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Biological Psychology

Kiera M James, Mary L Woody, Cope Feurer, Anastacia Y Kudinova, Brandon E Gibb
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine physiological reactivity during parent-child interactions in children with and without a history of suicidal ideation (SI), a group known to be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the future. We also examined the potential moderating role of parental expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) to determine whether the presence of parental criticism may help to identify a subgroup of children with a history of SI most at risk for physiological dysregulation...
October 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
Jie Meng, Lei Hao, Dongtao Wei, Jiangzhou Sun, Yu Li, Jiang Qiu
Loneliness is a common experience. Susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait and is heritable. Previous studies have suggested that loneliness may impact regional gray matter density and brain activation to social stimuli, but its relation to white matter structure and how it may interact with genetic factors remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how a common polymorphism (Val66Met) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene modulated the association between loneliness and white matter microstructure in 162 young adults...
October 5, 2017: Biological Psychology
Erin N Palmwood, Jason W Krompinger, Robert F Simons
Ample evidence from behavioral and brain imaging studies suggests that inhibitory control is impaired in depression, though the precise nature of this impairment is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to examine potential deficits in three aspects of inhibitory control - conflict monitoring, conflict resolution, and overt behavioral inhibition - in the context of depressive symptoms. Depressed (n=15) and non-depressed (n=15) participants completed a stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) task while electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded...
October 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
Anita Harrewijn, Louis A Schmidt, P Michiel Westenberg, Alva Tang, Melle J W van der Molen
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by information processing biases, however, their underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this review was to give a comprehensive overview of the most frequently studied EEG spectral and event-related potential (ERP) measures in social anxiety during rest, anticipation, stimulus processing, and recovery. A Web of Science search yielded 35 studies reporting on electrocortical measures in individuals with social anxiety or related constructs...
September 28, 2017: Biological Psychology
Lorna C Quandt, Yune-Sang Lee, Anjan Chatterjee
There has been recent debate over whether actions are processed primarily by means of motor simulation or cognitive semantics. The current study investigated how abstract action concepts are processed in the brain, independent of the format in which they are presented. Eighteen healthy adult participants viewed different actions (e.g., diving, boxing) in the form of verbs and schematic action pictograms while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was collected. We predicted that sensorimotor and semantic brain regions would show similar patterns of neural activity for different instances of the same action (e...
September 28, 2017: Biological Psychology
James K Moran, Anselm Crombach, Thomas Elbert, Corina Nandi, Manassé Bambonyé, Christian Wienbruch, Ursula Lommen, Roland Weierstall
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been linked to deviations in lateralized frontal functional oscillatory activity. This is possibly because left and right DLPFC have differential roles in regulating both memory and stress response, which are both dysfunctional in PTSD. However, previous results are heterogeneous, and could be attributable to individual symptom clusters, traumatic or aggressive life events, early life stress, or the interaction of these factors. In a large sample of active combatants (N=401), we regressed these factors on frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry across 5 frequency bands (delta: 2-4Hz; theta: 4-8Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 12-24Hz; gamma: 24-48Hz)...
September 25, 2017: Biological Psychology
Robert J Barry, Frances M De Blasio
In young adults and children, the eyes-closed (EC) resting state is one of low EEG arousal, with the change to eyes-open (EO) primarily involving an increase in arousal. We used this arousal perspective to interpret EC/EO differences in healthy young and older adults. EEG was recorded from 20 young (Mage=20.4years) and 20 gender-matched older (Mage=68.2years) right-handed adults during two 3min resting conditions; EC then EO. Older participants displayed less delta and theta, some reduction in alpha, and increased beta...
September 21, 2017: Biological Psychology
Ana P Pinheiro, Carla Barros, Marcelo Dias, Sonja A Kotz
In social interactions, emotionally salient and sudden changes in vocal expressions attract attention. However, only a few studies examined how emotion and attention interact in voice processing. We investigated neutral, happy (laughs) and angry (growls) vocalizations in a modified oddball task. Participants silently counted the targets in each block and rated the valence and arousal of the vocalizations. A combined event-related potential and time-frequency analysis focused on the P3 and pre-stimulus alpha power to capture attention effects in response to unexpected events...
