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Life Sciences

Cho-Rong Bae, Jun Hino, Hiroshi Hosoda, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
AIMS: Our previous study revealed that mice transgenic for endothelial-cell-specific overexpression of CNP (E-CNP Tg mice) are protected against the increased fat weight, inflammation, and insulin resistance associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. In addition, E-CNP overexpression prevented abnormal lipid profiles and metabolism and blocked inflammation in the livers of HFD-fed mice. Because obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of various liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), we here studied the role of E-CNP overexpression in the livers of mice in which NASH was induced through feeding of either HFD or a choline-deficient defined l‑amino-acid diet (CDAA)...
August 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Yun-Li Yu, Na-Na Li, Meng-Ting Shi, Hong-Juan Lu
AIMS: Changes in cardiac autonomic nervous function have been evaluated by studying the related indexes of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with focal epilepsy (FE) in the interictal period. MAIN METHODS: A total of 30 FE patients who were treated in our department from July 2015 to May 2017, were included into this study. These patients were divided into three pairs of groups: less frequent seizure group and more frequent seizure group; medication group and non-medication group; <10 years disease group and ≥10 years disease group...
August 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Zhenya Shao, Gang Lv, Pushuai Wen, Yang Cao, Deshui Yu, Yanyan Lu, Gang Li, Zichen Su, Peng Teng, Kang Gao, Yansong Wang, Xifan Mei
AIM: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes increased apoptosis of neurons, leading to irreversible dysfunction of the spinal cord. In this study, we investigated the effects of the progression of SCI and potential regulation of apoptosis after the Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1) gene was silenced. MAIN METHODS: Spinal cord injection, and neuronal transfection with a recombinant adenovirus vector encoding small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PHLPP1 (AdsiPHLPP1) successfully silenced PHLPP1...
August 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Sadia Shah, Md Sayeed Akhtar, Md Quamrul Hassan, Mohd Akhtar, Yam Nath Paudel, Abul Kalam Najmi
AIM: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) related reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation results in myocardial damage. We aimed to investigate the role of gefitinib (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM). METHOD: DbCM was induced by injecting streptozotocin (55 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days) to C57/BL6 mice intraperitoneally. Diabetic C57/BL6 mice (fasting blood glucose level ≥ 250 mg/dl) were allocated into four study groups and treated with two doses of gefitinib (30 mg/kg and 350 mg/kg per day) as well as ramipril (3 mg/kg/day) for four weeks...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Koustav Roy, Garima Chauhan, Punita Kumari, Meetu Wadhwa, Shahnawaz Alam, Koushik Ray, Usha Panjwani, Krishna Kishore
AIMS: Sleep loss at high altitude (HA) play major role in worsening of neuropsychological functions, such as attention, memory and decision making. This study investigates the role of phosphorylated delta sleep inducing peptide (p-DSIP) in improving sleep architecture during chronic hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure and restoration of spatial navigational memory. METHODS: Morris water maze (MWM) trained rats were exposed to HH at 7620 m. p-DSIP was injected intra-peritoneally (10 μg/Kg bw) during HH exposure as an intervention against sleep alteration...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Thaís F Araujo, André V Cordeiro, Diogo A A Vasconcelos, Kaio F Vitzel, Vagner R R Silva
White adipose tissue (WAT) regulates energy homeostasis by releasing adipokines and modulating cell maintenance. Nutrient excess affects adipocyte hypertrophy directly in WAT by increasing excessively the activity of autophagy systems, generating proinflammatory markers and increasing infiltration of macrophages, causing metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Evidences suggest that cathepsin B (CTSB), a papain-like cysteine peptidase protein, can modulate autophagy processes in adipocytes. This review will focus on the role of CTSB in autophagy under conditions of obesity...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Yonggang Ren, Jia Tao, Zhen Jiang, Dongmei Guo, Jiancai Tang
