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Life Sciences

Anna Lesniak, Mikko Aarnio, Shanti Diwakarla, Thomas Norberg, Fred Nyberg, Torsten Gordh
AIMS: d-Deprenyl when used as a positron emission tomography tracer visualizes peripheral inflammation. The major aim of the current study was to identify and investigate the properties of the binding target for d-deprenyl in synovial membrane explants from arthritic patients. MAIN METHODS: Thirty patients diagnosed with arthritis or osteoarthritis were enrolled into the study. Homologous and competitive radioligand binding assays utilizing [3H]d-deprenyl were performed to investigate the biochemical characteristics of the binding site and assess differences in the binding profile in synovial membranes exhibiting varying levels of inflammation...
December 5, 2017: Life Sciences
Wei Hao, Rui Yang, Yang Yang, Sheng Jin, Yanqing Li, Fang Yuan, Qi Guo, Lin Xiao, Xin Wang, Fuwei Wang, Yuming Wu, Xu Teng
AIMS: Vascular calcification (VC) underlies substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. No clinically therapies have emerged presently. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is one of the most often used sympathetic blockade procedure, and regulates vascular dilation. However, the effect of SGB on VC is still unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify the ameliorative effect of SGB on VC. KEY FINDING: In vivo VC was induced in rats by administering vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN), and in vitro calcification of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was induced by β-glycerophosphate...
December 2, 2017: Life Sciences
Ehsan Dehdashtian, Saeed Mehrzadi, Bahman Yousefi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Majid Safa, Habib Ghaznavi, Masood Naseripour
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), remains as one of the major causes of vision loss worldwide. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the adhesion of leukocytes to retinal capillaries are initial events in DR development. Inflammation, ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy are major causative factors involved in the pathogenesis of DR. Diabetes associated hyperglycemia leads to mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction culminating in a rise in ROS generation...
December 1, 2017: Life Sciences
Qiwang Ma, Yujia Wang, Wei Zuo
AIMS: Tubule repair has been noticed after kidney tissue damage, however the cellular mechanism behind remains unclear. Here we successfully constructed a mouse unilateral partial nephrectomy model mimicking renal carcinoma surgery, and further investigated whether this procedure triggered regenerative action. MAIN METHODS: We used the unilateral partial nephrectomy model to study kidney repair. Kidney function after nephrectomy was measured using creatinine and urea nitrogen assay kit...
November 30, 2017: Life Sciences
Abdel K Raffoul-Orozco, Ana E Ávila-González, Christian M Rodríguez-Razón, Teresa A García-Cobian, Edsaul E Pérez-Guerrero, Trinidad García-Iglesias, Edy D Rubio Arellano
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of naringin 100mg/kg in combination with pravastatin 10mg/kg by gavage for 6weeks compared with monotherapy over lipid profiles, glucose levels and weight in murine model of obesity. MAIN METHODS: The study design was planned with 5 groups of 6 male Wistar Albina rats: Group 1: control with balanced food and vehicle (C-); Group 2: control with Obesity and vehicle (C+); Group 3: Obesity+naringin (N); Group 4: Obesity+pravastatin (P); Group 5: Obesity+pravastatin+naringin (NP)...
November 29, 2017: Life Sciences
Yuanyuan Cheng, Xiaofei Zhu, Fangyun Cheng, Li Ji, Yajun Zhou
AIMS: Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a pivotal role in inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, a key step for liver fibrogenesis. Adipocyte-derived hormone leptin has been shown to promote liver fibrosis in murine and human. PPARγ includes two subtypes, PPARγ1 and PPARγ2. Our previous study indicated that leptin down-regulated PPARγ1 expression in HSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin on PPARγ2 expression and the underlying mechanisms in HSCs...
