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Biological Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197539/stress-response-pathways-appetite-regulation-and-drug-addiction
#1
EDITORIAL
Mustafa al'Absi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191761/dsm-5-personality-trait-domains-and-withdrawal-versus-approach-motivational-tendencies-in-response-to-the-perception-of-other-people-s-desperation-and-angry-aggression
#2
Ilona Papousek, Nilüfer Aydin, Christian Rominger, Kurt Feyaerts, Karin Schmid-Zalaudek, Helmut K Lackner, Andreas Fink, Günter Schulter, Elisabeth M Weiss
Expressions of affect communicate social messages, which trigger approach and withdrawal/avoidance motivational tendencies in the observer. The present study investigated relationships between inter-individual differences in the motivational responses to other people's affect expressions and DSM-5 personality trait domains. State-dependent, transient EEG alpha asymmetry responses provided indicators of the relative activation of withdrawal versus approach motivation in the respective social-emotional contexts...
November 27, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180243/investigating-error-related-processing-in-incarcerated-adolescents-with-self-report-psychopathy-measures
#3
J Michael Maurer, Vaughn R Steele, Brandi C Fink, Gina M Vincent, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Disparate results have been found in previous reports when incorporating both interview-based and self-report measures of psychopathic traits within the same sample, suggesting such assessments should not be used interchangeably. We previously found Total and Facet 4 scores from Hare's Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) were negatively related to amplitude of the error-related positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) component. Here, we investigated using the same previously published sample whether scores on four different self-report measures of adolescent psychopathic traits (the Antisocial Process Screening Device [APSD], Child Psychopathy Scale [CPS], Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits [ICU], and Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory [YPI]) were similarly associated with reduced Pe amplitude...
November 24, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162553/exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-as-predictors-of-cold-symptoms-after-stress
#4
Thomas Ritz, Ana F Trueba, Pia D Vogel, Richard J Auchus, David Rosenfield
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has demonstrated that psychosocial stress is associated with respiratory infections. Immunologic, endocrine, and cardiovascular predictors of such infections have been explored with varying success. We therefore sought to study the unexplored role of airway mucosal immunity factors, nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). NO is secreted by airway epithelial cells as part of the first line of defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi...
November 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157751/preliminary-evidence-that-digit-length-ratio-2d-4d-predicts-neural-response-to-delivery-of-motivational-stimuli
#5
Troy A Webber, Heather E Soder, Geoffrey F Potts, Marina A Bornovalova
Reduced relative length of the 2nd to 4th digits (2D:4D) is thought to partially reflect fetal testosterone (FT) exposure, a process suspected to promote relatively permanent effects on the brain and behavior via structural and functional neuroadaptations. We examined the effect of 2D:4D on neural response - assessed by P2a and feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potentials (ERPs) - to motivational stimuli (reward or punishment) using two counterbalanced conditions of a passive S1/S2 outcome prediction design...
November 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155118/patterns-of-neuroendocrine-coupling-in-9-year-old-children-effects-of-sex-body-mass-index-and-life-stress
#6
Sarah R Black, Matthew D Lerner, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff, Daniel N Klein
Previous investigations have explored stress and pubertal hormones in parallel; it has been a recent development, however, to explore the relationships between different hormones during puberty, and how this hormonal cross-talk may be influenced by the environment. The current study investigated neuroendocrine coupling, or the extent to which hormones are correlated within the individual, and also investigated early life stressors that may influence coupling. Participants were 405 adrenarcheal children (mean Tanner stage=1...
November 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146528/hierarchical-bayesian-models-for-the-autonomic-based-concealed-information-test
#7
Yusuke Shibuya, Kensuke Okada, Tokihiro Ogawa, Izumi Matsuda, Michiko Tsuneoka
The concealed information test (CIT) is a psychophysiological memory detection technique for examining whether an examinee recognizes crime-relevant information. In current statistical analysis practice, the autonomic responses are usually transformed into Z scores within individuals to remove inter- and intra-individual variability. However, this conventional procedure leads to overestimation of the effect size, specifically the standardized mean difference of the autonomic responses between the crime-relevant information and the crime-irrelevant information...
