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Life Sciences

Alauddin, Swati Chaturvedi, Mohd Yaseen Malik, Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Zaiba Naseem, ChandanaVenkateswara Rao, Naresh Kumar Agarwal
AIMS: Ritonavir (RIT) is a human immune deficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI) active against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Among various adverse effects of PIs, hepatotoxicity is a very common adverse reaction of RIT which is concentration dependent. Red clover isoflavones are found to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activity. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that these isoflavones can be used to alleviate the side-effects of drugs. Hence, the present study was inquested to ascertain the effect of Formononetin (FMN) and Biochanin A (BCA) on RIT induced hepatotoxicity...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Umashankar Vetrivel, Hemavathy Nagarajan
AIMS: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. Its parasitic invasion leads to encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis and congenital infection. Host invasion by T. gondii is mediated by Moving junction (MJ) complex formed by secretory proteins such as micronemes and Rhoptry Neck proteins (RONs). Among these secretory proteins, RON4 shows major interactions with RON2 and RON5 of MJ complex and is also found to facilitate invasion by interacting with the β-tubulin of the host...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Chunyan Zhang, Linsen Xie, Fangxia Guan, Yuanbo Cui
AIMS: Increasing evidence displays that deposition of aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) leads to neuronal cell apoptosis, thus aggravates the pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T) has been proved to exert neuroprotective effects. However, the effect of D3T on protecting against Aβ-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanism are unknown. MAIN METHODS: MTT, DCFH-DA assay, LDH release assay, Fluo-3 AM assay, Flow cytometry and Western blot were used to examine cell viability, ROS level, LDH release, intracellular Ca2+ concentration, cell apoptosis and related proteins level respectively...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
S Ramírez-Rivera, S Pizarro, M Gallardo, F Gajardo, A Delgadillo, E De La Fuente-Ortega, F M MacDonnell, G Bernal
AIMS: Ruthenium (II) complexes are promising anticancer molecules due its pharmacological properties and selectivity to cells tumor. The aim of this work was to study the cytotoxic activity, and apoptosis induction of two new ruthenium complexes on a human gastric cancer cell line. MAIN METHODS: Two ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized: [(H2 pbbzim)Ru(tpy-Ph-COOCH3 )](Cl)2 (Ru-UCN1), and [(tpy)Ru(tpy-Ph-bzH)](Cl)2 (Ru-UCN3), and their anticancer capacity determined by cytotoxic assays, gene expression analysis, caspase activation and confocal microscopy...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Li-Chun Zhang, Yu Wang, Wei Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Miao Fan, Min Zhao
AIMS: To study the protective effects and mechanisms of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and overexpression of antioxidant gene SOD2 on lung injury by establishing a rat model of paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury. MAIN METHODS: The hUCMSCs cell line overexpressed SOD2 was established. After intraperitoneal injection of PQ solution (24 mg/kg) 3 h later, the different groups of hUCMSCs cell lines were injected through the tail veins of rats...
October 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Gang Yu, Yupeng Guang, Jingdong Li, Jiansheng Xing, Zhiming Bai
AIMS: Testicular ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is the primary pathophysiological consequence of testicular torsion. Low-energy shock wave (LESW) is an effective treatment for certain diseases. The present study investigated whether LESW could improve on testicular IR injury in rats and examined the involved mechanism. MAIN METHODS: Testicular reperfusion was induced in rats after 1-h ischemia. The first LESW treatment was performed 30 min prior to testicular reperfusion, and then every other day for another 3 applications...
October 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Rodrigo Martins Dos Santos, Fernando Marani, Fernando Yamamoto Chiba, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho Mattera, Thais Verônica Saori Tsosura, Gestter Willian Lattari Tessarin, Renato Felipe Pereira, Bianca Elvira Belardi, Beatriz Costa E Silva Pinheiro, Doris Hissako Sumida
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (ME) on insulin resistance (IR) and signaling (IS), proinflammatory cytokine levels, and lipid profiles in pinealectomyzed (PNX) rats with periodontal disease (PD). MAIN METHODS: One hundred and forty-four rats (age = 40 days) were distributed into 8 groups: 1) control (CN); 2) PD only; 3) PNX only; 4) PNX and PD (PNXPD); 5) CN treated with ME (CNM); 6) PD treated with ME (PDM); 7) PNX treated with ME(PNXM); 8) PNX and PD treated with ME(PNXPDM)...
