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Journal of Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298308/the-neural-control-of-interlimb-coordination-during-mammalian-locomotion
#1
Alain Frigon
Neuronal networks within the spinal cord directly control rhythmic movements of the arms/forelimbs and legs/hindlimbs during locomotion in mammals. For an effective locomotion, these networks must be flexibly coordinated to allow for various gait patterns and independent use of the arms/forelimbs. This coordination can be accomplished by mechanisms intrinsic to the spinal cord, somatosensory feedback from the limbs and various supraspinal pathways. Incomplete spinal cord injury disrupts some of the pathways and structures involved in interlimb coordination, often leading to a disruption in the coordination between the arms/forelimbs and legs/hindlimbs in animal models and in humans...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298307/ion-diffusion-may-introduce-spurious-current-sources-in-current-source-density-csd-analysis
#2
Geir Halnes, Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Klas H Pettersen, Ole A Andreassen, Gaute T Einevoll
Current-source density (CSD) analysis is a well-established method for analyzing recorded ocal field potentials (LFPs), that is, the low-frequency part of extracellular potentials. Standard CSD theory is based on the assumption that all extracellular currents are purely ohmic, and thus neglects the possible impact from ionic diffusion on recorded potentials. However, it has previously been shown that in physiological conditions with large ion-concentration gradients, diffusive currents can evoke slow shifts in extracellular potentials...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298306/il-1%C3%AE-induces-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-upregulates-microrna-372-to-inhibit-spinal-cord-injury-recovery
#3
Wei Zhou, Tongzhou Yuan, Youshui Gao, Peipei Yin, Wei Liu, Chenhao Pan, Yingjie Liu, Xiaowei Yu
Excessive inflammation including IL-1β-initiated signaling is among the earlies reactions that can cause neuronal damage following spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been suggested that microRNAs may participate in stem cell repair to facilitate functional recovery after SCI. Here we showed that in cultured human neural stem cells (hNSC) IL-1β reduced the expressions of both KIF3B (kinesin family member 3B) and NOSIP (nitric oxide synthase interacting protein), two key modulators for restricting inflammation and promoting neuronal regeneration...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298305/population-activity-statistics-dissect-subthreshold-and-spiking-variability-in-v1
#4
Mihály Bányai, Zsombor Koman, Gergő Orbán
Response variability, as measured by fluctuating responses upon repeated performance of trials, is a major component of neural responses, and its characterization is key to interpret high dimensional population recordings. Response variability and covariability display predictable changes upon changes in stimulus and cognitive or behavioral state, providing an opportunity to test the predictive power of models of neural variability. Still, there is little agreement on which model to use as a building block for population-level analyses, and models of variability are often treated as a subject of choice...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298304/no-consistent-effect-of-cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-visuomotor-adaptation
#5
Roya Jalali, R Christopher Miall, Joseph M Galea
Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) is known to enhance adaptation to a novel visual rotation (visuomotor adaptation) and it is suggested to hold promise as a therapeutic intervention. However, it is unknown whether this effect is robust across varying task parameters. This question is crucial if ctDCS is to be used clinically, as it must have a consistent and robust effect across a relatively wide range of behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ctDCS on visuomotor adaptation across a wide range of task parameters which were systematically varied...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298303/ampa-receptor-mediated-rapid-epscs-in-vestibular-calyx-afferents
#6
Matthew Edward Kirk, Frances L Meredith, Tim A Benke, Katherine J Rennie
In the vestibular periphery neurotransmission between hair cells and primary afferent nerves occurs via specialized ribbon synapses. Type I vestibular hair cells (HCI) make synaptic contacts with calyx terminals, which enclose most of the HCI basolateral surface. To probe synaptic transmission, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from calyx afferent terminals isolated together with their mature HCI from gerbil crista. Neurotransmitter release was measured as excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in voltage clamp...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298302/visual-and-presaccadic-activity-in-area-8ar-of-the-macaque-monkey-lateral-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Kelly R Bullock, Florian Pieper, Adam J Sachs, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Common trends observed in many visual and oculomotor-related cortical areas include retinotopically organized receptive and movement fields exhibiting a Gaussian shape and increasing size with eccentricity. These trends are demonstrated in the frontal eye fields (FEF), many visual areas, and the superior colliculus (SC), but have not been thoroughly characterized in prearcuate area 8Ar of the prefrontal cortex. This is important since area 8Ar, located anterior to the FEF, is more cytoarchitectonically similar to prefrontal areas than premotor areas...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298301/in-vivo-optogenetic-activation-of-nav1-8-cutaneous-nociceptors-and-their-responses-to-natural-stimuli
