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Life Sciences

Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Akram Ataei, Nima Rezaei
Through selective activation/inhibition or dissection of neuronal circuits, optogenetic tools have raised hopes for a better understanding of neuropsychiatric mechanisms and therapeutic targets for various disorders. Although, overcoming serious limitations resultin from conventional neuronal circuit study, this method has its own imperfections, such as optogenetic modulation of neural activity, using an internal, animal-generated, light source. In this review, limitations of external light delivery systems and possible approaches for using internal light sources in laboratory animals and perhaps, human being, are being addressed...
October 22, 2016: Life Sciences
J Knoll, I Miklya
AIMS: The first longevity study demonstrating that rats treated with the MAO-B inhibitory dose of (-)-deprenyl (0.25mg/kg) lived significantly longer than their saline-treated peers was published in 1988, and corroborated in many papers. The recent findings that (-)-deprenyl is primarily a PEA-derived synthetic catecholaminergic activity enhancersubstance; (2R)-1-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-N-propylpentane-2-amine (BPAP) is a tryptamine-derived synthetic enhancer substance, initiated our first longevity study on rats with low enhancer doses of (-)-deprenyl and BPAP to test the enhancer effect's role inlife extension...
October 21, 2016: Life Sciences
Zheng Huimei, Xiaohang Yang, Yongmei Xi
Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of the Drosophila fat body and its functions in energy storage, immune response and nutrient sensing. The fat body interplays with other tissues to respond to the physiological needs of the body's growth and coordinates various metabolic processes at different developmental stages and under different environmental conditions. The identification of various conserved genetic functions and signaling pathways relating to the Drosophila fat body may provide clues to lipometabolic disease and other aspects of tissue remodeling in humans...
October 20, 2016: Life Sciences
Fang Gao, Yanping Wang, Shulin Li, Zhuojun Wang, Caixia Liu, Dong Sun
AIMS: Cellular hypoxia has been proposed as a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of chronic renal injury. Much of our understanding of how mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling promotes renal fibrosis has been based on cell culture studies. Therefore, we used the unilateral ureteral occlusion (UUO) model to further elucidate the role of the p38 MAPK pathway in renal interstitial fibrosis induced by hypoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, 24 male mice were randomized into the following three groups (n=8 each): Sham group (DMSO solution), UUO group (UUO+DMSO solution) and UP group (UUO+p38 inhibitor)...
October 20, 2016: Life Sciences
Shu Jiang, Yulan Liu, Jing Wang, Yue Zhang, Yaocheng Rui, Yuefan Zhang, Tiejun Li
Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a heat-stable pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica, has anti-inflammatory function and protective effect on ischemic stroke. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MLIF on myocardial ischemia. The myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending branch (LAD) using 8-0 silk suture for 30min followed by 3h reperfusion in mice. After sacrifice, the serum concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the heart infarct size were measured...
October 20, 2016: Life Sciences
Haniyeh Eyvani, Farima Moghaddaskho, Majid Kabuli, Ali Zekri, Majid Momeny, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Seyed H Ghaffari
AIMS: Cell cycle dysregulation is important in tumorigenesis. Transcriptional silencing of cell cycle regulatory genes, due to DNA methylation, is a common epigenetic event in malignancies. As2O3 has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and also to be a potential hypomethylating agent. Our study aimed to investigate DNA methylation patterns of cell cycle regulatory genes promoters, the effects of Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on the methylated genes and cell cycle distribution in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines...
October 18, 2016: Life Sciences
Wilson Kc Leung, L Gao, Parco M Siu, Christopher Wk Lai
An explosion in global epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus poses major rise in cases with vascular endothelial dysfunction ranging from micro- (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) to macro-vascular (atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy) conditions. Functional destruction of endothelium is regarded as an early event that lays the groundwork for the development of renal microangiopathy and subsequent clinical manifestation of nephropathic symptoms. Recent research has shed some light on the molecular mechanisms of type 2 diabetes-associated comorbidity of endothelial dysfunction and nephropathy...
