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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701302/enduring-challenges-in-estimating-the-effect-of-the-food-environment-on-obesity
#1
Steven Cummins, Christelle Clary, Martine Shareck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701301/modulation-of-receptor-signaling-by-metabolic-environment
#2
Miranda D Johnson, Timothy H Moran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701300/duodenal-and-ileal-glucose-infusions-differentially-alter-gastrointestinal-peptides-appetite-response-and-food-intake-a-tube-feeding-study
#3
Sally D Poppitt, Hyun Sang Shin, Anne-Thea McGill, Stephanie C Budgett, Kim Lo, Malcolm Pahl, Janice Duxfield, Mark Lane, John R Ingram
Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides.Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701299/modeled-changes-in-us-sodium-intake-from-reducing-sodium-concentrations-of-commercially-processed-and-prepared-foods-to-meet-voluntary-standards-established-in-north-america-nhanes
#4
Mary E Cogswell, Sheena M Patel, Keming Yuan, Cathleen Gillespie, WenYen Juan, Christine J Curtis, Michel Vigneault, Jenifer Clapp, Paula Roach, Alanna Moshfegh, Jaspreet Ahuja, Pamela Pehrsson, Lauren Brookmire, Robert Merritt
Background: Approximately 2 in 3 US adults have prehypertension or hypertension that increases their risk of cardiovascular disease. Reducing sodium intake can decrease blood pressure and prevent hypertension. Approximately 9 in 10 Americans consume excess sodium (≥2300 mg/d). Voluntary sodium standards for commercially processed and prepared foods were established in North America, but their impact on sodium intake is unclear.Objective: We modelled the potential impact on US sodium intake of applying voluntary sodium standards for foods...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679555/daily-supplementation-with-15-%C3%AE-g-vitamin-d2-compared-with-vitamin-d3-to-increase-wintertime-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-status-in-healthy-south-asian-and-white-european-women-a-12-wk-randomized-placebo-controlled-food-fortification-trial
#5
Laura Tripkovic, Louise R Wilson, Kathryn Hart, Sig Johnsen, Simon de Lusignan, Colin P Smith, Giselda Bucca, Simon Penson, Gemma Chope, Ruan Elliott, Elina Hyppönen, Jacqueline L Berry, Susan A Lanham-New
Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of vitamin D.Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679554/protein-supplements-after-weight-loss-do-not-improve-weight-maintenance-compared-with-recommended-dietary-protein-intake-despite-beneficial-effects-on-appetite-sensation-and-energy-expenditure-a-randomized-controlled-double-blinded-trial
#6
Louise Kjølbæk, Lone Brinkmann Sørensen, Nadja Buus Søndertoft, Carrie Klestrup Rasmussen, Janne Kunchel Lorenzen, Anja Serena, Arne Astrup, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen
Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium or soy on WM success after WL compared with that of a control.Design: In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial, 220 participants aged 18-60 y with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) from 27.6 to 40.4 were included...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679553/maternal-protein-intake-in-pregnancy-and-offspring-metabolic-health-at-age-9-16-y-results-from-a-danish-cohort-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-pregnancies-and-controls
#7
Ekaterina Maslova, Susanne Hansen, Louise Groth Grunnet, Marin Strøm, Anne Ahrendt Bjerregaard, Line Hjort, Freja Bach Kampmann, Camilla Møller Madsen, A C Baun Thuesen, Bodil Hammer Bech, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Allan A Vaag, Sjurdur F Olsen
Background: Recent years have seen strong tendencies toward high-protein diets. However, the implications of higher protein intake, especially during developmentally sensitive periods, are poorly understood. Conversely, evidence on the long-term developmental consequences of low protein intake in free-living populations remains limited.Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679552/randomized-controlled-trial-of-dietary-fiber-for-the-prevention-of-radiation-induced-gastrointestinal-toxicity-during-pelvic-radiotherapy
#8
Linda Wedlake, Clare Shaw, Helen McNair, Amyn Lalji, Kabir Mohammed, Tanya Klopper, Lindsey Allan, Diana Tait, Maria Hawkins, Navita Somaiah, Susan Lalondrelle, Alexandra Taylor, Nicholas VanAs, Alexandra Stewart, Sharadah Essapen, Heather Gage, Kevin Whelan, H Jervoise N Andreyev
Background: Therapeutic radiotherapy is an important treatment of pelvic cancers. Historically, low-fiber diets have been recommended despite a lack of evidence and potentially beneficial mechanisms of fiber.Objective: This randomized controlled trial compared low-, habitual-, and high-fiber diets for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy.Design: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber [≤10 g nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)/d], habitual-fiber (control), or high-fiber (≥18 g NSP/d) diets and received individualized counseling at the start of radiotherapy to achieve these targets...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679551/pretreatment-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-insulin-modify-dietary-weight-loss-success-results-from-3-randomized-clinical-trials
#9
Mads F Hjorth, Christian Ritz, Ellen E Blaak, Wim Hm Saris, Dominique Langin, Sanne Kellebjerg Poulsen, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Yishai Zohar, Arne Astrup
