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Biological Psychology

Xinwei Zhang, Petra Bachmann, Thomas M Schilling, Ewald Naumann, Hartmut Schächinger, Mauro F Larra
Frontal EEG asymmetry has been proposed as an index of emotional regulation, reflecting both state and trait components, and there is evidence that these factors influence the cortisol response to stress. Here, we asked whether cold pressor stress modulates frontal asymmetry and whether this is predictive of the neuroendocrine stress response. Twenty-four male participants underwent an automatized bilateral feet cold pressor test (bfCPT) and a warm water control procedure in counterbalanced order on two separate days, one week apart...
August 10, 2018: Biological Psychology
Chao Wang, Binrang Yang, Diangang Fang, Hongwu Zeng, Xiaowen Chen, Gang Peng, Qiuying Cheng, Guohua Liang
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopment disorder. The deficit in working memory is a central cognitive impairment in ADHD. The SNAP-25 is a neurotransmitter vesicular docking protein whose MnlI polymorphism (rs3746544) is located in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) and known to be linked to ADHD, but the underlying mechanism of this polymorphism remains unclear. Using a functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping method based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of male children diagnosed with ADHD, we first investigated the correlation between SNAP-25 rs3746544 and FCD hubs...
August 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
Ren Ma, Gabriela Gan, Jibiao Zhang, Qingsen Ming, Yali Jiang, Yidian Gao, Xiang Wang, Shuqiao Yao
It has been demonstrated, in a long line of research, that the low-activity genotype of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene is associated with aggression. Previous work has linked impaired response inhibition to aggression, but little is known about how this relates to the purported MAOA-aggression relationship in adolescents. Here, we examined how MAOA genotype influences neural correlates of inhibitory control in 74 healthy male adolescents using a GoStop and a Go/Nogo task while differentiating between action cancelation and action restraint...
August 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
Mark J Campbell, Adam J Toth, Nuala Brady
We use pupillometry to measure sex differences in mental rotation (MR) and to investigate the contentious claim that it is a unique spatial ability marked by male advantage in performance. Across two MR tasks - using Shepard-Metzler style cube figures and images of human hands - we measure reaction time (RT) and sensitivity, d', and supplement these behavioural data with a physiological metric of 'cognitive effort', pupil diameter. Differences in RT and in d' between the sexes are slight for the cubes task, while females are consistently faster than males on the hands task...
August 4, 2018: Biological Psychology
Chong Liao, Haiyan Wu, Qing Guan, Yuejia Luo, Fang Cui
Two ERP experiments were designed to explore the effect of predictability (Exp1) and probability (Exp2) on the perception of others' pain, respectively. In Exp1, we compared the ERP responses to painful and non-painful pictures when they were fully predictable and fully unpredictable. Results revealed that when the valence of the pictures (painful or non-painful) was fully predictable, the amplitudes of N2 and P3 components triggered by the painful pictures were significantly more positive than the amplitudes of N2 and P3 components triggered by the non-painful ones...
August 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
Yingying Tang, Chunwei Ying, Junjie Wang, Xiong Jiao, Zhenying Qian, Tianhong Zhang, Shanbao Tong, Jianhua Sheng, Junfeng Sun, Jijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a typical event-related potential component reflecting pre-attentive processing. MMN impairment, especially reduced duration-related MMN (dMMN), has been suggested as a potential predictive biomarker for the onset of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: This study attempts to manipulate specific MMN activities using advanced neuroimaging-guided intermittent theta-burst stimulations (iTBS), which will be helpful to uncover the sources of MMN generation and contribute to the development of new clinical treatments...
August 2, 2018: Biological Psychology
Judith C Peters, Rainer Goebel, Valerie Goffaux
Face perception depends on a dynamic interplay of a "holistic" Interactive Feature Processing (IFP) and a Local Feature Processing (LFP) style. However, it is unclear whether features are processed locally before they are integrated into a holistic percept (Fine-to-Coarse strategy), or whether local feature processing occurs only after a holistic percept is established (Coarse-to-Fine strategy). The present Event-Related Potentials study investigates whether IFP precedes LFP (Coarse-to-Fine) or vice versa (Fine-to-Coarse)...
