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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Yoriko Heianza, Yan Zheng, Dianjianyi Sun, Jae H Kang, Louis R Pasquale, Eric B Rimm, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu, Lu Qi
Background: A growing amount of data suggests that n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may modify the genetic association with weight change. Objectives: We aimed to prospectively test interactions of habitual consumption of n-3 PUFAs or fish, the major food source, with overall genetic susceptibility on long-term weight change. Design: Gene-diet interactions were examined in 11,330 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 6773 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), and 6254 women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniel Kandel, Kirstine Nyvold Bojsen-Møller, Maria Saur Svane, Amirsalar Samkani, Arne Astrup, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Thure Krarup
Background: Postprandial hypoglycemia is a risk after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Objectives: We speculated that a carbohydrate-reduced, high-protein (CRHP) diet might reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and therefore compared the acute effects of a conventionally recommended (CR) diet and CRHP diet [55/30 energy percent (E%) carbohydrate and 15/30 E% protein, respectively] in RYGB patients. Methods: Ten individuals (2 males, 8 females, mean ± SD age 47 ± 7 y; stable body mass index 31 ± 6 kg/m2; 6 ± 3 y post-RYGB) with recurrent postprandial hypoglycemia documented by plasma glucose (PG) ≤3...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Christine P Stewart, Kathryn G Dewey, Audrie Lin, Amy J Pickering, Kendra A Byrd, Kaniz Jannat, Shahjahan Ali, Gouthami Rao, Holly N Dentz, Marion Kiprotich, Charles D Arnold, Benjamin F Arnold, Lindsay H Allen, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Ayse Ercumen, Jessica A Grembi, Abu Mohd Naser, Mahbubur Rahman, Leanne Unicomb, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby, Clair Null
Background: Anemia in young children is a global health problem. Risk factors include poor nutrient intake and poor water quality, sanitation, or hygiene. Objective: We evaluated the effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition interventions on micronutrient status and anemia among children in rural Kenya and Bangladesh. Design: We nested substudies within 2 cluster-randomized controlled trials enrolling pregnant women and following their children for 2 y...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ashley A Weaver, Denise K Houston, Sue A Shapses, Mary F Lyles, Rebecca M Henderson, Daniel P Beavers, Arlynn C Baker, Kristen M Beavers
Background: Dietary protein and micronutrients are important to the maintenance of bone health and may be an effective countermeasure to weight-loss-associated bone loss. Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on change in bone density and quality as compared with weight stability in older adults using a randomized post-test design. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to this meal plan would maintain similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls, despite significant reductions in body mass...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ai Hamasaki, Nobuhiko Akazawa, Toru Yoshikawa, Kanae Myoenzono, Koichiro Tanahashi, Yuriko Sawano, Yoshio Nakata, Seiji Maeda
Background: Age-related declines in cognitive function and cerebral perfusion increase the risk of dementia. Although nutrition and exercise may be effective in reducing cognitive decline, the effect of lactotripeptide (LTP) on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics remains unclear. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LTP ingestion on cerebral oxygenation, cognitive function, and vascular function in middle-aged and older adults with or without an exercise intervention...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yaren Yu, Hao Zhang, Yun Song, Tengfei Lin, Ziyi Zhou, Huiyuan Guo, Lishun Liu, Binyan Wang, Chengzhang Liu, Jianping Li, Yan Zhang, Yong Huo, Chaofu Wang, Xiaobin Wang, Fan Fan Hou, Xianhui Qin, Xiping Xu
Background: Identification of novel risk factors is needed to further lower stroke risk. Data concerning the association between plasma retinol concentrations and the risk of stroke are limited. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of plasma retinol on the risk of first stroke and to examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. Methods: The study sample population was drawn from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), using a nested case-control design, including 620 cases with first stroke and 620 matched controls...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hong Jiang, Yue Yin, Chang-Rui Wu, Yan Liu, Fang Guo, Ming Li, Le Ma
Background: Existing studies suggest that dietary vitamins and carotenoids might be associated with a reduced risk of age-related cataract (ARC), although a quantitative summary of these associations is lacking. Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies of dietary vitamin and carotenoid intake and ARC risk. Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to June 2018...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Margaret Hoyt, Michael Reger, Andrew Marley, Hao Fan, Ziyue Liu, Jianjun Zhang
Background: Vitamin K inhibits prostate cancer cells, and an altered expression of vitamin K-dependent proteins in prostate tumors has been linked to their aggressiveness and progression. However, little is known about the effect of vitamin K intake on prostate cancer in human populations. Objectives: We evaluated the associations of dietary intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K-1), menaquinones (vitamin K-2), and total vitamin K with the development of prostate cancer among participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Terry J Aspray, Thomas Chadwick, Roger M Francis, Elaine McColl, Elaine Stamp, Ann Prentice, Alexander von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Inez Schoenmakers
Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is common in older people and may lead to increased bone resorption, bone loss, and increased falls and fractures. However, clinical trials assessing the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded conflicting results. Objectives: This study examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on BMD at the hip, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Methods: A total of 379 adults aged ≥70 y (48% women; mean age: 75 y) from the northeast of England were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 doses of vitamin D3 [12,000 international units (IU), 24,000 IU, or 48,000 IU] given once a month...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Bastien Vallée Marcotte, Frédéric Guénard, Simone Lemieux, Patrick Couture, Iwona Rudkowska, Philip C Calder, Anne Marie Minihane, Marie-Claude Vohl
