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Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762178/exercise-non-responders-genetic-curse-poor-compliance-or-improper-prescription
#1
Russell R Pate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672349/skeletal-muscle-function-in-the-oldest-old-the-role-of-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-factors
#2
Massimo Venturelli, Carlo Reggiani, Russell S Richardson, Federico Schena
Although skeletal muscle function is diminished with advanced age, single muscle fiber function appears to be preserved. Therefore, this review examines the hypothesis that the skeletal muscle fiber, per se, is not the predominant factor responsible for the reduction in force generating capacity in the oldest-old, but, rather, is attributable to a combination of factors external to the muscle fibers.
April 17, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664744/the-impact-of-aerobic-exercise-on-the-muscle-stem-cell-response
#3
Sophie Joanisse, Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Gianni Parise
Satellite cells are indispensable for skeletal muscle repair and regeneration and are associated with muscle growth in humans. Aerobic exercise training results in improved skeletal muscle health also translating to an increase in satellite cell pool activation. We postulate that aerobic exercise improves satellite cell function in skeletal muscle.
April 16, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664743/motor-learning-triggers-neuroplastic-processes-while-awake-and-during-sleep
#4
Nicole Wenderoth
Behavioral changes characteristic for motor learning result from synaptic plasticity within the sensorimotor system. This review summarizes how the central nervous system responds rapidly to motor activity while awake. It then discusses evidence for the hypothesis that sleep is essential for both stabilizing previously acquired motor memories and maintaining the brain's efficacy to undergo plastic changes to learn new skills.
April 16, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659417/circulating-microrna-as-emerging-biomarkers-of-exercise
#5
Manuel Fernández-Sanjurjo, David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Benjamín Fernández-García, Sergio Díez-Robles, Ángel Martínez-Canal, Hugo Olmedillas, Alberto Dávalos, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
An interest has recently emerged in the role of circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) as posttranscriptional regulators, intercellular communicators and, especially, as potential biomarkers of the systemic response to acute exercise and training. We propose that, with the limited, heterogeneous, and mainly descriptive information currently available, c-miRNAs do not provide a reliable biomarker of exercise in healthy or diseased individuals.
April 13, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652695/the-microvasculature-and-skeletal-muscle-health-in-aging
#6
Rian Q Landers-Ramos, Steven J Prior
Aging and aging-related declines in physical activity are associated with physical and metabolic impairments. Skeletal muscle capillarization is reduced in sedentary older adults, may contribute to impairments in skeletal muscle, and is modifiable by exercise training. This article examines the hypothesis that preservation of skeletal muscle capillarization is essential to maintain metabolism, fitness and function with aging.
April 12, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652694/perspectives-for-progress-performance-limitations-in-heart-transplant-recipients
#7
Wesley J Tucker, Rhys I Beaudry, T Jake Samuel, Michael D Nelson, Martin Halle, Aaron L Baggish, Mark J Haykowsky
We hypothesize that the reduced peak aerobic power (peak VO2) following heart transplantation (HT) is due to impaired cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, and its improvement with short-term (≤1 year) exercise training is primarily due to favorable skeletal muscle adaptations. Further, the increased peak VO2 with long-term (>2 years) training is primarily mediated by cardiac (sympathetic) reinnervation.
April 12, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652693/perspectives-for-progress-concepts-about-v-combining-dot-above-o2max-and-trainability-are-context-dependent
#8
Michael J Joyner, Carsten Lundby
Some individuals show little or no increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in response to training programs consistent with public health guidelines. However, results from studies using more intense programs challenge the concept that some humans have limited trainability. We explore the implications of these divergent observations on the biology of trainability and propose a new set of twin studies to explore them.
April 12, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652692/potential-roles-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-during-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#9
Kimberly A Huey
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) deletion in adult mouse muscle fibers contributes to impaired contractile and muscular adaptations to a hypertrophic stimulus suggesting a critical role in adult muscle growth. This review will explore the hypothesis that VEGF is essential for adult muscle growth by impacting inflammatory processes, satellite-endothelial cell interactions, and contractile protein accumulation by functioning within known hypertrophic signaling pathways including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-Akt) and Wnt-ß-catenin...