September 21, 2017: Biological Psychology
Huiyan Lin, Claudia Schulz, Thomas Straube
Several studies reported that the encoding and recognition of emotional target faces are modulated by negative contextual expressions. However, it is unknown whether other contextual expressions, such as emotionally ambiguous expressions, affect the encoding and recognition of target faces. To this end, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during the presentation of angry or happy target faces after a random sequence of surprised or neutral contextual faces that did not differ in normative valence ratings...
September 20, 2017: Biological Psychology
Patrick D Gajewski, Sylvia Boden, Gabriele Freude, Guy G Potter, Michael Falkenstein
Burnout is a pattern of complaints in individuals with emotionally demanding jobs that is often seen as a precursor of depression. One often reported symptom of burnout is cognitive decline. To analyze cognitive control and to differentiate between subclinical burnout and mild to moderate depression a double-blinded study was conducted that investigates changes in the processing of performance errors and feedback in a task switching paradigm. Fifty-one of 76 employees from emotionally demanding jobs showed a sufficient number of errors to be included in the analysis...
September 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
Patrick S Cooper, Aaron S W Wong, Montana McKewen, Patricia T Michie, Frini Karayanidis
Low frequency oscillations in the theta range (4-8Hz) are increasingly recognized as having a crucial role in flexible cognition. Such evidence is typically derived from studies in the context of reactive (stimulus-driven) control processes. However, little research has explored the role of theta oscillations in preparatory control processes. In the current study, we explored the extent of theta oscillations during proactive cognitive control and determined if these oscillations were associated with behavior...
September 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
Chad C Williams, Cameron D Hassall, Robert Trska, Clay B Holroyd, Olave E Krigolson
Comparisons between expectations and outcomes are critical for learning. Termed prediction errors, the violations of expectancy that occur when outcomes differ from expectations are used to modify value and shape behaviour. In the present study, we examined how a wide range of expectancy violations impacted neural signals associated with feedback processing. Participants performed a time estimation task in which they had to guess the duration of one second while their electroencephalogram was recorded. In a key manipulation, we varied task difficulty across the experiment to create a range of different feedback expectancies - reward feedback was either very expected, expected, 50/50, unexpected, or very unexpected...
September 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
Jackie S Huberman, Samantha J Dawson, Meredith L Chivers
Sexual response is a dynamic process, though there is limited knowledge of the time course and relationships among its psychological and physiological components. To address this gap, we concurrently assessed self-reported sexual arousal, genital temperature (with thermography), and genital vasocongestion (with vaginal photoplethysmography [VPP] or penile plethysmography [PPG]) during sexual and nonsexual films in 28 androphilic women (attracted to men) and 27 gynephilic men (attracted to women). Men and women had similarly strong agreement between subjective and genital responses (sexual concordance) with thermography, but this agreement was stronger in men than women with PPG/VPP...
September 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
Ian A Boggero, Camelia E Hostinar, Eric A Haak, Michael L M Murphy, Suzanne C Segerstrom
Cortisol levels rise immediately after awakening and peak approximately 30-45min thereafter. Psychosocial functioning influences this cortisol awakening response (CAR), but there is considerable heterogeneity in the literature. The current study used p-curve and meta-analysis on 709 findings from 212 studies to test the evidential value and estimate effect sizes of four sets of findings: those associating worse psychosocial functioning with higher or lower cortisol increase relative to the waking period (CARi) and to the output of the waking period (AUCw)...