August 1, 2018: Biological Psychology
Madeline Sprajcer, Sarah M Jay, Grace E Vincent, Andrew Vakulin, Leon Lack, Sally A Ferguson
This study investigated how the likelihood of missing an alarm affects pre-bed anxiety, sleep and next day cognitive performance during on-call shifts. Participants (n = 24) completed one adaptation night, one control night and two on-call nights in a time-isolated sleep laboratory. On one of the on-call nights, participants were informed that they would be woken by a loud alarm that they would definitely not be able to sleep through (low likelihood of missing the alarm). On the other on-call night, participants were informed that they would be woken by a quiet alarm that they may sleep through (high likelihood of missing the alarm)...
July 27, 2018: Biological Psychology
Vilfredo De Pascalis, Kathrin Sommer, Paolo Scacchia
In this study, we attempt to validate previous findings on extraversion-related differences in speed of sensorimotor processing and to extend them into Behavioural Approach System (BAS) subtraits within the framework of the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) of personality. Here, we assessed psychological traits of extraversion (E), four BAS facets (Goal-Drive Persistence, BAS-GDP; Reward Interest, BAS-RI; Reward Reactivity, BAS-RR; Impulsivity, BAS-I), Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), and Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS) in 51 volunteers (28 women)...
July 27, 2018: Biological Psychology
Michel Quak, Zachary D Langford, Raquel E London, Durk Talsma
An ongoing debate in visual working memory research is concentrated on whether visual working memory capacity is determined solely by the number of objects to be memorized, or additionally by the number of relevant features contained within objects. Using a novel change detection task that contained multi-feature objects we examined the effect of both object number and feature number on visual working memory capacity, change detection sensitivity, and posterior slow wave event-related brain potential (ERP) activity...
July 25, 2018: Biological Psychology
Roni Shafir, Leemor Zucker, Gal Sheppes
Despite the frequent need to down-regulate sexual desire, existing studies are scarce, and focus on strategies that involve disengagement from processing sexual stimuli. Accordingly, the present study compared the efficacy of down-regulating sexual desire via disengagement (attentional distraction) and engagement (situation-focused reappraisal) strategies. Utilizing Event Related Potentials, we measured the Late Positive Potential (LPP) - an electro-cortical component that denotes processing of arousing stimuli, showing decreased amplitudes during successful down-regulation...
July 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
Johannes B Finke, Andreas Behrje, Hartmut Schächinger
Chronic stress attenuates reproductive behavior in many species, but evidence regarding the impact of acute stress on human sexual arousability is insufficient. Stressor-specific effects might result from divergent roles of both stress response systems. Social self-threat, linked to affiliation-oriented coping, might also influence sexual responsivity. To investigate stress-induced modulation of the processing of sexual cues and its relationship with cortisol, 58 participants underwent either a predominantly sympathetic stressor (3 min sustained handgrip) or similar control procedure...
July 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
Stefan Duschek, Alexandra Hoffmann, Casandra I Montoro, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Daniel Schuepbach, Ulrich Ettinger
This study investigated cerebral blood flow modulations during task preparation in a precued saccade paradigm. Bilateral blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral arteries were recorded in 48 subjects using functional transcranial Doppler sonography. Video-based eye-tracking was applied for ocular recording. Antisaccade and prosaccade trials were presented in both block-wise and interleaved order. A right dominant flow response arose during task preparation. While the response was stronger during antisaccade than prosaccade trials, the degree of lateralisation did not differ between the two trial types...
