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Biological Psychology

Richard J Macatee, Brian J Albanese, Norman B Schmidt, Jesse R Cougle
Low resting heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with a broad array of negative psychosocial outcomes. Recent theoretical explications of HRV suggest it is an autonomic marker of emotion regulation capacity, but limited research has examined its relationship with emotional information processing indices. The present study utilized eye-tracking methodology to test HRV's theorized role as a marker of emotion regulation capacity in a non-clinical sample. Attentional biases towards threatening, dysphoric, and positive emotional information as well as affective modulation of pupil size were assessed before and after a stress induction...
December 1, 2016: Biological Psychology
Dmitry M Davydov, Róża Czabak-Garbacz
Previous clinical and elderly population studies have found that affective well-being can be assessed by clino-orthostatic cardiovascular reactivity. This study explored this relationship in a young healthy sample, and with respect to cognitive appraisals of well-being. Four successive readings of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) after lying down (clinostatic probe) followed by four successive readings after standing up (orthostatic probe) were obtained from 52 healthy students along with questionnaire-reported well-being...
November 28, 2016: Biological Psychology
Matthew M Walsh, Glenn Gunzelmann, John R Anderson
The P300 is one of the most widely studied components of the human event-related potential. According to a longstanding view, the P300, and particularly its posterior subcomponent (i.e., the P3b), is driven by stimulus categorization. Whether the P3b relates to tactical processes involved in immediate responding or strategic processes that affect future behavior remains controversial, however. It is difficult to determine whether variability in P3b latencies relates to variability in response times because of limitations in the methods currently available to quantify the latency of the P3b during single trials...
November 25, 2016: Biological Psychology
Tzu-Ling Liu, Nai-Feng Chen, Shih-Kuen Cheng
Emotional items are often remembered more clearly than neutral items. However, whether stimuli embedded in an emotional context are more resistant to directed forgetting than those presented in a neutral context remains unclear. This question was tested by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an item-method directed forgetting paradigm involving neutral words that were embedded in neutral or negative contexts. During the study phase, participants were asked to associate a neutral word with a negative or neutral picture...
November 24, 2016: Biological Psychology
Katherine A Kaplan, Jason Hirshman, Beatriz Hernandez, Marcia L Stefanick, Andrew R Hoffman, Susan Redline, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Katie Stone, Leah Friedman, Jamie M Zeitzer
BACKGROUND: Reports of subjective sleep quality are frequently collected in research and clinical practice. It is unclear, however, how well polysomnographic measures of sleep correlate with subjective reports of prior-night sleep quality in elderly men and women. Furthermore, the relative importance of various polysomnographic, demographic and clinical characteristics in predicting subjective sleep quality is not known. We sought to determine the correlates of subjective sleep quality in older adults using more recently developed machine learning algorithms that are suitable for selecting and ranking important variables...
November 24, 2016: Biological Psychology
Yingying Wang, Ruolei Gu, Yue-Jia Luo, Chenglin Zhou
In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on decision making in high-anxious individuals, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. Behavioral and electroencephalography responses were recorded to explore the stages of option assessment and outcome evaluation during decision making, respectively. Incidental emotions were elicited by facial expression pictures presented on the background, which included four conditions (control, neutral, fearful, and happy). Results showed smaller feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes in high-anxious participants than low-anxious participants in the control, neutral, and fearful conditions, but not in the happy condition, for small outcomes...
November 22, 2016: Biological Psychology
Eugene McSorley, Jayne Morriss, Carien M van Reekum
Visual stimuli may be selected for priority at different stages within the processing stream, depending on how motivationally relevant they are to the perceiver. Here we examine the extent to which individual differences in motivational relevance of task-irrelevant images (spider, crash, baby, food and neutral) guide eye-movements to a simple "follow the cross" task in 96 participants. We found affective images vs. neutral images to be generally more distracting, as shown by faster first saccade latencies and greater deviation in the final landing position from the target cross...
November 21, 2016: Biological Psychology
Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Srivastava Kodavaganti, Garry Smyda, Vaibhav Diwadkar, Mary Phillips
BACKGROUND: The ventral striatum (VS) and striatal network supports goal motivated behavior. Identifying how depressed patients differ in their striatal network during the processing of emotionally salient events is a step towards uncovering biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: 38 depressed and 30 healthy adults completed a task that examined brain activation to the anticipation and receipt of monetary rewards and losses. Data were collected using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner...
November 19, 2016: Biological Psychology
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Katarina L Matthes, Martin Meyer
The current study investigates cognitive processes as reflected in late auditory-evoked potentials as a function of longitudinal auditory learning. A normal hearing adult sample (n=15) performed an active oddball task at three consecutive time points (TPs) arranged at two week intervals, and during which EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised of syllables consisting of a natural fricative (/sh/,/s/,/f/) embedded between two /a/ sounds, as well as morphed transitions of the two syllables that served as deviants...
November 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
Thomas Janssens, Ashton M Steele, David Rosenfield, Thomas Ritz
Emotional stimuli elicit airway constriction in individuals with asthma and in healthy individuals, but little is known about effects of repeated stimulation. We therefore explored the effect of repeated emotion induction on respiratory resistance (Rrs) using unpleasant, high-arousal surgery films and investigated effects of respiration and emotional reactivity. Twenty-six participants (13 with asthma) watched a series of 12 short, 45-s surgery films followed by 2-min recovery periods. Rrs assessed with impulse oscillometry was significantly elevated during films in both groups compared to baseline and recovered quickly after that...
