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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Thida Thant, Joel Yager
Clinical observations regarding apathy and motivation derived from many psychiatric and neurological conditions have generated divergent descriptions of apathy-related syndromes. Stimulated by complex cases presenting with prominent apathy, uses of the term "apathy" and "related phenomena" in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, diagnostic proposals for apathy as a syndrome and disorder of motivation, Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) systems governing motivational processes, and their clinical intersections are reviewed...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Phebe Cramer
This article traces the history of the diagnosis of hysteria from the earliest medical formulations in the 17th century to the present, including the presence of this diagnosis in the five iterations of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association. Several different types of hysteria are discussed, with alternative causal explanations. Research focusing on this disorder is summarized.
September 25, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Joseph M Donahue, Erin E Reilly, Lisa M Anderson, Christina Scharmer, Drew A Anderson
Prior research supports maladaptive perfectionism as a risk factor for eating disorders; however, not all individuals with elevated levels of perfectionism endorse eating pathology, suggesting additional variables may interact with perfectionism to account for this association. The current study examined the influence of difficulties in emotion regulation on the relation between perfectionism and eating disorders. Undergraduate students (N = 309, 50.7% male) from a large university completed measures of perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and eating pathology...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lauren L Bennett, Amy N Cohen, Alexander S Young
Evidence-based practices effectively reduce weight in people with serious mental illness (SMI), yet participation is limited. Positive relationships between self-efficacy (SE), readiness to change (RtC), and subsequent participation in weight loss interventions have been demonstrated in the general population. The role of SE and RtC in predicting participation in individuals with SMI is explored. A total of 82 participants recruited from a county mental health clinic and a Veterans Affairs mental health clinic were randomly assigned to a weight management intervention or usual care...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Gisela Mezquida, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Devi Treen, Anna Mané, Daniel Bergé, George Savulich, Leticia Garcia-Alvarez, Paz García-Portilla, Julio Bobes, Miguel Bernardo, Clemente Garcia-Rizo
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with genetic and environmental components. Obstetric complications (OCs) are one of the most common environmental risk factors described. However, despite being different in timing and outcome, OCs are usually described as a homogeneous entity. In the present study, we evaluate the presence of different patterns of OCs evaluated with the Lewis-Murray Scale in chronic schizophrenia patients (n = 101) and their association with a crude marker of the intrauterine environment such as weight at birth...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Karen L Fortuna, Marianne Storm, John A Naslund, Philip Chow, Kelly A Aschbrenner, Matthew C Lohman, Stephen J Bartels
We explored the perspectives of certified peer specialists and older adults with serious mental illness on the impact of a peer-delivered medical and psychiatric self-management intervention, "PeerTECH." Transcripts from interviews with consumers with serious mental illness and a focus group with certified peer specialists who were engaged in PeerTECH were analyzed. Consumer participants (n = 8) had a mean age of 68.8 years (SD = 4.9) and included individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (five people), schizophrenia spectrum disorders (two people), and bipolar disorder (one person)...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Shirley Hershko, Anna Aronis, Adina Maeir, Yehuda Pollak
This study aimed to examine whether adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in students is associated with overeating or with unhealthy food choices. Sixty university students with and without ADHD, aged 20 to 30 years, completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire and reported their height and weight. Students with ADHD had a higher body mass index compared with students without ADHD. Although participants in both groups consumed similar amounts of servings, calories, and nutrients, students with ADHD reported lower healthy/unhealthy food consumption ratio...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Sara Rose Masland, Daniel Price, Jacob MacDonald, Ellen Finch, John Gunderson, Lois Choi-Kain
Time-limited interventions may attenuate stigma and negative beliefs about borderline personality disorder (BPD) among mental health clinicians. This study examined whether a 1-day training in good psychiatric management (GPM) changed clinician attitudes and beliefs and whether those changes persisted over time. Fifty-two mental health clinicians attended a 1-day GPM training and completed a 13-item assessment of attitudes about BPD before and after the training and again 6 months later. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variances and dependent sample t-tests demonstrated significant changes for all items, 11 of which were in the direction of more positive attitudes about BPD...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Catherine Bortolon, Stéphane Raffard
Recent research has supported the mediating role of dissociation in the relationship between childhood trauma (CT) and voice hearing in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, this mediating role has not yet been explored with regard to seeing visions (visual hallucinations). This study aimed to explore the mediating effect of dissociation on the relationship between CT and seeing visions. In total, 425 voluntary participants recruited from the general population completed an online survey evaluating CT, dissociative experiences, and the experience of hearing voices and seeing things...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
C Hyung Keun Park, Jae Won Lee, Sang Yeol Lee, Se-Hoon Shim, Jung-Joon Moon, Jong-Woo Paik, Seong-Jin Cho, Shin Gyeom Kim, Min-Hyuk Kim, Seokho Kim, Jae-Hyun Park, Sungeun You, Hong Jin Jeon, Yong Min Ahn
