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Life Sciences

Xiaoyu Wang, Yunyun Zu, Lin Huang, Jie Yu, Huawei Zhao, Chengping Wen, Zhong Chen, Zhenghao Xu
AIMS: Extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been widely used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in China for several decades. However, the efficacy and safety of MTX plus TwHF treatment remain unclear. MAIN METHODS: A comprehensive search of databases in both Chinese and English was performed. Data from the selected studies were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors...
January 11, 2017: Life Sciences
Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Derek Kennedy, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Aging is associated with a range of chronic low-grade inflammation (Chronoinflammaging) which may play a significant role in some chronic inflammatory based diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the events which lead to the induction of chronoinflammaging in AD are yet to be clarified. It has been proposed that the recognition of endogenous ligands by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) may be involved in the induction of chronoinflammaging. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of PRRs which recognize endogenous damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and subsequently induce inflammation...
January 10, 2017: Life Sciences
Yan Zhou, Qi An, Rui-Xia Guo, Yu-Huan Qiao, Liu-Xia Li, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Xian-Lan Zhao
AIMS: Aberrant expression of miRNAs exert the critical roles in carcinogenesis, including cervical cancer. Recent study corroborated the down-regulation of miR424-5p in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma. This research aimed to investigate the function and underlying mechanisms of miR424-5p in cervical cancer cell growth. MAIN METHODS: Tissues samples were collected from patients with cervical cancer and healthy control. The expression levels of miR424-5p were determined by qRT-PCR...
January 9, 2017: Life Sciences
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sulai Fatima
Prolonged abuse of methylphenidate (MPH) often causes neuronal damage. Topiramate (TPM) has neuroprotective properties, but its mechanism of action remains unclear.The current study evaluates in vivo role of various doses of TPM (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100mg/kg) and its possible mechanisms against MPH-induced hippocampal oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, in absence and presence of different receptor agonists and antagonists. Domoic acid (DOM) as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist, bicuculline (BIC) as GABAA receptor antagonist, ketamine (KET) as NMDA receptor antagonist, yohimbine (YOH) as ɑ2 adrenergic receptor antagonist and haloperidole (HAL) as D2 dopamine receptor antagonist was used...
January 9, 2017: Life Sciences
Chun-Xiao Huang, Nan Chen, Xin-Jie Wu, Yan He, Cui-Hong Huang, Hong Liu, Wei-Min Wang, Huan-Ling Wang
AIMS: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcriptional regulator of cellular responses to hypoxic stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in hypoxia-mediated cellular responses. Previous studies have identified some let-7 family members as hypoxia-regulated miRNAs (HRMs). In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether zebrafish let-7b/7f contribute cellular hypoxic response in a Hif-1α-dependent manner. MAIN METHODS: Stable suppression of zebrafish hif-1α was achieved by microinjection of an optimized short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector...
January 8, 2017: Life Sciences
Amal A M Ahmed, Manar A A Selim, Norhan M El-Sayed
AIM: Oral mucositis is a common adverse effect of Methotrexate (MTX) that may limit its clinical use. Oxidative stress and apoptosis have been proposed to mediate MTX toxicity. The current study was conducted to assess the conceivable protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) against MTX induced toxicity on both buccal and lingual mucosae. MAIN METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were allocatedinto three groups; control, MTX-treated group subjected to single intraperitoneal injection of MTX (20mg/kg, i...
January 3, 2017: Life Sciences
Alvaro Munoz, Iman K Yazdi, Xiufeng Tang, Carolina Rivera, Nima Taghipour, Robert G Grossman, Timothy B Boone, Ennio Tasciotti
AIMS: Reestablishment of bladder function in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a clinical priority. Our objectives were to determine whether SCI-localized inhibition of purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) improve bladder function by decreasing afferent signals mediated by urothelial P2X3R. MAIN METHODS: Systemic inhibition of P2X7R may improve locomotion in rodent SCI models; however, beneficial effects on bladder function and its physiological mechanisms have not been evaluated...
