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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Haythum Tayeb, Alaa Khayat, Haneen Milyani, Yousuf Alsawwaf, Faten Alzaben, Harold G Koenig
Saudi society is one of many where supernatural explanations for neurological and psychiatric disorders are prevalent among lay persons. The frequency of such beliefs among health care professionals in this country, however, is unknown. The frequency of supernatural explanations for neurological and psychiatric disorders was assessed in 126 health care professionals at an academic medical center in Jeddah. A high frequency of belief in supernatural factors as a cause for neurological and psychiatric illness, including the evil eye, divine testing and punishment, and sorcery, was found...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Phebe Cramer
Change in the personality trait of self-confidence was studied in a group of children from the Berkeley Guidance Longitudinal study. Self-confidence was assessed at age 6 (n = 99) and again at age 10 (n = 97). Results indicated that a change in level of self-confidence was related to the use of defense mechanisms, as assessed from Thematic Apperception Test stories. A decrease in self-confidence was positively related to the use of the immature defense of denial and negatively related to the use of the relatively mature defense of identification...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Kristen M Kochanski, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Gregory K Brown, Aaron T Beck, Kanchana U Perera, Laura Novak, Jessica M LaCroix, Rene M Lento, Marjan Ghahramanlou-Holloway
Individuals with multiple suicide attempts have a greater risk for eventual suicide death. We investigated clinical differences in participants with single versus multiple suicide attempts. Individuals with multiple attempts were more likely to have severe depressive symptoms, drug use disorder, and a higher wish to die. Borderline personality disorder traits and drug use disorder were significant predictors of multiple attempts when adjusting for other psychiatric disorders. Participants with multiple attempts sustained higher suicidal ideation-worst and wish to die/wish to live-worst scores during the 3-month assessment period...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Daniela Smirni, Janelle N Beadle, Sergio Paradiso
The present study examined the degree to which alexithymia is greater in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relative to healthy volunteers (healthy comparison [HC]), and investigated relationships between alexithymia and cognition. Eighty-five participants (MCI = 30, AD = 21, HC = 34) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Relative to HC, MCI and AD reported greater alexithymia total scores and higher scores on the TAS factor difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF)...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Xiaoyan Liu, Lili Wang, Qian Zhang, Ruifang Wang, Wei Xu
Treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and facilitation of posttraumatic growth (PTG) are two encouraging areas of research, yet little is understood about the relationships between dispositional mindfulness, PTSSs, and PTG. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PTSSs is correlated with PTG among breast cancer patients in China and explore the role of mindfulness in this relationship. A sample of 202 Chinese breast cancer patients voluntarily participated in the study by completing a set of questionnaires...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Parviz Molavi, Niloofar Mikaeili, Mohammad Ali Ghaseminejad, Zhila Kazemi, Misagh Pourdonya
This work aimed to explore the relationship between social anxiety with benign and toxic online self-disclosures with the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, self-regulation, and Internet addiction. In this study, 358 students who were active members of social networks at the Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Iran were evaluated in the form of a structural equation model. The results substantiated that social anxiety could explain 47% of the variance in benign online self-disclosure and 27% of toxic online self-disclosure with the mediating role of rejection sensitivity, self-regulation, and Internet addiction...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
April Hargreaves, Niamh Daly-Ryan, Rachael Dillon, Gary Donohoe
Cognitive remediation (CR) training improves cognition and functioning in patients with psychosis. To date, however, few studies have investigated CR from a subjective patient perspective. We recently conducted a randomized control trial demonstrating the effectiveness of a new, low therapist support, computer-based training program. This study aims to assess the service user experience of this program. Twenty CR completers with psychosis were interviewed using both rated and open-ended questions. Thematic analysis identified three broad themes: a) benefits of doing CR, b) costs of doing CR, and c) experience of doing CR...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Nathalie Lahoud, Pascale Salameh, Hassan Hosseini, Nadine Saleh, Elias Rizk, Souheil Hallit, Marie Helene Abbas, Souheil Gebeily
The present study was conducted to assess stroke care and outcomes in two Lebanese hospitals. Patients admitted in 2012 and 2013 were retrospectively selected. Data were extracted from medical records for time to hospital arrival, stroke severity, management, and discharge outcomes. A Cox regression analysis was then conducted to predict time to in-hospital death. A total of 201 patients were included (mean age = 69.2 years), among whom 50% arrived within a delay of 3.75 hours. Half underwent brain imaging in the first hour, and nine patients received an acute intervention...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
John Torous, Joseph Firth, Kit Huckvale, Mark E Larsen, Theodore D Cosco, Rebekah Carney, Steven Chan, Abhishek Pratap, Peter Yellowlees, Til Wykes, Matcheri Keshavan, Helen Christensen
With over 10,000 mental health- and psychiatry-related smartphone apps available today and expanding, there is a need for reliable and valid evaluation of these digital tools. However, the updating and nonstatic nature of smartphone apps, expanding privacy concerns, varying degrees of usability, and evolving interoperability standards, among other factors, present serious challenges for app evaluation. In this article, we provide a narrative review of various schemes toward app evaluations, including commercial app store metrics, government initiatives, patient-centric approaches, point-based scoring, academic platforms, and expert review systems...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Melanie A Hom, Megan L Rogers, Matthew E Schneider, Bruno Chiurliza, Leonard A Doerfler, Barent W Walsh, Thomas E Joiner
