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Journal of Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228586/modeling-the-diversity-of-spontaneous-and-agonist-induced-electrical-activity-in-anterior-pituitary-corticotrophs
#1
Patrick Allen Fletcher, Hana Zemkova, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Arthur Sherman
Pituitary corticotrophs fire action potentials spontaneously and in response to stimulation with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vaspressin (AVP), and such electrical activity is critical for calcium signaling and calcium-dependent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. These cells typically fire tall sharp action potentials when spontaneously active, but a variety of other spontaneous patterns have also been reported, including various modes of bursting. There is variability in reports of the fraction of corticotrophs that are electrically active, as well as their patterns of activity, and the sources of this variation are not well understood...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228585/fixation-target-representation-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-anti-saccade-task
#2
Xin Zhou, Christos Constantinidis
Neurons that discharge strongly during the time period of fixation of a visual target and cease to discharge prior to saccade initiation have been described in the brain stem, superior colliculus, and cortical areas. In subcortical structures, fixation neurons play a reciprocal role with saccadic neurons during the generation of eye movements. Their role in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is less obvious and it is not known if they are activated by fixation, inhibit saccade generation, or play a role in more complex functions such as the inhibition of inappropriate responses...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228584/high-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-early-to-late-middle-age-preserves-the-cortical-circuitry-associated-with-brain-heart-integration-during-volitional-exercise
#3
Katelyn N Wood, Torri A Luchyshyn, J Kevin Shoemaker
This study tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) preserves the cortical circuitry associated with cardiac arousal during exercise in middle to older-aged individuals. Observations of changes in heart rate (HR) and in cortical blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) images were made in 52 healthy, active individuals (45-73 years; 16 female) across a range of fitness (26-66mL/kg/min). Seven repeated bouts of isometric handgrip (IHG) at 40% MVC force were performed using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3-Tesla, with each contraction lasting 20 sec and separated by 40 sec of rest...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228582/multi-digit-force-control-during-unconstrained-grasping-in-response-to-object-perturbations
#5
Abdeldjallil Naceri, Alessandro Moscatelli, Robert Haschke, Helge Ritter, Marco Santello, Marc O Ernst
Because of the complex anatomy of the human hand, in the absence of external constraints a large number of postures and force combinations can be used to attain a stable grasp. Motor synergies provide a viable strategy to solve this problem of motor redundancy. In this study, we exploited the technical advantages of an innovative sensorized object to study unconstrained hand grasping within the theoretical framework of motor synergies. Participants were required to grasp, lift, and hold the sensorized object...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228581/spaceflight-induced-synaptic-modifications-within-hair-cells-of-the-mammalian-utricle
#6
David R Sultemeier, Kristel R Choy, Felix E Schweizer, Larry F Hoffman
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field upon the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations showed that spaceflight induced an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiologic heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228580/probing-phase-and-frequency-dependent-characteristics-of-cortical-neurons-using-combined-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-transcranial-magnetic
#7
Sara Jeanne Hussain, Nivethida Thirugnanasambandam
Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral stimulation combined with TMS can be used to study cortical interneuronal circuitry. By combining these procedures with concurrent transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), Guerra and colleagues recently showed that different cortical interneuronal populations are differentially modulated by the phase and frequency of tACS-imposed oscillations (Guerra et al. 2016, Phase dependency of the human primary motor cortex and cholinergic inhibition cancellation during beta tACS, Cerebral Cortex 26:3977-2990)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228579/network-wide-oscillations-in-the-parkinsonian-state-alterations-in-neuronal-activities-occur-in-the-premotor-cortex-in-parkinsonian-non-human-primates
#8
Jing Wang, Luke A Johnson, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Jerrold L Vitek