December 27, 2016: Life Sciences
Hiroki Fujisawa, Takumi Numazawa, Minoru Kawamura, Mitsuru Naiki
AIMS: Neurotropin® (NTP), an analgesic for chronic pain, has antihyperalgesic effects in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART)-stressed rats. Previous studies have shown that SART stress induces hyperalgesia, as well as post-translational modification of proteins (including substrates for calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease) in the mesencephalon of rats. To better understand the mechanism of action of NTP, we investigated whether SART stress activates calpain in the mesencephalon of rats and whether NTP inhibits this activation...
December 27, 2016: Life Sciences
Shylaja Hegde, Om Srivastava
Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) occurs as a result of a failure of fetal vasculature to undergo normal programmed involution. During development, before the formation of retinal vessels, the lens and the inner retina are nourished by the hyaloid vasculature. Hyaloid vessels extend from the optic nerve and run through the vitreous to encapsulate the lens. As fetal retinal vessels develop, hyaloid vasculature naturally regresses. Failure of regression of the hyaloid artery has been shown to lead to severe congenital pathologies...
December 27, 2016: Life Sciences
Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Winny Beatriz de Souza Galia, Priscila Cassolla, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Cassia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia, Dimas Zaia, Ângelo Rafael Carpinelli, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Helenir Medri de Souza
AIM: The lipogenic effect of pioglitazone (PGZ), an insulin (INS) sensitizer, is well established. However, few studies have evaluated PGZ effects in preventing weight loss in cancer. We investigated PGZ effects, alone or associated with INS, on INS resistance, cachexia and metabolic abnormalities induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats MAIN METHODS: PGZ (5.0mg·kg(-1), oral) or PGZ+INS (NPH, 1.0UI·kg(-1), sc), were once-daily administered during 12days, starting on the day inoculation of Walker-256 tumor cells...
December 26, 2016: Life Sciences
Masato Mashimo, Yukari Iwasaki, Shoko Inoue, Shoko Saito, Koichiro Kawashima, Takeshi Fujii
AIMS: T lymphocytes synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) and express muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChR and nAChR, respectively) responsible for increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Our aim in the present study was to assess whether autocrine ACh released from T lymphocytes regulates their physiological functions. MAIN METHODS: MOLT-3 human leukemic cell line and murine splenocytes were loaded with fura-2 to monitor [Ca(2+)]i changes in the absence or presence of several AChR antagonists, including mecamylamine, methyllycaconitine and scopolamine...
December 23, 2016: Life Sciences
Nádia J Almeida Cardelli, M Elisa Lopes-Pires, Pedro H L Bonfitto, Heloisa H Ferreira, Edson Antunes, Sisi Marcondes
AIMS: Cross-talk between platelets and lymphocytes may play a role in different pathological conditions like sepsis.This study aimed to investigate the effect of lymphocytes on platelet aggregation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated and non-stimulated cells. MAIN METHODS: Lymphocytes and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were obtained from rat arterial blood. Platelets (1.2×10(8)platelets/ml) were incubated with lymphocytes (0.8×10(6)cells/ml) in the presence or not of LPS (100μg/ml), after which ADP (5μM)-induced platelet aggregation was carried out...
December 22, 2016: Life Sciences
Sarafraz Ahmad, Arif Tasleem Jan, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Eun Ju Lee, Inho Choi
AIM: Skeletal muscle development involves interactions between intracellular and extracellular factors that act in concert to regulate the myogenic process. Matrix gla protein (MGP), a well-known inhibitor of calcification in soft tissues, has been reported to be highly up-regulated during myogenesis. Our interest in the regulation of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) by extracellular matrix (ECM) genes led us to investigate the effects of MGP during the progression of myogenesis. METHODOLOGY: Participation of MGP in the myogenic process was investigated in vitro using C2C12 cells, and knockdown of its gene was performed to determine its effects on the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and other ECM genes...
