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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117969/why-might-the-finding-of-a-new-genetic-association-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-be-of-potential-value-in-disease-control
#1
Lynnette R Ferguson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117968/muscling-out-from-under-the-yolk-of-the-egg-s-bad-reputation
#2
Stuart M Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092886/the-effects-of-dietary-protein-intake-on-appendicular-lean-mass-and-muscle-function-in-elderly-men-a-10-wk-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Cameron J Mitchell, Amber M Milan, Sarah M Mitchell, Nina Zeng, Farha Ramzan, Pankaja Sharma, Scott O Knowles, Nicole C Roy, Anders Sjödin, Karl-Heinz Wagner, David Cameron-Smith
Background: The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein intake in the adult population is widely promoted as 0.8 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass.Objective: We investigated whether controlled protein consumption at the current RDA or twice the RDA (2RDA) affects skeletal muscle mass and physical function in elderly men.Design: In this parallel-group randomized trial, 29 men aged >70 y [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.3 ± 4...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092885/efficacy-of-iron-supplementation-may-be-misinterpreted-using-conventional-measures-of-iron-status-in-iron-depleted-nonanemic-women-undergoing-aerobic-exercise-training
#4
Laura M Pompano, Jere D Haas
Background: Despite its known detrimental effects, iron deficiency remains the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Many interventions that aim to improve iron status involve physically active populations. Intense aerobic exercise training negatively affects iron status; however, the impact of regular moderate aerobic exercise on the effectiveness of iron supplementation remains unclear.Objective: This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training modifies the assessment of the effectiveness of iron supplementation in improving conventional iron status measures...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092884/breastfeeding-and-motor-development-in-term-and-preterm-infants-in-a-longitudinal-us-cohort
#5
Kara A Michels, Akhgar Ghassabian, Sunni L Mumford, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Erin M Bell, Scott C Bello, Edwina H Yeung
Background: The relation between breastfeeding and early motor development is difficult to characterize because of the problems in existing studies such as incomplete control for confounding, retrospective assessment of infant feeding, and even the assessment of some motor skills too early.Objective: We sought to estimate associations between infant feeding and time to achieve major motor milestones in a US cohort.Design: The Upstate New York Infant Development Screening Program (Upstate KIDS Study) enrolled mothers who delivered live births in New York (2008-2010)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092883/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-nutrition-therapy-compared-with-dietary-advice-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Grith Møller, Henning Keinke Andersen, Ole Snorgaard
Background: Despite recommendations, many patients with type 2 diabetes receive dietary advice from nurses or doctors instead of individualized nutrition therapy (INT) that is provided by a dietitian.Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of INT that is provided by a registered dietitian with the effect of dietary advice that is provided by other healthcare professionals.Design: A systematic review was conducted of Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE in the period 2004-2017 for guidelines, reviews, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the outcomes glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), and LDL cholesterol...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092882/complementary-feeding-with-cowpea-reduces-growth-faltering-in-rural-malawian-infants-a-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Kevin B Stephenson, Sophia E Agapova, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED).Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend.Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092881/effects-of-potassium-supplements-on-glucose-metabolism-in-african-americans-with-prediabetes-a-pilot-trial
#8
Ranee Chatterjee, Cris Slentz, Clemontina A Davenport, Johanna Johnson, Pao-Hwa Lin, Michael Muehlbauer, David D'Alessio, Laura P Svetkey, David Edelman
Background: Low potassium has been identified both as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and as a mediator of the racial disparity in diabetes risk. Low potassium could be a potentially modifiable risk factor, particularly for African Americans.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of potassium chloride (KCl) supplements, at a commonly prescribed dose, on measures of potassium and glucose metabolism.Design: Among African-American adults with prediabetes, we conducted a double-blinded pilot randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of 40 mEq K/d as KCl supplements with a matching placebo, taken for 3 mo, on measures of potassium and glucose metabolism, with measures collected from frequently sampled oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092880/brain-stimulation-for-treatment-of-obesity-will-stimulating-the-prefrontal-cortex-reduce-overeating
#9
Kathleen L Keller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092879/eggs-early-in-complementary-feeding-increase-choline-pathway-biomarkers-and-dha-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-ecuador
#10
Lora L Iannotti, Chessa K Lutter, William F Waters, Carlos Andres Gallegos Riofrío, Carla Malo, Gregory Reinhart, Ana Palacios, Celia Karp, Melissa Chapnick, Katherine Cox, Santiago Aguirre, Luis Narvaez, Fernando López, Rohini Sidhu, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Hideji Fujiwara, Daniel S Ory, Rebecca Young, Christine P Stewart
Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids.Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092878/effects-of-isolated-soluble-fiber-supplementation-on-body-weight-glycemia-and-insulinemia-in-adults-with-overweight-and-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Sharon V Thompson, Bridget A Hannon, Ruopeng An, Hannah D Holscher
Background: There is strong epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber intake is protective against overweight and obesity; however, results of intervention studies have been mixed. Soluble fiber beneficially affects metabolism, and fiber supplementation may be a feasible approach to improve body composition and glycemia in adults with overweight and obesity.Objective: We evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of isolated soluble fiber supplementation in overweight and obese adults on outcomes related to weight management [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference] and glucose and insulin metabolism (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin) through a systematic review and meta-analysis...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070567/assessment-of-iron-status-in-settings-of-inflammation-challenges-and-potential-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Parminder S Suchdev, Anne M Williams, Zuguo Mei, Rafael Flores-Ayala, Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Lisa M Rogers, Sorrel Ml Namaste