November 14, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138093/electrophysiological-correlates-of-performance-monitoring-under-social-observation-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#8
Rolf Voegler, Jutta Peterburs, Hannah Lemke, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Roman Liepelt, Thomas Straube
Previous research suggests that electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), vary according to psychopathology and context factors. The present study examined the effect of social context on behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in healthy adult subjects and in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants performed two runs of a Go/NoGo flanker task in different social conditions: in the observation condition, they were observed by a confederate while performing the task, whereas there was no observation in the control condition...
November 11, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133144/influence-of-lighting-color-temperature-on-effort-related-cardiac-response
#9
Ruta Lasauskaite, Christian Cajochen
Higher color temperature refers to a higher proportion of blue spectral components of light, that are known to be associated with higher alertness state in humans. Based on motivational intensity theory (Brehm & Self, 1989), here we predicted that this lighting-induced alertness state should inform about the readiness to perform and this way influence subjective task demand and thus mental effort. To test this, study participants spent 15min under one of four lighting color temperature conditions and then performed a cognitive task...
November 11, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126963/on-the-implicit-influence-of-pain-cues-on-cognitive-effort-evidence-from-cardiovascular-reactivity
#10
Nicolas Silvestrini
To extend previous findings on the impact of implicit affect on behavior, two experiments investigated the influence of priming pain cues on cognitive effort. Effort was assessed as cardiovascular reactivity (PEP, SBP, DBP, and HR) during an easy or difficult cognitive task integrating briefly presented and masked pain-related words. The control condition included neutral words (Experiment 1) or anger-related words (Experiment 2). The pain primes were expected to increase the perceived difficulty of the task and to result in stronger effort during the easy task, compared to the control condition, and to lower effort during the difficult task, due to disengagement...
November 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126962/your-attention-makes-me-smile-direct-gaze-elicits-affiliative-facial-expressions
#11
Jari K Hietanen, Terhi M Helminen, Helena Kiilavuori, Anneli Kylliäinen, Heidi Lehtonen, Mikko J Peltola
Facial electromyographic responses and skin conductance responses were measured to investigate whether, in a neutral laboratory environment, another individual's direct gaze elicits a positive or negative affective reaction in the observer. The results showed that greater zygomatic responses associated with positive affect were elicited by seeing another person with direct as compared to averted gaze. The zygomatic responses were greater in response to another person's direct gaze both when the participant's own gaze was directed towards the other and when the participant was not looking directly towards the other...
November 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102708/frontal-alpha-asymmetry-and-aerobic-exercise-are-changes-due-to-cardiovascular-demand-or-bilateral-rhythmic-movement
#12
Robert A Hicks, Peter A Hall, William R Staines, William E McIlroy
The left and right prefrontal cortices are linked to networks that control approach and withdrawal motivation, respectively. The relationship between activity in the left and right prefrontal activity is used to assess brain states and specifically their link to motivational behaviours and tendencies. The most common measure used in this context is called the frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA), which compares alpha (8-13Hz) power at each region. Interestingly, research shows that FAA is influenced by aerobic exercise by increasing relative left prefrontal cortex activity...
November 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102707/neurophysiological-differentiation-between-preattentive-and-attentive-processing-of-emotional-expressions-on-french-vowels
#13
Mathilde Carminati, Nicole Fiori-Duharcourt, Frédéric Isel
The present electrophysiological study investigated the processing of emotional prosody by minimizing as much as possible the effect of emotional information conveyed by the lexical-semantic context. Emotionally colored French vowels (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, and neutral) were presented in a mismatch negativity (MMN) oddball paradigm. Both the MMN, i.e., an event-related potential (ERP) component thought to reflect preattentive change detection, and the P3a, i.e., an ERP marker of involuntary orientation of attention toward deviant stimuli, were significantly modulated by the emotional deviants compared to the neutral ones...
November 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100909/trait-anxiety-and-probabilistic-learning-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-findings
#14
Donghong Jiang, Dandan Zhang, Yuming Chen, Zhenhong He, Qiufeng Gao, Ruolei Gu, Pengfei Xu
Anxiety is a negative emotion that affects various aspects of people's daily life. To explain why individuals with high anxiety tend to make suboptimal decisions, we suggest that their learning ability might play an important role. Regarding that anxiety modulates both outcome expectation and attention allocation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the function of feedback learning should be sensitive to individual level of anxiety. However, previous studies that directly examined this hypothesis were scarce...