OBJECTIVE: Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway plays important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) and acts as a potential therapeutic target. Pimozide is a FDA-approved clinical drug used to treat psychotic diseases and it has shown anticancer effect in some tumors partially via inhibition of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. This study aimed to investigate whether pimozide exerts anticancer effect on CRC and explore underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pimozide was administrated to treat HCT116 and SW480 cells...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Eunji Im, Changhwan Yeo, Eun-Ok Lee
AIMS: Luteolin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, possesses anti-cancer effects including induction of apoptosis. This study investigated the involvement of osteopontin (OPN) in luteolin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep-1 cells with high OPN expression. MAIN METHODS: MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability. Cell cycle analysis was performed to identify apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by detecting cytoplasmic histone-associated-DNA-fragments using a cell death detection ELISAPLUS kit...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Stephanie Dynczuki Navarro, Lucas Roberto Pessatto, Alisson Meza de Souza, Edwin José Torres de Oliveira, Sarah Alves Auharek, Lizia Colares Vilela, Dênis Pires de Lima, Ricardo Bentes de Azevedo, Candida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Osmar Ignacio Ayala Cáceres, Roberto da Silva Gomes, Adilson Beatriz, Rodrigo Juliano de Oliveira, Marco Antonio Utrera Martines
AIMS: Previous studies performed by our research group indicated that cytosporone analogues are capable of prevent or repair DNA damages. This work presents the evaluation of the activity of AMS35AA for metastatic murine melanoma cells (B16F10) in experimental model in vitro and, in pre-clinic assay of metastatic melanoma in vivo, using mice lineage C57BL/6. MAIN METHODS: In vitro assays were performed: MTT and comet assay, flow cytometry evaluation, gene expression assay by RT-PCR, qualitative evaluation of cell death using B16F10 cells...
August 10, 2018: Life Sciences
Anna Schappert, Jonathan P Schneck, Lauren Suarez, Mathias Oelke, Christian Schütz
Major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) have been used for more than two decades in clinical and pre-clinical approaches of tumor immunotherapy. They have been proven efficient for detecting anti-tumor-specific T cells when utilized as soluble multimers, immobilized on cells or artificial structures such as artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC) and have been shown to generate effective anti-tumor responses. In this review we summarize the use of soluble MHC class I complexes in tumor vaccination studies, highlighting the different strategies and their contradicting results...
August 10, 2018: Life Sciences
Yu Huang, Lie Liu, Aiguo Liu
Dickkopf-1(DKK-1) has been identified as a secretory protein that can inhibit the Wnt signaling transduction pathway. It is well known that the Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in embryogenesis, organogenesis and homeostasis. This signaling cascade is essential for many normal physiological processes such as cellular proliferation, tissue regeneration, embryonic development and many other systemic and local effects, and it can be regulated at different levels. Therefore, defects in the pathway may lead to some complicated effects...
August 10, 2018: Life Sciences
Xiaofeng Zhang, Fengshuang Li, Linzhong Zhu
AIM: Accumulating studies have revealed that microRNA (miR)-93 may exert an oncogenic role in various cancers via inhibiting CDKN1A. However, the involvement of miR-93/CDKN1A axis in cervical cancer remains unclear. We aimed to investigate expression pattern, clinical significance and potential functions of miR-93/CDKN1A axis in cervical cancer. METHODS: Expression levels of miR-93 and CDKN1A mRNA in 100 pairs of cervical cancer and matched non-cancerous tissue samples were detected by quantitative-PCR...
August 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Mohadetheh Moulana, Rodrigo O Maranon
AIM: The present study determined the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), endothelin system, and eicosanoid system in the blood pressure (BP) regulation in male and female Zucker rats, and whether the pressor response change similarly in lean and obese animals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In female (f) and male (m), lean (L) and obese (O) Zucker rats (ZR) at 22 weeks old, we evaluated the role of the 3 mentioned systems using the following treatments: 1) enalapril (angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor), 2) the ABT-627 (endothelin receptor A (ETA ) antagonist), and 3) the 1-aminobenzotriazol (1-ABT: eicosanoid synthesis inhibitor)...