November 14, 2016: Biological Psychology
Rebecca R Klatzkin, Sierra Gaffney, Kathryn Cyrus, Elizabeth Bigus, Kimberly A Brownley
The purpose of the current study was to investigate stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Three groups of women [obese with BED (n=9); obese non-BED (n=11); and normal weight (NW) non-BED (n=12)], rated their levels of hunger and psychological distress before and after completing the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by food anticipation and then consumption of their preferred snack food. We differentiated between the motivational and hedonic components of eating by measuring the amount of food participants poured into a serving bowl compared to the amount consumed...
November 9, 2016: Biological Psychology
Qingfei Chen, Xiuling Liang, Xiaozhe Peng, Yang Liu, Yi Lei, Hong Li
The evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to investigate the representation of motion processes in different causal contexts, such as the collision of two squares or the repulsion of two magnets with like poles facing. Participants were required to judge whether each movement was plausible according to the causal context depicted by the cover story. Three main differences after the movement of the second object were found. First, the amplitudes at 70-170ms (N1) and 170-370ms (P2) elicited by a no-contact condition were more negative than a contact condition in the square context, whereas larger N1 and more positive amplitudes at 370-670ms were elicited by a no-contact condition in the magnet context...
November 8, 2016: Biological Psychology
Ke Xu, Xinyu Zhang, Zuoheng Wang, Ying Hu, Rajita Sinha
Chronic stress has a significant impact on obesity. However, how stress influences obesity remains unclear. We conducted an epigenome-wide DNA methylation association analysis of obesity (N=510) and examined whether cumulative stress influenced the DNA methylation on body weight. We identified 20 CpG sites associated with body mass index at the false discovery rate q<0.05, including a novel site, cg18181703, in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) gene (coefficient β=-0.0022, FDR q=4.94×10(-5)). The interaction between cg18181703 and cumulative adverse life stress contributed to variations in body weight (p=0...
November 5, 2016: Biological Psychology
Vilfredo De Pascalis, Francesca Fracasso, Philip J Corr
In the recent Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ, Corr and Cooper, 2016) the behavioral approach system (BAS) has been conceptualized as multidimensional in which facets of reward interest and reactivity, and goal-drive persistence, are separate from impulsivity. Aim of the present work was to highlight the predictive power of BAS and its facets in differentiating electrocortical responses by using an auditory augmenting/reducing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm during emotional visual stimulation...
November 2, 2016: Biological Psychology
Chiara Bozzacchi, Rocco Luca Cimmino, Francesco Di Russo
The study of bimanual movements has allowed to describe an interesting phenomenon known as the bimanual coupling effect: a lack of independence between the two hands that induces an interference process, which has been reported in both the spatial and temporal domain. Here, we studied for the first time the electro-cortical activity of the temporal bimanual coupling effect, specifically focused on the motor preparation of the two hands movements. Participants performed congruent movements, with both hands heading towards easy or difficult targets, and incongruent movements, with the two hands heading to separate targets (i...
October 31, 2016: Biological Psychology
Neha Gothe, Rahul K Keswani, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: Prolonged activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system is thought to have deleterious effects on brain function. Neuroendocrine studies suggest that brain exposure to higher cortisol concentrations contribute to cognitive deficits as we age. Mind-body techniques such as yoga have shown to improve stress levels by restoring the body's sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The objective of this study was to determine whether yoga practice moderated the stress response resulting in improved executive function...
October 26, 2016: Biological Psychology
Lin Fang, Alvaro Sanchez, Ernst H W Koster
The attentional scope model of rumination predicts that rumination is associated with a narrowed attentional scope which magnifies emotional responding and reduces problem-solving. This study examined this prediction by using a moving window paradigm, allowing for a more direct measurement of attentional scope at a perceptual level. High and low trait ruminators were asked to read self-related and other-related sentences under small, medium, large, and no moving window conditions while their visual fixations during reading were recorded...
October 26, 2016: Biological Psychology
Anna Grubert, Martin Eimer
The question whether multiple objects are selected serially or in parallel remains contentious. Previous studies employed the N2pc component as a marker of attentional selection to show that multiple selection processes can be activated concurrently. The present study demonstrates that the concurrent selection of multiple targets reflects genuinely parallel processing that is unaffected by whether or when an additional selection process is elicited simultaneously for another target. Experiment 1 showed that N2pc components triggered during the selection of a colour-defined target were not modulated by the presence versus absence of a second target that appeared in close temporal proximity...
October 25, 2016: Biological Psychology
Jonathan P Stange, Annmarie MacNamara, Olga Barnas, Amy E Kennedy, Greg Hajcak, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp
Excessive attention toward aversive information may be a core mechanism underlying emotional disorders, but little is known about whether this is predictive of response to treatments. We evaluated whether enhanced attention toward aversive stimuli, as indexed by an event-related potential component, the late positive potential (LPP), would predict response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder. Thirty-two patients receiving 12 weeks of CBT responded to briefly-presented pairs of aversive and neutral pictures that served as targets or distracters while electroencephaolography was recorded...
October 23, 2016: Biological Psychology
Andreas Herweg, Julian Gutzeit, Sonja Kleih, Andrea Kübler
Tactile event-related potential (ERP) controlled brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) are rarely used as input signal due to their low accuracy and speed (information transfer rate, ITR). Age-related loss of tactile sensibility might further decrease their viability for the target population of BCI. In this study we investigated whether training improves tactile ERP-BCI performance within a virtual wheelchair navigation task. Elderly subjects participated in 5 sessions and tactors were placed at legs, abdomen and back...
October 20, 2016: Biological Psychology
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