Finland...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031193/associations-of-dietary-lifestyle-and-sociodemographic-factors-with-iron-status-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-in-the-china-health-and-nutrition-survey
#20
Peter J Hu, Sylvia H Ley, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Yanping Li, Dong D Wang
BACKGROUND: Although a high prevalence of anemia and related disease burden have been documented in China, limited evidence is available on the current population-level iron status and risk factors for iron imbalance. OBJECTIVE: We explored the associations of dietary, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors with iron status in Chinese adults. DESIGN: Our study population consisted of 7672 adults aged 18-65 y from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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