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Biological Psychology

Izumi Matsuda, Izumi Matsudaaa
Recent studies have shown that a memorized item in the Concealed Information Test elicits a frontal negative slow wave (500-1000 ms) of the event-related potential, the cortical source of which involves the right prefrontal cortex. To examine whether this negative slow wave reflects a process that is specific to concealment rather than a more general cognitive control process, we compared the event-related potentials of 24 participants in four conditions involving the presence or absence of memory and the intention to conceal...
April 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
Tomasz S Ligeza, Marcin Maciejczyk, Patrycja Kałamała, Zbigniew Szygula, Miroslaw Wyczesany
A prior session of moderate intensity continuous exercise (MCE) benefits performance during tasks requiring conflict resolution but the specific cognitive process that underlies this improvement remains unknown. Many studies postulate that MCE increases inhibition, but ERP evidence is ambiguous due to significant differences across past procedures. Most importantly, exercise intensity, which modulates the relationship between acute exercise and cognitive processes, might have varied across past ERP studies...
April 14, 2018: Biological Psychology
Maria Montefinese, David Vinson, Ettore Ambrosini
Differences in pupil dilation are observed for studied compared to new items in recognition memory. According to cognitive load theory, this effect reflects the greater cognitive demands of retrieving contextual information from study phase. Pupil dilation can also occur when new items conceptually related to old ones are erroneously recognized as old, but the aspects of similarity that modulate false memory and related pupil responses remain unclear. We investigated this issue by manipulating the degree of featural similarity between new (unstudied) and old (studied) concepts in an old/new recognition task...
April 14, 2018: Biological Psychology
Casandra I Montoro, Stefan Duschek, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
This study analyzed variability in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and possible underlying physiological mechanisms during rest and a mental arithmetic task. Blood flow velocities were bilaterally recorded by transcranial Doppler sonography in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries of 43 participants. Electrocardiography, continuous blood pressure (BP) and respiratory recordings were additionally obtained. Fast Fourier transformation revealed a spectral profile with two main components in CBFV, one in the very low frequency (VLF, 0...
April 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
Andrea Kóbor, Ádám Takács, Zsófia Kardos, Karolina Janacsek, Kata Horváth, Valéria Csépe, Dezso Nemeth
Procedural learning facilitates the efficient processing of complex environmental stimuli and contributes to the acquisition of automatic behaviors. Although earlier findings suggest different temporal trajectories of the multiple learning processes within procedural learning, this has not been clarified at the level of neurocognitive correlates. Therefore, we investigated whether two prominent learning processes - statistical learning and sequence learning - can be distinguished using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) within the same experimental setting...
April 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Claudia Poch, María Valdivia, Almudena Capilla, José Antonio Hinojosa, Pablo Campo
Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. An influential model proposes that the alpha enhancement is functionally related to the suppression of information...
March 26, 2018: Biological Psychology
Maria Magdalena Crespo-Llado, Ross E Vanderwert, Elena Geangu
Infants' ability to process others' emotional expressions is fundamental for their social development. While infants' processing of emotions expressed by faces and speech has been more extensively investigated, less is known about how infants process non-verbal vocalizations of emotions. Here, we recorded frontal N100, P200, and LPC event-related potentials (ERPs) from 8-month-old infants listening to sounds of other infants crying, laughing, and coughing. Infants' temperament was measured via parental report...
March 26, 2018: Biological Psychology
Emma M L Ells, Erica D Rudolph, Lauren Sculthorpe-Petley, Shelagh C Abriel, Debra J Campbell, Philip G Tibbo, Derek J Fisher
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by a change in auditory stimulation (e.g., the occurrence of a deviant sound that violates the rules or regularities of the preceding stimulus sequence) regardless of whether one is attending to the change or not. As such, the MMN provides a useful index of pre-attentive cognition. While decreases in MMN amplitude are robustly observed in chronic schizophrenia, these deficits are less consistently present at the early phase of the illness...
March 26, 2018: Biological Psychology
Alexandra Maria Koenig, Wei Gao, Maria Umlauft, Katharina Schury, Frank Reister, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
The endocannabinoid (EC) system possesses anti-inflammatory properties and seems to be altered in trauma-exposed individuals. In an intergenerational approach, this study investigated the link between childhood maltreatment (CM) experiences and alterations in the EC system. Hair samples of N = 142 mothers and N = 91 newborns were analyzed, retrospectively assessing EC regulation during the last trimester of pregnancy with four ECs: 1-arachidonoylglycerol (1-AG), N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA), N-stearoylethanolamide (SEA), and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychology
Helen Uusberg, Krista Peet, Andero Uusberg, Kirsti Akkermann
Appearance-related attention biases are thought to contribute to body image disturbances. We investigated how preoccupation with body image is associated with attention biases to body size, focusing on the role of social comparison processes and automaticity. Thirty-six women varying on self-reported preoccupation compared their actual body size to size-modified images of either themselves or a figure-matched peer. Amplification of earlier (N170, P2) and later (P3, LPP) ERP components recorded under low vs...
March 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
Liang Shi, Jiangzhou Sun, Zhiting Ren, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Wenjing Yang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is imperative to social development and the promotion of well-being. Here, independent component analysis and functional network connectivity analysis methods were applied to both resting-state and divergent thinking task fMRI data from the same sample to investigate large-scale brain network connectivity underlying creativity. The results showed that the strength of the connectivity between the posterior default mode network (DMN) and right frontal-parietal network (FPN) was significantly greater whereas the right FPN and left FPN connectivity strength was weaker in the creative condition than in the control condition...