A number of studies suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with alterations of neuronal activity patterns in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. There are limited electrophysiological data, however, describing how premotor cortex, which is involved in movement and decision making, is likely impacted in PD. In this study, spontaneous local field potential (LFP) and single unit neuronal activity were recorded in the dorsal premotor area of non-human primates in both the naïve and parkinsonian state using the MPTP model of parkinsonism...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202576/differential-effect-of-brief-electrical-stimulation-on-voltage-gated-potassium-channels
#9
Morven Alison Cameron, Amr Al Abed, Yossi Buskila, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, John W Morley
Electrical stimulation of neuronal tissue is a promising strategy to treat a variety of neurological disorders. The mechanism of neuronal activation by external electrical stimulation is governed by voltage-gated ion channels. This stimulus, typically brief in nature, leads to membrane potential depolarization, which increases ion flow across the membrane by increasing the open probability of these voltage-gated channels. In spiking neurons, it is activation of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV-channels) that leads to action potential generation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202575/models-of-utricular-bouton-afferents-role-of-afferent-hair-cell-connectivity-in-determining-spike-train-regularity
#10
William R Holmes, Janice A Huwe, Barbara Williams, Michael H Rowe, Ellengene H Peterson
Vestibular bouton afferent terminals in turtle utricle can be categorized into four types depending on their location and terminal arbor structure: lateral extrastriolar (LES), striolar, juxtastriolar, and medial extrastriolar (MES). The terminal arbors of these afferents differ in surface area, total length, collecting area, number of boutons, number of bouton contacts per hair cell and axon diameter (Huwe et al. 2015). To understand how differences in terminal morphology and the resulting hair cell inputs might affect afferent response properties, we modeled representative afferents from each region, using reconstructed bouton afferents (Huwe et al...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202574/action-potentials-and-ion-conductances-in-wild-type-and-calhm1-knockout-type-ii-taste-cells
#11
Zhongming Ma, Wint Thu Saung, J Kevin Foskett
Taste bud type II cells fire action potentials in response to tastants, triggering non-vesicular ATP release to gustatory neurons via voltage-gated CALHM1-associated ion channels. Whereas CALHM1 regulates mouse cortical neuron excitability, its roles in regulating type II cell excitability are unknown. Here, we compared membrane conductances and action potentials in single identified TRPM5-GFP-expressing circumvallate papillae type II cells acutely isolated from wild-type (WT) and Calhm1-knockout (KO) mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202573/alteration-of-the-microsaccadic-velocity-amplitude-main-sequence-relationship-after-visual-transients-implications-for-models-of-saccade-control
#12
Antimo Buonocore, Chih-Yang Chen, Xiaoguang Tian, Saad Idrees, Thomas Muench, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades occur during gaze fixation in order to correct for miniscule foveal motor errors. The mechanisms governing such fine oculomotor control are still not fully understood. In this study, we explored microsaccade control by analyzing the impacts of transient visual stimuli on these movements' kinematics. We found that such kinematics can be altered in systematic ways depending on the timing and spatial geometry of visual transients relative to the movement goals. In two male rhesus macaques, we presented peripheral or foveal visual transients during an otherwise stable period of fixation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202572/differential-regulation-of-nmda-receptors-by-d-serine-and-glycine-in-mammalian-spinal-locomotor-networks
#13
David Acton, Gareth Brian Miles
Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) requires the binding of a co-agonist, either D-serine or glycine, in addition to glutamate. Changes in occupancy of the co-agonist binding site are proposed to modulate neural networks including those controlling swimming in frog tadpoles. Here, we characterize regulation of the NMDAR co-agonist binding site in mammalian spinal locomotor networks. Blockade of NMDARs by D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-APV) or 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid reduced the frequency and amplitude of pharmacologically induced locomotor-related activity recorded from the ventral roots of spinal-cord preparations from neonatal mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202571/temporal-dynamics-of-retinal-and-extraretinal-signals-in-the-fefsem-during-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements
#14
Leah Bakst, Jerome Fleuriet, Michael J Mustari
Neurons in the smooth eye movement subregion of the Frontal Eye Field (FEFsem) are known to play an important role in voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements. Underlying this function are projections to parietal and prefrontal visual association areas and subcortical structures, all known to play vital, but differing roles in the execution of smooth pursuit. Additionally, the FEFsem has been shown to carry a diverse array of signals (e.g. eye velocity, acceleration, gain control). We hypothesized that distinct subpopulations of FEFsem neurons subserve these diverse functions and projections, and that the relative weights of retinal and extraretinal signals could form the basis for categorization of units...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202570/aav-mediated-delivery-of-optogenetic-constructs-to-the-macaque-brain-triggers-humoral-immune-responses
