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Biological Psychology

Matthew D Albaugh, Tuong-Vi Nguyen, Simon Ducharme, D Louis Collins, Kelly N Botteron, Nicholas D'Alberto, Alan C Evans, Sherif Karama, James J Hudziak
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which subclinical variation in anxious/depressed psychopathology is associated with volume and age-related volumetric change of limbic structures in a longitudinal sample of healthy youths. METHODS: Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging data (up to 3 data points per subject, collected at 2 year-intervals) in 371 typically developing youths, from 4 to 18 years of age (196 females; 723 MRIs)...
February 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
Elizabeth A Martin, Nicole R Karcher, Bruce D Bartholow, Greg J Siegle, John G Kerns
Both extreme levels of social anhedonia (SocAnh) and perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag) are associated with risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and with emotional abnormalities. Yet, the nature of any psychophysiological-measured affective abnormality, including the role of automatic/controlled processes, is unclear. We examined the late positive potential (LPP) during passive viewing (to assess automatic processing) and during cognitive reappraisal (to assess controlled processing) in three groups: SocAnh, PerMag, and controls...
February 5, 2017: Biological Psychology
Roxann Roberson-Nay, Eugenia I Gorlin, Jessica R Beadel, Therese Cash, Scott Vrana, Bethany A Teachman
Self-reported anxiety, and potentially physiological response, to maintained inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) enriched air shows promise as a putative marker of panic reactivity and vulnerability. Temporal stability of response systems during low-dose, steady-state CO2 breathing challenge is lacking. Outcomes on multiple levels were measured two times, one week apart, in 93 individuals. Stability was highest during the CO2 breathing phase compared to pre-CO2 and recovery phases, with anxiety ratings, respiratory rate, skin conductance level, and heart rate demonstrating good to excellent temporal stability (ICCs≥0...
February 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
Stephanie M Merwin, Victoria C Smith, Marissa Kushner, Edward P Lemay, Lea R Dougherty
This study examined biological concordance between parent and child morning cortisol and whether parent and child-level risk factors for depression moderated this association. Participants included 136 parents and their preschool-aged children. Parents and children obtained salivary cortisol samples at waking, and 30 and 45min post-waking across two days to assess the cortisol awakening response. Parental lifetime depression was assessed using a clinical interview and child temperamental negative emotionality (NE) and positive emotionality (PE) were assessed using an observational laboratory-based assessment...
January 29, 2017: Biological Psychology
Ann Clawson, Peter E Clayson, Cierra M Keith, Christina Catron, Michael J Larson
Cognitive control includes higher-level cognitive processes used to evaluate environmental conflict. Given the importance of cognitive control in regulating behavior, understanding the developmental course of these processes may contribute to a greater understanding of normal and abnormal development. We examined behavioral (response times [RTs], error rates) and event-related potential data (N2, error-related negativity [ERN], correct-response negativity [CRN], error positivity [Pe]) during a flanker task in cross-sectional groups of 45 youth (ages 8-18), 52 younger adults (ages 20-28), and 58 older adults (ages 56-91)...
January 28, 2017: Biological Psychology
Manon Maheux, Pierre Jolicœur
We examined the role of attention and visual working memory in the evaluation of the number of target stimuli as well as their relative spatial position using the N2pc and the SPCN. Participants performed two tasks: a simple counting task in which they had to determine if a visual display contained one or two coloured items among grey fillers and one in which they had to identify a specific relation between two coloured items. The same stimuli were used for both tasks. Each task was designed to permit an easier evaluation of either the same-coloured or differently-coloured stimuli...
January 27, 2017: Biological Psychology
Matthias Hoenen, Katrin T Lübke, Bettina M Pause
Theories of neuroaesthetics assume, that looking at traces of actions used in creating artwork (e.g. brush marks) is associated with a simulation of these actions in the observer's sensorimotor-cortex. The aim of the current study is to dissociate the activation of the sensorimotor-cortex by the observation of action traces from associated visual processes. Twenty-eight participants observed handmade graphics (acrylic paint on paper) of different complexity (line, triangle, shape of a house) and computer-generated counterparts...
January 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
D Brevers, Q He, G Xue, A Bechara
Individuals have a tendency to be more risky in their choices after having experienced a monetary loss, than after a reward. Here, we examined whether prior outcomes influence differently the patterns of neural activity of individuals who are used to taking monetary risk, namely poker players. High-frequency poker players and non-gamblers were scanned while performing a controlled task that allowed measuring the effect of prior outcomes on subsequent decisions. Both non-gamblers and poker players took more risks after losing a gamble than after winning one...
January 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
Jana Strahler, Urs M Nater
INTRODUCTION: Various behaviors, such as physical activity and sleep, have been shown to have stress-reducing and beneficial effects on wellbeing. In contrast, the rewarding effects of eating and drinking have rarely been investigated, particularly using ecologically valid approaches, and little is known about mediating mechanisms on the biological level. METHODS: Seventy-seven healthy young adults completed items on eating and drinking as well as momentary wellbeing (measured by mood, energy, tension, stress and fatigue levels) on an iPod touch 5×/day for 4 consecutive days...
January 22, 2017: Biological Psychology
Craig E Tenke, Jürgen Kayser, Connie Svob, Lisa Miller, Jorge E Alvarenga, Karen Abraham, Virginia Warner, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna M Weissman, Gerard E Bruder
A prior report (Tenke et al., 2013 Biol. Psychol. 94:426-432) found that participants who rated religion or spirituality (R/S) highly important had greater posterior alpha after 10 years compared to those who did not. Participants who subsequently lowered their rating also had prominent alpha, while those who increased their rating did not. Here we report EEG findings 20 years after initial assessment. Clinical evaluations and R/S ratings were obtained from 73 (52 new) participants in a longitudinal study of family risk for depression...
