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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Courtney M Peterson, Robbie A Beyl, Kara L Marlatt, Corby K Martin, Kayanush J Aryana, Maria L Marco, Roy J Martin, Michael J Keenan, Eric Ravussin
Background: Type 2 resistant starch (RS2) has been shown to improve glycemic control and some cardiovascular endpoints in rodent and human studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform one of the first randomized clinical trials in adults with prediabetes and one of the longest trials to test whether RS2 can improve cardiometabolic health. Design: 68 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2] adults aged 35-75 y with prediabetes were randomized to consume 45 g/d of high-amylose maize (RS2) or an isocaloric amount of the rapidly digestible starch amylopectin (control) for 12 wk...
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Amy Jennings, Kevin D Cashman, Rachel Gillings, Aedin Cassidy, Jonathan Tang, William Fraser, Kirsten G Dowling, George L J Hull, Agnes A M Berendsen, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Barbara Pietruszka, Elzbieta Wierzbicka, Rita Ostan, Alberto Bazzocchi, Giuseppe Battista, Elodie Caumon, Nathalie Meunier, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère, Claudio Franceschi, Aurelia Santoro, Susan J Fairweather-Tait
Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease, but evidence for a beneficial effect on bone health is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern [NU-AGE (New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe)] on indexes of inflammation with a number of secondary endpoints, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone and collagen degradation in a 1-y multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT; NU-AGE) in elderly Europeans...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Xiaoling Song, Irena B King, David S Siscovick, Dariush Mozaffarian
Background: Controversy has emerged about the benefits compared with harms of dairy fat, including concerns over long-term effects. Previous observational studies have assessed self-reported estimates of consumption or a single biomarker measure at baseline, which may lead to suboptimal estimation of true risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate prospective associations of serial measures of plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic (15:0), heptadecanoic (17:0), and trans-palmitoleic (trans-16:1n-7) acids with total mortality, cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among older adults...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Ton Kuijpers, Hanno Pijl
Background: It remains uncertain which diet is best for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective: We compared the effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with fat restriction on markers of metabolic syndrome and quality of life in people with T2D. Design: This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) compares the effects of a low-carbohydrate [≤40% of energy (%)] diet with those of a low-fat (≤30%) diet over a period of ≥4 wk in patients with T2D...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ole L Dollerup, Britt Christensen, Mads Svart, Mark S Schmidt, Karolina Sulek, Steffen Ringgaard, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Niels Møller, Charles Brenner, Jonas T Treebak, Niels Jessen
Background: Animal studies suggest a positive role for nicotinamide riboside (NR) on insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis in models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. NR, an NAD+ precursor, is a member of the vitamin B-3 family now available as an over-the-counter supplement. Although data from preclinical trials appear consistent, potential effects and safety need to be evaluated in human clinical trials. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the safety of dietary NR supplementation over a 12-wk period and potential to improve insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in obese, insulin-resistant men...
July 10, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Bamini Gopinath, Gerald Liew, Annette Kifley, Victoria M Flood, Nichole Joachim, Joshua R Lewis, Jonathan M Hodgson, Paul Mitchell
Background: The majority of research performed to date has examined the effects of commonly known antioxidants such as vitamins C, E, and A and carotenoids on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk and progression. To date, there is limited research on promising phytochemicals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, including flavonoids. Objective: In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess the independent associations between dietary intake of total flavonoids and common flavonoid classes with the prevalence and 15-y incidence of AMD...
July 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mariya Markova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Katrin Wegner, Olga Pivovarova, Natalia Rudovich, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas Fh Pfeiffer
Background: Meal composition regulates the postprandial response of pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones and plays an important role in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Proteins have glucagon and insulinotropic effects, which may differ depending on amino acid composition, form of intake, and rate of digestibility and absorption. Objective: The aim of this study was to test effects of isolated pea protein-based (PP) compared with casein protein-based (CP) meals differing in amino acid compositions on endocrine responses to meal tolerance tests (MTTs) in patients with T2D...
July 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Gunn-Helen Moen, Elisabeth Qvigstad, Kåre I Birkeland, David M Evans, Christine Sommer
Background: Several observational studies have shown that low serum vitamin B-12 is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. However, it is unclear if these associations reflect a causal effect of vitamin B-12 on cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases, latent confounding, or reverse causality. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate 1) the possible causal relation between vitamin B-12 and indicators of body fat, lipid, and glucose variables; type 2 diabetes (T2D); and cardiovascular disease by using a 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) method and 2) the possible pleiotropic role of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2)...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Raphaëlle Jacob, Vicky Drapeau, Angelo Tremblay, Véronique Provencher, Claude Bouchard, Louis Pérusse
Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several genes associated with obesity. The mechanisms through which these genes affect body weight are not fully characterized. Recent studies suggest that eating behavior (EB) traits could be involved, but only a few EB traits were investigated. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to obesity is mediated by EB traits (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, hunger) and their subscales...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hanish P Kodali, Brian T Pavilonis, C Mary Schooling
Background: Despite great progress in prevention and control, ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Diet plays a key role in IHD, but a comprehensive delineation of the role of dietary factors in IHD is not yet quite complete. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the long-standing hypothesis that copper is protective and zinc harmful in IHD. Design: We used separate-sample instrumental variable analysis with genetic instruments (Mendelian randomization)...
