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Biological Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729022/boldness-psychopathic-traits-predict-reduced-gaze-toward-fearful-eyes-in-men-with-a-history-of-violence
#1
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Research with developmental and adult samples has shown a relationship of psychopathic traits with reduced eye gaze. However, these relationships remained to be investigated among forensic samples. Here we examined the eye movements of male violent offenders during an emotion recognition task. Violent offenders performed similar to non-offending controls, and their eye movements varied with the emotion and intensity of the facial expression. In the violent offender group Boldness psychopathic traits, but not Meanness or Disinhibition, were associated with reduced dwell time and fixation counts, and slower first fixation latencies, on the eyes compared with the mouth...
July 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723347/heart-rate-variability-is-enhanced-by-long-lasting-pleasant-touch-at-ct-optimized-velocity
#2
Chantal Triscoli, Ilona Croy, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Håkan Olausson, Uta Sailer
INTRODUCTION: The present study explores whether long-lasting pleasant touch has positive effects on the stress response, reward sensitivity, mood, and interoceptive awareness. METHODS: 40 participants received either 35minutes of brush stroking targeting C-tactile fibres (CT) or vibration on the forearm, and rated pleasantness and intensity. Prior and after, stress response (cortisol and heart rate variability), reward sensitivity, mood and interoceptive awareness were measured...
July 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720480/heart-rate-variability-predicts-inhibitory-control-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Marieke W M Kuiper, Elisabeth W M Verhoeven, Hilde M Geurts
Several studies suggest that inhibition difficulties among people with ASD might be related to atypical cardiac vagal control. We examined how low versus high baseline heart rate variability (HRV) influences prepotent response inhibition in 31 males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; mean age: 32.2; mean IQ: 107.8) compared to 39 typically developing (TD) males (mean age: 30.5; mean IQ: 102.0) by administering a stop signal task. Moreover, we examined whether adding an affective manipulation would alter findings and whether this manipulation affected HRV...
July 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720479/interaction-between-prenatal-risk-and-infant-parasympathetic-and-sympathetic-stress-reactivity-predicts-early-aggression
#4
J Suurland, K B Van der Heijden, S C J Huijbregts, S H M Van Goozen, H Swaab
Nonreciprocal action of the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems, increases susceptibility to emotional and behavioral problems in children exposed to adversity. Little is known about the PNS and SNS in interaction with early adversity during infancy. Yet this is when the physiological systems involved in emotion regulation are emerging and presumably most responsive to environmental influences. We examined whether parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and sympathetic pre-ejection period (PEP) response and recovery at six months, moderate the association between cumulative prenatal risk and physical aggression at 20 months (N=113)...
July 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712730/social-processing-in-early-adolescence-associations-between-neurophysiological-self-report-and-behavioral-measures
#5
Autumn Kujawa, Ellen M Kessel, Ashley Carroll, Kodi B Arfer, Daniel N Klein
Peer relationships play a major role in adolescent development, but few methods exist for measuring social processing at the neurophysiological level. This study extends our pilot study of Island Getaway, a task for eliciting event-related potentials (ERPs) to peer feedback. We differentiated ERPs using principal components analysis (PCA) and examined associations with behavioral and self-report measures in young adolescents (N=412). PCA revealed an early negativity in the ERP enhanced for rejection feedback, followed by a series of positivities (consistent with reward positivity [RewP], P300, and late positive potential) that were enhanced for acceptance feedback...
July 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712729/gene-by-cognition-interaction-on-stress-induced-attention-bias-for-food-effects-of-5-httlpr-and-ruminative-thinking
#6
Robbie Schepers, C Rob Markus
INTRODUCTION: Stress is often found to increase the preference and intake of high caloric foods. This effect is known as emotional eating and is influenced by cognitive as well as biological stress vulnerabilities. An S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene has been linked to decreased (brain) serotonin efficiency, leading to decreased stress resilience and increased risks for negative affect and eating related disturbances. Recently it has been proposed that a cognitive ruminative thinking style can further exacerbate the effect of this gene by prolonging the already increased stress response, thereby potentially increasing the risk of compensating by overeating high palatable foods...
July 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705750/heart-rate-variability-reactivity-and-new-romance-cause-or-consequence
#7
Laura K Bailey, Ron Davis
There are documented physiological differences between single and coupled individuals during the "honeymoon period" of nascent romantic relationships. One such difference is in autonomic reactivity, specifically heart rate variability (HRV) reactivity. This finding had previously been interpreted as evidence of a stress buffering effect of relationship formation. The present study explored among university women two competing longitudinal hypotheses conceptualizing differences in HRV reactivity as either a cause or a consequence of romantic relationship formation...
