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Age and Ageing

Graham J Kemp, Malcolm J Jackson, Eugene V McCloskey, John C Mathers
The complexities and heterogeneity of the ageing process have slowed the development of consensus on appropriate biomarkers of healthy ageing. The MRC-Arthritis Research UK Centre for Integrated research into Musculoskeletal Ageing (CIMA) is a collaboration between researchers and clinicians at the Universities of Liverpool, Sheffield and Newcastle. One of CIMA's objectives is to 'Identify and share optimal techniques and approaches to monitor age-related changes in all musculoskeletal tissues, and to provide an integrated assessment of musculoskeletal function', i...
September 5, 2018: Age and Ageing
Megan Crichton, Dana Craven, Hannah Mackay, Wolfgang Marx, Marian de van der Schueren, Skye Marshall
Background: protein-energy malnutrition is a major health concern in home-dwelling older adults, particularly in the context of an ageing population. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among older adults living independently in the community according to geographical region, sampling frame, rurality and sex. Methods: six electronic databases were searched until September 2016. Original research studies which used the Mini Nutritional Assessment, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment or Subjective Global Assessment to determine nutrition status in community samples with a mean age of ≥65 years were critically appraised and pooled using meta-analysis...
September 5, 2018: Age and Ageing
Haroon Ahmed, Daniel Farewell, Hywel M Jones, Nick A Francis, Shantini Paranjothy, Christopher C Butler
Background: clinical guidelines recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), but there is little evidence for their effectiveness in older adults. Methods: this was a retrospective cohort study of health records from 19,696 adults aged ≥65 with recurrent UTIs. We used prescription records to ascertain ≥3 months' prophylaxis with trimethoprim, cefalexin or nitrofurantoin. We used random effects Cox recurrent event models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risks of clinical recurrence (primary outcome), acute antibiotic prescribing and hospitalisation...
August 28, 2018: Age and Ageing
Choy-Lye Chei, June May-Ling Lee, Stefan Ma, Rahul Malhotra
Objective: research on the role of positive affect, such as happiness, on health outcomes is burgeoning. Within this context, evidence for an inverse effect of happiness on mortality is inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies link happiness with mortality among older people, and in Asian populations. We examine the association between happiness and all-cause mortality among older people in Singapore. Methods: data for 4,478 Singaporeans aged ≥60 years enrolled in a nationally-representative longitudinal survey (three waves: 2009; 2011; 2015) were utilised...
August 27, 2018: Age and Ageing
Janine Wiles, Tess Moeke-Maxwell, Lisa Williams, Stella Black, Gabriella Trussardi, Merryn Gott
Background: the need for palliative and end of life care for the oldest old is growing rapidly. Family carers often report they do not feel well supported; for better practice and policy, we need better understanding of their experiences and how to support them. Design and setting: people in the LiLACS NZ longitudinal study of advanced age identified a carer to be interviewed after their death. Nominated caregivers were contacted 3-6 months after an older person's death and invited to take part in the current study...
August 25, 2018: Age and Ageing
Nikesh Parekh, Beatrice Gahagan, Lizzie Ward, Khalid Ali
Objective: medication-related problems (MRP) are common for older adults and can lead to harm. The older person's perspective on MRP has been seldom reported in published literature. This study explored the lived experience of MRP in older adults with varying functional levels, focussing on the hospital discharge period. Design, setting, participants: this qualitative study was conducted in Brighton and Hove, UK. A purposive sample of 20 older people with experience of MRP, involving carers, took part in focus groups and semi-structured interviews...
August 25, 2018: Age and Ageing
Alexandra R Feast, Nicola White, Kathryn Lord, Nuriye Kupeli, Victoria Vickerstaff, Elizabeth L Sampson
Background: Pain and delirium are common in people with dementia admitted to hospitals. These are often under-diagnosed and under-treated. Pain is implicated as a cause of delirium but this association has not been investigated in this setting. Objective: To investigate the relationship between pain and delirium in people with dementia, on admission and throughout a hospital admission. Design: Exploratory secondary analysis of observational prospective longitudinal cohort data...
August 25, 2018: Age and Ageing
Peter G Gore, Andrew Kingston, Garth R Johnson, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Carol Jagger
Population ageing, which has come about through the combination of increases in life expectancy, larger post-war cohorts reaching older age and reductions in fertility, is challenging societies and particularly health and care providers, worldwide. In Europe, the USA and Japan, there have been increases in years spent with disability and dependency. The majority of such research, as well as professional health and social care practice, measures loss of functional capability or need for social care, by aggregate disability scores, based around activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living...
August 25, 2018: Age and Ageing
Alden L Gross, Nadia Chu, Loretta Anderson, M Maria Glymour, Richard N Jones
Objective: retest effects may be attributed to 'repeated content' in neuropsychological tests such as words in word list-learning tests, or the 'testing context' which involves procedural memory and reduced test anxiety following repeated administration. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) severely impairs episodic memory, so longitudinal cognitive testing among people with dementia may reveal the relative contributions of content versus context to retest effects in neuropsychological testing. Method: we used data from the Critical Path Institute's repository of placebo arm data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dementia conducted by participating pharmaceutical companies (N = 990 people, 4,170 study visits, up to 2...
