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Journal of Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637820/dynamic-mechanisms-of-visually-guided-3d-motion-tracking
#1
Kathryn L Bonnen, Alexander C Huk, Lawrence Kevin Cormack
The continuous perception of motion-through-depth is critical both for navigation and interacting with objects in a dynamic three dimensional (3D) world. Here we used 3D tracking to simultaneously assess the perception of motion in all directions, facilitating comparisons of responses to motion-through-depth to frontoparallel motion. Observers manually tracked a stereoscopic target as it moved in a 3D Brownian random walk. We found that continuous tracking of motion-through-depth was selectively impaired, showing different spatiotemporal properties compared to frontoparallel motion tracking...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637819/long-interval-intracortical-inhibition-is-asymmetric-in-young-but-not-older-adults
#2
Ann-Maree Vallence, Elizabeth Smalley, Peter Drummond, Geoff Hammond
Aging is typically accompanied by a decline in manual dexterity and handedness; the dominant hand executes tasks of manual dexterity more quickly and accurately than the non-dominant hand in younger adults, but this advantage typically declines with age. Age-related changes in intracortical inhibitory processes might play a role in the age-related decline in manual dexterity. Long interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is asymmetric in young adults, with more sensitive and more powerful LICI circuits in the dominant hemisphere than the non-dominant hemisphere...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637818/the-cerebellum-does-more-than-sensory-prediction-error-based-learning-in-sensorimotor-adaptation-tasks
#3
Peter A Butcher, Richard B Ivry, Sheng-Han Kuo, David Rydz, John W Krakauer, Jordan A Taylor
Individuals with damage to the cerebellum perform poorly in sensorimotor adaptation paradigms. This deficit has been attributed to impairment in sensory-prediction-error-based updating of an internal forward model, a form of implicit learning. These individuals can, however, successfully counter a perturbation when instructed with an explicit aiming strategy. This successful use of an instructed aiming strategy presents a paradox: In adaptation tasks, why don't individuals with cerebellar damage come up with an aiming solution on their own to compensate for their implicit learning deficit? To explore this question, we employed a variant of a visuomotor rotation task in which, prior to executing a movement on each trial, the participants verbally reported their intended aiming location...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637817/the-neural-mechanisms-able-to-predict-future-emotion-regulation-decisions
#4
Robert Colin Alan Bendall
Emotion regulation is crucial in maintaining healthy psychological wellbeing, and its dysregulation is often linked to a range of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. The neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy, have been shown to include the amygdala and regions of the prefrontal cortex. A novel study by Dore, Weber, and Ochsner (2017) has demonstrated that neural activity in these regions during uninstructed visualization of affective stimuli can successfully predict which individuals are more likely to subsequently employ emotion regulation, and under what circumstances...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637816/timing-during-transitions-in-bengalese-finch-song-implications-for-motor-sequencing
#5
Todd W Troyer, Michael S Brainard, Kristofer E Bouchard
To investigate mechanisms of action sequencing, we examined the relationship between timing and sequencing of syllables in Bengalese finch song. An individual's song comprises acoustically distinct syllables organized into probabilistic sequences: a given syllable potentially can transition to several different syllables (divergence points) and several different syllables can transition to a given syllable (convergence points). In agreement with previous studies, we found that more probable transitions at divergence points occur with shorter inter-syllable gaps...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637815/the-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-excites-subfornical-organ-neurons
#6
Nick James Simpson, Alastair V Ferguson
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in cardiovascular and autonomic regulation via actions in the central nervous system. TNFα(-/-) mice do not develop angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension, and administration of TNFα into the bloodstream of rats increases blood pressure and sympathetic tone. Recent studies have shown that lesion of the subfornical organ (SFO) attenuates the hypertensive and autonomic effects of TNFα, while direct administration of TNFα into the SFO increases blood pressure, suggesting the SFO to be a key site for the actions of TNFα...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637814/effective-assessments-of-electroencephalography-during-stroke-recovery-contemporary-approaches-and-considerations
#7
Kartik K Iyer
