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Age and Ageing

Andrea L Metti, John R Best, C Elizabeth Shaaban, Mary Ganguli, Caterina Rosano
Background: physical function (PF) and physical activity (PA) both decline as adults age and have been linked to negative outcomes, including dementia, depression and cardiovascular diseases. Although declines in each are associated with numerous negative outcomes, the longitudinal relationship between these two measures is unclear. Objective: to examine the dynamic, bidirectional associations between declines in PF and PA. Design: prospective cohort...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Helen O' Brien, Neil O' Leary, Siobhan Scarlett, Celia O' Hare, Rose Anne Kenny
Background: the dramatic shift in the global population demographic has led to increasing numbers of older people undergoing hospitalisation and surgical procedures. Objectives: to determine whether hospitalisation or hospitalisation with surgery under general anaesthesia is associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults over the age of 50. Methods: cognitive function in the domains of global cognition, memory and executive function was assessed in 8,023 individuals at waves 1 and 2 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), 2 years apart...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Tuija Leskinen, Sari Stenholm, Ville Aalto, Jenny Head, Mika Kivimäki, Jussi Vahtera
Background: physical activity promotes healthy aging. However, little is known about the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy (LE). The study aim was to examine healthy and chronic disease-free LE between ages 50 and 75 and across various levels of physical activity by sex and different occupational statuses. Methods: overall, 34,379 women (mean age 53.2 (SD 2.9) years) and 8,381 men (53.6 (SD 3.2) years) from the Finnish Public Sector study were categorized into five physical activity levels (inactive to vigorously active) according to self-reported physical activity and into three occupational statuses at the first observation point...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Alberto Pilotto, Raffaella Boi, Jean Petermans
Recently, the interest of industry, government agencies and healthcare professionals in technology for aging people has increased. The challenge is whether technology may play a role in enhancing independence and quality of life and in reducing individual and societal costs of caring. Information and communication technologies, i.e. tools aimed at communicating and informing, assistive technologies designed to maintain older peoples' independence and increasing safety, and human-computer interaction technologies for supporting older people with motility and cognitive impairments as humanoid robots, exoskeletons, rehabilitation robots, service robots and companion-type are interdisciplinary topics both in research and in clinical practice...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Daniel Stow, Fiona E Matthews, Stephen Barclay, Steve Iliffe, Andrew Clegg, Sarah De Biase, Louise Robinson, Barbara Hanratty
Background: recognising that a patient is nearing the end of life is essential, to enable professional carers to discuss prognosis and preferences for end of life care. Objective: investigate whether an electronic frailty index (eFI) generated from routinely collected data, can be used to predict mortality at an individual level. Design: historical prospective case control study. Setting: UK primary care electronic health records...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Hui-Fen Mao, Ling-Hui Chang, Athena Yi-Jung Tsai, Wen-Ni Wennie Huang, Li-Yu Tang, Huey-Jane Lee, Yu Sun, Ta-Fu Chen, Ker-Neng Lin, Pei-Ning Wang, Yea-Ing Lotus Shyu, Ming-Jang Chiu
Background: many people living with dementia remain underdiagnosed and unrecognised. Screening strategies are important for early detection. Objective: to examine whether the Lawton's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, compared with other cognitive screening tools-the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Ascertain Dementia 8-item Informant Questionnaire (AD8)-can identify older (≥ 65 years) adults with dementia. Design: population-based cross-sectional observational study...
March 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
Yemisi Takwoingi, Terence J Quinn
Diagnostic Test Accuracy (DTA) describes a field of research that aims to assess how well a test is able to detect or exclude a condition of interest. Although geriatric medicine is not as reliant on investigations as other medical disciplines, almost all patient encounters with older adults will involve some form of diagnostic assessment. Thus, understanding the terminology and methods of DTA is essential for any clinician. In this review we use examples based around the diagnosis of dementia to highlight issues in DTA research...
March 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
Kristian Pollock, Jane Seymour
This is the second in an occasional series of paired commentaries in Age and Ageing, the Journal of the British Geriatrics Society and the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (JAGS). The aim is to address issues of current significance and to foster dialogue and increased understanding between academics and clinicians working in comparative international settings. Both commentaries address the urgent need to improve palliative care for older people, with a critique of some stereotypes surrounding palliative care and the 'good death'...
March 6, 2018: Age and Ageing
Tom McGowan, Terence Ong, Ashok Kumar, Eleanor Lunt, Opinder Sahota
Background: chair-based pedal exercises potentially offer a simple method of improving physical activity in older people admitted to hospital. Objective: to assess the feasibility of using chair-based pedal exercisers on acute medical wards for older people. To study if there is any effect on muscle strength, mobility and time spent physically active. Subjects: fifty participants ≥65 years who were able to pedal admitted to acute medical wards for older people in a UK hospital...
March 1, 2018: Age and Ageing
Elizabeta B Mukaetova-Ladinska
The online themed collection of 15 papers recently published provides an update on the advances of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in dementia over the last 15 years. The published studies reflect the efficacy of the current anti-dementia treatments, preventive treatments of cardio and cerebrovascular incidents (known to be risk factors for dementia), alongside the use of antidepressant medication and non-pharmacological interventions for treatment of behavioural and psychopathological symptoms of dementia...