#15
Skyler D Mendoza, Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Gregory D Horwitz
Gene delivery to the primate central nervous system via recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) allows neurophysiologists to control and observe neural activity precisely. A current limitation of this approach is variability in vector transduction efficiency. Low levels of transduction can foil experimental manipulations, prompting vector readministration. The ability to make multiple vector injections into the same animal, even in cases where successful vector transduction has already been achieved, is also desirable...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202569/local-vs-volume-conductance-activity-of-field-potentials-in-the-human-subthalamic-nucleus
#16
Odeya Marmor, Dan Valsky, Mati Joshua, Atira S Bick, David Arkadir, Idit Tamir, Hagai Bergmann, Zvi Israel, Renana Eitan
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus field potentials have attracted growing research and clinical interest over the last few decades. However, it is unclear whether subthalamic field potentials represent locally generated neuronal subthreshold activity or volume conductance of the organized neuronal activity generated in the cortex. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at understanding of the physiological origin of subthalamic field potentials and determining the most accurate method for recording them...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202568/developmental-role-of-dscam-in-spinal-locomotor-circuits
#17
Carl Farah
Studying the development of spinal circuitry is essential in understanding the motor behaviors that arise from them. In their study, Thiry et al. (J Neurophysiol 115: 1338-1354, 2016) show that loss of DSCAM leads to locomotor impairments that may stem from specific changes in spinal connectivity altering the balance of central and peripheral excitatory drive onto spinal motoneurons. These findings, as well as additional insights and future directions, are discussed in the context of the recent literature.
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179480/transient-voltage-activated-k-currents-in-central-antennal-lobe-neurons-cell-type-specific-functional-properties
#18
Lars Paeger, Viktor Bardos, Peter Kloppenburg
Here we analyzed transient voltage-activated K(+) currents (IA) of projection neurons and local interneurons in the antennal lobe (AL) of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. The AL is the first synaptic processing station for olfactory information in insects. Local interneurons are crucial for computing olfactory information and form local synaptic connections exclusively in the AL, while a primary task of the projection neurons is the transfer of preprocessed olfactory information from the AL to the protocerebrum...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179479/impaired-auditory-to-motor-entrainment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Erik S Te Woerd, Robert Oostenveld, Floris Pieter De Lange, Peter Praamstra
Several electrophysiological studies suggest that PD patients have a reduced tendency to entrain to regular environmental patterns. Here we investigate whether this reduced entrainment concerns a generalized deficit or is confined to movement-related activity, leaving sensory entrainment intact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded during a rhythmic auditory target detection task in 14 PD patients and 14 control subjects. Participants were instructed to press a button when hearing a target tone amidst an isochronous sequence of standard tones...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179478/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-current-hand-amputees-reveals-evidence-for-neuronal-level-changes-in-former-sensorimotor-cortex
#20
Carmen M Cirstea, In-Young Choi, Phil Lee, Huiling Peng, Christina L Kaufman, Scott H Frey
Deafferentation is accompanied by large-scale functional reorganization of maps in the primary sensory and motor areas of the hemisphere contralateral to injury. Animal models of deafferentation suggest a variety of cellular-level structural changes including depression of neuronal metabolism and even neuronal death. Whether similar neuronal changes contribute to patterns of reorganization within the contralateral sensorimotor cortex of chronic human amputees is uncertain. We used a functional MRI-guided proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to test the hypothesis that unilateral deafferentation is associated with lower absolute levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, a putative marker of neuronal integrity) in the sensorimotor hand territory located contralateral to the missing hand in chronic amputees (N=19) as compared to the analogous hand territory of age/sex-matched healthy controls (N=28)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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