July 11, 2018: Biological Psychology
Leah M Mayo, Johan Lindé, Håkan Olausson, Markus Heilig, India Morrison
Touch plays a central role in interpersonal behavior, especially in its capacity to convey-and induce- changes in affect. Previous research has established that slow, caress-like stroking over the skin elicits positive subjective affective responses, with higher ratings of "pleasantness" compared to a faster-moving touch stimulus. Ratings of pleasantness are associated with increased activity of a distinct class of nerve fibers: C-tactile (CT) afferents. Here, we used facial electromyography (EMG) to determine if touch that optimally activates CT afferents also influences facial muscle activity believed to reflect changes in affect...
July 9, 2018: Biological Psychology
Gaëtan Mertens, Yannick Boddez, Dieuwke Sevenster, Iris M Engelhard, Jan De Houwer
Fear learning reflects the adaptive ability to learn to anticipate aversive events and to display preparatory fear reactions based on prior experiences. Usually, these learning experiences are modeled in the lab with pairings between a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) (i.e., fear conditioning via CS-US pairings). Nevertheless, for humans, fear learning can also be based on verbal instructions. In this review, we consider the role of verbal instructions in laboratory fear learning...
July 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
D Kommers, M Broeren, G Oei, L Feijs, P Andriessen, S Bambang Oetomo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate whether Kangaroo care (KC) influences the salivary oxytocin (OT) concentration in preterm infants, and which correlates affect the OT response. METHODS: Eleven twin pairs participated in a study in which we collected saliva using cotton swabs twice a day, once during KC and once during baseline conditions (lying in bed or incubator). The total study duration was five days. The saliva of twin siblings were pooled to obtain vials with sufficient volumes of either saliva collected during KC or at baseline...
June 30, 2018: Biological Psychology
Elisabeth Ruiz-Padial, Antonio J Ibáñez-Molina
In this study, we explored the fractal dimension (FD; a measure of signal complexity) of 28 EEG channels with positive and negative emotional states. The EEG of participants and their ECG were registered while watching short video clips that induced fear, disgust, humour, or neutral emotions. In order to better understand the nature of these emotions, the Higuchi FD of EEG segments and the heart rate variability (HRV) of the ECG associated with each emotion were obtained. Our results exhibited similar patterns of results with both measures...
June 30, 2018: Biological Psychology
Giorgia Zamariola, Pierre Maurage, Olivier Luminet, Olivier Corneille
Interoception, the capacity to perceive internal bodily states, is thought to influence cognitive, affective and interpersonal functioning. It is frequently assessed using the heartbeat counting task, introduced recently in interoceptive research. In this task participants are requested to count their heartbeats without relying on external cues. Interoceptive Accuracy (i.e., IAcc) scores are then computed based on absolute comparisons between actual and reported heartbeats. In a large sample of participants (N = 572), we observed that, whereas IAcc scores are meant to be theoretically agnostic to error type (i...
June 23, 2018: Biological Psychology
H F A Zoon, S E M de Bruijn, G Jager, P A M Smeets, C de Graaf, I M C Janssen, W Schijns, L Deden, S Boesveldt
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a highly effective weight-loss intervention that often reduces preference and intake of high-energy foods. Research into the neural mechanisms behind this shift has mainly focused on reward processing of food cues. However, the ability to successfully control food intake and thereby weight-loss also depends on inhibitory control capacity. We investigated whether RYGB leads to alterations in neural inhibitory control in response to food cues...
June 23, 2018: Biological Psychology
Sandra Mai, Chung Ki Wong, Eleana Georgiou, Olga Pollatos
Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) are an index of the cortical reflection of cardiac interoceptive signals. Studies which have examined interoception in adolescents with the use of HEPs are not known to the authors so far. This study investigated the function of the HEP as a marker of interoception in adolescents. EEG and ECG were recorded in 46 adolescents during a resting condition and during a heartbeat detection task. Participants were asked for confidence in their interoceptive accuracy during heartbeat perception...
June 23, 2018: Biological Psychology
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