September 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
Cédric Meckler, Laurence Carbonnell, Céline Ramdani, Thierry Hasbroucq, Franck Vidal
In between-hand choice-RT-tasks, small incorrect EMG activations occurring before the correct response ("partial errors") are assumed to reflect the detection, inhibition and correction of erroneous hand selection, revealing the existence of an action monitoring system, acting "on-line". Now, EMG activations of the correctly selected hand muscles, too small to reach the response threshold, may also occur before these hand muscles produce an overt correct response ("partial corrects"). We hypothesized that partial corrects reflect incorrect execution of correctly selected responses...
September 11, 2017: Biological Psychology
Giulio Pergola, Francesco Foroni, Paola Mengotti, Georgette Argiris, Raffaella Ida Rumiati
Visual recognition of objects may rely on different features depending on the category to which they belong. Recognizing natural objects, such as fruits and plants, weighs more on their perceptual attributes, whereas recognizing man-made objects, such as tools or vehicles, weighs more upon the functions and actions they enable. Edible objects are perceptually rich but also prepared for specific functions, therefore it is unclear how perceptual and functional attributes affect their recognition. Two event-related potentials experiments investigated: (i) whether food categorization in the brain is differentially modulated by sensory and functional attributes, depending on whether the food is natural or transformed; (ii) whether these processes are modulated by participants' body mass index...
September 9, 2017: Biological Psychology
Justin Dainer-Best, Logan T Trujillo, David M Schnyer, Christopher G Beevers
This study investigated the link between self-reference and attentional engagement in adults with (n=22) and without (HC; n=24) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants completed the Self-Referent Encoding Task (SRET). MDD participants endorsed significantly fewer positive words and more negative words as self-descriptive than HC participants. A whole-scalp data analysis technique revealed that the MDD participants had larger difference wave (negative words minus positive words) ERP amplitudes from 380 to 1000ms across posterior sites, which positively correlated with number of negative words endorsed...
September 8, 2017: Biological Psychology
Bingqing Jiao, Delong Zhang, Aiying Liang, Bishan Liang, Zengjian Wang, Junchao Li, Yuxuan Cai, Mengxia Gao, Zhenni Gao, Song Chang, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
Previous studies have indicated a tight linkage between resting-state functional connectivity of the human brain and creative ability. This study aimed to further investigate the association between the topological organization of resting-state brain networks and creativity. Therefore, we acquired resting-state fMRI data from 22 high-creativity participants and 22 low-creativity participants (as determined by their Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking scores). We then constructed functional brain networks for each participant and assessed group differences in network topological properties before exploring the relationships between respective network topological properties and creative ability...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
Jaclyn A Ludmer, Brittany Jamieson, Andrea Gonzalez, Robert Levitan, James Kennedy, Vanessa Villani, Mario Masellis, Vincenzo S Basile, Leslie Atkinson
A mother's cortisol secretion is importantly associated with her own mental health and her infant's cortisol secretion. This study investigated the influences of maternal history of care and maternal DRD2, SLC6A3, and OXTR genotypes on maternal cortisol in the context of infant stress. A community sample of 296 mother-infant dyads completed a maternal separation at infant age 17 months. Maternal salivary cortisol, buccal cells, and self-reported history of care were collected. Multilevel models revealed that history of care had a greater influence on maternal baseline cortisol (but not cortisol trajectory) for mothers with more plasticity alleles of SLC6A3 (10R) and OXTR (G), relative to mothers with fewer or no plasticity alleles...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
Stephan Koenig, Peter Nauroth, Sara Lucke, Harald Lachnit, Mario Gollwitzer, Metin Uengoer
The present study explores the notion of an out-group fear learning bias that is characterized by facilitated fear acquisition toward harm-doing out-group members. Participants were conditioned with two in-group and two out-group faces as conditioned stimuli. During acquisition, one in-group and one out-group face was paired with an aversive shock whereas the other in-group and out-group face was presented without shock. Psychophysiological measures of fear conditioning (skin conductance and pupil size) and explicit and implicit liking exhibited increased differential responding to out-group faces compared to in-group faces...
September 1, 2017: Biological Psychology
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