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Journal of Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212925/done-in-100-ms-path-dependent-visuomotor-transformation-in-the-human-upper-limb
#1
Chao Gu, J Andrew Pruszynski, Paul L Gribble, Brian D Corneil
A core assumption underlying mental chronometry is that more complex tasks increase cortical processing, prolonging reaction times. Here we show that increases in task complexity alter the magnitude, rather than the latency, of the output for a circuit that rapidly transforms visual information into motor actions. We quantified visual stimulus-locked responses (SLRs), which are changes in upper limb muscle recruitment that evolve at a fixed latency ~100 ms after novel visual stimulus onset. First, we studied the underlying reference frame of the SLR, by dissociating initial eye and hand position...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212924/robust-mixture-modeling-reveals-category-free-selectivity-in-reward-region-neuronal-ensembles
#2
Tommy C Blanchard, Steve Piantadosi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Classification of neurons into clusters based on their response properties is an important tool for gaining insight into neural computations. However, it remains unclear to what extent neurons fall naturally into discrete functional categories. We developed a Bayesian method that models the tuning properties of neural populations as a mixture of multiple types of task-relevant response patterns. We applied this method to data from several cortical and striatal regions in economic choice tasks. In all cases, neurons fell into only two clusters: one multiple selectivity cluster containing all cells driven by task variables of interest and another of no selectivity for those variables...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212923/response-inhibition-activates-distinct-motor-cortical-inhibitory-processes
#3
John Cirillo, Matthew J Cowie, Hayley J MacDonald, Winston D Byblow
We routinely cancel pre-planned movements that are no longer required. If stopping is forewarned, proactive processes are engaged to selectively decrease motor cortex excitability. However, without advance information there is a non-selective reduction in motor cortical excitability. Here we examine modulation of human primary motor cortex inhibitory networks during response inhibition tasks with informative and uninformative cues using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Long- and short-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI and SICI), indicative of GABAB- and GABAA-receptor mediated inhibition respectively, were examined from motor evoked potentials obtained in task-relevant and task-irrelevant hand muscles when response inhibition was preceded by informative and uninformative cues...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212922/reward-activations-and-face-fields-in-monkey-cingulate-motor-areas
#4
Justine Cléry, Céline Amiez, Olivier Guipponi, Claire Wardak, Emmanuel Procyk, Suliann Ben Hamed
Several premotor areas have been identified within primate cingulate cortex, however their function is yet to be uncovered. Recent brain imaging work in humans revealed a topographic anatomo-functional overlap between feedback processing during exploratory behaviors and the corresponding body fields in the rostral cingulate motor area (RCZa), suggesting an embodied representation of feedback. In particular, a face field in RCZa processes juice feedback. Here we tested an extension of the embodied principle in which unexpected or relevant information obtained through the eye or the face would be processed by face fields in cingulate motor areas, and whether this applied to monkey cingulate cortex...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212921/bold-temporal-variability-differentiates-wakefulness-from-anesthesia-induced-unconsciousness
#5
Alex T Baria, Maria Virginia Centeno, Mariam E Ghantous, Pei-Ching Chang, Daniele Procissi, A Vania Apkarian
Even though a number of findings, based on information content or information integration, are shown to define neural underpinnings characteristic of a conscious experience, the neurophysiological mechanism of consciousness is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the brain activity and functional connectivity changes that occur in the isoflurane anesthetized unconscious state in contrast to the awake-state in rats (awake and/or anesthetized n=68 rats). We examined nine information measures previously shown to distinguish between conscious states; BOLD variability, functional connectivity strength, modularity, weighted modularity, efficiency, clustering coefficient, small-worldness, and spatial and temporal Lempel-Ziv complexity measure...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212920/phasic-and-tonic-cell-types-in-the-zebra-finch-auditory-caudal-mesopallium
#6
Andrew N Chen, C Daniel Meliza
The caudal mesopallium (CM) is a cortical-level area in the songbird auditory pathway where selective, invariant responses to familiar songs emerge. To characterize the cell types that perform this computation, we made whole-cell recordings from brain slices in juvenile zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) of both sexes. We found three groups of putatively excitatory neurons with distinct firing patterns. Tonic cells produced sustained responses to depolarizing step currents, phasic cells produced only a few spikes at the onset, and an intermediate group was also phasic but responded for up to a few hundred ms...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212919/neuronal-dynamics-supporting-formation-and-recombination-of-cross-modal-olfactory-tactile-association-in-the-rat-hippocampal-formation
#7
Lise Boisselier, Damien Gervasoni, Samuel Garcia, Barbara Ferry, Remi Gervais
