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Age and Ageing

Sharon M Nelis, Yu-Tzu Wu, Fiona E Matthews, Anthony Martyr, Catherine Quinn, Isla Rippon, Jennifer Rusted, Jeanette M Thom, Michael D Kopelman, John V Hindle, Roy W Jones, Linda Clare
Background: The aim was to investigate the comorbidity profile of people with dementia and examine the associations between severity of comorbidity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of life (QoL). Methods: The improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) cohort consisted of 1,547 people diagnosed with dementia who provided information on the number and type of comorbid conditions. Participants also provided ratings of their health-related and dementia-specific QoL...
November 7, 2018: Age and Ageing
Mairead McGrattan, Heather E Barry, Cristín Ryan, Janine A Cooper, A Peter Passmore, A Louise Robinson, Gerard J Molloy, Carmel M Darcy, Hilary Buchanan, Carmel M Hughes
Background: people with dementia (PWD), and their carers, face challenges with medicines management activities. As interventions to support medicines management for PWD are developed, consideration must be given to the outcomes chosen to measure their effectiveness. A Core Outcome Set (COS) is a minimum set of outcomes to be measured in all trials in a particular clinical area, which seeks to reduce heterogeneity of outcome reporting across trials. Objective: to develop a COS for trials assessing the effectiveness of medicines management interventions for PWD in primary care...
November 5, 2018: Age and Ageing
S G Parker, T Downes, M Godfrey, R Matthews, F C Martin
Age and Ageing is now inviting papers on healthcare improvement for older people. In this article we outline the nature and scope of healthcare improvement and reference improvement models and the tools and methods of improvement science. We emphasise the issues of sustainability, including scale and spread; evaluation - including associated ethical consideration and the involvement of patients and the public in healthcare improvement and associated research. Throughout we refer to resources the authors have found useful in their own work, and provide a bibliography of sources and web-links which will provide essential guidance and support for potential contributors to this new category of submission to Age and Ageing...
November 5, 2018: Age and Ageing
John E Lawrence, Duncan Cundall-Curry, Max E Stewart, Daniel M Fountain, Christopher R Gooding
Aim: to compare the validity of data submitted from a UK level 1 trauma centre to the National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD) before and after the introduction of an electronic health record system (EHRS). Patients and methods: a total of 3224 records were reviewed from July 2009 to July 2017. 2,133 were submitted between July 2009 and October 2014 and 1,091 between October 2014 and July 2017, representing data submitted before and after the introduction of the EHRS, respectively...
November 5, 2018: Age and Ageing
Linda Kemp, Kathleen E Clare, Paul N Brennan, John F Dillon
Hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV), are blood-borne viruses that can cause acute hepatitis; but are clinically relevant because chronic infection is associated with development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Both these viruses are becoming more common in the older population, due to the ageing of generations exposed to the risk factors associated with infection; intravenous drug use, multiple sexual partners and men who have sex with men. This review will cover the natural history and epidemiology of these infections as well as the revolution in drug therapy that now allows cure of HCV infection and complete control of HBV infection...
October 31, 2018: Age and Ageing
Ágnes Szabó, Joanne Allen, Christine Stephens, Fiona Alpass
Objectives: the impact of retirement on physical health is an important focus of ageing research; however, research findings vary greatly. To investigate under what conditions retirement might benefit health, we examined physical functioning 8 years pre- and post-retirement. Methods: using longitudinal data from the New Zealand Health, Work and Retirement Study, multiple linear trajectories of physical functioning were estimated. Growth mixture analysis indicated three distinct trajectory profiles...
October 31, 2018: Age and Ageing
William Joe, Jessica M Perkins, S V Subramanian
Objectives: this study examined whether individual and contextual measures of structural and cognitive social capital were associated with six health-related outcomes across older adults in India. Methods: data were collected from a representative sample of adults aged 60 and above across India in 2011-12 (n = 9,174). Personal community involvement and having someone to trust represented individual measures of structural and cognitive social capital. These measures were then aggregated to represent contextual measures of social capital, that is, the mean village level of community involvement and the village proportion having someone to trust...
October 31, 2018: Age and Ageing
Jihane Naous, Basem Roberto Saab, Tarek Abou Hamdan
Herbal-induced oesophageal lesions are rare. We report the case of an 85-year-old male who presented with cough and odynophagia. An upper endoscopy showed white deposit under the proximal oesophageal sphincter. Biopsy of the lesion revealed an oesophageal ulcer with adherent plant material and ruled-out candidiasis. At this point, the patient divulged self-preparation of an herbal remedy consisting of Aloe Vera pulp, whisky, honey, ginger and turmeric. Aloe Vera, ginger and turmeric are commonly used to sooth some gastroenterological symptoms in Complementary and Alternative Medicine...
October 29, 2018: Age and Ageing
Katie J Hughes, Nancy Salmon, Rose Galvin, Blathin Casey, Amanda M Clifford
Background: exercise therapy is highly recommended for falls prevention in older adults; however, poor exercise adherence may limit treatment effectiveness. Objective: to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve exercise adherence for community-dwelling adults (aged over 65 years), at risk of falling. Methods: eight databases were searched to identify randomised/quasi-randomised trials. The Capability, Opportunity, Motivation model of behaviour (COM-B) was used to categorise the identified adherence interventions...