January 22, 2017: Biological Psychology
Gerd Wagner, Marco Herbsleb, Feliberto de la Cruz, Andy Schumann, Stefanie Köhler, Christian Puta, Holger W Gabriel, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Strong evidence indicates that regular aerobic training induces beneficial effects on cognitive functions. The present controlled fMRI study was designed to investigate the impact of a short-term intense aerobic exercise on the pattern of functional activation during the retrieval of learned pair-associates in 17 young and healthy male adults compared to 17 matched control subjects. We further aimed to relate putative changes in hippocampal activation to postulated changes in the exercised-induced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
January 21, 2017: Biological Psychology
Daniel Schneider, Anna Barth, Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher
This EEG study investigated the protective effect of retroactive attentional focusing on working memory. To this effect, we used a visuo-spatial working memory task and presented block-wise distractor displays after working memory contents had been updated by means of a retroactive cue (retro-cue). Retroactive attention attenuated the interfering effect of distractors on memory precision. The reduction of working memory load by means of a selective retro-cue was reflected by a decline of a negative slow wave over parietal sites...
January 20, 2017: Biological Psychology
Nesrine Hazem, Nathalie George, Matias Baltazar, Laurence Conty
It has recently been demonstrated that eye contact influences bodily self-awareness. Here, we investigated if the belief of being the target of another person's attention may also induce such influence. We created videos of an individual wearing two different pairs of sunglasses. We manipulated the participants to believe that they were in on-line connection with the individual and that one of the pairs of sunglasses was obstructed so that the individual could not see them through it. We demonstrated that the perception of an individual wearing see-through sunglasses, as compared to obstructed sunglasses or a low-level baseline condition, led to a greater correlation between the participants' rating of the intensity of their bodily reactions and their skin conductance response to emotional pictures...
January 19, 2017: Biological Psychology
Kristi R Griffiths, Daniel S Quintana, Daniel F Hermens, Chris Spooner, Tracey W Tsang, Simon Clarke, Michael R Kohn
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in attention and self-regulation by modulating physiological arousal to meet environmental demands. Core symptoms of ADHD such as inattention and behavioral disinhibition may be related to dysregulation of the ANS, however previous findings have been equivocal. We examined autonomic activity and reactivity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of un-medicated children and adolescents (6-19 years) with ADHD (n=229) compared to typically-developing controls (n=244) during rest and sustained attention...
January 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
M M Spapé, Ville Harjunen, N Ravaja
Being touched is known to affect emotion, and even a casual touch can elicit positive feelings and affinity. Psychophysiological studies have recently shown that tactile primes affect visual evoked potentials to emotional stimuli, suggesting altered affective stimulus processing. As, however, these studies approached emotion from a purely unidimensional perspective, it remains unclear whether touch biases emotional evaluation or a more general feature such as salience. Here, we investigated how simple tactile primes modulate event related potentials (ERPs), facial EMG and cardiac response to pictures of facial expressions of emotion...
January 12, 2017: Biological Psychology
Lisa M Jaremka, Nancy L Collins
Researchers recently demonstrated that cortisol increases in response to mating-relevant social interactions. An important next step is investigating factors that explain individual differences in cortisol reactivity within these contexts. The current study examined demographic, situational, and individual difference predictors of cortisol reactivity following brief, non-face-to-face interactions with potential dating partners. College students made a video introducing themselves to another participant. During another appointment, they watched a short video of an opposite-sex confederate introducing himself/herself, and believed the other person was watching their video...
January 12, 2017: Biological Psychology
Kyle Nash, Thomas Baumgartner, Daria Knoch
Group-focused moral foundations (GMFs) - moral values that help protect the group's welfare - sharply divide conservatives from liberals and religiously devout from non-believers. However, there is little evidence about what drives this divide. Moral foundations theory and the model of motivated social cognition both associate group-focused moral foundations with differences in conflict detection and resolution capacity, but in opposing directions. Individual differences in conflict detection and resolution implicate specific neuroanatomical differences...
January 5, 2017: Biological Psychology
Katie Groves, Steffan Kennett, Helge Gillmeister
Growing evidence suggests that the brain processes bodies distinctively from other stimuli, but little research has addressed whether visual body perception is modulated by the observer's thoughts and feelings about their own body. The present study thus investigated the relationship between body image and electrophysiological signatures of body perception, with the aim of identifying potential biomarkers of body image disturbances. Occipito-parietal (P1 and N1) and fronto-central (VPP) processing of body and non-body stimuli were assessed in 29 weight-restored eating disordered (ED) women and compared to 27 healthy controls...
January 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Ina Molzow, Alexandra Förster, Nadine Siebenhühner, Maxime Gesch, Christian D Wiesner, Lioba Baving
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m...
December 31, 2016: Biological Psychology
Lisa Weller, Katharina A Schwarz, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
Sensory stimuli resulting from one's own actions are perceptually attenuated compared to identical but externally produced stimuli. This may enable the organism to discriminate between self-produced events and externally produced events, suggesting a strong link between sensory attenuation and a subjective sense of agency. To investigate this supposed link, we compared the influence of filled and unfilled action-effect delays on both, judgements of agency for self-produced sounds and attenuation of the event-related potential (ERP)...
December 23, 2016: Biological Psychology
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