The determination of iron status is challenging when concomitant infection and inflammation are present because of confounding effects of the acute-phase response on the interpretation of most iron indicators. This review summarizes the effects of inflammation on indicators of iron status and assesses the impact of a regression analysis to adjust for inflammation on estimates of iron deficiency (ID) in low- and high-infection-burden settings. We overviewed cross-sectional data from 16 surveys for preschool children (PSC) (n = 29,765) and from 10 surveys for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (WRA) (n = 25,731) from the Biomarkers Reflecting the Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070566/a-high-glycemic-diet-is-associated-with-cerebral-amyloid-burden-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#13
Matthew K Taylor, Debra K Sullivan, Russell H Swerdlow, Eric D Vidoni, Jill K Morris, Jonathan D Mahnken, Jeffrey M Burns
Background: Little is known about the relation between dietary intake and cerebral amyloid accumulation in aging.Objective: We assessed the association of dietary glycemic measures with cerebral amyloid burden and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults.Design: We performed cross-sectional analyses relating dietary glycemic measures [adherence to a high-glycemic-load diet (HGLDiet) pattern, intakes of sugar and carbohydrates, and glycemic load] with cerebral amyloid burden (measured by florbetapir F-18 positron emission tomography) and cognitive performance in 128 cognitively normal older adults who provided eligibility screening data for the University of Kansas's Alzheimer's Prevention through Exercise (APEX) Study...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070565/u-shaped-curve-for-risk-associated-with-maternal-hemoglobin-iron-status-or-iron-supplementation
#14
REVIEW
Kathryn G Dewey, Brietta M Oaks
Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070563/low-serum-%C3%AF-3-and-%C3%AF-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-other-metabolites-are-associated-with-poor-linear-growth-in-young-children-from-rural-malawi
#15
Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ximin Li, Norman Salem, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Kenneth M Maleta, Klaus Kraemer, Mark J Manary
Background: Stunting affects ∼25% of children <5 y of age and is associated with impaired cognitive and motor development and increased morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood.Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify altered metabolic pathways associated with child stunting.Design: We measured 677 serum metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study of 400 Malawian children aged 12-59 mo, of whom 62% were stunted...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070562/comparison-of-global-nutrient-profiling-systems-for-restricting-the-commercial-marketing-of-foods-and-beverages-of-low-nutritional-quality-to-children-in-canada
#16
Marie-Ève Labonté, Theresa Poon, Christine Mulligan, Jodi T Bernstein, Beatriz Franco-Arellano, Mary R L'Abbé
Background: The Canadian government recently committed to introduce legislation to restrict the commercial marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children.Objective: We compared the degree of strictness and agreement between nutrient profile (NP) models relevant to marketing restrictions by applying them in the Canadian context.Design: With the use of data from the University of Toronto 2013 Food Label Information Program (n = 15,342 prepackaged foods), 4 NP models were evaluated: the Food Standards Australia New Zealand-Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC), the WHO Regional Office for Europe (EURO) model, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) model, and a modified version of the PAHO model (Modified-PAHO), which did not consider the extent of food processing because the application of this characteristic was prone to ambiguity...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070561/development-of-iron-homeostasis-in-infants-and-young-children
#17
REVIEW
Bo Lönnerdal
Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age)...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070560/serum-ferritin-as-an-indicator-of-iron-status-what-do-we-need-to-know
#18
REVIEW
Jahnavi Daru, Katherine Colman, Simon J Stanworth, Barbara De La Salle, Erica M Wood, Sant-Rayn Pasricha
Determination of iron status in pregnancy and in young children is essential for both clinical and public health practice. Clinical diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through sampling of bone marrow to identify the absence of body iron stores is impractical in most cases. Serum ferritin (SF) concentrations are the most commonly deployed indicator for determining ID, and low SF concentrations reflect a state of iron depletion. However, there is considerable variation in SF cutoffs recommended by different expert groups to diagnose ID...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070559/iron-status-of-toddlers-nonpregnant-females-and-pregnant-females-in-the-united-states
#19
REVIEW
Priya M Gupta, Heather C Hamner, Parminder S Suchdev, Rafael Flores-Ayala, Zuguo Mei
Background: Total-body iron stores (TBI), which are calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, can be used to assess the iron status of populations in the United States.Objective: This analysis, developed to support workshop discussions, describes the distribution of TBI and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA) among toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females.Design: We analyzed data from NHANES; toddlers aged 12-23 mo (NHANES 2003-2010), nonpregnant females aged 15-49 y (NHANES 2007-2010), and pregnant females aged 12-49 y (NHANES 1999-2010)...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070558/harmonization-of-blood-based-indicators-of-iron-status-making-the-hard-work-matter
#20
REVIEW
Andrew N Hoofnagle
Blood-based indicators that are used in the assessment of iron status are assumed to be accurate. In practice, inaccuracies in these measurements exist and stem from bias and variability. For example, the analytic variability of serum ferritin measurements across laboratories is very high (>15%), which increases the rate of misclassification in clinical and epidemiologic studies. The procedures that are used in laboratory medicine to minimize bias and variability could be used effectively in clinical research studies, particularly in the evaluation of iron deficiency and its associated anemia in pregnancy and early childhood and in characterizing states of iron repletion and excess...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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