October 17, 2016: Life Sciences
Sayak Bhattacharya, Kevin E McElhanon, Liubov Gushchina, Noah Weisleder
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are regulatory enzymes involved in the generation of lipid species that modulate cellular signaling pathways through downstream effectors to influence a variety of cellular functions. Years of intensive study of PI3Ks have produced a significant body of literature in many areas, including that PI3K can mediate intracellular vesicular trafficking and through these actions contribute to a number of important physiological functions. This review focuses on the crucial roles that PI3K and AKT, a major downstream partner of PI3K, play in the regulation of vesicle trafficking during various forms of vesicular endocytosis and exocytosis...
October 16, 2016: Life Sciences
Stephen B Smith, Zhaobin Xu, Tatiana Novitskaya, Bo Zhang, Elena Chepurko, Xin-An Pu, Debra G Wheeler, Mark Ziolo, Richard J Gumina
AIMS: Prior work suggests that ischemic preconditioning increases the level of CD39 in the heart and contributes to cardiac protection. Therefore, we examined if targeted cardiac expression of CD39 protects against myocardial injury. MAIN METHODS: Mice with cardiac-specific expression of human CD39 (αMHC/hCD39-Tg) were generated, characterized and subjected to left coronary artery ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarct size at 24h following injury quantified. KEY FINDINGS: αMHC/hCD39-Tg mice have increased in cardiac ATPase and ADPase activity compared to WT littermates...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Mai Michishita, Kazuo Yano, Ken-Ichi Tomita, Osamu Matsuzaki, Ken-Ichi Kasahara
AIMS: For patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), storage symptoms due to bladder dysfunction are bothersome, and that mechanism elucidation is needed. Piezo1, a mechanically activated ion channel, is believed to play a role in sensing bladder distension. To investigate the involvement of Piezo1 in bladder dysfunction, we examined the expression and distribution of Piezo1 and neurofilament (NF-L) to understand pathological alterations in rat bladders with partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO), an animal model of BPH...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Yong Xie, Zhen-Jie Gu, Mao-Xiong Wu, Tu-Cheng Huang, Jing-Song Ou, Huiping-Son Ni, Mao-Huan Lin, Wo-Liang Yuan, Jing-Feng Wang, Yang-Xin Chen
AIMS: Adverse cardiovascular effects induced by peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) activation were observed in clinical setting. But the underlying mechanism is unclear. Now, transgenic mice with cardiac specific peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ overexpression (TG-PPAR-γ) were used to explore the possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac tissues from TG-PPAR-γ mice, a PPAR-γ over-expressing human cardiomyocyte line AC16 cell, and PPAR-γ agonist-treated primary cardiomyocytes were used to evaluate the expression of cardiac calcium regulatory proteins as sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchanger 1, ryanodine receptor 2 and phospholamban...
October 13, 2016: Life Sciences
Anton Chechushkov, Natalia Zaitseva, Elena Vorontsova, Petr Kozhin, Elena Menshchikova, Vyacheslav Shkurupiy
AIMS: Linear dextrans are often proposed as drug delivery systems with milder adverse effects and lower effective drug concentrations. Linear dextrans are polysaccharides that can potentially be used to load macrophages with drugs to transport them to a site of inflammation. Recently, it was reported that dextrans may exert a protective effect vis-à-vis drug cytotoxicity and during wound healing. The aim of the current work was to evaluate molecular mechanisms of action of dextrans that may be relevant to the cytoprotective effects...