#8
Megan L Uhelski, Daniel J Bruce, Philippe Seguela, George L Wilcox, Donald A Simone
Optogenetic methods utilizing expression of the light-sensitive protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in neurons have enabled selective activation of specific subtypes or groups of neurons to determine their functions. Using a transgenic mouse model in which neurons natively expressing Nav1.8, a tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel, also express the light-gated channel ChR2, we have been able to determine the functional properties of Nav1.8-expressing cutaneous nociceptors of the glabrous skin in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298300/differential-processing-of-the-direction-and-focus-of-expansion-of-optic-flow-stimuli-in-areas-mst-and-v3a-of-the-human-visual-cortex
#9
Samantha L Strong, Edward H Silson, Andre D Gouws, Antony B Morland, Declan J McKeefry
Human neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have raised the possibility that different attributes of optic flow stimuli, namely radial direction and the position of the focus of expansion (FOE), are processed within separate cortical areas. In the human brain, visual areas V5/MT+ and V3A have been proposed as integral to the analysis of these different attributes of optic flow stimuli. In order to establish direct causal relationships between neural activity in V5/MT+ and V3A and the perception of radial motion direction and FOE position, we used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt cortical activity in these areas whilst participants performed behavioural tasks dependent on these different aspects of optic flow stimuli...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298299/time-compression-of-visual-perception-around-microsaccades
#10
Gongchen Yu, Mingpo Yang, Peng Yu, Michael C Dorris
Even during fixation, our eyes are in constant motion. For example, microsaccades are small (typically<1°) eye movements that occur 1~3 times/second. Despite their tiny and transient nature, our percept of visual space is compressed prior to microsaccades (Hafed 2013). As visual space and time are interconnected at both the physical and physiological levels, we asked whether microsaccades also affect the temporal aspects of visual perception. Here we demonstrate that the perceived interval between transient visual stimuli was compressed if accompanied by microsaccades...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298298/non-reciprocal-homeostatic-compensation-in-drosophila-potassium-channel-mutants
#11
Eugene Z Kim, Julie Vienne, Michael Rosbash, Leslie C Griffith
Homeostatic control of intrinsic excitability is important for long-term regulation of neuronal activity. In conjunction with many other forms of plasticity, intrinsic homeostasis helps neurons maintain stable activity regimes in the face of external input variability and destabilizing genetic mutations. In this study, we report a mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster larval motor neurons stabilize hyperactivity induced by the loss of the delayed rectifying K(+) channel Shaker Cognate B (Shab), by upregulating the Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel encoded by the slowpoke (slo) gene...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275061/impaired-sweating-responses-to-a-passive-whole-body-heat-stress-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Dustin R Allen, Mu Huang, Iqra M Parupia, Ariana R Dubelko, Elliot M Frohman, Scott L Davis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), disrupting autonomic function. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals with MS have blunted control of thermoregulatory reflex increases in sweat rate (SR) and cutaneous vasodilation compared to controls during a passive whole-body heat stress (WBH). Eighteen individuals with relapsing-remitting MS and 18 healthy controls (CON) participated in the study. Core temperature (Tcore), skin temperature, heart rate, arterial blood pressure (10 min intervals), skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flux: LDF), and SR were continuously measured during normothermic baseline (34 °C water perfusing a tube-lined suit) and WBH (increased Tcore 0...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275060/echo-acoustic-flow-shapes-object-representation-in-spatially-complex-acoustic-scenes
#13
Wolfgang Greiter, Uwe Firzlaff
Echolocating bats use echoes of their sonar emissions to determine the position and distance of objects or prey. Target distance is represented as a map of echo delay in the auditory cortex (AC) of bats. During a bat's flight through a natural complex environment, echo streams are reflected from multiple objects along its flight path. Separating such complex streams of echoes or other sounds is a challenge for the auditory system of bats as well as other animals. We investigated the representation of multiple echo streams in the AC of anaesthetized bats (Phyllostomus discolor) and tested the hypothesis, if neurons can lock on echoes from specific objects in a complex echo-acoustic pattern while the representation of surrounding objects is suppressed...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275059/differences-in-post-injury-auditory-system-pathophysiology-after-mild-blast-and-non-blast-acute-acoustic-trauma
#14
Nicholas Race, Jesyin Lai, Riyi Shi, Edward L Bartlett
Hearing difficulties are the most commonly reported disabilities among veterans. Blast exposures during explosive events likely play a role, given their propensity to directly damage both peripheral (PAS) and central (CAS) auditory system components. Post-blast PAS pathophysiology has been well-documented in both clinical case reports and laboratory investigations. In contrast, blast-induced CAS dysfunction remains under-studied, but has been hypothesized to contribute to an array of common veteran behavioral complaints including learning, memory, communication, and emotional regulation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275058/eeg-oscillations-how-are-they-modulated-during-different-phases-of-repetitive-movements