August 17, 2018: Age and Ageing
Jennifer K Burton, Charis A Marwick, James Galloway, Christopher Hall, Thomas Nind, Emma L Reynish, Bruce Guthrie
Background: there is no established method to identify care-home residents in routine healthcare datasets. Methods matching patient's addresses to known care-home addresses have been proposed in the UK, but few have been formally evaluated. Study design: prospective diagnostic test accuracy study. Methods: four independent samples of 5,000 addresses from Community Health Index (CHI) population registers were sampled for two NHS Scotland Health Boards on 1 April 2017, with one sample of adults aged ≥65 years and one of all residents...
August 17, 2018: Age and Ageing
Aladdin H Shadyab, JoAnn E Manson, Wenjun Li, Margery Gass, Robert L Brunner, Michelle J Naughton, Brad Cannell, Barbara V Howard, Andrea Z LaCroix
Objective: to examine the association of parental longevity with healthy survival to age 90 years. Methods: this was a prospective study among a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of 22,735 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative recruited from 1993 to 1998 and followed through 2017. Women reported maternal and paternal ages at death and current age of alive parents. Parental survival categories were <70, 70-79 (reference), 80-89 and ≥90 years (longevity)...
August 15, 2018: Age and Ageing
John R F Gladman
This invited article is drawn from the content of the Marjory Warren Lecture given by John Gladman at the British Geriatrics Society Spring Meeting in 2018, entitled 'The Meaning of Life Expectancy'.
August 14, 2018: Age and Ageing
Peteris Darzins, William L Browne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2018: Age and Ageing
R T Staff, M J Hogan, L J Whalley
In an observational longitudinal study of a sub-sample of the Aberdeen 1936 birth cohort, from age 62 to 77 years, we investigated childhood intelligence, social class, education, life-course social mobility, memory test performance and memory decline in late life. We examined 388 local residents who had attended school in Aberdeen in 1947 and measured Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) at recruitment age about 64 years and up to five times until age about 77 years. Better performance at age about 64 on AVLT was predicted by early socioeconomic status (SES), social mobility and childhood intelligence...
August 2, 2018: Age and Ageing
Jonathan Hewitt, Sara Long, Ben Carter, Simon Bach, Kathryn McCarthy, Andrew Clegg
Objectives: to investigate the prevalence and impact of frailty for general surgical patients. Research design and methods: we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies published between 1 January 1980 and 31 August 2017 were searched from seven databases. Incidence of clinical outcomes (mortality at Days 30 and 90; readmission at Day 30, surgical complications and length of stay) were estimated by frailty subgroup (not-frail, pre-frail and frail)...
August 2, 2018: Age and Ageing
Eric Kai-Chung Wong, Justin Yusen Lee, Anasuiya Sherhee Surendran, Kalpana Nair, Nancy Della Maestra, Marie Migliarini, Joye Anne St Onge, Christopher J Patterson
Background: the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is commonly used to detect delirium. Although accurate when administered by trained researchers, its sensitivity is low when performed by nurses in clinical practice. We aimed to understand the perspectives of nurses who used the CAM on orthopaedic wards. Design: qualitative focus group study. Setting: two academic hospitals in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Participants: forty-three nurses who worked on orthopaedic inpatient units and used the CAM daily participated in one of eight focus group sessions...
July 25, 2018: Age and Ageing
A J Mayhew, K Amog, S Phillips, G Parise, P D McNicholas, R J de Souza, L Thabane, P Raina
Background: sarcopenia in ageing is a progressive decrease in muscle mass, strength and/or physical function. This review aims to summarise the definitions of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults and explore similarities and differences in prevalence estimates by definition. Methods: a systematic review was conducted to identify articles which estimated sarcopenia prevalence in older populations using search terms for sarcopenia and muscle mass. Overall prevalence for each sarcopenia definition was estimated stratified by sex and ethnicity...
July 25, 2018: Age and Ageing
Teresa Balboa-Castillo, Ellen A Struijk, Esther Lopez-Garcia, José R Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Pilar Guallar-Castillon
Background: the association between vitamin intake and frailty has hardly been studied. The objective was to assess the association of dietary vitamin intake with incident frailty in older adults from Spain. Methods: data came from a cohort of 1,643 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65, recruited in 2008-10 and followed up prospectively throughout 2012. At baseline, 10 vitamins were assessed (vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamins B6, B12, C, D, E and folates) using a validated face-to-face diet history...
July 25, 2018: Age and Ageing
Marcos Daniel Saraiva, Gisele Sayuri Suzuki, Sumika Mori Lin, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Claudia Kimie Suemoto
Background: pain is prevalent in frail older adults; however, the association of pain and frailty has not been evaluated yet by a systematic assessment of prospective longitudinal studies. Objective: we aimed to assess the association of persistent pain as a risk factor for frailty incidence, using data from longitudinal studies in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: publications were identified using a systematic search on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and clinicaltrials...
July 21, 2018: Age and Ageing
U M Ali, A Judge, C Foster, A Brooke, K James, T Marriott, S E Lamb
Background: falls can negatively affect patients, resulting in loss of independence and functional decline and have substantial healthcare costs. Hospitals are a high-risk falls environment and regularly introduce, but seldom evaluate, policies to reduce inpatient falls. This study evaluated whether introducing portable nursing stations in ward bays to maximise nurse-patient contact time reduced inpatient falls. Methods: inpatient falls data from local hospital incident reporting software (Datix) were collected monthly (April 2014-December 2017) from 17 wards in Stoke Mandeville and Wycombe General Hospitals, the UK...
July 16, 2018: Age and Ageing
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