December 21, 2016: Life Sciences
Ling Lin, Zili Ke, Meiqi Lv, Renxi Lin, Bin Wu, Zhihong Zheng
AIMS: The magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) fulfils several important functions for living organisms. We investigated whether there is a protective effect of MgSO4 on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, and gained insight into the effects of cellular mRNA and protein expression of the magnesium transporters SLC41A1, NIPA1, MagT1 and CNNM2 on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. MAIN METHODS: The effect of MgSO4 on cell viability in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells was measured using a CCK-8 kit...
December 20, 2016: Life Sciences
Cezar Rangel Pestana, Ana Carolina Urbaczek, Juliana Vieira Alberici, Gerson Jhonatan Rodrigues, Emanuel Carrilho
AIMS: Autophagy is critical to endothelial function. We explored the effects of autophagy induced by serum deprivation on Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) metabolome profile and its inhibition by the antimalarial drug chloroquine (CLQ) using a microfluidic biomimetic model MAIN METHODS: The metabolites secreted by HUVEC into the circulating microfluidics were determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and further analyzed using Metaboanalyst 3.0 multivariate and pathway analysis tools...
December 20, 2016: Life Sciences
Chun-Hao Tsai, Pei-Wen Hsieh, Yi-Chen Lee, Chie-Hong Wang, Wen-Chin Chiu, Chun-Wun Lu, Yen-Yun Wang, Stephen Chu-Sung Hu, Tain-Lu Cheng, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan
AIMS: Members of the β-nitrostyrene family are known to suppress tumor growth, with the underlying mechanisms of β-nitrostyrene remain mostly unclear. Herein, we synthesized a β-nitrostyrene derivative, 3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-β-methyl-β-nitrostyrene (CYT-Rx20), and explored its anticancer activities in human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MAIN METHODS: Cell viability was measured by XTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. Caspase activation was determined by western blotting...
December 19, 2016: Life Sciences
Ana I Faustino-Rocha, Rita Ferreira, Adelina Gama, Paula A Oliveira, Mário Ginja
Histamine is a biogenic amine, synthetized and released by mast cells, which acts as a vasodilator in several pathologic processes, namely in allergies and conjunctivitis. Its role on cancer is not fully understood. High levels of histamine have been associated with a bivalent behavior in regulation of several tumors (i.e. cervical, ovarian, vaginal, uterine, vulvar, colorectal cancer, and melanoma), promoting or inhibiting their growth. Histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4) are present in a vast group of cells, including tumor cells, making them sensitive to histamine variations...
December 13, 2016: Life Sciences
Liu Yang, Qing-Min Wei, Xin-Wen Zhang, Qiu Sheng, Xiao-Ting Yan
AIMS: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most deadly cancer in women, and is usually diagnosed too late. Exploring specific and sensitive biomarkers will be helpful to early detection and will improve the survival rates of ovarian cancer patients. MAIN METHODS: Realtime PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-376a. Wound healing and transwell assays were used to examined the migration and invasion abilities of ovarian cancer cells. Tumor xenograft experiments were employed to test the in vivo malignancy of ovarian cancer cells...
December 12, 2016: Life Sciences
Yu-Fei Yao, Xiang Liu, Wen-Juan Li, Zi-Wei Shi, Yu-Xin Yan, Le-Feng Wang, Ming Chen, Ming-Yong Xie
AIMS: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol compound, plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of EGCG on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in Sarcoma 180 (S180) tumor-bearing mice. MAIN METHODS: S180 tumor-bearing mice were established by subcutaneous inoculation of S180 cells attached to the axillary region. The extent of myocardial injury was accessed by the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in serum...
December 9, 2016: Life Sciences
Wanan Xiao, Zhenyu Hu, Tianwei Li, Jianjun Li
AIMS: Splenectomy is sometimes required in bone fracture patients. The present study aims to investigate the effect of splenectomy on fracture healing in rats. MAIN METHODS: Rats underwent osteotomy were subjected to splenectomy. The effects of splenectomy were evaluated at day 0, 3, 15 and 30 post-fracture. Double immunofluorescence staining was used to examine the expression of macrophages marker F4/80 and CD11b. H&E staining was used to examine the histological changes in fracture sites...
December 9, 2016: Life Sciences
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