October 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Mengshan He, Pan Long, Weiming Yan, Tao Chen, Lunfeng Guo, Zouming Zhang, Siwang Wang
AIMS: Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) was reported for its protective properties on myocardial damage, stroke and neurodegeneration disease, but the effects and mechanisms of ALDH2 in the modulation of diabetic retinopathy remain unclear. The present study evaluated the protection effects of ALDH2 on streptozocin (STZ)-induced aged diabetic rats retinas damage. MAIN METHODS: 24 aged male diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ were randomly divided into Alda1-treated group and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) group...
October 10, 2018: Life Sciences
Mengxin Cai, Qing'an Wang, Zhiwei Liu, Dandan Jia, Rui Feng, Zhenjun Tian
AIMS: Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied with skeletal muscle abnormalities. The aims are to explore an optimal exercise mode to improve cardiac function and prevent skeletal muscle atrophy, and detected the possible mechanisms of exercise-induced inhibition of muscle atrophy. MAIN METHODS: Rats were subjected to four weeks of different types of exercise after MI surgery (resistance training, RT; moderated-intensity continuous aerobic exercise, MCE and high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise, HIA)...
October 9, 2018: Life Sciences
Ryuichiro Kimura, Azusa Yoneshige, Man Hagiyama, Tomoyuki Otani, Takao Inoue, Naoki Shiraishi, Kazuyoshi Yanagihara, Tomohiko Wakayama, Akihiko Ito
AIMS: To determine cellular distribution of cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member, in the human oxyntic gastric mucosa, and to explore possible involvement in the development and peritoneal dissemination of signet ring cell (SRC) gastric carcinoma, which often develops in the oxyntic mucosa. MAIN METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence were conducted on surgical specimens of normal and SRC-bearing stomachs and peritoneal metastatic foci of SRCs...
October 9, 2018: Life Sciences
Hong Cui, Qinqin Gao, Ling Zhang, Feng Han, Li Wang
AIMS: Aerobic glycolysis is a unique characteristic of cancer cells, and this key signature provides a target for therapeutic intervention of cancers. Forkhead box protein K1 (FOXK1) is a transcriptional factor that plays an oncogenic role in several types of cancers, including liver cancer. However, whether FOXK1 could affect glycolysis in cancer cells remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of FOXK1 on glycolysis in liver cancer cells. MAIN METHODS: The expression of FOXK1 in four human liver cancer cell lines was evaluated using qRT-PCR and western blot...
October 9, 2018: Life Sciences
Jahanafrooz Zohreh, Motamed Nasrin, Rinner Beate, Mokhtarzadeh Ahad, Baradaran Behzad
Silibinin is a natural plant polyphenol with high antioxidant and anticancer properties, which causes broad-spectrum efficacy against cancer, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in most cancer cell types. Silibinin, by modulating the apoptosis, cell cycle progression and autophagic pathways in various cellular and molecular routs might be used to design more effective anticancer strategies. Silibinin also regulates aberrant miRNAs expression linked to many aspects of cell biology in cancer. Maybe the most interesting aspect of silibinin is its ability to trigger multiple cellular signaling pathways to induce a particular biologic effect in various cell types...
October 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Hong-Xia Fan, Yu-Jie Feng, Xiao-Pei Zhao, Yu-Ze He, Hua Tang
AIMS: To investigate the role and underlying mechanism of miR-185-5p in hepatitis B virus (HBV) expression and replication. MAIN METHODS: The relative levels of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The HBV DNA copies in the cultures medium were measured by RT-qPCR. The HBV large surface antigen promoter (S1p) activity was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. The target relationship between miR-185-5p and ELK1 was identified by bioinformatics analysis and EGFP fluorescent reporter assay...
October 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Pawan Kumar Raghav, Ajay Kumar Singh, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
The biological mechanisms underlying the effects of stem cell factor (SCF) and an inhibitor (NSC87877) of the c-Kit negative regulator (SHP-1 and SHP-2) on cell proliferation differ. Therefore, we compared the cell's response to these two either alone or in combination in K562 Cells. Binding of (SCF) to c-Kit induces dimerization that activates its kinase activity. The activated c-Kit undergoes autophosphorylation at tyrosine residues that serve as a docking site for signal transduction molecules containing SH2 domains...