November 29, 2017: Life Sciences
Jayant Dewangan, Shweta Kaushik, Srikanta Kumar Rath, Anil K Balapure
AIMS: Angiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of cancer which promotes cancer cell progression and metastasis. Inhibition of angiogenesis to attenuate cancer growth is becoming desirable strategy for breast cancer management. The present study is aimed to investigate the antiangiogenic efficacy of a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator Centchroman (CC) on human breast cancer cells. MAIN METHODS: Effect of CC on cell viability was evaluated using Sulforhodamine B assay...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
Parichehr Hassanzadeh, Elham Arbabi, Fatemeh Atyabi, Rassoul Dinarvand
AIMS: Treatment of the ischemic stroke has remained a major healthcare challenge. The phenolic compound, ferulic acid (FA), has shown promising antioxidant and neuroprotective effects, however, low bioavailability may negatively affect its efficiency. This, prompted us to incorporate FA into the nanostructured lipid carriers (FA-NLCs) and evaluate its therapeutic potential in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. MAIN METHODS: FA-NLCs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization followed by physicochemical characterization, evaluation of the bioactivity of FA-NLCs in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and implication of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in this regard...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
Fang Gan, Qing Liu, Yunhuan Liu, Da Huang, Cuiling Pan, Suquan Song, Kehe Huang
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have multiple biological and pharmacological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. This research was conducted to evaluate whether LBPs could alleviate carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis and the underlying signaling pathway mechanism. Fifty male wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups (n=10): control, CCl4 and CCl4 with 400, 800 or 1600mg/kg LBPs, respectively. Each wistar rat from each group was used for blood and tissue collections at the end of experiment...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
Anna Kothencz, Judit Hajagos-Tóth, Adrienn Csányi, Róbert Gáspár
AIMS: Lipid soluble vitamin E plays a role in several physiological mechanisms, however, the mechanism of this action is controversial. We investigated how tocopherol (α-tocopherol acid succinate) influences the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COXi) in the smooth muscles. MAIN METHODS: The contractility of the samples from 22-day-pregnant myometrium and non-pregnant myometrium and trachea was determined in an isolated organ bath in vitro. The activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX) was also measured in the tissues...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
Tao Wu, Luna Yang, Jianguo Jiang, Yinhua Ni, Jiawei Zhu, Xiaojun Zheng, Qi Wang, Xin Lu, Zhengwei Fu
AIM: Glucocorticoids (GCs), steroid hormones synthetized by the adrenal gland, are regulated by circadian cycles, and dysregulation of GC signaling can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. The effects and potential mechanism of GCs in physiology were investigated in the present study. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX, 0.01 and 0.05mg/kg body weight per day) for 7weeks. KEY FINDING: DEX treatment attenuated body weight gain and reduced food intake, whereas it induced the accumulation of fat...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
Claudia J Lagranha, Tercya Lucidi Araujo Silva, Severina Cassia A Silva, Glaber Ruda F Braz, Aline Isabel da Silva, Mariana Pinheiro Fernandes, Donald F Sellitti
During their reproductive years women produce significant levels of estrogens, predominantly in the form of estradiol, that are thought to play an important role in cardioprotection. Mechanisms underlying this action include both estrogen-mediated changes in gene expression, and post-transcriptional activation of protein signaling cascades in the heart and in neural centers controlling cardiovascular function, in particular, in the brainstem. There, specific neurons, especially those of the bulbar region play an important role in the neuronal control of the cardiovascular system because they control the outflow of sympathetic activity and parasympathetic activity as well as the reception of chemical and mechanical signals...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
Jai Shankar K Yadlapalli, Navdeep Dogra, Anqi W Walbaum, Paul L Prather, Peter A Crooks, Maxim Dobretsov
AIMS: Previous reports from our laboratory have established that morphine-6-O-sulfate (M6S) is a mixed μ/δ opioid receptor (OR) agonist and a potential improved alternative to morphine for treatment of chronic multimodal pain in non-diabetic rats. This study extends the antinociceptive effects of M6S and morphine in STZ-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effects of morphine and M6S were studied across a range of pain modalities, using hot plate threshold (HPT), pinprick sensitivity threshold (PST) and paw pressure threshold (PPT) tests...
November 27, 2017: Life Sciences
Jian-Sheng Xing, Zhi-Ming Bai
Progressive increases in the incidence of male reproductive disorders inclusive of hypospadias, cryptorchidism, poor semen quality, and testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) have been observed in recent times. The central hypothesis of this study asserted that these disorders may all collectively signify testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). This review aimed to provide evidence verifying the reality of TDS based on four key aspects: environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), genetic factors, intrauterine growth disorders and lifestyle factors...