October 13, 2016: Life Sciences
P Sneha, C George Priya Doss
The pace of anti-diabetic drug discovery is very slow in spite of increasing rate of prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes which remains a major public health concern. Though extensive research steps are taken in the past decade, yet craves for better of new treatment strategies to overcome the current scenario. One such general finding is the evolution of gliptins which discriminately inhibits DPP4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase-4) enzyme. Although the mechanism of action of gliptin is highly target oriented and accurate, still its long-term use stands unknown...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
Rajesh Choudhary, Surendra H Bodakhe
AIMS: Previously we found that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure substantially elevates hypertension and potentiates cataract formation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker against cataractogenesis in the CdCl2-induced hypertensive animal model. MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley albino rats (150-180g) were randomly selected and assigned to four groups (n=6). Among the four groups, one group (normal) received 0...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
János Varga, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, Ágnes Csáno, Barbora Prokopova, Daniela Jezova, Dóra Zelena
AIMS: In vasopressin-deficient rat pups stressor-induced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone elevations markedly dissociate. We have shown recently that during the postnatal period mineralocorticoid secretion is more sensitive to stressor exposure than that of glucocorticoids. We have therefore hypothesized that in vasopressin-deficient pups during hypoglycemia, a stressor triggering aldosterone release mainly via ACTH, aldosterone release will change in parallel with ACTH. An additional aim was to reveal at which stage of the development occurs the shift from aldosterone to corticosterone as primarily stressor-induced adrenocortical hormone...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
Yujiro Matsuishi, Subrina Jesmin, Satoru Kawano, Sakuramoto Hideaki, Nobutake Shimojo, Chishimba Nathan Mowa, Shila Akhtar, Sohel Zaedi, Tanzila Khatun, Yoshiya Tsunoda, Takumi Kiwamoto, Nobuyuki Hizawa, Yoshiaki Inoue, Taro Mizutani
Among the dysfunctions and pathologies associated with sepsis, the underlying molecular mechanisms of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) are poorly understood. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory peptide, is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI in a rat model of sepsis. Here, we investigated whether landiolol hydrochloride, an ultra-short-acting β-blocker, plays a crucial role in ameliorating and attenuating LPS-induced ALI through modulation of the ET-1 system. Male Wistar rats at 8weeks of age were administered with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for three hours (3h) and some of the LPS-administered rats were continuously treated with landiolol for 3h...
October 11, 2016: Life Sciences
Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side-effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24 hs after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
October 8, 2016: Life Sciences
Cesar Sepúlveda, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
The adenosine A2b receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor. Its activation occurs with high extracellular adenosine concentration, for example in inflammation or hypoxia. These conditions are generated in the tumor environment. Studies show that A2b receptor is overexpressed in various tumor lines and biopsies from patients with different cancers. This suggests that A2b receptor can be used by tumor cells to promote progression. Thus A2b participates in different events, such as angiogenesis and metastasis, besides exerting immunomodulatory effects that protect tumor cells...
October 8, 2016: Life Sciences
Michal Bencze, Michal Behuliak, Anna Vavřínová, Josef Zicha
AIMS: The goal of our study was to reveal the important mechanism(s) responsible for the enhanced contractility of isolated arteries from animals suffering genetic hypertension. MAIN METHODS: Contractile force of endothelium-denuded arteries, modulated by various interventions, was measured by wire myography. KEY FINDINGS: Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) arteries were stimulated by norepinephrine, increased extracellular K(+) or tyramine...
October 6, 2016: Life Sciences
Fatemeh Sanie-Jahromi, Iraj Saadat, Mostafa Saadat
AIMS: It has been shown that exposure to extremely-low frequency (˂300Hz) oscillating electromagnetic field (EMF) can affect gene expression. The effects of different exposure patterns of 50-Hz EMF and co-treatment of EMF plus cisplatin (CDDP) on mRNA levels of seven genes involved in DNA repair pathways (GADD45A, XRCC1, XRCC4, Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs and LIG4) were evaluated. MAIN METHODS: Two 50-Hz EMF intensities (0.25 and 0.50mT), three exposure patterns (5min field-on/5min field-off, 15min field-on/15min field-off, 30min field-on continuously) and two cell lines (MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y) were used...
October 6, 2016: Life Sciences
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