Background: Which diet is optimal for weight loss and maintenance remains controversial and implies that no diet fits all patients.Objective: We studied concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through diets with different glycemic loads or different fiber and whole-grain content, assessed in 3 randomized trials of overweight participants.Design: After an 8-wk weight loss, participants in the DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity, and Genes) trial consumed ad libitum for 26 wk a diet with either a high or a low glycemic load...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679550/differences-in-genetic-and-environmental-variation-in-adult-body-mass-index-by-sex-age-time-period-and-region-an-individual-based-pooled-analysis-of-40-twin-cohorts
#10
Karri Silventoinen, Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, Yoshie Yokoyama, Yoon-Mi Hur, Wendy Cozen, Amie E Hwang, Thomas M Mack, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Yoshinori Iwatani, Mikio Watanabe, Rie Tomizawa, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Aila Rissanen, Sisira H Siribaddana, Matthew Hotopf, Athula Sumathipala, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Qihua Tan, Dongfeng Zhang, Zengchang Pang, Maarit Piirtola, Sari Aaltonen, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Esther Rebato, Jacob B Hjelmborg, Kaare Christensen, Axel Skytthe, Kirsten O Kyvik, Judy L Silberg, Lindon J Eaves, Tessa L Cutler, Juan R Ordoñana, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, Yun-Mi Song, Sarah Yang, Kayoung Lee, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Michael J Lyons, Andreas Busjahn, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Christian Kandler, Kerry L Jang, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D'Ippolito, Glen E Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Hoe-Uk Jeong, Gary E Swan, Ruth Krasnow, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Alice M Gregory, Per Tynelius, Laura A Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Timothy D Spector, Massimo Mangino, Genevieve Lachance, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Jennifer R Harris, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas S Nilsen, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Meike Bartels, Catharina Em van Beijsterveldt, Gonneke Willemsen, Jack H Goldberg, Finn Rasmussen, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth Jf Loos, John L Hopper, Joohon Sung, Hermine H Maes, Eric Turkheimer, Dorret I Boomsma, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Jaakko Kaprio
Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood.Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity.Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins ≥20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs)...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679549/diet-height-and-health
#11
Joseph Yeboah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659302/higher-dietary-cholesterol-and-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-intakes-are-associated-with-a-lower-success-rate-of-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-therapy-in-japan
#12
Hiroaki Ikezaki, Norihiro Furusyo, Paul F Jacques, Motohiro Shimizu, Masayuki Murata, Ernst J Schaefer, Yoshihisa Urita, Jun Hayashi
Background:Helicobacter pylori infection is a known risk factor for duodenal ulcers, gastritis, and gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori is successful in treating these disorders; however, the success rate of eradication therapy is declining. There may be an interaction with nutrient intake to account for this decline.Objective: We investigated the influence of food and nutrient intake on H. pylori eradication therapy.Design: In this study, 4014 subjects underwent endoscopy, were tested for serum antibodies to H...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659301/metabolism-of-uniformly-labeled-13-c-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-13-c-arachidonic-acid-in-young-and-old-men
#13
Pauline Léveillé, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Anthony Windust, Peter Lawrence, Stephen C Cunnane, J Thomas Brenna, Mélanie Plourde
Background: Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations increase with age.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate EPA and AA metabolism in young and old men by using uniformly labeled carbon-13 ((13)C) fatty acids.Design: Six young (∼25 y old) and 6 old (∼75 y old) healthy men were recruited. Each participant consumed a single oral dose of 35 mg (13)C-EPA and its metabolism was followed in the course of 14 d in the plasma and 28 d in the breath. After the washout period of ≥28 d, the same participants consumed a single oral dose of 50 mg (13)C-AA and its metabolism was followed for 28 d in plasma and breath...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659300/dietary-fat-intake-and-risk-of-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-in-2-large-prospective-cohorts
#14
Kimberly A Bertrand, Edward Giovannucci, Bernard A Rosner, Shumin M Zhang, Francine Laden, Brenda M Birmann
Background: Dietary fat intake may contribute to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) pathogenesis by influencing carcinogen exposure or through immune modulation.Objective: We aimed to evaluate NHL risk associated with total and specific dietary fat intake.Design: We evaluated associations within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (n = 88,598) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) (n = 47,531) using repeated validated dietary assessments. We confirmed 1802 incident NHL diagnoses through 2010. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for all NHL and common subtypes associated with a 1-SD increase in cumulative mean intakes of total, animal, saturated, trans, and vegetable fats and marine fatty acids...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659299/associations-of-infant-feeding-with-trajectories-of-body-composition-and-growth