October 24, 2018: Age and Ageing
Miles D Witham, David J Stott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2018: Age and Ageing
Nina Fudge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Age and Ageing
Jenny McCleery, Leon Flicker, Edo Richard, Terence J Quinn
Early 2018 saw the release of new diagnostic guidance on Alzheimer's disease from the National Institute on Ageing and the Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA). This proposed research framework represents a fundamental change in how we think about Alzheimer's disease, moving from diagnosis based on clinical features to diagnosis based solely on biomarkers. These recommendations are contentious and have important implications for patients, clinicians, policy makers and the pharmaceutical industry. In this commentary, we offer a summary of the NIA-AA research framework...
October 17, 2018: Age and Ageing
Andrea J Loizeau, Nathan Theill, Simon M Cohen, Stefanie Eicher, Susan L Mitchell, Silvio Meier, Michelle McDowell, Mike Martin, Florian Riese
Background: fact Boxes are decision support tools that can inform about treatment effects. Objectives: to test whether Fact Box decision support tools impacted decisional conflict, knowledge and preferences about the use of antibiotics and artificial hydration in advanced dementia. Design: randomized controlled trial. Setting: Swiss-German region of Switzerland. Subjects: two hundred thirty-two participants (64 physicians, 100 relatives of dementia patients, 68 professional guardians) randomly allocated to intervention (N = 114) or control (N = 118)...
October 15, 2018: Age and Ageing
Caroline Brundle, Anne Heaven, Lesley Brown, Elizabeth Teale, John Young, Robert West, Andrew Clegg
Background: the electronic frailty index (eFI) has been developed and validated using routine primary care electronic health record data. The focus of the original big data study was on predictive validity as a form of criterion validation. Convergent validity is a subtype of construct validity and considered a core component of the validity of a test. Objective: to investigate convergent validity between the eFI and research standard frailty measures. Design: cross-sectional validation study using data from the Community Ageing Research 75+ (CARE 75+) cohort...
October 15, 2018: Age and Ageing
Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft, Gülistan Bahat, Jürgen Bauer, Yves Boirie, Olivier Bruyère, Tommy Cederholm, Cyrus Cooper, Francesco Landi, Yves Rolland, Avan Aihie Sayer, Stéphane M Schneider, Cornel C Sieber, Eva Topinkova, Maurits Vandewoude, Marjolein Visser, Mauro Zamboni
Background: in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives: to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia...
October 12, 2018: Age and Ageing
Patrick Mulkerrin, Ray McLoughlin, Shaun T O'Keeffe
Although usually asymptomatic, an accessory navicular bone can lead to medial foot pain, especially in younger people engaged in high impact sports. In many such cases, the tendon of posterior tibialis (which inverts and plantarflexes the foot) inserts onto the accessory bone resulting in greater strain on the tendon. In the present case, pain due to an accessory navicular bone first developed during stroke rehabilitation in a 69-year-old man. The relative overactivity of posterior tibialis in strokes involving the leg and overuse due to active rehabilitation were likely contributors...
October 11, 2018: Age and Ageing
Jing Wu, Wenhong Dong, Xiong-Fei Pan, Lei Feng, Jian-Min Yuan, An Pan, Woon-Puay Koh
Background: the relations of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking with risk of cognitive impairment remain inconsistent. Methods: to examine the independent and joint relations of smoking and alcohol drinking with cognitive impairment, we used data from 16,948 men and women, who had been followed-up for 16-23 (mean of 20) years as participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort. Data on smoking and alcohol drinking were collected at baseline (1993-98), when participants were aged 45-74 (mean 53) years...
October 11, 2018: Age and Ageing
Isabel Rodríguez-Sánchez, Esther García-Esquinas, Arthur E Mesas, José María Martín-Moreno, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
Background: the association between pain characteristics and frailty risk is uncertain. Objective: to investigate the separate impact of the frequency, intensity and location of pain on frailty risk and its possible mechanisms. Methods: prospective cohort of 1505 individuals ≥63 years followed between 2012 and 2015 in Spain. In 2012, pain was classified into: lowest pain (Score 0), middle pain (Score 1-4) and highest pain (Score 5-6). Incident frailty was assessed in 2015 as having ≥3 Fried criteria or a Frailty Index (FI) ≥0...
October 11, 2018: Age and Ageing
Seung Hee Woo, Dong Heon Cha, Eun-Cheol Park, Seung Ju Kim
Background: although many studies have demonstrated the association between body mass index (BMI) and many diseases, there is little evidence of postoperative mortality after hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BMI and mortality after hip arthroplasty in the older population. Methods: a total of 3,627 older patients who underwent hip arthroplasty from 2010 to 2013 were included. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the association between BMI and mortality after hip arthroplasty...
October 10, 2018: Age and Ageing
Emma Jennings, Paul Gallagher, Denis O'Mahony
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a recognised unintentional form of iatrogenic harm, which commonly occur in older adults who have high levels of multi-morbidity and associated polypharmacy. Previous studies estimate that at least one in 10 hospitalised older patients will experience an ADR. While recent research indicates that this could be as high as 39% in hospitalised multi-morbid, older adults, up to two-thirds of these ADRs can be considered preventable and therefore potentially avoidable. In addition to increasing patient morbidity and contributing to avoidable mortality, there is an associated cost implication with ADR occurrence...
October 9, 2018: Age and Ageing
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