There is a paucity of research characterizing suicide-related factors in victims of early trauma (ET). This cross-sectional study investigated an increase in trait impulsivity of ET victims with suicidal ideation or behavior and its role in severity of psychopathologies and experienced stress. Using data of 401 Korean suicidal ideators and attempters, trait impulsivity, severity of psychopathologies, and stress levels in addition to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared between the ET group and the no ET group...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Penelope Hasking, Mark Boyes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Augusto Castagnini, Leslie Foldager, German E Berrios
The ICD-11 International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems will move toward a narrower concept of "acute and transient psychotic disorders" (ATPD) characterized by the remnant "polymorphic psychotic disorder" (APPD) of the current ICD-10 category, also including schizophrenic and predominantly delusional subtypes. To assess the validity of APPD, relevant articles published between January 1993 and September 2017 were found through searches in PubMed and Web of Science...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Anna Bjärtå, Anna Leiler, Johanna Ekdahl, Elisabet Wasteson
The recent inflow of refugees to Sweden has put pressure on health care as well as revealing a need for methods regarding assessment of refugees' mental health status. The present study investigated the use of the Refugee Health Screener (RHS; Hollifield et al., 2013) to distinguish among severity levels of symptoms of psychological distress in refugees. Refugees residing in asylum accommodations (n = 510) were screened with RHS-13, together with screeners for depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Dagnachew Muluye Fetene, Kim S Betts, Rosa Alati
Thyroid hormone plays a pivotal role in the developing brain and may affect the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine the role of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy on offspring ADHD. A total of 2912 mother-child pairs were included from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Thyroid parameters were assessed during the first trimester of pregnancy. Offspring ADHD was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment at the ages of 7...
November 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Shelley Fang, John Coverdale, Phuong Nguyen, Mollie Gordon
There is little information on the secondary prevention of human trafficking and how medical professionals can screen for victims. There is a paucity of validated screening tools for use in clinical settings to identify adult trafficked patients, although one for use in pediatric populations exists. Many victims withhold information about their trafficked status. Because traffickers may mark victims, identification of tattoos provides a useful method for screening patients, which complements history taking, especially when victims are unable to disclose that information...
October 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Minmin Leng, Bing Liang, Haiyan Zhou, Ping Zhang, Mingyue Hu, Guichen Li, Feng Li, Li Chen
We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of physical exercise in ameliorating depressive symptoms in patients with cognitive impairment. The databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang, and WeiPu (VIP) were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved physical exercise for patients with cognitive impairment. A random effects model and a fixed effects model were used to calculate the pooled effect size. Twenty-one studies were identified...
October 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Christopher M Celano, Melanie E Freedman, Eleanor E Beale, Federico Gomez-Bernal, Jeff C Huffman
Patients with heart failure (HF) frequently struggle to adhere to health behaviors, and psychological factors may contribute to nonadherence. We examined the feasibility and acceptability of a 10-week, positive psychology (PP)-based intervention to promote health behavior adherence in patients (N = 10) with mild to moderate HF and suboptimal health behavior adherence. Participants engaged in weekly phone sessions, completed PP exercises (e.g., writing a gratitude letter, using a personal strength), and set goals related to diet, medication adherence, and physical activity...
October 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Xue Wang, Yudan Lv, Wenxia Zhang, Hongmei Meng
Cognitive impairment and personality disorders are severe comorbidities commonly observed in patients with epilepsy, and together they decrease the quality of patients' life. This study aimed to evaluate cognitive function and personality traits in patients with epilepsy with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Chinese revised and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and investigate the underlying influencing factors. Compared with the control group, our results showed that patients with epilepsy were presented with significant cognitive impairment and particular personality traits...
October 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Dawson Church, Peta Stapleton, Amy Yang, Fred Gallo
Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFTs) combine elements of cognitive restructuring and exposure techniques with acupoint stimulation. Meta-analyses indicate large effect sizes for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety; however, treatment effects may be due to components EFT shares with other therapies. This analysis reviewed whether EFTs acupressure component was an active ingredient. Six studies of adults with diagnosed or self-identified psychological or physical symptoms were compared (n = 403), and three (n = 102) were identified...
October 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Katrine Boucher, Marilou Côté, Marie-Pierre Gagnon-Girouard, Carole Ratté, Catherine Bégin
We sought to deepen our understanding of the relationship between pathological narcissism and eating disorders (ED) by examining specific facets that composed grandiose and vulnerable narcissism while taking into account self-esteem, a well-known and consistent risk factor for ED. Twenty-seven women diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 23 women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN) completed standardized measures of pathological narcissism, self-esteem, and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Different patterns of associations between the facets of pathological narcissism and eating pathology arose between AN and BN diagnoses...
October 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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