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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433510/biomaterial-stiffness-determines-stem-cell-fate
#1
REVIEW
Hong Wei Lv, Heping Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Wang Yang, Wenbin Liu, Yulin Li, Lisha Li
Stem cells have potential to develop into numerous cell types, thus they are good cell source for tissue engineering. As an external physical signal, material stiffness is capable of regulating stem cell fate. Biomaterial stiffness is an important parameter in tissue engineering. We summarize main measurements of material stiffness under different condition, then list and compare three main methods of controlling stiffness (material amount, crosslinking density and photopolymeriztion time) which interplay with one another and correlate with stiffness positively, and current advances in effects of biomaterial stiffness on stem cell fate...
April 19, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431937/structural-modifications-in-the-sugar-moiety-as-a-key-to-improving-the-anticancer-effectiveness-of-doxorubicin
#2
REVIEW
Marta Denel-Bobrowska, Agnieszka Marczak
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most commonly used and effective chemotherapeutic agents. Despite its clinical benefits, the use of DOX is often limited by serious adverse effects, such as severe cardiotoxicity and myelosuppression. Recent progress in chemical synthesis has enabled the design of modified anthracyclines with a sugar moiety being a desirable subject of research. A series of new analogues of DOX has been synthesised, in which the amino group in the daunosamine moiety was replaced by a formamidine system containing the rest of the cyclic secondary amine with gradually increased ring size...
April 18, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427897/boosters-and-barriers-for-direct-cardiac-reprogramming
#3
REVIEW
Mahmood Talkhabi, Elmira Rezaei Zonooz, Hossein Baharvand
Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs...
April 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427896/toll-like-receptor-2-an-important-immunomodulatory-molecule-during-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#4
REVIEW
Maryam Nemati, Tiziana Larussa, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Merat Mahmoodi, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an essential subset of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) which identify the microbial components and contribute in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses against the infectious agents. The TLRs, especially TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9, participate in the induction of immune response against H. pylori. TLR2 is expressed on a number of immune and non-immune cells and recognizes a vast broad of microbial components due to its potential to form heterodimers with other TLRs, including TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10...
April 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414077/hypotensive-acute-effect-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-on-hypertensive-rats
#5
J C Oishi, T F De Moraes, T C Buzinari, E C Cárnio, N A Parizotto, G J Rodrigues
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) on arterial pressure in hypertensive and normotensive rats with application in an abdominal region. Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) wistar rats were treated with PBM. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before, during and after PBM application. The nitric oxide (NO) serum concentration was measured before and after PBM application...
April 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414076/inhibition-of-trxr2-suppressed-nsclc-cell-proliferation-metabolism-and-induced-cell-apoptosis-through-decreasing-antioxidant-activity
#6
Lina Bu, Wei Li, Zongjuan Ming, Jie Shi, Ping Fang, Shuanying Yang
AIMS: This study aims to analyze the effect of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2) on lung cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of TrxR2 in NSCLC tumor tissues. After pAd-TrxR2 or shRNA-TrxR2 was transfected into A549 or NCI-H1299 cells, the cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 method; cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry; cell invasion and migration was measured by Transwell method...
April 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414075/vitamin-b2-deficiency-enhances-the-pro-inflammatory-activity-of-adipocyte-consequences-for-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-development
#7
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Ewa Pocheć
AIMS: Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ important for regulation of such physiological processes as energy metabolism or lipids homeostasis. In an obesity state, it participates in the induction of chronic systemic inflammation accompanied by pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty acid elevation. For this reasons, adipose tissue is involved in, e.g., insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidemia development. In our previous study, we have shown that riboflavin deficiency induces a pathological pro-inflammatory response of macrophages, the main component of adipose tissue...
April 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412240/the-level-of-effort-rather-than-muscle-exercise-intensity-determines-strength-gain-following-a-six-week-training
#8
Chang-Hao Jiang, Vinoth K Ranganathan, Vlodek Siemionow, Guang H Yue
AIM: This study investigated the effect of voluntary motor effort during a low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) muscle exercise training program on increasing muscle strength. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen young and healthy individuals were randomly assigned to one of three groups: high mental effort (HME), low mental effort (LME), or a no-training control (CTRL) group. Training lasted for 6weeks (15min/day, 5days/week). The participants' right-elbow flexor muscle strength was measured before and after the training program...