#15
Antonella Macerollo, Matt J N Brown
Voluntary movements are planned through the relative timing between sub-movements of movement sequences as part of the motor program. Different movement phases are characterized by specific amplitude modulation of cortical oscillations. The latter represent neurophysiological correlates of specific synchronization or desynchronization of different neuronal groups. In this NeuroForum, we review recent evidence regarding the temporal relation between neurophysiological correlates of different phases of a repetitive motor task using electroencephalography and source localization using individualized MRI...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275057/activity-dependent-increases-in-ca-2-i-contribute-to-digital-analog-plasticity-at-a-molluscan-synapse
#16
Bjoern Ch Ludwar, Colin G Evans, Monica Cambi, Elizabeth C Cropper
In a type of short-term plasticity that is observed in a number of systems, synaptic transmission is potentiated by depolarizing changes in the membrane potential of the presynaptic neuron prior to spike initiation. This digital-analog form of plasticity is graded. The more depolarized the neuron, the greater the increase in the efficacy of synaptic transmission. In a number of systems, including the system under investigation here, this type of modulation is calcium dependent, and its graded nature is presumably a consequence of a direct relationship between the [Ca(+2)]i and the effect on synaptic transmission...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250155/reflex-wind-up-in-early-chronic-spinal-injury-plasticity-of-motor-outputs
#17
Michael D Johnson, Alain Frigon, Marie-France Hurteau, Charlette Cain, Charles J Heckman
In this study we evaluate temporal summation (wind-up) of reflexes in select distal and proximal hindlimb muscles in response to repeated stimuli of the distal tibial or superficial peroneal nerves in cats 1 month following complete spinal transection. This report is a continuation of our companion paper on reflex wind-up in the intact and acutely spinalized cat. To evaluate reflex wind-up in both studies we recorded EMG signals from the following left hindlimb muscles: lateral gastrocnemius (LG), tibialis anterior (TA), semitendinosus (ST) and sartorius (Srt) in response to 10 electrical pulses to the tibial or superficial peroneal nerves...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250154/a-systems-based-analysis-of-dendritic-nonlinearities-reveals-temporal-feature-extraction-in-mouse-l5-cortical-neurons
#18
Brian E Kalmbach, Richard Gray, Daniel Johnston, Erik P Cook
What do dendritic nonlinearities tell a neuron about signals injected into the dendrite? Linear and nonlinear dendritic components affect how time-varying inputs are transformed into action potentials (APs), but the relative contribution of each component is unclear. We developed a novel systems-identification approach to isolate the nonlinear response of layer 5 pyramidal neuron dendrites in mouse prefrontal cortex in response to dendritic current injections. We then quantified the nonlinear component and its effect on the soma using functional models composed of linear filters and static nonlinearities...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250153/microinjection-of-kynurenic-acid-in-the-rostral-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-disrupts-spatiotemporal-aspects-of-mechanically-induced-tracheobronchial-cough
#19
Ivan Poliacek, Teresa Pitts, Melanie J Rose, Paul W Davenport, Michal Simera, Marcel Veternik, Zuzana Kotmanova, Donald C Bolser
The importance of neurons in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) in the production of coughing was tested by microinjections of the non-specific glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (kyn; 100 mM in artificial cerebrospinal fluid) in 15 adult spontaneously breathing anesthetized cats. Repetitive coughing was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic airway. Electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from inspiratory parasternal and expiratory transversus abdominis muscles (ABD). Bilateral microinjections of kyn into the NTS rostral to obex (55±4 nl total in two locations; n=6 or 110±4 nl total in four locations; n=5), primarily the ventrolateral subnucleus, reduced cough number and expiratory cough efforts (amplitudes of ABD EMG and maxima of esophageal pressure) compared to control...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250152/acute-corneal-epithelial-debridement-unmasks-the-corneal-stromal-nerve-responses-to-ocular-stimulation-in-rats-implications-for-abnormal-sensations-of-the-eye
#20
Harumitsu Hirata, Kamila K Mizerska, Valentina A Dallacasagrande, Victor H Guaiquil, Mark I Rosenblatt
It is widely accepted that the mechanisms for transducing sensory information reside in the nerve terminals. Occasionally, however, studies have appeared demonstrating that similar mechanisms may exist in the axon to which these terminals are connected. We examined this issue using the cornea where nerve terminals in the epithelial cell layers are easily accessible for debridement, leaving the underlying stromal (axonal) nerves undisturbed. In isoflurane-anesthetized rats, we recorded extracellularly from single trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the cornea that are excited by ocular dryness and cooling: low threshold (<2 oC cooling) and high threshold (>2 oC) cold-sensitive plus dry sensitive (LT-CS+DS and HT-CS+DS) neurons, playing possible roles in tearing and ocular pain...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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