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Journal of Neurophysiology

Ryohei Shibue, Fumiyasu Komaki
Neural decoding is a framework for reconstructing external stimuli from spike trains recorded in brains. Kloosterman et al. (2014) proposed a new decoding method using marked point processes. This method does not require spike sorting and thereby improves decoding accuracy dramatically. In this method, they used kernel density estimation to estimate intensity functions of marked point processes. However, using kernel density estimation causes problems. To overcome these problems, we propose a new decoding method using infinite mixture models to estimate intensity...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Erin McKenna, Laurence C Jayet Bray, Weiwei Zhou, Wilsaan Mychal Joiner
Delays in transmitting and processing sensory information require correctly associating delayed feedback to issued motor commands for accurate error compensation. The flexibility of this alignment between motor signals and feedback has been demonstrated for movement recalibration to visual manipulations, but the alignment dependence for adapting movement dynamics is largely unknown. Here we examined the effect of visual feedback manipulations on force-field adaptation. Three subject groups used a manipulandum while experiencing a lag in the corresponding cursor motion (0, 75 or 150 ms)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sergey G Khasabov, Patrick Malecha, Joseph Noack, Janneta Tabakov, Glenn J Giesler, Donald A Simone
Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) project to the spinal cord and are involved in descending modulation of pain. Several studies have shown that activation of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors in the RVM produces hyperalgesia, although underlying mechanisms are not clear. In parallel studies, we compared behavioral measures of hyperalgesia to electrophysiological responses of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons produced by activation of NK-1 receptors in the RVM. Injection of the selective NK-1 receptor agonist, Sar9,Met(O2)(11)-Substance P (SSP) into the RVM produced dose-dependent mechanical and heat hyperalgesia that was blocked by co-administration of the selective NK-1 receptor antagonist, L-733,060...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sara E Morrison, Vincent B McGinty, Johann du Hoffmann, Saleem M Nicola
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has often been described as a "limbic-motor interface," implying that the NAc integrates the value of expected rewards with the motor planning required to obtain them. However, there is little direct evidence that the signaling of individual NAc neurons combines information about predicted reward and behavioral response. Here, we report that cue-evoked neural responses in the NAc form a likely physiological substrate for its limbic-motor integration function. Across task contexts, individual NAc neurons in behaving rats robustly encode the reward-predictive qualities of a cue, as well as the probability of behavioral response to the cue, as coexisting components of the neural signal...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Wei Song Ong, Koorosh Mirpour, James W Bisley
We can search for and locate specific objects in our environment by looking for objects with similar features. Object recognition involves stimulus similarity responses in ventral visual areas and task related responses in prefrontal cortex. We tested whether neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of posterior parietal cortex could form an intermediary representation, collating information from object specific similarity map representations to allow general decisions about whether a stimulus matches the object being looked for...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mahmood Sayed Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
Bursts of oscillatory neural activity have been hypothesized to be a core mechanism by which remote brain regions can communicate. Such hypothesis raises the question to what extent oscillations are coherent across spatially distant neural populations. To address this question, we obtained local field potential (LFP) and membrane potential recordings from the visual cortex of turtle in response to visual stimulation of the retina. The time-frequency analysis of these recordings revealed pronounced bursts of oscillatory neural activity and a large trial-to-trial variability in the spectral and temporal properties of the observed oscillations...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Joachim Bellet, Chih-Yang Chen, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades are tiny saccades that occur during gaze fixation. Even though visual processing has been shown to be strongly modulated close to the time of microsaccades, both at central and peripheral eccentricities, it is not clear how these eye movements might influence longer-term fluctuations in brain activity and behavior. Here we found that visual processing is significantly affected, and in a rhythmic manner, even several hundreds of milliseconds after a microsaccade. Human visual detection efficiency, as measured by reaction time, exhibited coherent rhythmic oscillations in the α and β frequency bands for up to ~650-700 ms after a microsaccade...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jason Lloyd Chan, Michael J Koval, Kevin Johnston, Stefan Everling
Successful task switching requires a network of brain areas to select, maintain, implement, and execute the appropriate task. Although frontoparietal brain areas are thought to play a critical role in task switching by selecting and encoding task rules and exerting top-down control, how brain areas closer to the execution of tasks participate in task switching is unclear. The superior colliculus (SC) integrates information from various brain areas to generate saccades and is likely influenced by task switching...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Bridgette Johnson, Rebeka Verma, Manying Sun, Timothy D Hanks
A critical component of decision making is determining when to commit to a choice. This involves stopping rules that specify the requirements for decision commitment. Flexibility of decision stopping rules provides an important means of control over decision making processes. In many situations, these stopping rules establish a balance between premature decisions and late decisions. Here we use a novel change detection paradigm to examine how subjects control this balance when invoking different decision stopping rules...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Guillaume Avrin, Isabelle Anne Siegler, Maria Makarov, Pedro Rodriguez-Ayerbe
The present paper investigates the sensory-driven modulations of Central Pattern Generators dynamics that can be expected to reproduce human behavior during rhythmic hybrid tasks. We propose a theoretical model of human sensorimotor behavior able to account for the observed data from the ball-bouncing task. The novel control architecture is composed of a Matsuoka neural oscillator parametrically controlled by a sensorimotor controller and coupled with the environment through visual sensory feedback. The architecture's ability to reproduce human-like performance during the ball-bouncing task in the presence of perturbations is quantified by comparison of simulated and recorded trials...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Benton S Purnell, Michael A Hajek, Gordon F Buchanan