April 13, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400117/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-inhibition-induces-vasodilator-effect-of-sevoflurane-via-reduction-of-rho-kinase-activity
#9
Yasunori Miyamoto, Guo-Gang Feng, Shiho Satomi, Katsuya Tanaka, Yoshihiro Fujiwara, Hiroyuki Kinoshita
AIMS: This study was aimed to examine whether a volatile anesthetic sevoflurane in clinical doses reduces vasoconstriction under the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the rat and human arteries and whether the intravenous administration of the PI3K inhibitor decreases blood pressure in rats under the sevoflurane inhalation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat arteries (n=5-6) and human omental arteries (n=5-6) were subjected to isometric force recordings and western immunoblotting for Rho kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C...
April 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392262/the-regulatory-effect-of-electro-acupuncture-on-the-expression-of-nmda-receptors-in-a-sci-rat-model
#10
Wen-Zhan Tu, Wen-Ci Chen, Wan Xia, Rong He, Jie Hu, Ming-Chen Jiang, Song-He Jiang
BACKGROUND: In early spinal cord injury (SCI), glutamate receptors, including N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs), are over-stimulated by excessively released glutamate. The enhanced activity of NMDARs may cause cell death by overloading calcium (Ca(2+)) into cells based on their high permeability to Ca(2+). Studies in SCI animals have shown that treatment with electro-acupuncture (EA) is able to reduce cell death and to improve functional recovery. One possible mechanism of this neuroprotective effect is that EA has regulatory effect on NMDARs...
April 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385613/shikonin-alleviates-the-biotoxicity-produced-by-pneumococcal-pneumolysin
#11
Xiaoran Zhao, Yonglin Zhou, Laiying Wang, Meng Li, Dongxue Shi, Dan Li, Jianfeng Wang
AIMS: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a common pathogen that can cause severe infections in humans. Pneumolysin (PLY) is an important virulence trait of S. pneumoniae and has cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and pro-inflammatory activity; it is essential for the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae pneumonia and is an anti-virulence target of small molecule drug development. The treatment options for this microbe were limit due to the ubiquitous antibiotic resistance; therefore, new drugs and treatment strategies are needed...
April 3, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385612/inhibition-of-liver-alanine-aminotransferase-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-by-hesperidin-and-its-aglycone-hesperetin-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-study
#12
Sara Zareei, Massoud M A Boojar, Massoud Amanlou
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of two natural flavonoids, hesperetin (HT) and hesperidin (HD), on two gluconeogenesis enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and their possible mechanisms of action. MAIN METHODS: Rat liver incubated with different concentrations of HT and HD was used to measure enzyme activities spectrophotometrically, based on monitoring the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) at 340nm...
April 3, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377266/the-lipid-moiety-7-ketocholesteryl-9-carboxynonanoate-mediates-binding-interaction-of-oxldl-to-lox-1-and-upregulates-abca1-expression-through-ppar%C3%AE
#13
Jingda Li, Zhilong Xiu, Renjun Wang, Chengjie Yu, Yan Chi, Jianzhong Qin, Changzhen Fu, Eiji Matsuura, Qingping Liu
AIM: Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), a specific membrane receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis progression. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 7-ketocholesteryl-9-carboxynonanoate (oxLig-1), a lipid component of oxLDL, in the binding of oxLDL to LOX-1 and to determine whether oxLig-1 binding to LOX-1 is involved in the upregulation of ABCA1 expression. MAIN METHODS: OxLig-1 binding to LOX-1 was analysed by AutoDock 4...
April 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366719/minocycline-restores-cognitive-relative-altered-proteins-in-young-bile-duct-ligated-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Shih-Wen Li, Yu-Chieh Chen, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Mei-Hsin Hsu, You-Lin Tain, Kow-Aung Chang, Li-Tung Huang
AIMS: Bile duct ligation (BDL) is used as an animal model for hepatic encephalopathy (HE) accompanied by cognitive impairment. Through a proteomic analysis approach, we sought to identify affected proteins that are involved in cognition, by analyzing the prefrontal cortex of young BDL rats and testing the effects of minocycline on the affected rats. MAIN METHODS: Young BDL rats were induced at postnatal day 17. Minocycline was administered through a slow release pellet implanted into their peritoneum...
