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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298396/the-effect-of-increasing-dairy-calcium-intake-of-adolescent-girls-on-changes-in-body-fat-and-weight
#1
Joan M Lappe, Donald J McMahon, Ann Laughlin, Corrine Hanson, Jean Claude Desmangles, Margaret Begley, Misty Schwartz
Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298395/folic-acid-the-solution-for-treating-asymptomatic-hyperuricemia
#2
Lieke Ejm Scheepers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298394/obesity-genes-and-sleep-habits
#3
Angelo Tremblay, Louis Pérusse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298393/a-role-for-leukocyte-integrins-and-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-of-adipose-tissue-in-the-risk-of-weight-regain-after-weight-loss
#4
Nadia Jt Roumans, Roel G Vink, Parastoo Fazelzadeh, Marleen A van Baak, Edwin Cm Mariman
Background: Weight loss (WL) is often followed by weight regain after an energy-restricted dietary intervention (DI). When people are following a diet, the volume of an adipocyte decreases by loss of triglycerides, which creates stress between the cell contents and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Previously, we observed that genetic variations in ECM genes are associated with an increased risk of weight regain.Objective: We investigated the relation between the expression of ECM genes during WL and a period of weight stabilization (WS) and the risk of weight regain...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298392/total-folate-and-unmetabolized-folic-acid-in-the-breast-milk-of-a-cross-section-of-canadian-women
#5
Rachael Page, André Robichaud, Tye E Arbuckle, William D Fraser, Amanda J MacFarlane
Background: Folate requirements increase during pregnancy and lactation. It is recommended that women who could become pregnant, are pregnant, or are lactating consume a folic acid (FA)-containing supplement.Objectives: We sought to determine breast-milk total folate and unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) contents and their relation with FA-supplement use and doses in a cohort of Canadian mothers who were enrolled in the MIREC (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals) study.Design: Breast-milk tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methyl-THF, 5-formyl-THF, 5,10-methenyl-THF, and UMFA were measured with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (n = 561)...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298391/vitamin-a-supplementation-redirects-the-flow-of-retinyl-esters-from-peripheral-to-central-organs-of-neonatal-rats-raised-under-vitamin-a-marginal-conditions
#6
Joanna K Hodges, Libo Tan, Michael H Green, A Catharine Ross
Background: Vitamin A (VA; retinol) supplementation is used to reduce child mortality in countries with high rates of malnutrition. Existing research suggests that neonates (<1 mo old) may have a limited capacity to store VA in organs other than the liver; however, knowledge about VA distribution and kinetics in individual, nonhepatic organs is limited.Objective: We examined retinol uptake and turnover in nonhepatic organs, including skin, brain, and adipose tissue, in neonatal rats without and after VA supplementation...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275132/impact-of-polyunsaturated-and-saturated-fat-overfeeding-on-the-dna-methylation-pattern-in-human-adipose-tissue-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Alexander Perfilyev, Ingrid Dahlman, Linn Gillberg, Fredrik Rosqvist, David Iggman, Petr Volkov, Emma Nilsson, Ulf Risérus, Charlotte Ling
Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses.Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial.Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of ∼450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275131/tea-catechin-and-caffeine-activate-brown-adipose-tissue-and-increase-cold-induced-thermogenic-capacity-in-humans
#8
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita, Masanobu Hibi, Hiroshi Tone, Masao Takeshita, Koichi Yasunaga, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Toshimitsu Kameya, Hiroki Sugie, Masayuki Saito
Background: The thermogenic effects of green tea catechin have been repeatedly reported, but their mechanisms are poorly understood.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of catechin on brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site specialized for nonshivering thermogenesis, in humans.Design: Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography to assess BAT activity. To examine the acute catechin effect, whole-body energy expenditure (EE) after a single oral ingestion of a beverage containing 615 mg catechin and 77 mg caffeine (catechin beverage) was measured...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275130/mothers-intake-of-sugar-containing-beverages-during-pregnancy-and-body-composition-of-their-children-during-childhood-the-generation-r-study
#9
Vincent Jen, Nicole S Erler, Myrte J Tielemans, Kim Ve Braun, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
