journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Biological Psychology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419834/sex-differences-in-autonomic-response-and-situational-appraisal-of-a-competitive-situation-in-young-adults
#1
Diana Abad-Tortosa, Adrián Alacreu-Crespo, Raquel Costa, Alicia Salvador, Miguel Ángel Serrano
Competition is a social stressor capable of eliciting physiological responses modulated by the outcome. The main objective of this study was to analyze the psychophysiological changes associated with competition and its outcome in men and women, taking into account the role of situational appraisal. To this end, 112 young people (46 men and 66 women) participated in a laboratory task in a competitive or non-competitive condition, while Blood Pressure (BP), Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and Skin Conductance (SC) responses were measured...
April 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411034/task-optimal-auditory-attention-set-restored-as-fast-in-older-as-in-younger-adults-after-distraction
#2
Márta Volosin, Zsófia Anna Gaál, János Horváth
The present study investigated how fast younger and older adults recovered from a distracted attentional state induced by rare, unpredictable sound events. The attentional state was characterized by the auditory N1 event-related potential (ERP), which is enhanced for sound events in the focus of attention. Younger (19-26 years) and older (62-74 years) adults listened to continuous tones containing rare pitch changes (glides) and short gaps. Glides and gaps could be separated in 150ms, 250ms, 650ms or longer and the task was gaps detection while ignoring glides...
April 11, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396213/effects-of-loss-aversion-on-neural-responses-to-loss-outcomes-an-event-related-potential-study
#3
Katerina Kokmotou, Stephanie Cook, Yuxin Xie, Hazel Wright, Vicente Soto, Nicholas Fallon, Timo Giesbrecht, Athanasios Pantelous, Andrej Stancak
Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of the same amount. To shed light on the spatio-temporal processes underlying loss aversion, we analysed the associations between individual loss aversion and electrophysiological responses to loss and gain outcomes in a monetary gamble task. Electroencephalographic feedback-related negativity (FRN) was computed in 29 healthy participants as the difference in electrical potentials between losses and gains. Loss aversion was evaluated using non-linear parametric fitting of choices in a separate gamble task...
April 8, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396215/event-related-potentials-index-neural-response-to-eye-contact
#4
Adam J Naples, Jia Wu, Linda C Mayes, James C McPartland
Sensitivity to eye-contact is a foundation upon which social cognition is built. However, there are no known neural markers characterizing response to reciprocal gaze. Using co-registered EEG and eye-tracking, we measured brain activity while participants viewed faces that responded to their looking patterns. Contingent upon participant gaze, onscreen faces opened their eyes or mouths; in this way we measured brain response to reciprocal eye-contact. We identified two ERP components that were largest in response to reciprocal eye-contact: the N170 and the P300...
April 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396214/enhancing-links-between-visual-short-term-memory-visual-attention-and-cognitive-control-processes-through-practice-an-electrophysiological-insight
#5
Giorgio Fuggetta, Philip A Duke
The operation of attention on visible objects involves a sequence of cognitive processes. The current study firstly aimed to elucidate the effects of practice on neural mechanisms underlying attentional processes as measured with both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Secondly, it aimed to identify any pattern in the relationship between Event-Related Potential (ERP) components which play a role in the operation of attention in vision. Twenty-seven participants took part in two recording sessions one week apart, performing an experimental paradigm which combined a match-to-sample task with a memory-guided efficient visual-search task within one trial sequence...
April 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385627/feedback-from-the-heart-emotional-learning-and-memory-is-controlled-by-cardiac-cycle-interoceptive-accuracy-and-personality
#6
Gaby Pfeifer, Sarah N Garfinkel, Cassandra D Gould van Praag, Kuljit Sahota, Sophie Betka, Hugo D Critchley
Feedback processing is critical to trial-and-error learning. Here, we examined whether interoceptive signals concerning the state of cardiovascular arousal influence the processing of reinforcing feedback during the learning of 'emotional' face-name pairs, with subsequent effects on retrieval. Participants (N=29) engaged in a learning task of face-name pairs (fearful, neutral, happy faces). Correct and incorrect learning decisions were reinforced by auditory feedback, which was delivered either at cardiac systole (on the heartbeat, when baroreceptors signal the contraction of the heart to the brain), or at diastole (between heartbeats during baroreceptor quiescence)...