The present study is aimed at describing some aspects of the neural dynamics supporting discrimination of olfactory-tactile paired-associated stimuli during acquisition of new pairs and during recombination of previously-learned pairs in the rat. To solve the task, animals have to identify one odor-texture (OT) combination associated with a food reward among three cups with overlapping elements. Previous experiments demonstrated that the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) is involved in the processes underlying OT acquisition while the dorsal hippocampus (DH) is selectively involved in the recombination processes...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212918/the-influence-of-vertical-disparity-gradient-and-cue-conflict-on-eeg-omega-complexity-in-panum-s-limiting-case
#8
Huayun Li, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
Using behavioral measures and ERP technique, researchers discovered at least two factors could influence the final perception of depth in Panum's limiting case, which are the vertical disparity gradient and the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. Although certain ERP components have been proved to be sensitive to the different levels of these two factors, some methodological limitations existed in this technique. In this study, we proposed that the omega complexity of EEG signal may serve as an important supplement of the traditional ERP technique...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212917/rhythmic-arm-cycling-training-improves-walking-and-neurophysiological-integrity-in-chronic-stroke-the-arms-can-give-legs-a-helping-hand-in-rehabilitation
#9
Chelsea Kaupp, Gregory Ep Pearcey, Taryn Klarner, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Hilary Cullen, E Paul Zehr
Training locomotor pattern generating networks (CPGs) through arm and leg cycling improves walking in chronic stroke. These outcomes are presumed to result from enhanced interlimb connectivity and CPG function. The extent to which rhythmic arm training activates interlimb CPG networks for locomotion remains unclear and was assessed by studying chronic stroke participants before and after 5-weeks of arm cycling training. Strength was assessed bilaterally via maximal voluntary isometric contractions in the legs and hands...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212916/task-dependence-of-odor-discrimination-choosing-between-speed-and-accuracy
#10
Jack Brooks, Jennifer Nicholas, Jennifer Joy Robertson
Odor discrimination is a complex task that may be improved by increasing sampling time to facilitate evidence accumulation. However, experiments testing this phenomenon in olfaction have produced conflicting results. To resolve this disparity Frederick et al. (Journal of Neuroscience 1797-16, 2017) conducted experiments that suggest that sampling time and performance are task-dependent. Their findings have implications for understanding olfactory processing and experimental design, specifically the effect of subtle differences in experimental design on study results...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212915/altered-synaptic-transmission-and-maturation-of-hippocampal-ca1-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-human-chr16p11-2-microdeletion
#11
Hung-Chi Lu, Alea A Mills, Di Tian
The pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is often expressed early in infancy and toddlerhood. Mouse models of syndromic disorders have provided insight regarding mechanisms of action, but most studies have focused on characterization in juveniles and adults. Insight into developmental trajectories, particularly related to circuit and synaptic function, likely will yield important information regarding disorder pathogenesis that leads to symptom progression. Chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion is one of the most common copy number variations associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212914/distributed-force-feedback-in-the-spinal-cord-and-the-regulation-of-limb-mechanics
#12
T Richard Nichols
This review is an update on the role of force feedback from Golgi tendon organs in the regulation of limb mechanics during voluntary movement. Some current ideas about the role of force feedback are based on circuit motifs linking idealized systems of agonists, synergists and antagonistic muscles. Force feedback is widely distributed across the muscles of a limb and cannot be understood based on these circuit motifs. Muscle architecture similarly cannot be understood in terms of idealized systems. It is hypothesized that distributed force feedback better represents the complex mechanical interactions of muscles, including viscoelastic coupling and inertial coupling across joints and axes of rotation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187558/modeling-spatial-navigation-in-the-presence-of-dynamic-obstacles-a-differential-games-approach
#13
Anuja Darekar, Valery Goussev, Brad J McFadyen, Anouk Lamontagne, Joyce Fung
Obstacle circumvention strategies can be shaped by the dynamic interaction of an individual (evader) and an obstacle (pursuer). We have developed a mathematical model with predictive and emergent components, using experimental data from seven healthy young adults walking towards a target while avoiding collision with a stationary or moving obstacle (approaching head-on, or diagonally 30° left or right) in a virtual environment. Two linear properties from the predictive component enable the evader to predict the minimum distance between itself and the obstacle at all times, including the future intersection of trajectories...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187557/the-assessment-of-neurovascular-coupling-with-the-addenbrooke-s-cognitive-examination-a-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasonographic-study
#14
Lucy C Beishon, Claire A L Williams, Ronney B Panerai, Thompson G Robinson, Victoria Joanna Haunton
Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs early in dementia and can be identified by Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Few studies have examined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) responses to a detailed cognitive battery. This study aimed to characterise all CBFv responses, and the effect of hemispheric dominance, to the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in healthy volunteers. Forty volunteers underwent continuous bilateral TCD, beat-to-beat blood pressure (MAP) (Finapres), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiogram), and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) (capnography) monitoring...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187556/time-course-of-functional-recovery-during-first-three-months-after-surgical-transection-and-repair-of-nerves-to-feline-soleus-and-lateral-gastrocnemius-muscles
#15
Robert J Gregor, Huub Maas, Margarita A Bulgakova, Alanna Oliver, Arthur W English, Boris I Prilutsky
Locomotion outcomes after peripheral nerve injury and repair in cats have been described in the literature for the period immediately following the injury (muscle denervation period) and then again for an ensuing period of long-term recovery (at three months and longer) resulting in muscle self-reinnervation. Little is known about the changes in muscle activity and walking mechanics during mid-recovery, i.e. the early reinnervation period that takes place between 5 and 10 weeks of recovery. Here, we investigated hindlimb mechanics and EMG activity of ankle extensors in six cats during level and slope walking before and every two weeks thereafter in a 14-week period of recovery after the soleus (SO) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle nerves in one hindlimb were surgically transected and repaired...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187555/complementary-metrics-of-human-auditory-nerve-function-derived-from-compound-action-potentials
#16
Kelly C Harris, Kenneth I Vaden, Carolyn M McClaskey, James W Dias, Judy R Dubno
Declines in auditory nerve (AN) function contribute to suprathreshold auditory processing and communication deficits in individuals with normal hearing, hearing loss, hyperacusis, and tinnitus. Procedures to characterize AN loss or dysfunction in humans are limited. We report several novel complementary metrics using the compound action potential (CAP), a direct measure of summated AN activity. Together, these metrics may be used to characterize AN function noninvasively in humans. We examined how these metrics change with stimulus intensity, and interpreted these changes within a framework of known physiological properties of the basilar membrane and AN...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187554/clustering-of-heading-selectivity-and-perception-related-activity-in-the-ventral-intraparietal-area
#17
Mengmeng Shao, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki, Aihua Chen
The ventral intraparietal area (VIP) of the macaque brain is a multimodal cortical region, with many cells tuned to both optic flow and vestibular stimuli. Responses of many VIP neurons also show robust correlations with perceptual judgments during a fine heading discrimination task. Previous studies have shown that heading tuning based on optic flow is represented in a clustered fashion in VIP. However, it is unknown whether vestibular self-motion selectivity is clustered in VIP. Moreover, it is not known whether stimulus- and choice-related signals in VIP show clustering in the context of a heading discrimination task...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187553/ih-interacts-with-somato-dendritic-structure-to-determine-frequency-response-to-weak-alternating-electric-field-stimulation
#18
Enrique H S Toloza, Ehsan Negahbani, Flavio Frohlich
Transcranial current stimulation (tCS) modulates brain dynamics using weak electric fields. Given the pathological changes in brain network oscillations in neurological and psychiatric illnesses, using alternating electric field waveforms that engage rhythmic activity has been proposed as a targeted, network-level treatment approach. Previous studies have investigated the effects of electric fields at the neuronal level. However, the biophysical basis of the cellular response to electric fields has remained limited...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187552/implantable-computer-controlled-adaptive-multi-electrode-positioning-system-amep
#19
Enrico Ferrea, Lalitta Suriya-Arunroj, Dirk Hoehl, Uwe Thomas, Alexander Gail
Acute neuronal recordings performed with metal microelectrodes in non-human primates allow investigating the neural substrate of complex cognitive behaviors. Yet, the daily re-insertion and positioning of the electrodes prevents recording from many neurons simultaneously, limiting the suitability of these types of recordings for brain-computer-interface applications or for large-scale population statistical methods on a trial-by-trial basis. In contrast, chronically implanted multi-electrode arrays offer the opportunity to record from many neurons simultaneously, but immovable electrodes prevent optimization of the signal during and after implantation and cause the tissue response to progressively impair the transduced signal quality, thereby limiting the number of different neurons that can be recorded over the lifetime of the implant...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187551/model-of-a-bilateral-brown-type-central-pattern-generator-for-symmetric-and-asymmetric-locomotion
#20
Anton Sobinov, Sergiy Yakovenko
The coordinated activity of muscles is produced in part by spinal rhythmogenic neural circuits, termed central pattern generators (CPGs). A classical CPG model is a system of coupled oscillators that transform locomotor drive into coordinated and gait-specific patterns of muscle recruitment. The network properties of this conceptual model can be simulated by a system of ordinary differential equations with a physiologically-inspired coupling locus of interactions capturing the timing relationship for bilateral coordination of limbs in locomotion...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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