Background: Using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach, our group previously computed a genetic risk score (GRS) from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 loci that affect the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. Objectives: The objective was to compute a novel and more refined GRS using fine mapping to include a large number of genetic variants. Methods: A total of 208 participants of the Fatty Acid Sensor (FAS) Study received 5 g fish oil/d, containing 1...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hana Kahleova, Neal D Barnard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Julie E Obbagy, Laural K English, Yat Ping Wong, Nancy F Butte, Kathryn G Dewey, Mary Kay Fox, Frank R Greer, Nancy F Krebs, Kelley S Scanlon, Eve E Stoody
Background: Proper nutrition during infancy and toddlerhood is crucial for supporting healthy growth and development, including bone health. Complementary feeding is the process that starts when human milk or infant formula is complemented by other foods and beverages, beginning during late infancy and continuing to 24 mo of age. Objectives: This article aims to describe systematic reviews (SRs) conducted by the Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team for the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project to answer these questions: what is the relationship between 1) timing of introduction of complementary foods and beverages (CFBs) or 2) types and/or amounts of CFBs consumed and bone health? Methods: The literature was searched with the use of 4 databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, and PubMed) to identify articles published from January 1980 to July 2016 that addressed these topics and met predetermined criteria for inclusion...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Dariush Mozaffarian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maria A Lankinen, Alexander Fauland, Bun-Ichi Shimizu, Jyrki Ågren, Craig E Wheelock, Markku Laakso, Ursula Schwab, Jussi Pihlajamäki
Background: The health benefits of substituting dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for saturated fatty acids are well known. However, limited information exists on how the response to dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is modified by polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the FADS1 rs174550 genotype modifies the effect of dietary LA intake on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids, fasting glucose, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lixia Zhao, Mary E Cogswell, Quanhe Yang, Zefeng Zhang, Stephen Onufrak, Sandra L Jackson, Te-Ching Chen, Catherine M Loria, Chia-Yih Wang, Jacqueline D Wright, Ana L Terry, Robert Merritt, Cynthia L Ogden
Background: Both excessive sodium intake and obesity are risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The association between sodium intake and obesity is unclear, with few studies assessing sodium intake using 24-h urine collection. Objectives: Our objective was to assess the association between usual 24-h sodium excretion and measures of adiposity among US adults. Methods: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from a sample of 730 nonpregnant participants aged 20-69 y who provided up to 2 complete 24-h urine specimens in the NHANES 2014 and had data on overweight or obesity [body mass index (kg/m2) ≥25] and central adiposity [waist circumference (WC): >88 cm for women, >102 cm for men]...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jayna M Dave
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mads Vendelbo Lind, Lotte Lauritzen, Mette Kristensen, Alastair B Ross, Jane Nygaard Eriksen
Background: Various mechanisms link higher total homocysteine to higher insulin resistance (IR) and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Folate supplementation is recognized as a way to lower homocysteine. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show inconsistent results on IR and T2D outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of folate supplementation on IR and T2D outcomes. Design: We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE and prior systematic reviews and meta-analyses and identified 29 RCTs (22,250 participants) that assessed the effect of placebo-controlled folate supplementation alone or in combination with other B vitamins on fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), or risk of T2D...
January 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jérémy Cros, Enea Pianezzi, Robin Rosset, Léonie Egli, Philippe Schneiter, Françoise Cornette, Bertrand Pouymayou, Raphaël Heinzer, Luc Tappy, Roland Kreis, Chris Boesch, José Haba-Rubio, Virgile Lecoultre
Background: Overconsumption of energy-dense foods and sleep restriction are both associated with the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, but their combined effects remain poorly evaluated. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether sleep restriction potentiates the effects of a short-term overfeeding on intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) concentrations and on glucose homeostasis. Design: Ten healthy subjects were exposed to a 6-d overfeeding period (130% daily energy needs, with 15% extra energy as sucrose and 15% as fat), with normal sleep (8 h sleep opportunity time) or sleep restriction (4 h sleep opportunity time), according to a randomized, crossover design...
January 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Anna T Nakayama, Laura J Lutz, Adela Hruby, James P Karl, James P McClung, Erin Gaffney-Stomberg
Background: Stress fracture risk is elevated during initial military training (IMT), particularly in lower-extremity bones such as the tibia. Although the etiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, lower bone strength increases risk. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess, through the use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography, whether adherence to a dietary pattern rich in calcium, potassium, and protein before IMT is positively associated with bone indexes in young adults entering IMT...
January 5, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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