July 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669784/neural-correlates-of-prosocial-behavior-towards-persons-in-pain-in-healthcare-providers
#8
Michel-Pierre Coll, Mathieu Grégoire, Fanny Eugène, Philip L Jackson
Pain perceived in others can be a stressful signal that elicits personal distress and discomfort that can interfere with prosocial behaviors. Healthcare providers (HCPs) have to be able to regulate these self-oriented feelings to offer optimal help to patients in pain. However, previous studies have documented a tendency in HCPs to underestimate the pain of patients that could interfere with optimal help to these patients. The aim of this study was to compare HCP and control (CTL) participants' prosocial behavior towards persons in pain and their associated brain responses...
June 30, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666891/neural-signals-of-selective-attention-are-modulated-by-subjective-preferences-and-buying-decisions-in-a-virtual-shopping-task
#9
Nobuhiko Goto, Faisal Mushtaq, Dexter Shee, Xue Li Lim, Matin Mortazavi, Motoki Watabe, Alexandre Schaefer
We investigated whether well-known neural markers of selective attention to motivationally-relevant stimuli were modulated by variations in subjective preference towards consumer goods in a virtual shopping task. Specifically, participants viewed and rated pictures of various goods on the extent to which they wanted each item, which they could potentially purchase afterwards. Using the event-related potentials (ERP) method, we found that variations in subjective preferences for consumer goods strongly modulated positive slow waves (PSW) from 800 to 3000 milliseconds after stimulus onset...
June 27, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663076/family-functioning-and-parents-dispositions-moderate-the-affective-attentional-and-physiological-consequences-of-rumination-in-children
#10
Cristina Ottaviani, Antonia Lonigro, Blu Cioffi, Demetria Manzi, Fiorenzo Laghi, Roberto Baiocco
In adults, rumination has been associated with costs at affective, cognitive, and physiological levels. We examined if rumination in children is characterized by the same dysfunctional consequences and the possible moderating role of family functioning (cohesion and flexibility) and parents' trait rumination and depression. After induction of rumination, forty children (20 girls; 9.6 years) performed a tracking task with thought probes while their mood, reaction times (RT), heart rate (HR), and variability (HRV) were assessed...
June 27, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648906/comt-genotype-is-differentially-associated-with-single-trial-variability-of-erps-as-a-function-of-memory-type
#11
Hadiseh Nowparast Rostami, Christopher W N Saville, Christoph Klein, Guang Ouyang, Werner Sommer, Changsong Zhou, Andrea Hildebrandt
Previous research on the association between intra-subject variability (ISV) in reaction times (RTs) and the Val(158)Met polymorphism of the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene (COMT; rs4680) has yielded mixed results. The present study compared the associations between COMT genotype and ISV in P3b latency measured during working and secondary memory tasks using residue iteration decomposition (RIDE) of single trial latencies. We compared the outcome of the present analyses with a previous analysis of the same data (N=70, n-back tasks) using an alternative single-trial method...
June 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596129/sync-to-link-endorphin-mediated-synchrony-effects-on-cooperation
#12
Martin Lang, Vladimír Bahna, John H Shaver, Paul Reddish, Dimitris Xygalatas
Behavioural synchronization has been shown to facilitate social bonding and cooperation but the mechanisms through which such effects are attained are poorly understood. In the current study, participants interacted with a pre-recorded confederate who exhibited different rates of synchrony, and we investigated three mechanisms for the effects of synchrony on likeability and trusting behaviour: self-other overlap, perceived cooperation, and opioid system activation measured via pain threshold. We show that engaging in highly synchronous behaviour activates all three mechanisms, and that these mechanisms mediate the effects of synchrony on liking and investment in a Trust Game...
