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Journal of Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077670/the-mammalian-efferent-vestibular-system-plays-a-crucial-role-in-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-compensation-after-unilateral-labyrinthectomy
#1
Patrick P Hübner, Serajul I Khan, Americo A Migliaccio
The α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α9-nAChR) subunit is expressed in the vestibular and auditory periphery, and its loss of function could compromise peripheral input from the predominantly-cholinergic efferent vestibular system (EVS). A recent study has shown that α9-nAChRs play an important role in short-term vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation. We hypothesise that α9-nAChRs could also be important for other forms of vestibular plasticity, such as that needed for VOR recovery after vestibular organ injury...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077669/preparatory-alpha-band-oscillations-reflect-spatial-gating-independently-of-predictions-regarding-target-identity
#2
Theresa Wildegger, Freek van Ede, Mark W Woolrich, Celine R Gillebert, Anna Christina Nobre
Preparatory modulations of cortical alpha-band oscillations are a reliable index of the voluntary allocation of covert spatial attention. It is currently unclear whether attentional cues containing information about a target's identity (such as its visual orientation), in addition to its location, might additionally shape preparatory alpha modulations. Here, we explore this question by directly comparing spatial and feature-based attention in the same visual detection task while recording brain activity using magneto-encephalography (MEG)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077668/auditory-adaptation-improves-tactile-frequency-perception
#3
Lexi E Crommett, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Jeffrey M Yau
Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals shape tactile processing is unclear: perceptual interactions between contemporaneous sounds and vibrations are consistent with multiple neural mechanisms. Here we used a crossmodal adaptation paradigm, which separated auditory and tactile stimulation in time, to test the hypothesis that tactile frequency perception depends on neural circuits that also process auditory frequency...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077667/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-high-stages-of-motor-planning-hierarchy
#4
Luca Casartelli, Alessandra Federici, Ambra Cesareo, Emilia Biffi, Giulia Valtorta, Massimo Molteni, Luca Ronconi, Renato Borgatti
Motor planning is not a monolithic process, and distinct stages of motor planning are responsible for encoding different levels of abstractness. However, how these distinct components are mapped into different neural substrates remains an open question. We studied one of these high-level motor planning components, defined as second-order motor planning, in a patient (R.G.) with an extremely rare case of cerebellar agenesis but without any other cortical malformations. Second-order motor planning dictates that when two acts have to be performed sequentially, planning of the second act can influence the execution of the first...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077666/motor-plan-differs-for-young-and-older-adults-during-similar-movements
#5
Agostina Casamento Moran, Yen-Ting Chen, Neha Lodha, Basma Yacoubi, Evangelos A Christou
Older adults exhibit altered activation of the agonist and antagonist muscles during goal-directed movements compared with young adults. However, it remains unclear whether the differential activation of the antagonistic muscles in older adults results from an impaired motor plan or an altered ability of the muscle to contract. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether the motor plan differs for young and older adults. Ten young (26.1 ± 4.3 yrs, 4 females) and sixteen older (71.9 ± 6...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077665/spatial-cognition-in-a-virtual-reality-home-cage-extension-for-freely-moving-rodents
#6
Ursula Kaupert, Kay Thurley, Katja Frei, Francesco Bagorda, Alexej Schatz, Gilad Tocker, Sophia Rapoport, Dori Derdikman, York Winter
Virtual reality environments are part of a powerful tool set to investigate brain mechanisms of behavior in animals. For this, animals are mostly head-fixed or in a harness, and training for cognitively more complex VR paradigms is time consuming. A virtual reality apparatus allowing free animal movement and 24/7 operator-independent training of tasks would enable many new applications. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals carrying a miniaturized mobile device such as a fluorescence microscope, or an optetrode...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077664/in-monkeys-making-value-based-decisions-amygdala-neurons-are-sensitive-to-cue-value-as-distinct-from-cue-salience
#7
Marvin Lionel Leathers, Carl R Olson
Neurons in area LIP of macaque monkey parietal cortex respond to cues predicting rewards and penalties of variable size in a manner that depends on the motivational salience of the predicted outcome (strong for both large reward and large penalty) rather than on its value (positive for large reward and negative for large penalty). This finding suggests that LIP mediates the capture of attention by salient events and does not encode value in the service of value-based decision making. It leaves open the question whether neurons elsewhere in the brain encode value in the identical task...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077663/temporally-precise-control-of-single-neuron-spiking-by-juxtacellular-nanostimulation