August 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Yanjun Guo, Xin Yang, Jialin He, Jingjing Liu, Shiming Yang, Hui Dong
Ca2+ -sensing receptor (CaSR), a member of G protein-coupled receptor family, is widely expressed in the vascular system, including perivascular neurons, vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). When stimulated, CaSR can further increase the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]cyt ) in two ways: intracellular Ca2+ release from endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) and extracellular Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ -permeable cation channels. In endothelium, increased Ca2+ subsequently activate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and intermediate conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channels (IKCa), resulting in vasodilation through NOS-mediated NO release or membrane hyperpolarization...
August 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Yu-Te Yang, Jia-Hong Meng, Bin Hu, Chi-Yuan Ma, Chen-Chen Zhao, Wang-Si-Yuan Teng, Jian-Qiao Hong, Si-Hao Li, Guang-Yao Jiang, Cong Wang, Chen-He Zhou, Shi-Gui Yan
AIMS: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a bone metabolism disease that is caused by an imbalance between bone-resorbing osteoclast and bone-forming osteoblast actions. Herein, we describe the role of troxerutin (TRX), a trihydroxyethylated derivative of rutin, in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis and its effects on the regulation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. MAIN METHODS: In vivo, OVX female mice were intraperitoneally injected with either saline, 50 mg/kg TRX, or 150 mg/kg TRX for 6 weeks and then sacrificed for micro-computed tomography analyses, histological analyses, and biomechanical testing...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Yuan Wang, Yi Jin, Xinming Yun, Meijing Wang, Yue Dai, Yufeng Xia
AIMS: Sinomenine, an anti-rheumatoid arthritis drug used in China for decades, is usually co-administered with cardiovascular (CV) drugs to reduce arthritis-related risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study was to investigate whether and how CV drugs affect the pharmacokinetic profile of sinomenine. MAIN METHODS: In rat liver microsomes (RLMs), the key metabolic enzymes of sinomenine were identified by using specific inhibitors. The influences of CV drugs, including propranolol, verapamil, warfarin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin, on the metabolism of sinomenine were examined...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Vida Naderi-Boldaji, Siyavash Joukar, Ali Noorafshan, Alireza Raji-Amirhasani, Samaneh Naderi-Boldaji, Mohammad-Abbas Bejeshk
AIMS: Low-intensity aerobic training along with limbs blood flow restriction can improve mass and strength of skeletal muscle, but its effects on aging heart structure and performance is unidentified. We investigated the effects of this model of training on myocardial function, histology and angiogenesis in old male rats. MAIN METHODS: Animals randomly were divided into control (Ctl), sham-operated (Sh), limbs blood flow restriction (BFR), sham-operated plus 10 weeks low intensity treadmill exercise (Sh + Ex), and BFR plus exercise (BFR + Ex) groups...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Chunwei Cheng, Jun Tan, Wei Qian, Lei Zhang, Xiaohua Hou
AIMS: Gut inflammation has been put forward to be associated with hepatic injury in the clinical practice. The dismantled intestinal barrier was highly concerned, however, largely unknown about the role of gut-vascular barrier (GVB) in this process. This study aimed to investigate if inflamed gut directly contributes to the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), especially attention to the GVB dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: Male C57bl/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) and 1% DSS for 12 weeks...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Jing Lu, Baochen Fang, Yixuan Huang, Siyu Tao, Bo Sun, Shuang Guan, Yingli Jin
AIMS: Chloropropanol is a contaminant produced during food processing, and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is one of the most-studied and most common chloropropanol-related food contaminants. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant ester catechin in tea polyphenols. We studied the potential therapeutic effect of EGCG on 1,3-DCP-induced lipid accumulation in the liver of mice, and determined the related regulatory mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of EGCG were investigated in 6-8-week-old adult male C57BL/6J mice that were given 1,3-DCP (1 mg/kg bw/day; i...
August 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Haizhu Zeng, Yumeng Wang, Yuxia Gu, Jinrui Wang, Huali Zhang, Hongchang Gao, Qinqin Jin, Lei Zhao
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) play a critical role in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated fibrotic airway remodeling in asthma. Polydatin (PD) is a small natural molecule in Chinese medicine; it is isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum and has antioxidative properties. In this study, we aimed to determine whether PD was protective against ROS-induced pulmonary fibrosis in asthma. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used to induce asthma in a mouse model that was treated with or without PD...
August 6, 2018: Life Sciences
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