#15
Katherine A Bell, Carol L Wagner, Henry A Feldman, Roman J Shypailo, Mandy B Belfort
Background: The extent to which breastfeeding is protective against later-life obesity is controversial. Little is known about differences in infant body composition between breastfed and formula-fed infants, which may reflect future obesity risk.Objective: We aimed to assess associations of infant feeding with trajectories of growth and body composition from birth to 7 mo in healthy infants.Design: We studied 276 participants from a previous study of maternal vitamin D supplementation during lactation. Mothers used monthly feeding diaries to report the extent of breastfeeding...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659298/nutritional-metabolomics-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-a-prospective-study
#16
Mary C Playdon, Regina G Ziegler, Joshua N Sampson, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Henry J Thompson, Melinda L Irwin, Susan T Mayne, Robert N Hoover, Steven C Moore
Background: The epidemiologic evidence for associations between dietary factors and breast cancer is weak and etiologic mechanisms are often unclear. Exploring the role of dietary biomarkers with metabolomics can potentially facilitate objective dietary characterization, mitigate errors related to self-reported diet, agnostically test metabolic pathways, and identify mechanistic mediators.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of diet-related metabolites with the risk of breast cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659297/nutritional-strategies-and-gut-microbiota-composition-as-risk-factors-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-very-preterm-infants
#17
Jean-Christophe Rozé, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Patricia Lepage, Laetitia Martin-Marchand, Ziad Al Nabhani, Johanne Delannoy, Jean-Charles Picaud, Alexandre Lapillonne, Julio Aires, Mélanie Durox, Dominique Darmaun, Josef Neu, Marie-José Butel
Background: The pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains poorly understood.Objective: We assessed the relation between feeding strategies, intestinal microbiota composition, and the development of NEC.Design: We performed a prospective nationwide population-based study, EPIPAGE 2 (Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels), including preterm infants born at <32 wk of gestation in France in 2011. From individual characteristics observed during the first week of life, we calculated a propensity score for the risk of NEC (Bell's stage 2 or 3) after day 7 of life...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659296/an-observational-cohort-study-of-weight-and-length-derived-anthropometric-indicators-with-body-composition-at-birth-and-5-months-the-healthy-start-study
#18
Wei Perng, Brandy M Ringham, Deborah H Glueck, Katherine A Sauder, Anne P Starling, Mandy B Belfort, Dana Dabelea
Background: Despite widespread use of weight- and length-based anthropometric indexes as proxies for adiposity, little is known regarding the extent to which they correspond with fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) during infancy.Objective: This study aimed to examine associations of 3 derived indicators-weight-for-age z score (WFAZ), weight-for-length score (WFLZ), and body mass index z score (BMIZ)-with FM, percentage of FM, and FFM measured by air-displacement plethysmography during the first 5 mo of life...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659295/infant-feeding-and-growth-trajectory-patterns-in-childhood-and-body-composition-in-young-adulthood
#19
Peter Rzehak, Wendy H Oddy, M Luisa Mearin, Veit Grote, Trevor A Mori, Hania Szajewska, Raanan Shamir, Sibylle Koletzko, Martina Weber, Lawrence J Beilin, Rae-Chi Huang, Berthold Koletzko
Background: Growth patterns of breastfed and formula-fed infants may differ, with formula-fed infants growing more rapidly than breastfed infants into childhood and adulthood.Objectives: Our objectives were to identify growth patterns and investigate early nutritional programming potential on growth patterns at 6 y and on body composition at 20 y.Design: The West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and 3 European cohort studies (European Childhood Obesity Trial, Norwegian Human Milk Study, and Prevention of Coeliac Disease) that collaborate in the European Union-funded Early Nutrition project combined, harmonized, and pooled data on full breastfeeding, anthropometry, and body composition...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659294/artificially-sweetened-beverages-sugar-sweetened-beverages-plain-water-and-incident-diabetes-mellitus-in-postmenopausal-women-the-prospective-women-s-health-initiative-observational-study
#20
Mengna Huang, Abdullah Quddus, Lynda Stinson, James M Shikany, Barbara V Howard, Randa M Kutob, Bing Lu, JoAnn E Manson, Charles B Eaton
Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), whereas the association with artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is unclear.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations of ASB and SSB consumption with the risk of developing DM and the potential benefit of replacing SSBs with ASBs or water.Design: The national Women's Health Initiative recruited a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998. ASB, SSB, and water consumption was measured by lifestyle questionnaires, and DM was self-reported...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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