#8
Maik Christopher Stüttgen, Lourens Jp Nonkes, Hans-Rüdiger Ap Geis, Paul H Tiesinga, Arthur R Houweling
Temporal patterns of action potentials influence a variety of activity-dependent intra- and inter-cellular processes and play an important role in theories of neural coding. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these phenomena requires imposing spike trains with precisely defined patterns, but this has been challenging due to the limitations of existing stimulation techniques. Here we present a new nanostimulation method providing control over the action potential output of individual cortical neurons. Spikes are elicited through the juxtacellular application of short-duration fluctuating currents ('kurzpulses'), allowing for the sub-millisecond precise and reproducible induction of arbitrary patterns of action potentials at all physiologically relevant firing frequencies (<120 Hz), including minute-long spike trains recorded in freely moving animals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077662/stability-and-plasticity-in-neural-encoding-of-linguistically-relevant-pitch-patterns
#9
Zilong Xie, Rachel Denise Reetzke, Bharath Chandrasekaran
While life-long language experience modulates subcortical encoding of pitch patterns, there is emerging evidence that short-term training introduced in adulthood also shapes subcortical pitch encoding. Here, we use a cross-language design to examine the stability of language experience-dependent subcortical plasticity over multiple days. We then examine the extent to which behavioral relevance induced by speech sound-to-category training leads to plastic changes in subcortical pitch encoding in adulthood relative to adolescence, a period of ongoing maturation of subcortical and cortical auditory processing...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077661/characterizing-differential-post-stroke-corticomotor-drive-to-the-dorsi-and-plantarflexor-muscles-during-resting-and-volitional-muscle-activation
#10
Jacqueline Ann Palmer, Ryan Zarzycki, Susanne M Morton, Trisha M Kesar, Stuart A Binder-Macleod
Imbalance of corticomotor excitability between the paretic and nonparetic limbs has been associated with the extent of upper extremity motor recovery post-stroke, is greatly influenced by specific testing conditions such as the presence or absence of volitional muscle activation, and may vary across muscle groups. However, despite its clinical importance, post-stroke corticomotor drive to lower extremity muscles has not been thoroughly investigated. Additionally, while conventional gait rehabilitation strategies for stroke survivors focus on paretic limb foot drop and dorsiflexion impairments, most contemporary literature has indicated that paretic limb propulsion and plantarflexion impairments are the most significant limiters to post-stroke walking function...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077660/muscle-spindles-in-human-tibialis-anterior-encode-muscle-fascicle-length-changes
#11
James Thomas Day, Leah R Bent, Ingvars Birznieks, Vaughan G Macefield, Andrew G Cresswell
Muscle spindles provide exquisitely sensitive proprioceptive information regarding joint position and movement. Through passively driven length changes in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), muscle spindles detect joint rotations because of their in-parallel mechanical linkage to muscle fascicles. In human microneurography studies, muscle fascicles are assumed to follow the MTU and, as such, fascicle length is not measured in such studies. However, under certain mechanical conditions compliant structures can act to decouple the fascicles, and therefore the spindles, from the MTU...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053247/heterogeneous-effects-of-noradrenaline-on-spontaneous-and-stimulus-driven-activity-in-the-male-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#12
Wayne I Doyle, Julian P Meeks
Noradrenaline (NA) release has been linked to experience-dependent plasticity in many model systems and brain regions. Among these is the rodent accessory olfactory system (AOS), which is crucial for detecting and processing socially relevant environmental cues. The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first site of chemosensory information processing in the AOS, receives dense centrifugal innervation by noradrenergic (NAergic) fibers originating in the locus coeruleus. Though NA release has been linked to behavioral plasticity through its actions in the AOB, the impacts of NAergic modulation on AOB information processing have not been thoroughly studied...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053246/orientation-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex-of-the-nine-banded-armadillo
#13
Benjamin Scholl, Johnathan Rylee, Jeffrey J Luci, Nicholas J Priebe, Jeff Padberg
Orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex (V1) has been proposed to reflect a canonical computation performed by the neocortical circuitry.  While orientation selectivity has been reported in all mammals examined to date, the degree of selectivity and the functional organization of selectivity varies across clades. The differences in degree of orientation selectivity are large from reports in marsupials that only a small subset of neurons are selective to studies in carnivores in which it is rare to find a neuron lacking selectivity...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053245/synaptic-control-of-the-shape-of-the-motoneuron-pool-input-output-function
#14
Randall K Powers, Charles J Heckman
Although motoneurons have often been considered to be fairly linear transducers of synaptic input, recent evidence suggests that strong persistent inward currents (PICs) in motoneurons allow neuromodulatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to induce large nonlinearities in the relation between the level of excitatory input and motor output. To try and estimate the possible extent of this nonlinearity, we developed a pool of model motoneurons designed to replicate the characteristics of motoneuron input-output properties measured in medial gastrocnemius motoneurons in the decerebrate cat using voltage-clamp and current-clamp techniques...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053244/distinct-neural-circuits-for-control-of-movement-vs-holding-still
#15
Reza Shadmehr
In generating a point to point movement, the brain does more than produce the transient commands needed to move the body part; it also produces the sustained commands that are needed to hold the body part at its destination. In the oculomotor system, these functions are mapped onto two distinct circuits: a pre-motor circuit that specializes in generating the transient activity that displaces the eyes, and a "neural integrator" that transforms that transient input into sustained activity that holds the eyes...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053243/descending-antinociception-induced-by-secondary-somatosensory-cortex-stimulation-in-experimental-neuropathy-role-of-the-medullospinal-serotonergic-pathway
#16
Boriss Sagalajev, Hanna Viisanen, Hong Wei, Antti Pertovaara
Stimulation of the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) has attenuated pain in humans and inflammatory nociception in animals. Here we studied S2 stimulation-induced antinociception and its underlying mechanisms in an experimental animal model of neuropathy induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Effect of S2 stimulation on heat-evoked limb withdrawal latency was assessed in lightly anesthetized rats that were divided into three groups based on prior surgery and monofilament testing before induction of anesthesia: i) Sham operated group, ii-iii) (mechanically) hypersensitive and non-hypersensitive SNL groups...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053242/nitric-oxide-promotes-gaba-release-by-activating-a-voltage-independent-ca2-influx-pathway-in-retinal-amacrine-cells
#17
John Wesley Maddox, Evanna L Gleason
Retinal amacrine cells express nitric oxide synthase and produce nitric oxide (NO), making NO available to regulate the function of amacrine cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that NO can alter the GABAergic synaptic output of amacrine cells. We investigate this using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings and Ca(2+) imaging of cultured chick retinal amacrine cells. When recording from amacrine cells receiving synaptic input from other amacrine cells, we find that NO increases GABAergic spontaneous postsynaptic current (sPSC) frequency...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053241/comparative-biology-of-pain-what-invertebrates-can-tell-us-about-how-nociception-works
#18
Brian D Burrell
The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights towards this goal...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053240/broadened-population-level-frequency-tuning-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-tinnitus-patients
#19
Kenichi Sekiya, Mariko Takahashi, Shingo Murakami, Ryusuke Kakigi, Hidehiko Okamoto
Tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception without an external sound source and is one of the most common public health concerns that impair the quality of life of many individuals. However, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We herein examined population-level frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of unilateral tinnitus patients with similar hearing levels in both ears using magnetoencephalography. We compared auditory evoked neural activities elicited by a stimulation to the tinnitus and non-tinnitus ears...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031404/physiological-processes-influencing-motor-evoked-potential-duration-with-voluntary-contraction
#20
Mehdi Aj van den Bos, Nimeshan Geevasinga, Parvathi Menon, David Burke, Matthew C Kiernan, Steve Vucic
Voluntary contraction leads to facilitation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) producing greater amplitude, shorter onset latency and prolonged duration of the EMG potential. While hyperexcitability of spinal motoneurons and changes in descending corticospinal volleys have been proposed as putative mechanisms for changes in MEP amplitude and onset latency, a contribution of propriospinal interneurons, exerting modulatory effects on α motoneurons, has been proposed as a potential explanation for prolongation of MEP duration...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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