March 1, 2018: Age and Ageing
Pietro Elias Fubini, Max Scheffler, Samuel Perivier, Jean-Luc Reny, Virginie Prendki, Xavier Roux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Age and Ageing
Rodrigo Z Megale, Manuela L Ferreira, Paulo H Ferreira, Vasi Naganathan, Robert Cumming, Vasant Hirani, Louise M Waite, Markus J Seibel, David G Le Couteur, David J Handelsman, Fiona M Blyth
Objectives: to determine whether pain increases the risk of developing the frailty phenotype and whether frailty increases the risk of developing chronic or intrusive pain, using longitudinal data. Design/Setting: longitudinal data from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a prospective population based cohort study. Participants: a total of 1,705 men aged 70 years or older, living in an urban area of New South Wales, Australia...
February 21, 2018: Age and Ageing
Tai-Wa Liu, Gabriel Y F Ng, Raymond C K Chung, Shamay S M Ng
Background: fear of falling is prevalent among older people and associated with various health outcomes. A growing number of studies have examined the effects of interventions designed to reduce the fear of falling and improve balance among older people, yet our current understanding is restricted to physiological interventions. Psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) have not been reviewed and meta-analysed. Objective: to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of CBT on reducing fear of falling and enhancing balance in community-dwelling older people...
February 20, 2018: Age and Ageing
Boris Cheval, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Dan Orsholits, Stefan Sieber, Idris Guessous, Rainer Gabriel, Silvia Stringhini, David Blane, Bernadette W A van der Linden, Matthias Kliegel, Claudine Burton-Jeangros, Delphine S Courvoisier, Stéphane Cullati
Background: socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) during a person's lifespan influence a wide range of health outcomes. However, solid evidence of the association of early- and adult-life SEC with health trajectories in ageing is still lacking. This study assessed whether early-life SEC are associated with muscle strength in later life-a biomarker of health-and whether this relationship is caused by adult-life SEC and health behaviours. Methods: we used data from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 12-year population-based cohort study with repeated measurement in six waves (2004-15) and retrospective collection of life-course data...
February 20, 2018: Age and Ageing
Chih-Chin Lai, Yu-Kang Tu, Tyng-Guey Wang, Yi-Ting Huang, Kuo-Liong Chien
Background: A variety of different types of exercise are promoted to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Objective: We aimed to determine the relative effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Design: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Subjects: Adults aged 60 and over...
February 17, 2018: Age and Ageing
Adam H Dyer, Deirdre Ryan, Susan O'Callaghan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Age and Ageing
Teng Ma, Deyi Lu, Yin-Sheng Zhu, Xue-Feng Chu, Yong Wang, Guo-Ping Shi, Zheng-Dong Wang, Li Yu, Xiao-Yan Jiang, Xiao-Feng Wang
Objective: To examine the associations of the actinin alpha 3 gene (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism with physical performance and frailty in an older Chinese population. Methods: Data from 1,463 individuals (57.8% female) aged 70-87 years from the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study were used. The associations between R577X and timed 5-m walk, grip strength, timed Up and Go test, and frailty index (FI) based on deficits of 23 laboratory tests (FI-Lab) were examined. Analysis of variance and linear regression models were used to evaluate the genetic effects of ACTN3 R577X on physical performance and FI-Lab...
February 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Jenny Humphreys, Karen Jameson, Cyrus Cooper, Elaine Dennison
Background: multi-morbidity is an increasing challenge in western medicine and has the potential to impact patients' quality of life, treatment options and compliance with medications. The aim of this study was to identify the early-life predictors of long-term multi-morbidity in an historical cohort, the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). Methods: perinatal and infant health records were kept on all children born in Hertfordshire between 1931 and 1939. Participants who were still alive in 1998 were recruited to the HCS and data collected on major chronic diseases...
February 9, 2018: Age and Ageing
Antony J Bayer
Recognition of dementia relies on a good clinical history, supported by formal cognitive testing, but identifying the subtype of dementia may be wrong in 20% or more of cases. Accuracy may be improved by use of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Structural neuroimaging is recommended for most patients, not just to identify potentially reversible surgical pathology, but also to detect vascular changes and patterns of cerebral atrophy. Functional imaging can help to confirm neurodegeneration and to distinguish dementia subtypes when structural imaging has been inconclusive...
February 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
Klaas van der Spek, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Martin Smalbrugge, Marjorie H J M G Nelissen-Vrancken, Roland B Wetzels, Claudia H W Smeets, Erica de Vries, Steven Teerenstra, Sytse U Zuidema, Debby L Gerritsen
Objective: We studied the efficacy of biannual structured medication reviews to improve the appropriateness of psychotropic drug (PD) prescriptions for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home patients with dementia. Study Design and Setting: In this randomised controlled trial, the intervention encompassed a structured multidisciplinary medication review by physician, pharmacist and nurse. During this 18-month study, the patient's medical files were assessed every 6 months...
February 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
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