Stroke is one of the leading causes of permanent disability worldwide, relying conventionally on extended periods of physiotherapy to recover functional ability. While neuroimaging techniques and emerging neurorehabilitation paradigms have advanced our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying stroke, recent evidence has renewed focus on quantifying cortical features of electroencephalography to greatly enhance our understanding of stroke recovery. This Neuro Forum article reviews these key advances and discusses the importance of quantifying electroencephalography in future assessments of stroke survivors...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637813/contribution-of-blood-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide-sensing-to-the-energetic-optimization-of-human-walking
#8
Jeremy D Wong, Shawn M O'Connor, Jessica C Selinger, J Maxwell Donelan
People can adapt their gait to minimize energetic cost, indicating that walking's neural control has access to ongoing measurements of the body's energy use. Here we test the hypothesis that an important source of energetic cost measurements arises from blood gas receptors that are sensitive to oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. These receptors are known to play a role in regulating other physiological processes related to energy consumption, such as ventilation rate. And due to the role of oxygen and carbon dioxide in oxidative metabolism, sensing their levels can provide an accurate estimate of the body's total energy use...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637812/sensitivity-of-neurons-in-the-middle-temporal-area-of-marmoset-monkeys-to-random-dot-motion
#9
Tristan A Chaplin, Benjamin J Allitt, Maureen A Hagan, Nicholas Sc Price, Ramesh Rajan, Marcello G P Rosa, Leo L Lui
Neurons in the Middle Temporal area (MT) of the primate cerebral cortex respond to moving visual stimuli. The sensitivity of MT neurons to motion signals can be characterized by using random-dot stimuli, in which the strength of the motion signal is manipulated by adding different levels of noise (elements that move in random directions). In macaques, this has allowed the calculation of "neurometric" thresholds. We characterized the responses of MT neurons in sufentanil/nitrous oxide anesthetized marmoset monkeys, a species which has attracted considerable recent interest as an animal model for vision research...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615342/supramodal-representation-of-temporal-priors-calibrates-interval-timing
#10
Huihui Zhang, Xiaolin Zhou
Human timing behaviors are consistent with Bayesian inference, according to which both previous knowledge (prior) and current sensory information determine final responses. However, it is unclear whether the brain represents temporal priors exclusively for individual modalities or in a supramodal manner when temporal information comes from different modalities at different times. Here we asked participants to reproduce time intervals in either a unisensory or a multisensory context. In unisensory tasks, sample intervals drawn from a uniform distribution were presented in a single visual or auditory modality...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615341/high-frequency-epidural-stimulation-across-the-respiratory-cycle-evokes-phrenic-short-term-potentiation-after-incomplete-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi, Kristi A Streeter, Marie H Hanna, Anna C Stamas, Paul J Reier, David M Baekey, David D Fuller
C2 spinal hemilesion (C2Hx) paralyzes the ipsilateral diaphragm, but recovery is possible through activation of "crossed spinal" synaptic inputs to ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons. We tested the hypothesis that high frequency epidural stimulation (HF-ES) would potentiate ipsilateral phrenic output after subacute and chronic C2Hx. HF-ES (300 Hz) was applied to the ventrolateral C4 or T2 spinal cord ipsilateral to C2Hx in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats. Stimulus duration was 60-sec and currents ranged from 100-1000 µA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615340/perspectives-on-classical-controversies-about-the-motor-cortex
#12
Mohsen Omrani, Matthew T Kaufman, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Paul D Cheney
Primary motor cortex has been studied for more than a century, yet a consensus on its functional contribution to movement control is still out of reach. In particular, there remains controversy as to the level of control produced by motor cortex ("low level" movement dynamics vs. "high-level" movement kinematics) and the role of sensory feedback. Here we present different perspectives on the two following questions: What does activity in motor cortex reflect? And, how do planned motor commands interact with incoming sensory feedback during movement? The four authors each present their independent views on how they think the primary motor cortex (M1) controls movement...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615339/interhemispheric-interactions-between-trunk-muscle-representations-of-the-primary-motor-cortex
#13
Loyda Jean-Charles, Jean-François Nepveu, Joan E Deffeyes, Guillaume Elgbeili, Numa Dancause, Dorothy Barthélemy
Unilateral arm movements require trunk stabilization through bilateral contraction of axial muscles. Interhemispheric interactions between primary motor cortices (M1) could enable such coordinated contractions but these mechanisms are largely unknown. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we characterized interhemispheric interactions between M1 representations of the trunk stabilizing muscle erector spinae at 1(st) lumbar vertebra (ES L1) during a right isometric shoulder flexion. These interactions were compared to those of Anterior Deltoid (AD), the main agonist in this task, and the first dorsal interosseous (FDI)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615338/activity-of-primate-v1-neurons-during-the-gap-saccade-task