April 12, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346166/cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-children-and-youth-a-call-for-surveillance-but-now-how-do-we-do-it
#10
Jennifer M Sacheck, Sarah A Amin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346165/using-drosophila-to-understand-biochemical-and-behavioral-responses-to-exercise
#11
Alyson Sujkowski, Robert Wessells
The development of endurance exercise paradigms in Drosophila has facilitated study of genetic factors that control individual response to exercise. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that activation of octopaminergic neurons is alone sufficient to confer exercise adaptations to sedentary flies. These results suggest that adrenergic activity is both necessary and sufficient to promote endurance exercise adaptations.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346164/the-nuclear-receptor-nor-1-is-a-pleiotropic-regulator-of-exercise-induced-adaptations
#12
Michael A Pearen, George E O Muscat
Exercise induces various physical and metabolic changes in skeletal muscle that adaptively reprograms this tissue to current physiological and environmental demands. Underlying these changes are broad modifications to gene expression. We postulate that the nuclear hormone receptor, Nor-1, is activated after exercise, and this transcription factor modifies gene expression to drive the molecular and cellular adaptations associated with contractile reorganization.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346163/the-hippo-signaling-pathway-in-the-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function
#13
Kevin I Watt, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger, Paul Gregorevic
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates the activity of the proteins Yes-associated protein (Yap) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (Taz) to control tissue growth in many different cell types. Previously, we demonstrated that Yap is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass. We hypothesize that alterations in Yap and Taz activity modulate the anabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346162/specificity-of-live-high-train-low-altitude-training-on-exercise-performance
#14
Jacob Bejder, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but, unfortunately, control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of training camp effects. Importantly, when control groups, blinding procedures, and strict scientific evaluation criteria are applied, LHTL has no detectable effect on performance.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346161/promotion-of-exercise-in-multiple-sclerosis-through-health-care-providers
#15
Robert W Motl, Elizabeth A Barstow, Sarah Blaylock, Emma Richardson, Yvonne C Learmonth, Matthew Fifolt
Participation in exercise yields meaningful benefits among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet this population engages in low rates of health-promoting physical activity. The disconnect between evidence of benefits and rates of participation requires consideration of new opportunities for changing this health behavior. The current article hypothesizes that the patient-provider interaction offers a fertile opportunity for promoting exercise behavior in MS.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346160/potential-role-of-microrna-in-the-anabolic-capacity-of-skeletal-muscle-with-aging
#16
Lee M Margolis, Donato A Rivas
Age-induced loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, termed sarcopenia, may be the result of diminished response to anabolic stimulation. This review will explore the hypothesis that alterations in the expression of microRNA with aging contributes to reduced muscle plasticity resulting in impaired skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise-induced anabolic stimulation.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346159/making-a-case-for-cardiorespiratory-fitness-surveillance-among-children-and-youth
#17
Justin J Lang, Grant R Tomkinson, Ian Janssen, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega, Luc Léger, Mark S Tremblay
We review the evidence that supports cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as an important indicator of current and future health among school-aged children and youth, independent of physical activity levels. We discuss the merit of CRF measurement for population health surveillance and propose the development of CRF guidelines to help support regional, national, and international surveillance efforts.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346158/biomechanical-response-to-osteoarthritis-pain-treatment-may-impair-long-term-efficacy
#18
Katherine A Boyer
Pain has an important physiologic role and acts with or stimulates motor system adaptations to protect tissue from threats of damage. Although clinically beneficial, removing the protective pain response may have negative consequence in osteoarthritis, a mechanically mediated disease. We hypothesize motor system adaptations to joint pain and its treatment may impact osteoarthritis progression, thereby limiting efficacy of pain therapies.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346157/identifying-novel-signaling-pathways-an-exercise-scientists-guide-to-phosphoproteomics
#19
Gary M Wilson, Rocky Blanco, Joshua J Coon, Troy A Hornberger
We propose that phosphoproteomic-based studies will radically advance our knowledge about exercise-regulated signaling events. However, these studies use cutting-edge technologies that can be difficult for nonspecialists to understand. Hence, this review is intended to help nonspecialists 1) understand the fundamental technologies behind phosphoproteomic analysis and 2) use various bioinformatic tools that can be used to interrogate phosphoproteomic datasets.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166299/exercise-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-potential-therapeutic-implications
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer M Wiggins, Alexander B Opoku-Acheampong, Dryden R Baumfalk, Dietmar W Siemann, Bradley J Behnke
An imbalance in oxygen delivery to demand in solid tumors results in local areas of hypoxia leading to poor prognosis for the patient. We hypothesize that aerobic exercise increases tumor blood flow, recruits previously nonperfused tumor blood vessels, and thereby augments blood-tumor O2 transport and diminishes tumor hypoxia. When combined with conventional anticancer treatments, aerobic exercise can significantly improve the outcomes for several types of cancers.
January 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
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