Background: High intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) has been linked to increased risk of obesity. However, associations of SCB intake during pregnancy with child body composition have been unclear.Objectives: We explored whether SCB intake during pregnancy was associated with children's body mass index (BMI) and detailed measures of body composition. In addition, we examined different types of SCBs (i.e., fruit juice, soda, and concentrate).Design: We included 3312 mother-child pairs of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort from fetal life onward in the Netherlands...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275129/declining-consumption-of-added-sugars-and-sugar-sweetened-beverages-in-australia-a-challenge-for-obesity-prevention
#10
Jennie C Brand-Miller, Alan W Barclay
Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame.Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources.Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275128/home-fortification-during-the-first-1000-d-improves-child-development-in-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-effectiveness-trial
#11
Susana L Matias, Malay K Mridha, Fahmida Tofail, Charles D Arnold, Md Showkat A Khan, Zakia Siddiqui, Md Barkat Ullah, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: Nutrition during the first 1000 d is critical for brain development.Objective: We evaluated the effects on child development of home fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) for mothers and/or children or micronutrient powder (MNP) for children.Design: We conducted a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial with 4 arms: 1) LNSs during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum and LNSs for the offspring from 6 to 24 mo (LNS-LNS), 2) iron and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy and the first 3 mo postpartum and LNSs for the children from 6 to 24 mo (IFA-LNS), 3) IFA (as above) and MNP for the offspring from 6 to 24 mo (IFA-MNP), and 4) IFA (as above) and no child supplement (IFA-Control)...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275127/persistence-of-weight-loss-and-acquired-behaviors-2-y-after-stopping-a-2-y-calorie-restriction-intervention
#12
Kara L Marlatt, Leanne M Redman, Jeff H Burton, Corby K Martin, Eric Ravussin
Background: Calorie restriction (CR) influences aging processes and extends average and maximal life spans. The CALERIE 2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy Phase 2) study was the first randomized clinical trial to examine the metabolic and psychological effects of CR in nonobese humans.Objective: We conducted a 2-y follow-up study of adults who underwent 2 y of CR or ad libitum (control) consumption and determined whether weight loss and acquired behaviors persisted after the study ended when participants determined their own lifestyle behaviors...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275126/vitamin-b-6-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-prospective-population-based-study-using-3-distinct-plasma-markers-of-vitamin-b-6-status
#13
Björn Gylling, Robin Myte, Jörn Schneede, Göran Hallmans, Jenny Häggström, Ingegerd Johansson, Arve Ulvik, Per M Ueland, Bethany Van Guelpen, Richard Palmqvist
Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings.Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk.Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275125/lipid-based-nutrient-supplementation-in-the-first-1000-d-improves-child-growth-in-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-effectiveness-trial
#14
Kathryn G Dewey, Malay K Mridha, Susana L Matias, Charles D Arnold, Joseph R Cummins, Md Showkat Ali Khan, Zeina Maalouf-Manasseh, Zakia Siddiqui, Md Barkat Ullah, Stephen A Vosti
Background: Stunting in linear growth occurs mainly during the first 1000 d, from conception through 24 mo of age. Despite the recognition of this critical period, there have been few evaluations of the growth impact of interventions that cover most of this window.Objective: We evaluated home fortification approaches for preventing maternal and child undernutrition within a community-based health program. We hypothesized that small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) provided to women during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum, LNSs provided to their offspring from 6 to 24 mo of age, or both would result in greater child length-for-age z score (LAZ) at 24 mo than iron and folic acid (IFA) provided to women during pregnancy and postpartum plus micronutrient powder (MNP) or no supplementation for their offspring from 6 to 24 mo...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251937/comparison-of-the-impact-of-sfas-from-cheese-and-butter-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Didier Brassard, Maude Tessier-Grenier, Janie Allaire, Ethendhar Rajendiran, Yongbo She, Vanu Ramprasath, Iris Gigleux, Denis Talbot, Emile Levy, Angelo Tremblay, Peter Jh Jones, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: Controversies persist concerning the association between intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and cardiovascular disease risk.Objective: We compared the impact of consuming equal amounts of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors.Design: In a multicenter, crossover, randomized controlled trial, 92 men and women with abdominal obesity and relatively low HDL-cholesterol concentrations were assigned to sequences of 5 predetermined isoenergetic diets of 4 wk each separated by 4-wk washouts: 2 diets rich in SFAs (12...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251936/dietary-intake-is-independently-associated-with-the-maximal-capacity-for-fat-oxidation-during-exercise
