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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Toshihiro Sugiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Katherine R Arlinghaus, Kirstin Vollrath, Daphne C Hernandez, Shabnam R Momin, Teresia M O'Connor, Thomas G Power, Sheryl O Hughes
Background: Parent feeding styles have been linked to child weight status across multiple studies. However, to our knowledge, the link between feeding styles and children's dietary quality, a more proximal outcome, has not been investigated. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parent feeding styles and dietary quality of Head Start preschoolers' dinner meals. Design: The amount of food served and consumed by children was measured by using a standardized digital photography method during 3 in-home dinner observations of low-income minority families in Houston, Texas...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Neil R Brett, Hope A Weiler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Andrea Hemmingway, Louise C Kenny, Lucio Malvisi, Mairead E Kiely
Background: Associations of vitamin D with perinatal outcomes are inconsistent and few studies have considered the wider calcium metabolic system. Objective: We aimed to explore functional vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy by investigating associations between vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and perinatal outcomes. Design: SCOPE (Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints) Ireland is a prospective cohort study of low-risk, nulliparous pregnant women...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Clare H Llewellyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Emma L Feeney, Rebecca Barron, Victoria Dible, Zita Hamilton, Yvonne Power, Linda Tanner, Cal Flynn, Paul Bouchier, Tom Beresford, Nessa Noronha, Eileen R Gibney
Background: Dairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself. Objective: We aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, eaten within macronutrient-matched food matrices, on markers of metabolic health, in overweight adults aged ≥50 y. Design: The study was a 6-wk randomized parallel intervention; 164 volunteers (75 men) received ∼40 g of dairy fat/d, in 1 of 4 treatments: (A) 120 g full-fat Irish cheddar cheese (FFCC) (n = 46); (B) 120 g reduced-fat Irish cheddar cheese + butter (21 g) (RFC + B) (n = 45); (C) butter (49 g), calcium caseinate powder (30 g), and Ca supplement (CaCO3) (500 mg) (BCC) (n = 42); or (D) 120 g FFCC, for 6 wk (as per A) (n = 31)...
August 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Suzanne Vogelezang, Susana Santos, Eline M van der Beek, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Liesbeth Duijts, Aad van der Lugt, Janine F Felix, Vincent W V Jaddoe
Background: Although a longer duration of breastfeeding has been associated with a lower risk of childhood obesity, the impact on specific organ fat depots is largely unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of any breastfeeding, duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding, and of age at introduction of solid foods with measures of general, visceral, and organ adiposity at 10 y. Design: In a population-based prospective cohort study in 4444 children, we obtained information on infant feeding by questionnaires...
August 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
James A Chamberlain, Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Julie K Bassett, Allison M Hodge, Maree T Brinkman, JiHoon E Joo, Chol-Hee Jung, Enes Makalic, Daniel F Schmidt, John L Hopper, Daniel D Buchanan, Dallas R English, Melissa C Southey, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne
Background: Folate and other one-carbon metabolism nutrients are essential to enable DNA methylation to occur, but the extent to which their dietary intake influences methylation in adulthood is unclear. Objective: We assessed associations between dietary intake of these nutrients and DNA methylation in peripheral blood, overall and at specific genomic locations. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data and samples from 5186 adult participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS)...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Bennett K Ng, Yong E Liu, Wei Wang, Thomas L Kelly, Kevin E Wilson, Dale A Schoeller, Steven B Heymsfield, John A Shepherd
Background: The 4-component (4C) model is a criterion method for human body composition that separates the body into fat, water, mineral, and protein, but requires 4 measurements with significant cost and time requirements that preclude wide clinical use. A simplified model integrating only 2 measurements-dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-and 10 min of patient time has been proposed. Objective: We aimed to validate a rapid, simplified 4C DXA + BIA body composition model in a clinical population...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Susan K Raatz, Zach Conrad, Lisa Jahns, Martha A Belury, Matthew J Picklo
BACKGROUND: High-oleic (HO) seed oils are being introduced as replacements for trans fatty acid (TFA)-containing fats and oils. Negative health effects associated with TFAs led to their removal from the US Generally Recognized As Safe list. HO oils formulated for use in food production may result in changes in fatty acid intake at population levels. Objectives: The purposes of this study were to 1) identify major food sources of soybean oil (SO) and canola oil (CO), 2) estimate effects of replacing SO and CO with HO varieties on fatty acid intake overall and by age and sex strata, and 3) compare predicted intakes with the Dietary Reference Intakes and Adequate Intakes (AIs) for the essential fatty acids (EFAs) α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA)...
