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Journal of Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790839/how-to-monitor-the-breathing-of-laboratory-rodents-a-review-of-the-current-methods
#1
Julien Grimaud, Venkatesh N Murthy
Accurately measuring respiration in laboratory rodents is essential for many fields of research, including olfactory neuroscience, social behavior, learning and memory, and respiratory physiology. However, choosing the right technique to monitor respiration can be tricky, given the many criteria to take into account: reliability, precision, and invasiveness, to name a few. This review aims to assist experimenters in choosing the technique that will best fit their needs, by surveying the available tools, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and offering suggestions for future improvements...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790838/release-of-taurine-and-glutamate-contributes-to-cell-volume-regulation-in-human-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-differences-in-modulation-by-calcium
#2
Vanina Netti, Alejandro Pizzoni, Martha Peréz-Domínguez, Paula Ford, Herminia Pasantes-Morales, Gerardo Ramos-Mandujano, Claudia Capurro
Neuronal activity in the retina generates osmotic gradients that lead to Müller cell swelling, followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response, partially due to the isoosmotic efflux of KCl and water. However, our previous studies in a human Müller cell line (MIO-M1) demonstrated that an important fraction of RVD may also involve the efflux of organic solutes. We also showed that RVD depends on the swelling-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Here we investigate the contribution of Taurine (Tau) and Glutamate (Glu), the most relevant amino acids in Müller cells, to RVD through the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC), as well as their Ca2+ -dependency in MIO-M1 cells...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790837/modulation-of-spinal-motor-networks-by-astrocyte-derived-adenosine-is-dependent-on-d1-like-dopamine-receptor-signalling
#3
David Acton, Matthew J Broadhead, Gareth Brian Miles
Astrocytes modulate many neuronal networks, including spinal networks responsible for the generation of locomotor behaviour. Astrocytic modulation of spinal motor circuits involves release of ATP from astrocytes, hydrolysation of ATP to adenosine, and subsequent activation of neuronal A1 adenosine receptors (A1Rs). The net effect of this pathway is a reduction in the frequency of locomotor-related activity. Recently, it was proposed that A1Rs modulate burst frequency by blocking the D1-like dopamine receptor (D1LR) signalling pathway; however, adenosine also modulates ventral horn circuits by dopamine-independent pathways...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790836/minocycline-promotes-post-hemorrhagic-neurogenesis-via-m2-microglia-polarization-via-up-regulation-of-the-trkb-bdnf-pathway-in-rats
#4
Miao Hongsheng, Runming Li, Cong Han, Xiuzhen Lu, Hang Zhang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease worldwide with increasing mortality. The present study investigated whether minocycline was neuroprotective and induced M2 microglial polarization via up-regulation of the TrkB/BDNF pathway after ICH. ICH was induced via injection of autologous blood into 150 Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. A selective TrkB antagonist (ANA 12) and agonist (HIOC) were used to investigate the mechanism of minocycline-induced neuroprotection. Minocycline improved ICH-induced neurological deficits and reduced M1 microglia marker protein (CD68, CD16) expression as well as M2 microglial polarization (CD206 and arginase 1 protein)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790835/tuning-for-the-rate-and-duration-of-frequency-modulated-fm-sweeps-in-the-mammalian-inferior-colliculus
#5
James Alexander Morrison, Roberto Valdizón-Rodríguez, Daniel Goldreich, Paul A Faure
Responses of auditory duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) are selective for stimulus duration. We used single-unit extracellular recording to investigate how the inferior colliculus (IC) encodes frequency modulated (FM) sweeps in the big brown bat. It was unclear whether the responses of so-called "FM DTNs" encode signal duration, like classic pure tone DTNs, or the FM sweep rate. Most FM cells had spiking responses selective for downward FM sweeps. We presented cells with linear FM sweeps whose center frequency (CEF) was set to the best excitatory frequency and whose bandwidth (BW) maximized the spike count...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790834/interference-between-competing-motor-memories-developed-through-learning-with-different-limbs
#6
Neeraj Kumar, Adarsh Kumar, Bhoomika Sonane, Pratik K Mutha
Learning from motor errors that occur across different limbs is essential for effective tool use, sports training and rehabilitation. To probe the neural organization of error-driven learning across limbs, we asked whether learning opposing visuomotor mappings with the two arms would interfere. Young right-handers first adapted to opposite visuomotor rotations A and B with different arms, and were then re-exposed to A 24 hours later. We observed that re-learning of A was never faster, nor were initial errors smaller than prior A learning, which would be expected if there was no interference from B...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790833/alterations-in-the-cortical-control-of-standing-posture-during-varying-levels-of-postural-threat-and-task-difficulty
#7