#16
Gareth Fletcher, Frank F Eves, Elisa I Glover, Scott L Robinson, Carlijn A Vernooij, Janice L Thompson, Gareth A Wallis
Background: Substantial interindividual variability exists in the maximal rate of fat oxidation (MFO) during exercise with potential implications for metabolic health. Although the diet can affect the metabolic response to exercise, the contribution of a self-selected diet to the interindividual variability in the MFO requires further clarification.Objective: We sought to identify whether recent, self-selected dietary intake independently predicts the MFO in healthy men and women.Design: The MFO and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max) were determined with the use of indirect calorimetry in 305 healthy volunteers [150 men and 155 women; mean ± SD age: 25 ± 6 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 2]...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251935/dietary-quality-changes-in-response-to-a-sugar-sweetened-beverage-reduction-intervention-results-from-the-talking-health-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Valisa E Hedrick, Brenda M Davy, Wen You, Kathleen J Porter, Paul A Estabrooks, Jamie M Zoellner
Background: The reduction of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake may be beneficial for weight management and other related health conditions; however, to our knowledge, no data exist regarding the spontaneous changes in other dietary components or the overall dietary quality after an SSB-reduction intervention.Objectives: We explored longitudinal changes within and between an SSB-reduction intervention (SIPsmartER) and a physical activity intervention (MoveMore) with respect to spontaneous changes in 1) energy intake and macronutrients and micronutrients, 2) dietary quality [Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI)], and 3) beverage categories...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251934/longitudinal-study-of-alcohol-consumption-and-hdl-concentrations-a-community-based-study
#18
Shue Huang, Junjuan Li, Gregory C Shearer, Alice H Lichtenstein, Xiaoming Zheng, Yuntao Wu, Cheng Jin, Shouling Wu, Xiang Gao
Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited.Objective: We sought to determine the association between total alcohol intake, the type of alcohol-containing beverage, and the 6-y (2006-2012) longitudinal change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations in a community-based cohort.Design: A total of 71,379 Chinese adults (mean age: 50 y) who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and did not use cholesterol-lowering agents during follow-up were included in the study...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251933/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#19
Runhua Zhang, Bohong Li, Xiang Gao, Rui Tian, Yuesong Pan, Yong Jiang, Hongqiu Gu, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang, Gaifen Liu
Background: During the past decade, an increasing number of prospective studies have focused on the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the evidence on the relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the risk of overt CVD is inconclusive.Objective: We performed a dose-response meta-analysis to summarize and prospectively quantify the RR of low serum 25(OH)D concentration and total CVD (events and mortality).Design: We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed and EMBASE up to December 2015 and by hand-searching reference lists...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251932/inhibition-of-sweet-chemosensory-receptors-alters-insulin-responses-during-glucose-ingestion-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-crossover-interventional-study
#20
Elnaz Karimian Azari, Kathleen R Smith, Fanchao Yi, Timothy F Osborne, Roberto Bizzotto, Andrea Mari, Richard E Pratley, George A Kyriazis
Background: Glucose is a natural ligand for sweet taste receptors (STRs) that are expressed on the tongue and in the gastrointestinal tract. Whether STRs directly contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis in response to glucose ingestion is unclear.Objective: We sought to determine the metabolic effects of the pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in response to an oral glucose load in healthy lean participants.Design: Ten healthy lean participants with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22.4 ± 0.8 were subjected to an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) on 4 separate days with the use of a randomized crossover design...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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