October 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Azizah Al-Anazi, Ranjit Parhar, Soad Saleh, Reem Al-Hijailan, Angela Inglis, Mansour Al-Jufan, Mohammed Bazzi, Sarwar Hashmi, Walter Conca, Kate Collison, Futwan Al-Mohanna
AIMS: Hypoxia-induced adipokine release has been attributed mainly to HIF-1α. Here we investigate the role of intracellular calcium and NF-kB in the hypoxia-dependent release of leptin, VEGF, IL-6 and the hypoxia-induced inhibition of adiponectin release in human adipocytes. MAIN METHODS: We used intracellular calcium imaging to compare calcium status in preadipocytes and in adipocytes. We subjected both cell types to hypoxic conditions and measured the release of adipokines induced by hypoxia in the presence and absence of HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1, NF-κ B inhibitor SN50 and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM...
October 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Mohamed A Lebda, Kadry M Sadek, Hossam G Tohamy, Tarek K Abouzed, Mostafa Shukry, Masakazu Umezawa, Yasser S El-Sayed
AIMS: This study explored whether silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can disrupt tight-junctions integrity resulted in blood-brain barrier dysfunction along with oxidative stress, pro-inflammation, and apoptosis induction. Additionally, neuroprotective of α-lipoic acid (LA) and Ginkgo biloba (GB) were investigated. MAIN METHODS: Forty adults rats were enrolled into; Control, AgNPs (50 mg/kg), LA (100 mg LA/kg) + AgNPs, and GB (120 mg/kg) + AgNPs. After 30 days, neuronal changes were assessed biochemically and histopathologically...
October 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Caihong Sun, Mingyang Zou, Ling Li, Dexin Li, Yongjuan Ma, Wei Xia, Lijie Wu, Huan Ren
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders involving structural and functional impairment of the brain. Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels may contribute to the etiology of ASD by altering brain function. This study investigated the associations between genetic variants of KCNJ2 and KCNJ10 genes (encoding Kir2.1 and Kir4.1, respectively) and ASD risk in patients, and Kir channel expression in ASD model rats. This case-control study involved a cohort of 269 Chinese children with ASD and 243 unrelated healthy controls...
October 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Yueh-Ling Hsieh, Chen-Chia Yang
AIM: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscus injuries often cause post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTOA), which can place great limitations on patients. But to date there is no effective therapy to delay the progression of cartilage destruction in PTOA. This study aimed to compare the effects of early versus delayed swimming exercise on the chondroprotective effects in a rat PTOA model with ACL and meniscus injuries. MAIN METHODS: Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral ACL transection and medial meniscectomy (ACLMT)...
October 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Leila Hasanzadeh, Reza Kazemi Oskuee, Kayvan Sadri, Esmail Nourmohammadi, Mohammad Mohajeri, Zahra Mardani, Alireza Hashemzadeh, Majid Darroudi
AIMS: The in vivo targeted diagnostic applications of biosynthetic Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 -NPs), prepared by applying chitosan as a stabilizer, was explored by evaluating the cytotoxicity through MTT assay on WEHI 164 cell line, Hemolytic activity of CeO2 -NPs and biodistribution in rats. MAIN METHODS: The CeO2 -NPs were characterized through the use of TGA/DTG, PXRD, FESEM, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The biodistribution of CeO2 -NPs were determined by directly labeled nanoparticles with Technetium-99 m (99mTc) radioisotope (99mTc-CeO2 -NPs)...
October 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Takuya Nishikawa, Keita Saku, Takuya Kishi, Takeshi Tohyama, Kohtaro Abe, Yasuhiro Oga, Takahiro Arimura, Takafumi Sakamoto, Keimei Yoshida, Kenji Sunagawa, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
AIMS: Although pulmonary arterial remolding in pulmonary hypertension (PH) changes the mechanical properties of the pulmonary artery, most clinical studies have focused on static mechanical properties (resistance), and dynamic mechanical properties (compliance) have not attracted much attention. As arterial compliance plays a significant role in determining afterload of the right ventricle, we evaluated how PH changes the dynamic mechanical properties of the pulmonary artery using high-resolution, wideband input impedance (ZPA )...
October 6, 2018: Life Sciences
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