Craig D Tokuno, Martin Keller, Mark Gregory Carpenter, Gonzalo Márquez, Wolfgang Taube
Cortical excitability increases during the performance of more difficult postural tasks. However, it is possible that changes in postural threat associated with more difficult tasks may in itself lead to alterations in the neural strategies underlying postural control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in postural threat are responsible for the alterations in corticospinal excitability and short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) that occur with increasing postural task difficulty...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766769/movement-vigor-as-a-trait-like-attribute-of-individuality
#8
Thomas Reed Reppert, Ioannis Rigas, David Herzfeld, Ehsan Sedaghat-Nejad, Oleg Komogortsev, Reza Shadmehr
A common aspect of individuality is our subjective preferences in evaluation of reward and effort. The neural circuits that evaluate these commodities influence circuits that control our movements, raising the possibility that vigor differences between individuals may also be a trait of individuality, reflecting a willingness to expend effort. In contrast, classic theories in motor-control suggest that vigor differences reflect a speed-accuracy trade-off, predicting that those who move fast are sacrificing accuracy for speed...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766768/distinct-mechanisms-explain-the-control-of-reach-speed-planning-evidence-from-a-race-model-framework
#9
Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataratamani, Aditya Murthy
Previous studies have investigated the computational architecture underlying the voluntary control of reach movements that demands a change in position or direction of movement planning. Here we used a novel task, where subjects either had to increase or decrease the movement speed according to a change in target color that occurred randomly during a trial. The applicability of different race models to such a speed redirect task was assessed. We found that the predictions of an independent race model that instantiated an abort and re-plan strategy was consistent with all aspects of performance in the fast to slow speed condition...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766767/neural-architecture-from-cells-to-circuits
#10
Sarah E V Richards, Stephen D Van Hooser
Circuit operations are determined jointly by the properties of the circuit elements and the properties of the connections among these elements. In the nervous system, neurons exhibit diverse morphologies and branching patterns, allowing rich compartmentalization within individual cells, and complex synaptic interactions among groups of cells. Here, we summarize work detailing how neuronal morphology impacts neural circuit function. In particular, we consider example neurons in the retina, cerebral cortex, and the stomatogastric ganglion of crustaceans...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766766/recent-advances-in-objectifying-pain-using-neuroimaging-techniques
#11
Jessica Archibald, Freda M Warner, Oscar Ortiz, Madeson Todd, Catherine R Jutzeler
The pursuit of a physiological indicator of noxious stimulation is desirable as it has the potential to provide mechanistic information regarding acute pain, and may ultimately improve pain management strategies. Currently, there are no specific neurophysiological markers of pain to evaluate treatments. Recent attempts to identify neural correlates of pain have focused on different neuroimaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to discuss common neuroimaging techniques and findings thus far.
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766765/control-of-transitions-between-locomotor-like-and-paw-shake-like-rhythms-in-a-model-of-a-multistable-central-pattern-generator
#12
Jessica Rae Parker, Brain Bondy, Boris I Prilutsky, Gennady S Cymbalyuk
The ability of the same neuronal circuit to control different motor functions is an actively debated concept. Previously, we have shown in a model that a single multistable CPG could produce two different rhythmic motor patterns, slow and fast, corresponding to cat locomotion and paw-shaking. A locomotor-like rhythm (~2 Hz) and a paw-shake-like rhythm (~10 Hz) did coexist and, by applying a single pulse of current, we could switch the CPG from one regime to another (Bondy et al. 2016). Here, we investigate roles of slow intrinsic ionic currents in this multistability...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766764/local-cortical-activity-of-distant-brain-areas-can-phase-lock-to-the-olfactory-bulb-s-respiratory-rhythm-in-the-freely-behaving-rat
#13
Daniel Rojas-Líbano, Jonathan Wimmer Del Solar, Marcelo Aguilar-Rivera, Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Pedro Esteban Maldonado
An important unresolved question about neural processing is the mechanism by which distant brain areas coordinate their activities and relate their local processing to global neural events. A potential candidate for the local-global integration are slow rhythms such as respiration. In this article, we asked if there are modulations of local cortical processing which are phase-locked to (peripheral) sensory-motor exploratory rhythms. We studied rats on an elevated platform where they would spontaneously display exploratory and rest behaviors...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766763/force-feedback-delay-affects-perception-of-stiffness-but-not-action-and-the-effect-depends-on-the-hand-used-but-not-on-the-handedness
#14
Raz Leib, Inbar Rubin, Ilana Nisky