March 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
Ratna Jyothi, Ajay Kumar Nair, Rahul Venugopal, Arun Sasidharan, Prasanta Kumar Ghosh, John P John, Seema Mehrotra, Ravindra Panth, Bindu M Kutty
Meditation, as taught by most schools of practice, consists of a set of heterogeneous techniques. We wanted to assess if EEG profiles varied across different meditation techniques, proficiency levels and experience of the practitioners. We examined EEG dynamics in Vipassana meditators (Novice, Senior meditators and Teachers) while they engaged in their traditional meditation practice (concentration, mindfulness and loving kindness in a structured manner) as taught by S.N. Goenka. Seniors and Teachers (vs Novices) showed trait increases in delta (1-4 Hz), theta-alpha (6-10 Hz) and low-gamma power (30-40 Hz) at baseline rest; state-trait increases in low-alpha (8-10 Hz) and low-gamma power during concentrative and mindfulness meditation; and theta-alpha and low-gamma power during loving-kindness meditation...
March 8, 2018: Biological Psychology
Sarah D McCrackin, Roxane J Itier
Most face processing research has investigated how we perceive faces presented by themselves, but we view faces everyday within a rich social context. Recent ERP research has demonstrated that context cues, including self-relevance and valence, impact electrocortical and emotional responses to neutral faces. However, the time-course of these effects is still unclear, and it is unknown whether these effects interact with the face gaze direction, a cue that inherently contains self-referential information and triggers emotional responses...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Melle J W van der Molen, Anita Harrewijn, P Michiel Westenberg
The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to social evaluative feedback processing in social anxiety. Twenty-two non-socially and 17 socially anxious females (mean age = 19.57 years) participated in a Social Judgment Paradigm in which they received acceptance/rejection feedback that was either congruent or incongruent with their prior predictions. Results indicated that socially anxious participants believed they would receive less social acceptance feedback than non-socially anxious participants...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Anna Julia Karmann, Christoph Lauer, Elisabeth Ziegler, Lena Killian, Claudia Horn-Hofmann, Stefan Lautenbacher
Strong alterations of night sleep (e.g., sleep deprivation, insomnia) have appeared to affect pain in inducing hyperalgesic changes. However, it has remained unclear whether everyday variations of night sleep in healthy individuals have any influence on pain processing. Forty healthy subjects were studied by portable polysomnography (PSG) and sleep questionnaire during two non-consecutive nights at home. Experimental pain parameters (pressure pain threshold, temporal summation = TS, conditioned pain modulation = CPM) and situational pain catastrophizing (Situational Catastrophizing Questionnaire = SCQ) were always assessed the evening before and the morning after sleep recording in a pain laboratory...
March 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
Angelos Angelidis, Muriel Hagenaars, Dana van Son, Willem van der Does, Peter Putman
BACKGROUND: Low spontaneous EEG theta/beta ratio (TBR) is associated with greater executive control. Their role in regulation of attentional bias for stimuli of different threat-levels is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To provide the first relations between frontal TBR, trait anxiety and attentional bias to mildly and highly threatening stimuli at different processing-stages. METHODS: Seventy-four healthy volunteers completed spontaneous EEG measurement, a self-report trait anxiety questionnaire and a dot-probe task with stimuli of different threat-level and 200 and 500 ms cue-target delays...
March 5, 2018: Biological Psychology
Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Rudi De Raedt, Selene Nasso, Louise Puttevils, Sven C Mueller
Human beings have a basic need for esteemed social connections, and receiving negative self-evaluative feedback induces emotional distress. The aim of the current study is to measure eye movements (a physiological marker of attention allocation) and pupillary responses (a physiological marker of cognitive and emotional processing) as online and objective indices of participants' reaction to positive/negative social evaluations from the same or opposite sex. Following the paradigm, subjective mood ratings and heart rate variability (HRV) - as an objective index of regulatory effort- were measured...
March 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
Inês Mares, Marie L Smith, Mark H Johnson, Atsushi Senju
Direct gaze is a powerful social cue signalling the attention of another person toward oneself. Here we investigated the relevance of low spatial frequency (LSF) and high spatial frequency (HSF) in facial cues for direct gaze processing. We identified two distinct peaks in the ERP response, the N170 and N240 components. These two components were related to different stimulus conditions and influenced by different spatial frequencies. In particular, larger N170 and N240 amplitudes were observed for direct gaze than for averted gaze, but only in the N240 component was this effect modulated by spatial frequency, where it was reliant in LSF information...
March 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
Nicole Y L Oei, Steffy W Jansen, Ilya M Veer, P Eline Slagboom, Jeroen van de Grond, Diana van Heemst
INTRODUCTION: Middle-aged offspring from long-lived families are thought to have a slower pace of aging, possibly related to HPA-axis function. Here, we investigated the neural and behavioral effects of social stress in offspring compared to their regular aging partners on emotional distraction during working memory (WM). METHODS: 104 middle-aged participants (53 males) consisting of offspring and their partners underwent the Trier Social Stress Test or a control procedure...
March 2, 2018: Biological Psychology
Maartje J Schreuder, Thomas Meyer, Alana C Krix
This study was inspired by the case of a robbery victim who was startled and reminded of the crime upon hearing a stranger's voice, while not clearly recognizing the speaker. To investigate whether specific voices can modulate startle reactions and thereby predict speaker identification, we presented an audio hijack scenario to 84 participants and afterwards asked them to identify the perpetrator among neutral and negative speech fragments, while measuring flash-evoked eye-blink startle responses. Furthermore, we addressed data-driven cognitive processing during the audio scenario as a potential moderator in voice discrimination...
February 24, 2018: Biological Psychology
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