April 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385626/abnormal-self-schema-in-semantic-memory-in-major-depressive-disorder-evidence-from-event-related-brain-potentials
#7
Michael Kiang, Faranak Farzan, Daniel M Blumberger, Marta Kutas, Margaret C McKinnon, Vinay Kansal, Tarek K Rajji, Zafiris J Daskalakis
An overly negative self-schema is a proposed cognitive mechanism of major depressive disorder (MDD). Self-schema - one's core conception of self, including how strongly one believes one possesses various characteristics - is part of semantic memory (SM), our knowledge about concepts and their relationships. We used the N400 event-related potential (ERP) - elicited by meaningful stimuli, and reduced by greater association of the stimulus with preceding context - to measure association strength between self-concept and positive, negative, and neutral characteristics in SM...
April 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385625/alpha-oscillations-underlie-working-memory-abnormalities-in-the-psychosis-high-risk-state
#8
Avinash Ramyead, Michael Kometer, Erich Studerus, Denise Baumeler, Robin von Rotz, Anita Riecher-Rössler
Working memory (WM) functioning, known to be modulated by neural oscillations, is impaired in schizophrenic psychoses. It remains unclear whether in the psychosis high-risk state, WM encoding is altered or whether patients are impaired at shielding their WM against distractors. We employed single-trial analyses of neurophysiological and behavioral data recorded during a WM paradigm, designed to include predictable distractors, on 18 patients with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS, 26.1±5.45 years) and 21 healthy controls (HCs, 25...
April 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366558/effects-on-p3-of-spreading-targets-and-response-prompts-apart
#9
Rolf Verleger, Bastian Siller, Guang Ouyang, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
When key-press responses to targets have to be withheld until the presentation of response prompts, target-evoked P3 amplitudes are reduced and so is the P3 difference between rare and frequent targets (the oddball effect on P3). Recently we showed that this even applied when go-signals followed targets by 100ms. Here we aimed at replicating this result with more fine-grained temporal resolution in 100ms steps from 0ms to 500ms, and dissecting the P3 complex to stimulus- and response-related portions by applying residue iteration decomposition (RIDE)...
March 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322986/differentiating-motivational-from-affective-influence-of-performance-contingent-reward-on-cognitive-control-the-wanting-component-enhances-both-proactive-and-reactive-control
#10
Anne-Clémence Chaillou, Anne Giersch, Marc Hoonakker, Rémi L Capa, Anne Bonnefond
Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated...
March 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322985/visual-object-separation-resolves-competitive-interactions-in-somatosensory-cortex-evoked-signals-during-concurrent-vibrotactile-stimulation-of-the-left-and-right-hand
#11
Cheuk Yee Pang, Matthias M Müller
We investigated the effect of visual separation of left and right hemispaces within peripersonal space to sustained tactile spatial attention processing and showed that visually perceived object separation weakened the competitive interaction for concurrent vibrotactile stimulation to two hands. Participants received concurrent vibrotactile stimulation at different frequencies on two hands (right: 20Hz; left: 24Hz) for 4500ms to elicit steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs). They attended to one of the stimulated hands and reacted to rare transient events embedded in the attended ongoing stream...
March 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322988/measurement-reliability-of-atypical-language-lateralisation-assessed-using-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound
#12
Jessica C Hodgson, John M Hudson
It is well established that some individuals present with atypical, non-left hemisphere, cerebral lateralisation for language processing. However previous studies exploring the reliability of functional blood flow responses to detect lateralised activation during speech have focused only on individuals with typical left sided dominance. Here we report test-retest and between-task reliability measures obtained with functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound in 47 participants, including 9 with atypical language presentation...
March 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322987/an-experimental-examination-of-the-effort-reward-imbalance-model-of-occupational-stress-increased-financial-reward-is-related-to-reduced-stress-physiology
#13
Kathleen Landolt, Emma O'Donnell, Agnes Hazi, Nico Dragano, Bradley J Wright
Effort-reward imbalance in the workplace is linked to a variety of negative health and organisational outcomes, but it has rarely been assessed experimentally. We manipulated reward (while keeping effort constant) in a within-subjects design with female participants (N=60) who were randomly assigned to high and standard reward conditions within a simulated office environment. Self-report, behavioural (task performance), and physiological (heart rate variability, salivary alpha amylase) measures assessed the impact of increased financial reward...