Interaction with an object often requires the estimation of its mechanical properties. We examined whether the hand that is used to interact with the object and their handedness affected people's estimation of these properties using stiffness estimation as a test case. We recorded participants' responses on a stiffness discrimination of a virtual elastic force field and the grip force applied on the robotic device during the interaction. In half of the trials, the robotic device delayed the participants' force feedback...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766762/typical-visual-field-locations-enhance-processing-in-object-selective-channels-of-human-occipital-cortex
#15
Daniel Kaiser, Radoslaw M Cichy
Natural environments consist of multiple objects, many of which repeatedly occupy similar locations within a scene. For example, hats are seen on people's heads, while shoes are most often seen close to the ground. Such positional regularities bias the distribution of objects across the visual field: Hats are more often encountered in the upper visual field, while shoes are more often encountered in the lower visual field. Here we test the hypothesis that typical visual-field locations of objects facilitate cortical processing...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742032/modulation-of-motor-cortical-excitability-with-auditory-stimulation
#16
Olli Löfberg, Petro Julkunen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Ari Pääkkönen, Jari Karhu
Loud sounds have been demonstrated to increase motor cortex excitability when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is synchronized with auditory evoked N100 potential measured from electroencephalography (EEG). The N100 potential is generated by an afferent response to sound onset and feature analysis, and upon novel sound it is also related to the arousal reaction. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the ascending reticular activating system of the brainstem and to modulate neuronal activity throughout the central nervous system...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742031/case-studies-in-neuroscience-sensations-elicited-and-discrimination-ability-from-nerve-cuff-stimulation-in-an-amputee-over-time
#17
Rochelle Ackerley, Helena Backlund Wasling, Max Ortiz Catalan, Rickard Brånemark, Johan Wessberg
The present case study details sensations elicited by electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve axons using an implanted nerve cuff electrode, in a participant with a transhumeral amputation. The participant uses an osseointegrated electromechanical interface, which enables skeletal attachment of the prosthesis and long-term, stable, bidirectional communication between the implanted electrodes and prosthetic arm. We focused on evoking somatosensory percepts, where we tracked and quantified the evolution of perceived sensations in the missing hand, which were evoked from electrical stimulation of the nerve, for over 2 years...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742030/the-quality-of-visual-information-about-the-lower-extremities-influences-visuomotor-coordination-during-virtual-obstacle-negotiation
#18
Aram Kim, Kari S Kretch, Zixuan Zhou, James M Finley
Successful negotiation of obstacles during walking relies on the integration of visual information about the environment with ongoing locomotor commands. When information about the body and environment are removed through occlusion of the lower visual field, individuals increase downward head pitch angle, reduce foot placement precision, and increase safety margins during crossing. However, whether these effects are mediated by loss of visual information about the lower extremities, the obstacle, or both remains to be seen...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742029/nitric-oxide-augments-single-persistent-na-channel-currents-via-the-cgmp-pkg-signaling-pathway-in-kenyon-cells-isolated-from-the-cricket-mushroom-bodies
#19
Mariko Ikeda, Masami Yoshino
The nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling pathway has been suggested to be important in the formation of olfactory memory in insects. However, the molecular targets of the NO signaling cascade in the central neurons associated with olfactory learning and memory have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO donors on single voltage-dependent Na+ channels in intrinsic neurons, called Kenyon cells, in the mushroom bodies in the brain of the cricket. Step depolarization on cell-attached patch membranes induces single-channel currents with fast-activating and -inactivating brief openings at the beginning of the voltage steps followed by more persistently recurring brief openings all along the 150-ms pulses...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742028/learning-by-heart-cardiac-cycle-reveals-an-effective-time-window-for-learning
#20
Tomi Waselius, Jan Wikgren, Hanna Halkola, Markku Penttonen, Miriam S Nokia
Cardiac cycle phase is known to modulate processing of simple sensory information. This effect of the heartbeat on brain function is likely exerted via baroreceptors, the neurons sensitive for changes in blood pressure. From baroreceptors the signal is conveyed all the way to the forebrain and the medial prefrontal cortex. In the two experiments reported here, we examined whether learning, as a more complex form of cognition, can be modulated by the cardiac cycle phase. Human participants (Experiment 1) and rabbits (Experiment 2) were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, while neural activity was recorded...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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