#14
Kayeon Kim, Choongkil Lee
When a saccadic eye movement is made toward a visual stimulus, the variability in accompanying V1 activity is related to saccade latency in both human (Bompas et al., 2015) and non-human (Lee et al., 2010) primates. In order to understand the nature of this relationship, we examined the functional link between V1 activity and the initiation of visually guided saccades during the gap saccade task, in which a brief temporal gap is interposed between the turning off of a fixation stimulus and the appearance of a saccadic target...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615337/accumulation-of-methylglyoxal-increases-the-advanced-glycation-end-products-levels-in-drg-and-contributes-to-lumbar-disc-herniation-induced-persistent-pain
#15
Cui-Cui Liu, Xin-Sheng Zhang, Yu-Ting Ruan, Zhu-Xi Huang, Su-Bo Zhang, Meng Liu, Hai-Jie Luo, Shao-Ling Wu, Chao Ma
Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) with discogenic low back pain and sciatica is a common and complicated musculoskeletal disorder. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and there are no effective therapies for LDH-induced pain. In the present study, we found that the patients who suffered from LDH-induced pain had elevated plasma methylglyoxal (MG) levels. In rats, implantation of autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) to the left lumbar 5 spinal nerve root, which mimicked LDH, induced mechanical allodynia and increased MG level in plasma and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and enhanced the excitability of small DRG neurons (< 30μm in diameter)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615336/prevention-and-reversal-of-latent-sensitization-of-dorsal-horn-neurons-by-glial-blockers-in-a-model-of-low-back-pain-in-male-rats
#16
Juanjuan Zhang, Siegfried Mense, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Ulrich Hoheisel
In an animal model of non-specific low back pain, recordings from dorsal horn neurons were made to investigate the influence of glial cells in the central sensitization process. To induce a latent sensitization of the neurons, nerve growth factor (NGF) was injected into the multifidus muscle; the manifest sensitization to a second NGF injection 5 days later was used as a read-out. The sensitization manifested in increased resting activity and in an increased proportion of neurons responding to stimulation of deep somatic tissues...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615335/wakefulness-suppresses-retinal-wave-related-neural-activity-in-visual-cortex
#17
Didhiti Mukherjee, Alex J Yonk, Greta Sokoloff, Mark S Blumberg
In the developing visual system before eye opening, spontaneous retinal waves trigger bursts of neural activity in downstream structures, including visual cortex. At the same ages when retinal waves provide the predominant input to the visual system, sleep is the predominant behavioral state. However, the interactions between behavioral state and retinal-wave-driven activity have never been explicitly examined. Here, we characterized unit activity in visual cortex during spontaneous sleep-wake cycles in 9- and 12-day-old rats...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615334/diffusion-weighted-tractography-in-the-common-marmoset-monkey-at-9-4-t
#18
David J Schaeffer, Ramina Adam, Kyle M Gilbert, Joseph S Gati, Alex X Li, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular in the neurosciences as an animal model of preclinical human disease. With several major disorders characterized by alterations in neural white matter (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia) proposed to be transgenically modelled using marmosets, the ability to reliably isolate and characterize major white matter fiber tracts with MRI will be of utility for evaluating structural brain changes related to disease processes and symptomatology...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615333/excitability-and-firing-behavior-of-single-slow-motor-axons-transmitting-natural-repetitive-firing-of-human-motoneurons
#19
Lydia P Kudina, Regina E Andreeva
Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function - transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibres. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615332/different-roles-for-inhibition-in-the-rhythm-generating-respiratory-network
#20
Kameron Decker Harris, Tatiana Dashevskiy, Joshua Mendoza, Alfredo J Garcia, Jan-Marino Ramirez, Eric Shea-Brown
Unraveling the interplay of excitation and inhibition within rhythm-generating networks remains a fundamental issue in neuroscience. We use a biophysical model to investigate the different roles of local and long-range inhibition in the respiratory network, a key component of which is the pre-Bötzinger complex inspiratory microcircuit. Increasing inhibition within the microcircuit results in a limited number of out-of-phase neurons before rhythmicity and synchrony degenerate. Thus, unstructured local inhibition is destabilizing and cannot support the generation of more than one rhythm...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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