July 3, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Josephine E Prynn, Louis Banda, Alemayehu Amberbir, Alison J Price, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Shabbar Jaffar, Amelia C Crampin, Liam Smeeth, Moffat Nyirenda
Background: High dietary sodium intake is a major risk factor for hypertension. Data on population sodium intake are scanty in sub-Saharan Africa, despite a high hypertension prevalence in most countries. Objective: We aimed to determine daily sodium intake in urban and rural communities in Malawi. Design: In an observational cross-sectional survey, data were collected on estimated household-level per capita sodium intake, based on how long participants reported that a defined quantity of plain salt lasts in a household...
June 30, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Stefan Kiechl, Raimund Pechlaner, Peter Willeit, Marlene Notdurfter, Bernhard Paulweber, Karin Willeit, Philipp Werner, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Bernhard Iglseder, Siegfried Weger, Barbara Mairhofer, Markus Gartner, Ludmilla Kedenko, Monika Chmelikova, Slaven Stekovic, Hermann Stuppner, Friedrich Oberhollenzer, Guido Kroemer, Manuel Mayr, Tobias Eisenberg, Herbert Tilg, Frank Madeo, Johann Willeit
Background: Spermidine administration is linked to increased survival in several animal models. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the potential association between spermidine content in diet and mortality in humans. Design: This prospective community-based cohort study included 829 participants aged 45-84 y, 49.9% of whom were male. Diet was assessed by repeated dietitian-administered validated food-frequency questionnaires (2540 assessments) in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010...
June 28, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
François-Guillaume Debray, Katarina Damjanovic, Robin Rosset, Lauréane Mittaz-Crettol, Clothilde Roux, Olivier Braissant, Frédéric Barbey, Luisa Bonafé, Jean-Pascal De Bandt, Luc Tappy, Nicolas Paquot, Christel Tran
Background: High fructose intake causes hepatic insulin resistance and increases postprandial blood glucose, lactate, triglyceride, and uric acid concentrations. Uric acid may contribute to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in the general population. In patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, fructose consumption is associated with acute hypoglycemia, renal tubular acidosis, and hyperuricemia. Objective: We investigated whether asymptomatic carriers for hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) would have a higher sensitivity to adverse effects of fructose than would the general population...
June 27, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Rishi Caleyachetty, G N Thomas, Andre P Kengne, Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui, Samantha Schilsky, Juneida Khodabocus, Ricardo Uauy
Background: Adults and young children in countries experiencing the nutrition transition are known to be affected simultaneously by undernutrition and overnutrition. Adolescence is a critical period for growth and development. Yet, it is unknown to what extent this double burden of malnutrition affects adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the macrolevel contextual factors associated with the double burden of malnutrition. Objective: The aim was to quantify the magnitude of the double burden of malnutrition among adolescents and to examine the potential sources of heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across LMICs...
June 27, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Roman Pawlak, Paul Vos, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Daniela Hampel, Lindsay H Allen, Maryanne Tigchelaar Perrin
Background: The nutritional profile of human milk varies significantly between women, and the impact of maternal diet on these variations is not well understood. Objective: We analyzed breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentration and vitamin B-12 supplement use pattern among women who adhered to different dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian. Design: A total of 74 milk samples, 29 from vegan, 19 from vegetarian, and 26 from nonvegetarian breastfeeding mothers, were analyzed...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Viktoria Knaze, Joseph A Rothwell, Raul Zamora-Ros, Aurelie Moskal, Cecilie Kyrø, Paula Jakszyn, Guri Skeie, Elisabete Weiderpass, Maria Santucci de Magistris, Claudia Agnoli, Susanne Westenbrink, Emily Sonestedt, Antonia Trichopoulou, Effie Vasilopoulou, Eleni Peppa, Eva Ardanaz, José María Huerta, Heiner Boeing, Francesca Romana Mancini, Augustin Scalbert, Nadia Slimani
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of polyphenol intakes is needed in epidemiologic research in order to study their health effects, and this can be particularly challenging in international study settings. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to describe the procedures to prepare a comprehensive polyphenol food-composition database that was used to calculate standardized polyphenol intakes from 24-h diet recalls (24HDRs) and dietary questionnaires (DQs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Claire E Berryman, Harris R Lieberman, Victor L Fulgoni, Stefan M Pasiakos
Background: Systematic analysis of dietary protein intake may identify demographic groups within the American population that are not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Objective: This cross-sectional study analyzed protein intake trends (2001-2014) and evaluated recent conformity to the DRIs (2011-2014) according to age, sex, and race or ethnicity in the US population. Design: Protein intakes and trends during 2-y cycles of NHANES 2001-2014 (n = 57,980; ≥2 y old) were calculated as absolute (grams per day) and relative [grams per kilogram of ideal body weight (IBW) per day] intakes and as a percentage of total energy...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Wendy Schijns, Jens Homan, Leah van der Meer, Ignace M Janssen, Cees J van Laarhoven, Frits J Berends, Edo O Aarts
Background: After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), patients often develop a vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether oral supplementation increases and normalizes low vitamin B-12 concentrations (vitamin B-12 > 200 pmol/L) in RYGB patients as compared to intramuscular injections. Design: A randomized controlled trial in RYGB patients with subnormal serum B-12 concentrations was performed. One group (IM B-12) received bimonthly intramuscular hydroxocobalamin injections (2000 µg as loading dose and 1000 µg at follow-up) for 6 mo...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Jun Li, Frank B Hu, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Deirdre K Tobias
BACKGROUND: Intervention studies suggest that incorporating walnuts into the diet may improve blood lipids without promoting weight gain. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials evaluating the effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors. Design: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (from database inception to January 2018) of clinical trials comparing walnut-enriched diets with control diets...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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