October 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097149/emotional-eating-and-instructed-food-cue-processing-in-adolescents-an-erp-study
#15
Jia Wu, Cynthia J Willner, Claire Hill, Pasco Fearon, Linda C Mayes, Michael J Crowley
We examined the P3 (250-500ms) and Late Positive Potential (LPP; 500-2000ms) event-related potentials (ERPs) to food vs. nonfood cues among adolescents reporting on emotional eating (EE) behavior. Eighty-six adolescents 10-17 years old were tested using an instructed food versus nonfood cue viewing task (imagine food taste) during high-density EEG recording. Self-report data showed that EE increased with age in girls, but not in boys. Both P3 and LPP amplitudes were greater for food vs. nonfood cues (food-cue bias)...
October 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107799/central-theta-amplitude-as-a-negative-correlate-of-performance-proficiency-in-a-dynamic-visuospatial-task
#16
Fernando Cross-Villasana, Peter Gröpel, Felix Ehrlenspiel, Jürgen Beckmann
Dynamic visuospatial tasks, requiring continuous engagement of attention over long time periods, have been little studied with the electroencephalogram. Specifically, the role of the theta band in these tasks is unclear, with task-related theta enhancements improving performance in some studies, and hindering it in others. In this study, 30 participants performed the Pong videogame as a dynamic visuospatial task to analyze the influence of theta and alpha amplitude as well as alpha asymmetry on performance...
October 28, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107798/parent-emotion-socialization-and-pre-adolescent-s-social-and-emotional-adjustment-moderating-effects-of-autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity
#17
Julia D McQuade, Rosanna P Breaux
This study examined whether measures of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to social stress moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's social and emotional adjustment. Sixty-one children (9 to 13 years) completed a peer rejection task while their respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) and skin conductance level reactivity (SCL-R) were assessed. Parents' report of supportive and non-supportive reactions to their child's negative emotions served as measures of emotion socialization...
October 28, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079304/cardiac-vagal-control-as-a-marker-of-emotion-regulation-in-healthy-adults-a-review
#18
REVIEW
S Balzarotti, F Biassoni, B Colombo, M R Ciceri
In the last two decades, a growing body of theory and research has targeted the role of cardiac vagal control (CVC) in emotional responding. This research has either focused on resting CVC (also denoted as cardiac vagal tone) or phasic changes in CVC (also denoted as vagal reactivity) in response to affective stimuli. The present paper is aimed at reporting a review of the papers published between 1996 and 2016, and focused on the results of 135 papers examining cardiac vagal control as a physiological marker of emotion regulation in healthy adults...
October 25, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055714/psychophysiology-of-proactive-and-reactive-relational-aggression
#19
Dianna Murray-Close, Leigh Ann Holterman, Nicole L Breslend, Alexandra Sullivan
This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (Mage=18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior...
October 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054817/attend-or-defend-sex-differences-in-behavioral-autonomic-and-respiratory-response-patterns-to-emotion-eliciting-films
#20
Frank H Wilhelm, Julina A Rattel, Melanie Wegerer, Michael Liedlgruber, Simon Schweighofer, Sylvia D Kreibig, Vitaliy Kolodyazhniy, Jens Blechert
Sex differences in emotional reactivity have been studied primarily for negative but less so for positive stimuli; likewise, sex differences in the psychophysiological response-patterning during such stimuli are poorly understood. Thus, the present study examined sex differences in response to negative/positive and high/low arousing films (classified as threat-, loss-, achievement-, and recreation-related, vs. neutral films), while measuring 18 muscular, autonomic, and respiratory parameters. Sex differences emerged for all films, but were most prominent for threat-related films: Despite equivalent valence and arousal ratings, women displayed more facial-muscular and respiratory responding than men and pronounced sympathetic activation (preejection period, other cardiovascular and electrodermal measures), while men showed coactivated sympathetic/parasympathetic responding (including increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia)...
October 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
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