July 31, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Wen Chen, Elizabeth N Pearce, Wanqi Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lin Shi, Carl Brunius, Ingegerd Johansson, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Bernt Lindahl, Kati Hanhineva, Rikard Landberg
Background: Epidemiologic evidence on the association of a healthy Nordic diet and future type 2 diabetes (T2D) is limited. Exploring metabolites as biomarkers of healthy Nordic dietary patterns may facilitate investigation of associations between such patterns and T2D. Objectives: We aimed to identify metabolites related to a priori-defined healthy Nordic dietary indexes, the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) and Healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI), and evaluate associations with the T2D risk in a case-control study nested in a Swedish population-based prospective cohort...
July 28, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Juen Guo, Danielle C Brager, Kevin D Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Diana M Thomas, Krista Watts, Jonathan Roginski, Corby K Martin, Steven Heymsfield, Leanne M Redman, Dale A Schoeller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Courtney M Peterson, Robbie A Beyl, Kara L Marlatt, Corby K Martin, Kayanush J Aryana, Maria L Marco, Roy J Martin, Michael J Keenan, Eric Ravussin
Background: Type 2 resistant starch (RS2) has been shown to improve glycemic control and some cardiovascular endpoints in rodent and human studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform one of the first randomized clinical trials in adults with prediabetes and one of the longest trials to test whether RS2 can improve cardiometabolic health. Design: 68 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2] adults aged 35-75 y with prediabetes were randomized to consume 45 g/d of high-amylose maize (RS2) or an isocaloric amount of the rapidly digestible starch amylopectin (control) for 12 wk...
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Amy Jennings, Kevin D Cashman, Rachel Gillings, Aedin Cassidy, Jonathan Tang, William Fraser, Kirsten G Dowling, George L J Hull, Agnes A M Berendsen, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Barbara Pietruszka, Elzbieta Wierzbicka, Rita Ostan, Alberto Bazzocchi, Giuseppe Battista, Elodie Caumon, Nathalie Meunier, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère, Claudio Franceschi, Aurelia Santoro, Susan J Fairweather-Tait
Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease, but evidence for a beneficial effect on bone health is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern [NU-AGE (New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe)] on indexes of inflammation with a number of secondary endpoints, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone and collagen degradation in a 1-y multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT; NU-AGE) in elderly Europeans...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Xiaoling Song, Irena B King, David S Siscovick, Dariush Mozaffarian
Background: Controversy has emerged about the benefits compared with harms of dairy fat, including concerns over long-term effects. Previous observational studies have assessed self-reported estimates of consumption or a single biomarker measure at baseline, which may lead to suboptimal estimation of true risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate prospective associations of serial measures of plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic (15:0), heptadecanoic (17:0), and trans-palmitoleic (trans-16:1n-7) acids with total mortality, cause-specific mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among older adults...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Raphaëlle Jacob, Vicky Drapeau, Angelo Tremblay, Véronique Provencher, Claude Bouchard, Louis Pérusse
Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several genes associated with obesity. The mechanisms through which these genes affect body weight are not fully characterized. Recent studies suggest that eating behavior (EB) traits could be involved, but only a few EB traits were investigated. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to obesity is mediated by EB traits (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, hunger) and their subscales...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Josephine E Prynn, Louis Banda, Alemayehu Amberbir, Alison J Price, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Shabbar Jaffar, Amelia C Crampin, Liam Smeeth, Moffat Nyirenda
Background: High dietary sodium intake is a major risk factor for hypertension. Data on population sodium intake are scanty in sub-Saharan Africa, despite a high hypertension prevalence in most countries. Objective: We aimed to determine daily sodium intake in urban and rural communities in Malawi. Design: In an observational cross-sectional survey, data were collected on estimated household-level per capita sodium intake, based on how long participants reported that a defined quantity of plain salt lasts in a household...
June 30, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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