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Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419004/small-sample-sizes-confound-understanding-of-cardiometabolic-responses-to-exercise
#1
Linda S Pescatello, Lauren M L Corso, Hayley V MacDonald, Paul D Thompson, Beth A Taylor, Gregory A Panza, Amanda L Zaleski, Blair T Johnson, Ming Hui Chen
Considerable variability exists in the cardiometabolic disease biomarker response to exercise. We propose a major contributor to this heterogeneity is underpowered studies due to small sample sizes. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a systematic review to identify meta-analyses/reviews of randomized control trials (RCTs) and RCTs that examined the cardiometabolic disease biomarker response to aerobic and resistance exercise.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419003/high-intensity-interval-training-for-older-people-no-pain-and-lots-of-gain
#2
Loretta DiPietro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419002/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-interconnections-between-stem-cells-and-protein-turnover
#3
Nicholas A Burd, Michael De Lisio
Nutrition and exercise are important components of a healthy lifestyle to improve rates of hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic skeletal muscle remodeling. We provide evidence to support the hypothesis that muscle stem cells and protein turnover are collaborative, not separate, mechanisms supporting muscle remodeling by facilitating protein, nuclear, and cellular turnover in response to the ingestion of protein dense foods and exercise.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419001/new-insights-into-the-impact-of-dehydration-on-blood-flow-and-metabolism-during-exercise
#4
Steven J Trangmar, José González-Alonso
Exercise-induced dehydration can lead to impaired perfusion to multiple regional tissues and organs. We propose that the impact of dehydration on regional blood flow and metabolism is dependent on the extent of the cardiovascular demand imposed by exercise, with the greatest physiological strain seen when approaching cardiovascular and aerobic capacities.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419000/exercise-induced-autophagy-in-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Sung Kook Chun, Sooyeon Lee, Ming-Jim Yang, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Jae-Sung Kim
Hepatic steatosis prevails each year. Autophagy is integral in mitochondrial quality control and lipid homeostasis in the liver. No pharmacological strategies are currently available to reduce hepatic steatosis, but exercise has been known to improve clinical outcomes of chronic liver disease, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent studies suggest that exercise may improve NAFLD through enhancing autophagy.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418999/interval-walking-training-can-increase-physical-fitness-in-middle-aged-and-older-people
#6
Shizue Masuki, Mayuko Morikawa, Hiroshi Nose
No long-term exercise training regimen with high adherence and effectiveness for middle-aged and older individuals is currently broadly available in the field. To address this problem, we developed an exercise training system comprising interval walking training and an IT network that requires only minimal staff support. We hypothesized that our training system could increase physical fitness in older people.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418998/physical-activity-as-cause-and-cure-of-muscular-pain-evidence-of-underlying-mechanisms
#7
Karen Søgaard, G Sjøgaard
Work-related physical activity (PA), in terms of peak loads, sustained and/or repetitive contractions presents risk factors for the development of muscular pain and disorders. However, PA as training tailored to the employee's work exposure, health, and physical capacity offers prevention and rehabilitation. We suggest the concept of "Intelligent Physical Exercise Training" relying on evidence-based sports science training principles.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4...