March 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315375/sigh-rate-during-emotional-transitions-more-evidence-for-a-sigh-of-relief
#14
Elke Vlemincx, Michel Meulders, James L Abelson
Evidence suggests that sighs regulate stress and emotions, e.g. by facilitating relief. This study aimed to investigate sigh rates during relief. In addition, links between sighs, anxiety sensitivity and HPA-axis activity were explored. Healthy volunteers (N=29) were presented cues predicting the valence of subsequent stimuli. By sequencing cues that predicted pleasant or unpleasant stimuli with or without certainty, transitions to certain pleasantness (relief) or to certain unpleasantness (control) were created and compared to no transitions...
March 14, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300626/changes-in-circulating-peptide-yy-and-ghrelin-are-associated-with-early-smoking-relapse
#15
Andrine M Lemieux, Mustafa al'Absi
Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) during ad libitum smoking have been associated with decreased reported craving (ghrelin) and increased positive affect (PYY), and higher baseline ghrelin levels predicted subsequent increased risk of smoking relapse. The current study assessed PYY and ghrelin during ad libitum smoking and again after the initial 48h of a smoking cessation attempt. The data compared smokers who abstained for 28days (n=37), smokers who relapsed (n=54), and nonsmokers (n=37). Plasma samples and subjective measures assessing craving and mood were collected at the beginning of each session...
March 12, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257808/interrelation-of-attention-and-prediction-in-visual-processing-effects-of-task-relevance-and-stimulus-probability
#16
Anna Marzecová, Andreas Widmann, Iria SanMiguel, Sonja A Kotz, Erich Schröger
The potentially interactive influence of attention and prediction was investigated by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in a spatial cueing task with attention (task-relevant) and prediction (probabilistic) cues. We identified distinct processing stages of this interactive influence. Firstly, in line with the attentional gain hypothesis, a larger amplitude response of the contralateral N1, and Nd1 for attended gratings was observed. Secondly, conforming to the attenuation-by-prediction hypothesis, a smaller negativity in the time window directly following the peak of the N1 component for predicted compared to unpredicted gratings was observed...
March 9, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274660/the-role-of-stress-reactivity-in-the-long-term-persistence-of-adolescent-social-anxiety-symptoms
#17
S A Nelemans, W W Hale Iii, S J T Branje, P A C van Lier, H M Koot, W H J Meeus
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with persistence of SAD symptoms from early to late adolescence. A community sample of 327 adolescents (56% boys, Mage=13.01 at T1) reported their SAD symptoms for 6 successive years and participated in a public speaking task, during which self-reported (i...
March 6, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274659/anxiety-and-neural-responses-to-infant-and-adult-faces-during-pregnancy
#18
Helena J V Rutherford, Simon P Byrne, Grace M Austin, Jonathan D Lee, Michael J Crowley, Linda C Mayes
Women are vulnerable to anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum. However, little is known about antenatal anxiety and neural processing of infant-relevant information. In this experiment, the N170, P300, and LPP (late positive potential) event-related potentials were measured from 43 pregnant women as they viewed infant and adult faces, which were either neutral or distressed in expression. Mother's self-reported anxiety levels were also assessed. The N170 was comparable across face conditions and was not associated with anxiety...
March 6, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268165/acute-stress-impairs-inhibitory-control-based-on-individual-differences-in-parasympathetic-nervous-system-activity
#19
Leslie E Roos, Erik L Knight, Kathryn G Beauchamp, Elliot T Berkman, Kelsie Faraday, Katie Hyslop, Philip A Fisher
Identifying environmental influences on inhibitory control (IC) may help promote positive behavioral and social adjustment. Although chronic stress is known to predict lower IC, the immediate effects of acute stress are unknown. The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) may be a mechanism of the stress-IC link, given its psychophysiological regulatory role and connections to prefrontal brain regions critical to IC. We used a focused assessment of IC (the stop-signal task) to test whether an acute social stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) affected participants' pre- to post-IC performance (n=58), compared to a control manipulation (n=31)...
March 6, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267568/facing-two-faces-defense-activation-varies-as-a-function-of-personal-relevance
#20
Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers
It can be unsettling to be watched by a group of people, and when they express anger or hostility, this can prime defensive behavior. In contrast, when others smile at us, this may be comforting. This study tested to which degree the impact of facial expressions (happy, neutral, and angry) varies with the personal relevance of a social situation. Modelling a triadic situation, two faces looked either directly at the participant, faced each other, or they were back to back. Results confirmed that this variation constitutes a gradient of personal relevance (directed frontally > towards > away), as reflected by corresponding defensive startle modulation and autonomic nervous system activity...
March 4, 2017: Biological Psychology
journal
journal
23831
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"