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in refractory epilepsy patients. While specific mechanisms underlying SUDEP are not well understood, evidence suggests most SUDEP occurs due to seizure-induced respiratory arrest. SUDEP also tends to happen at night. While this may be due to circumstances humans find themselves in at night, such as being alone without supervision or sleeping prone, or due to independent influences of sleep state, there are a number of reasons why the night (i...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Stephen T Foldes, Douglas John Weber, Jennifer L Collinger
After paralysis, the disconnection between the cortex and its peripheral targets leads to neuroplasticity throughout the nervous system. However, it is unclear how chronic paralysis specifically impacts cortical oscillations associated with attempted movement of impaired limbs. We hypothesized that mu (8-13Hz) and beta (15-30Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) would be less modulated for individuals with hand paralysis due to cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). To test this, we compared the modulation of ERD from magnetoencephalography (MEG) during attempted and imagined grasping performed by participants with cervical SCI (n = 12) and able-bodied controls (n = 13)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Weiwei Zhou, Justin Fitzgerald, Katrina Colucci-Chang, Karthik G Murthy, Wilsaan Mychal Joiner
Movement adaptation in response to systematic motor perturbations exhibits distinct spatial and temporal properties. These characteristics are typically studied in isolation, leaving the interaction largely unknown. Here, we examined how the temporal decay of visuomotor adaptation influences the spatial generalization of the motor recalibration. First, we quantified the extent adaptation decayed over time. Subjects reached to a peripheral target and a rotation was applied to the visual feedback of the unseen motion...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Martina Postorino, Elisabeth S May, Moritz M Nickel, Laura Tiemann, Markus Ploner
The protective function of pain depends on appropriate motor responses to avoid injury and promote recovery. The preparation and execution of motor responses is, thus, an essential part of pain. However, it is not yet fully understood how pain and motor processes interact in the brain. We here used electroencephalography to investigate the effects of pain on motor preparation in the human brain. 20 healthy human participants performed a motor task in which they performed button presses to stop increasingly painful thermal stimuli when they became intolerable...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yuriria Vazquez, Laura Federici, Bijan Pesaran
Reaching is an essential behavior that allows primates to interact with the environment. Precise reaching to visual targets depends on our ability to localize and foveate the target. Despite this, how the saccade system contributes to improvements in reach accuracy remains poorly understood. To assess spatial contributions of eye movements to reach accuracy, we performed a series of behavioral psychophysics experiments in non-human primates (M. mulatta). We found that a coordinated saccade with a reach to a remembered target location increases reach accuracy without target foveation...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Anindita Das, Rishikesh Narayanan
The ability to distill specific frequencies from complex spatiotemporal patterns of afferent inputs is a pivotal functional requirement for neurons residing in networks receiving frequency-multiplexed inputs. Although the expression of theta-frequency subthreshold resonance is established in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, it is not known if their spike initiation dynamics manifest spectral selectivity or if their intrinsic properties are tuned to process gamma-frequency inputs. Here, we measured the spike-triggered average (STA) of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons through electrophysiological recordings and quantified spectral selectivity in their spike initiation dynamics and their coincidence detection window (CDW)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Keitaro Obara, Kazunori O'Hashi, Manabu Tanifuji
Visual object information is conveyed from V1 to area TE along the ventral visual pathway with increasing receptive field (RF) sizes. The RFs of TE neurons are known to be large, but it is largely unknown how large RFs are shaped along the ventral visual pathway. Here, we addressed this question in two aspects, static and dynamic mechanisms, by recording neural responses from macaque area TE and V4 to object stimuli presented at various locations in the visual field. As a component related to static mechanisms, we found that, in area TE but not in V4, response latency to objects presented at fovea were different from objects in periphery...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Daniel F Feeney, Francois G Meyer, Nicholas Noone, Roger M Enoka
Motor neurons appear to be activated with a common input signal that modulates the discharge activity of all neurons in the motor nucleus. It has proven difficult for neurophysiologists to quantify the variability in a common input signal, but characterization of this signal may improve our understanding of how the activation signal varies across motor tasks. Contemporary methods of quantifying the common input to motor neurons relies on compiling discrete action potentials into continuous signals, assuming the motor pool acts as a linear filter, and requiring signals to be of sufficient duration...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Nicolaas A J Puts, Ashley D Harris, Mark Mikkelsen, Mark Tommerdahl, Richard Ae Edden, Stewart H Mostofsky
ADHD is characterized by an inability to concentrate, heightened activity, and hypermotoric behavior, but sensory, e.g. tactile, problems are common. The literature on tactile impairments in ADHD is limited, with most work employing clinical observations or questionnaires. Here, we study tactile processing in children with ADHD, and hypothesize that children with ADHD show reduced performance in tasks closely linked to inhibition. Sixty seven children with ADHD and 62 typically developing children performed a battery of tasks grouped in domains: simple and choice reaction time; static and dynamic detection threshold (probing feed-forward inhibition); amplitude discrimination without adaptation, and with dual, and single-site adaptation (probing lateral inhibition and adaptation); sequential and simultaneous frequency discrimination (previously linked to GABA); and temporal order judgment with and without a synchronous carrier stimulus...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marta Russo, Benedetta Cesqui, Barbara La Scaleia, Francesca Ceccarelli, Antonella Maselli, Alessandro Moscatelli, Myrka Zago, Francesco Lacquaniti, Andrea d'Avella
To accurately time motor responses when intercepting falling balls we rely on an internal model of gravity. However, whether and how such a model is also used to estimate the spatial location of interception is still an open question. Here, we addressed this issue by asking 25 participants to intercept balls projected from a fixed location 6 m in front of them and approaching along trajectories with different arrival locations, flight durations, and gravity accelerations (0g and 1g). The trajectories were displayed in an immersive virtual reality system with a wide field of view...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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