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418997/exercise-is-medicine%C3%A2-but-does-it-interfere-with-medicine
#8
Mackenzie McLaughlin, Ira Jacobs
Exercise is frequently prescribed therapeutically, either on its own or combined with drugs. A drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion can be affected by the user's anatomy and physiology which are both changed by the myriad of complex adaptations to acute and chronic exercise. This article reviews the research that suggests that exercise may influence a drug's plasma concentration, and thus its efficacy and safety.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418996/mobilizing-immune-cells-with-exercise-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
Richard J Simpson, Austin B Bigley, Nadia Agha, Patrick J Hanley, Catherine M Bollard
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation and adoptive transfer immunotherapy are effective in treating blood cancers and post-transplant infections, but low circulating cell numbers in patients and donors is oftentimes a limiting factor. We postulate that a single exercise bout will increase the yield of patient and donor-derived HSC's and cytotoxic lymphocytes to improve this form of treatment for cancer patients.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195850/commentary-to-accompany
#10
Russell R Pate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306678/the-complex-phenotype-of-the-athlete-s-heart-implications-for-preparticipation-screening
#11
Benjamin Brown, John Somauroo, Daniel J Green, Mathew Wilson, Jonathan Drezner, Keith George, David Oxborough
Preparticipation screening is vital to exclude inherited cardiac conditions that have the potential to cause sudden cardiac death in seemingly healthy athletes. Recent research has questioned traditional theories of load-induced, dichotomous cardiac adaptation. We therefore considered whether a one-size-fits-all approach to screening can account for interindividual differences brought about by sporting discipline, training volume, ethnicity, body size, sex, and age.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306677/changing-sex-hormones-represent-a-cardiovascular-disadvantage-for-aging-women
#12
Sarah Witkowski, Corinna Serviente
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306676/sedentary-behavior-and-mechanisms-of-cardiovascular-disease-getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter
#13
Megan S Grace, Rachel E D Climie, David W Dunstan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145908/joint-loading-in-runners-does-not-initiate-knee-osteoarthritis
#14
Ross H Miller
Runners do not have a greater prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) than nonrunners. The hypothesis that joint loads in running do not cause OA is forwarded. Two mechanisms are proposed: 1) cumulative load, which is surprisingly low in running, is more important for OA risk than peak load, and 2) running conditions cartilage to withstand the mechanical stresses of running.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118158/sedentary-behavior-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-mediating-mechanisms
#15
Sophie Carter, Yvonne Hartman, Sophie Holder, Dick H Thijssen, Nicola D Hopkins
Sedentary behavior has a strong association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, which may be independent of physical activity. To date, the mechanism(s) that mediate this relationship are poorly understood. We hypothesize that sedentary behavior modifies key hemodynamic, inflammatory, and metabolic processes resulting in impaired arterial health. Subsequently, these vascular impairments directly and indirectly contribute to the development of CVD.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098577/mitochondria-initiate-and-regulate-sarcopenia
#16
Stephen E Alway, Junaith S Mohamed, Matthew J Myers
We present the hypothesis that an accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria initiates a signaling cascade leading to motor neuron and muscle fiber death and culminating in sarcopenia. Interactions between neural and muscle cells that contain dysfunctional mitochondria exacerbate sarcopenia. Preventing sarcopenia will require identifying mitochondrial sources of dysfunction that are reversible.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092298/individualized-exercise-interventions-for-spinal-pain
#17
Deborah Falla, Paul W Hodges
Exercise is the most effective treatment for the management and prevention of spinal pain; yet on average, it delivers small to moderate treatment effects, which are rarely long lasting. This review examines the hypothesis that outcome of exercise interventions can be optimized when targeted toward the right patients and when tailored to address the neuromuscular impairments of each individual.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092297/vascular-adaptations-to-habitual-exercise-in-older-adults-time-for-the-sex-talk
#18
Kerrie L Moreau, Cemal Ozemek
Regular exercise is promoted as a therapeutic strategy for age-associated endothelial dysfunction. Improvements in endothelial function are observed with endurance exercise in older men, but are diminished or absent in older women. This article examines the hypothesis that sex hormones modulate vascular adaptations to exercise training by influencing antioxidant defense systems, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and intracellular signaling.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072585/arterial-ventricular-uncoupling-with-age-and-disease-and-recoupling-with-exercise
#19
Paul D Chantler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092299/the-complex-phenotype-of-the-athletes-heart-implications-for-pre-participation-screening
#20
Benjamin Brown, Daniel J Green, Matthew Wilson, Jonathan Drezner, Keith George, David Oxborough
Pre-participation screening is vital to exclude inherited cardiac conditions which have the potential to cause sudden cardiac death in seemingly healthy athletes. Recent research has questioned traditional theories of load-induced, dichotomous cardiac adaptation. We therefore considered whether a "one-size-fits-all" approach to screening can account for inter-individual differences brought about by sporting discipline, training volume, ethnicity, body size, sex and age.
January 13, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
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