March 30, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363843/toll-like-receptor-9-mediates-paraquat-induced-acute-lung-injury-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#15
Haitao Shen, Na Wu, Yu Wang, Lichun Zhang, Xiao Hu, Zhiguang Chen, Min Zhao
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 in paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI). MAIN METHODS: For in vivo study,C57BL mice were randomly assigned into the vehicle control group, paraquat group, paraquat + antagonist (ODN2088) group, and antagonist (ODN2088) group (n=24 per group). After paraquat 30mg/kg ip for 2, 24 and 48h, serum samples and lung tissues were collected to evaluate ALI and TLR9 signaling. As for in vitro research A549 cells were randomly divided into the control group, paraquat group, paraquat + TLR9 siRNA group, and TLR9 siRNA group...
March 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356225/mir-532-promoted-gastric-cancer-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-nkd1
#16
Shaobo Hu, Qichang Zheng, Heshui Wu, Chunyou Wang, Tao Liu, Wei Zhou
Gastric cancer is one of the most common human malignant neoplasms, especially in China, its regulatory mechanism is important to develop new therapy approaches. miRNAs have been demonstrated to regulate gastric cancer progression. We found miR-532 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cells, Wound healing and transwell assay revealed that its overexpression promoted gastric cancer cell migration and invasion, its knockdown inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. Wnt/β-catenin antagonist naked cuticle homolog 1 (NKD1) was the target of miR-532, miR-532 inhibited NKD1 expression...
March 26, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286225/immunological-alteration-toxic-molecular-inductions-leading-to-cognitive-impairment-neurotoxicity-in-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Manuj Ahuja, Manal Buabeid, Engy Abdel-Rehman, Mohammed Majrashi, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran, Rajesh Amin, Sindhu Ramesh, Kariharan Thiruchelvan, Satyanarayana Pondugula, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
AIMS: Inflammation is considered to be one of the crucial pathological factors associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease, although supportive experimental evidence remains undiscovered. Therefore, the current study was carried out to better understand and establish the pathophysiological involvement of chronic inflammation in a double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. MAIN METHODS: We analyzed amyloid-beta deposition, oxidative stress, biochemical, neurochemical and immunological markers in a 10month old (APΔE9) mouse model...
March 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363842/potential-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#18
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
Impairments in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system during diabetes mellitus, leading to its dysfunction, have been known since a decade. Hyperglycemia induces several pathological alterations which upregulate this system, accounting for overexpression of its downstream signaling molecules, amongst which angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone hold prime pathological notoriety. Although it is well known that elevated plasma levels of Ang II play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of type-II diabetic mellitus, by inducing and aggravating insulin resistance, it is not quite much known that it equally elevates the possibility/risk of development of diabetic complications...
May 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363841/aca-an-inhibitor-phospholipases-a2-and-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-channels-attenuates-okadaic-acid-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rats
#19
Murat Cakir, Halil Duzova, Suat Tekin, Elif Taslıdere, Gul Busra Kaya, Yılmaz Cigremis, Tuba Ozgocer, Saim Yologlu
AIM: In recent studies, it has been shown that the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-2 Channels (TRPM2) and Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) inhibitors may have a protective effect on neurons. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of TRPM2 and PLA2 inhibitor N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) Anthranilic Acid (ACA) in a neurodegenerative model induced by Okadaic Acid (OKA). MAIN METHODS: OKA (200ng/10μl) was administered bilateral intracerebroventricularly as a single injection...
May 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342774/hypercapnia-induced-brain-acidosis-effects-and-putative-mechanisms-on-acute-kainate-induced-seizures
#20
Xiu-Yu Shi, Lin-Yan Hu, Meng-Jia Liu, Li-Ping Zou
AIMS: This study investigated the mechanism of the anticonvulsant effects of carbogen containing 5% CO2 in a kainic acid (KA) rat model. MAIN METHODS: Four-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, carbogen, KA+air, and KA+carbogen. Carbogen containing 5% CO2 was applied immediately after KA injection, and cortical pH was recorded. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect the release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate...
May 1, 2017: Life Sciences
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