June 6, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578188/children-s-cortisol-and-externalizing-stress-symptoms-are-predictors-of-adiponectin-evolution-over-two-years
#13
Nathalie Michels, Isabelle Sioen, Kirsten Schraven, Annelies De Decker, Carola van Aart, Stefaan De Henauw
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and energy-regulating adipocytokine. Consequently, the link between psychosocial stress and inflammatory diseases like the metabolic syndrome might be partially explained by lower adiponectin levels in stress. Nevertheless, the stress-adiponectin association has seldom been tested and no clarity exists about the directionality. METHODS: In the Belgian ChiBS study, serum adiponectin and stress levels were measured in 348 children (5-10y) at baseline and in 168 of them after 2-year follow-up...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#14
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559206/working-hard-for-oneself-or-others-effects-of-oxytocin-on-reward-motivation-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#15
Angela Fang, Michael T Treadway, Stefan G Hofmann
There is some evidence to suggest that oxytocin promotes social behavior, especially for disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as social anxiety disorder (SAD). The goal of this study was to examine the effect of oxytocin on reward motivation in SAD. We tested whether oxytocin promotes prosocial, or antisocial, self-directed decisions, and whether its effects depended on social anxiety severity and attachment. Fifty-two males with SAD received 24 international units of oxytocin or placebo, and completed a reward motivation task that measured willingness to work for self vs...
May 27, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559205/behavioral-and-electrophysiological-correlates-of-cognitive-control-in-ex-obese-adults
#16
Vincenza Tarantino, Vincenzo Vindigni, Franco Bassetto, Chiara Pavan, Antonino Vallesi
Impaired cognitive control functions have been documented in obesity. It remains unclear whether these functions normalize after weight reduction. We compared ex-obese individuals, who successfully underwent substantial weight loss after bariatric surgery, to normal-weight participants on measures of resistance to interference, cognitive flexibility and response inhibition, obtained from the completion of two Stroop tasks, a Switching task and a Go/NoGo task, respectively. To elucidate the underlying brain mechanisms, event-related potentials (ERPs) in the latter two tasks were examined...
May 27, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559204/supine-posture-affects-cortical-plasticity-in-elderly-but-not-young-women-during-a-word-learning-recognition-task
#17
Chiara Spironelli, Alessandro Angrilli
The present research investigated the hypothesis that elderly and horizontal body position contribute to impair learning capacity. To this aim, 30 young (mean age: 23.2 years) and 20 elderly women (mean age: 82.8 years) were split in two equal groups, one assigned to the Seated Position (SP), and the other to the horizontal Bed Rest position (hBR). In the Learning Phase, participants were shown 60 words randomly distributed, and in the subsequent Recognition Phase they had to recognize them mixed with a sample of 60 new words...
May 27, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554855/sleep-and-the-heart-interoceptive-differences-linked-to-poor-experiential-sleep-quality-in-anxiety-and-depression
#18
Donna L Ewing, Miranda Manassei, Cassandra Gould van Praag, Andrew O Philippides, Hugo D Critchley, Sarah N Garfinkel
Interoception is the sense through which internal bodily changes are signalled and perceived. Individual differences in interoception are linked to emotional style and vulnerability to affective disorders. Here we test how experiential sleep quality relates to dimensions of interoceptive ability. 180 adults (42 'non-clinical' individuals, 138 patients accessing mental health services) rated their quality of sleep before performing tests of cardiac interoception. Poor sleep quality was associated with lower measures of interoceptive performance accuracy, and higher self-report measures of interoceptive sensibility in individuals with diagnoses of depression and/or anxiety...
May 26, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552619/differentiation-of-subsequent-memory-effects-between-retrieval-practice-and-elaborative-study
#19
Yi Liu, Timm Rosburg, Chuanji Gao, Christine Weber, Chunyan Guo
Retrieval practice enhances memory retention more than re-studying. The underlying mechanisms of this retrieval practice effect have remained widely unclear. According to the elaborative retrieval hypothesis, activation of elaborative information occurs to a larger extent during testing than re-studying. In contrast, the episodic context account has suggested that recollecting prior episodic information (especially the temporal context) contributes to memory retention. To adjudicate the distinction between these two accounts, the present study used the classical retrieval practice effect paradigm to compare retrieval practice and elaborative study...
May 24, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511783/is-elaboration-of-affective-content-sufficient-to-attenuate-emotional-responses-during-reappraisal-procedures
#20
Miroslaw Wyczesany, Tomasz S Ligeza
Reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy which involves changing the interpretation of emotional stimuli. It decreases measures of negative affect together with markers of emotional processing, including late positive potential (LPP). Affective responses can also be attenuated by various cognitive tasks. As reappraisal tasks require cognitive effort to elaborate emotional stimuli, it is possible that the observed reduction of the LPP amplitude during reinterpretation is, at least partly, caused by an unspecific cognitive activity...
May 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
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