November 25, 2017: Life Sciences
Kevin E McElhanon, Sayak Bhattacharya
Sarcolemmal integrity is orchestrated through the interplay of preserving membrane strength and fast tracking the membrane repair process during an event of compromised membrane fragility. Several molecular players have been identified that act in a concerted fashion to maintain the barrier function of the muscle membrane. Substantial research findings in the field of muscle biology point out the importance of maintaining membrane integrity as a key contributory factor to cellular homeostasis. Innumerable data on the progression of membrane pathology associated with compromised muscle membrane integrity support targeting sarcolemmal integrity in skeletal and cardiac muscle as a model therapeutic strategy to alleviate some of the pathologic conditions...
November 25, 2017: Life Sciences
Andréia Laura Rodrigues, Marcella Brescia, Andreas Kolshinski, Thaís Helena Moreira, Ryan Cameron, George Bailley, Paulo S L Beirão, Manuela Zaccollo, Jader S Cruz
AIMS: Ca2+ and cAMP are important intracellular modulators. In order to generate intracellular signals with various amplitudes, as well as different temporal and spatial properties, a tightly and precise control of these modulators in intracellular compartments is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of elevated and sustained cAMP levels on voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents and proliferation in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. MAIN METHODS: Effect of long-term exposure to forskolin and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) on Ca2+ current density and cell proliferation rate were determined by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and real time cell monitoring system...
November 25, 2017: Life Sciences
Quan Zhang, Zheng Chen, Shenghuo Chen, Tian Yu, Juxia Wang, Weiwen Wang, Huihua Deng
AIMS: Contrary findings exist on the consistency between hair cortisol and salivary cortisol in assessing the basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The mismatches in temporal characteristic and the indices of hair and salivary cortisol might be potential reasons for the inconsistency. The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency between hair and salivary levels in cortisol and cortisone by directly examining the correlation between hair level and salivary level with different temporal characteristics (acute, short-term and long-term levels) and reflecting different HPA functions (basal level and reactivity level) in the well-matched time span...
November 24, 2017: Life Sciences
Mohamed A Lebda, Kadry M Sadek, Tarek K Abouzed, Hossam G Tohamy, Yasser S El-Sayed
AIMS: The potential antifibrotic effects of melatonin against induced hepatic fibrosis were explored. MAIN METHODS: Rats were allocated into four groups: placebo; thioacetamide (TAA) (200mg/kg bwt, i.p twice weekly for two months); melatonin (5mg/kgbwt, i.p daily for a week before TAA and continued for an additional two months); and melatonin plus TAA. Hepatic fibrotic changes were evaluated biochemically and histopathologically. Hepatic oxidative/antioxidative indices were assessed...
November 24, 2017: Life Sciences
Jéssica R Bernardes, Caroline C de Faria, Iris S Andrade, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise P Carvalho, Alvaro C Leitão, Tatiana A M de Alencar, Rodrigo S Fortunato
Breast cancer cells may exhibit changes in iron homeostasis, which results in increased labile iron pool (LIP) levels. Several studies highlight the crucial role of high LIP levels in the maintenance of tumor cell physiology. Iron chelators have been tested in anticancer therapy in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, to improve drug efficacy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2,2'-dipyridyl (DIP), a Fe2+ chelator, in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) in breast tumor cells. The maximum concentration of DIP that did not significantly reduce the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells was 10μM and for MCF-7 cells was 50μM...
November 24, 2017: Life Sciences
Giusy Daniela Albano, Anna Bonanno, Monica Moscato, Giulia Anzalone, Caterina Di Sano, Loredana Riccobono, Sally E Wenzel, Mirella Profita
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affects the expression of non-neuronal components of cholinergic system in bronchial epithelial cells and, as PEBP1/Raf-mediated MAPK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathway, promotes inflammation and oxidative stress. AIMS: We studied whether Acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in the mechanism of crosstalk between mAChRM3 and β2Adrenergic receptors (β2AR) promoting, via PI3/PKC/PBEP1/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 activation, β2AR desensitization, inflammation and, oxidative stress in a bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) after long-term exposure to cigarette smoke extract (LECSE)...
November 22, 2017: Life Sciences
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