This study examined whether atypical/severe nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; e.g., foreign body ingestion, cutting necessitating sutures) serves as a marker of severe psychopathology among 467 adult community mental health clients (n = 33 with an atypical/severe NSSI history). Information regarding psychiatric risk indicators was extracted from participants' psychiatric records. Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution and log link function, as well as chi-square tests, were used to address study aims...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Vasilis P Bozikas, Eleni Parlapani, Evangelos Ntouros, Stavroula I Bargiota, Georgios Floros, Elena I Nazlidou, Georgios Garyfallos
The current study focused on the association between resilience and social functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Forty clinically stable patients with BD type I and BD type II, as well as 40 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and educational background were enrolled. Clinical status was assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Functioning was evaluated by the Mini International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health rating of activities and participation in mental illnesses, and the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Marija Mitkovic Voncina, Zeljka Kosutic, Danilo Pesic, Dejan Todorovic, Aleksandar Peulic, Milica Lazarevic, Ivana Rakovic Dobroslavic, Mina Djuric, Zagorka Bradic, Milica Pejovic Milovancevic, Dorothy Gotlib, Dusica Lecic Tosevski
There is an ongoing debate on the relationship between depression and anxiety, but data on similarities and differences in their predictor profiles are scarce. The aim of our study was to compare family and personality predictors of these disorders among 220 "emerging adults." As such, two clinical groups with noncomorbid depressive and anxiety disorders, and one healthy control group were assessed by sociodemographic questionnaires, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and NEO Personality Inventory, Revised...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Kimberlee J Trudeau, Joanna Burtner, Albert J Villapiano, Megan Jones, Stephen F Butler, Kruti Joshi
This study evaluated the biopsychosocial characteristics of adults undergoing substance abuse evaluation with potential schizophrenia/psychotic disorder, or possible schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms, compared with those with no schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms. A cross-sectional, observational study examined 170,201 adults, aged 18 to 30, who completed the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV). Approximately 10% were classified as having possible schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms or potential schizophrenia/psychotic disorder...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Ahmed Naguy, Bibi Alamiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Natasha Fitzgerald-Yau, Jonathan Egan
Research has extensively identified empathic skills as essential in health trainings, policies, and recommendations. However, there have been conflicting views of the impact of empathy on burnout. Some studies contend that empathy serves a protective role, whereas other studies have shown that burnout leads to a diminished capacity to empathize. To date, studies have not yet explored whether defense styles mediate associations between empathy and burnout. A total of 442 nurses completed questionnaire measures of empathy, burnout, and defense mechanisms as part of a large-scale research study on nurse burnout...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Ryan Holliday, Nicholas Holder, Lindsey L Monteith, Alina Surís
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal self-directed violence (SDV). Military sexual trauma (MST) is a common precursor to PTSD among veterans. Survivors of MST are more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD and are at greater risk for SI than survivors of other forms of trauma. Suicide-specific beliefs (e.g., unlovability, unbearability, unsolvability) have been shown to be strong predictors of SI and future suicidal SDV. Suicide-specific beliefs were examined over the course of treatment and follow-up in 32 veterans (23 women, 9 men) who received cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for MST-related PTSD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Rogério R Zimpel, Raquel Gehrke Panzini, Denise Ruschel Bandeira, Elizeth Heldt, Gisele Gus Manfro, Marcelo P Fleck, Neusa Sica da Rocha
Few studies have investigated the relationship between spiritual/religious coping (S/R coping) and panic disorder (PD). This Brazilian longitudinal study evaluated if S/R coping and depressive symptoms can predict PD remission and improved quality of life (QoL). There were 101 outpatients with PD who were followed up for 12 to 16 weeks. The prevalence ratio (PR) between positive S/R coping and negative S/R coping and PD remission was assessed, as well as the association between positive S/R coping and negative S/R coping and QoL...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Juliana L Pereira, Gisela Maria Guedes-Carneiro, Liana R Netto, Patrícia Cavalcanti-Ribeiro, Sidnei Lira, José F Nogueira, Carlos A Teles, Karestan C Koenen, Aline S Sampaio, Lucas C Quarantini
The aim of this work was to investigate the association between traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the academic performance of university students. This is a one-phase study that included 2213 students, enrolled at one of seven college institutions in their first or final semesters in all programs, who filled out the self-response questionnaires. From this student population, 14% presented with PTSD, with 13.3% in their first semester and 14.9% in their final semester. The students who presented lower academic results (low scoring) had a higher prevalence of PTSD in both the first and final semesters...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Julia König, Regina Karl, Rita Rosner, Willi Butollo
Studies of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically encompass short follow-up periods, leading to a dearth of information on the long-term course of symptoms after treatment. We summarize existing long-term follow-up studies and highlight the issues making such research difficult. In this context, we report on a 2-year follow-up on a randomized treatment study comparing dialogical exposure therapy and cognitive processing therapy for adults with PTSD after type I trauma. Many of the problems connected to long-term follow-up also pertained to this study...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Clair Cassiello-Robbins, Shannon Sauer-Zavala, Julianne G Wilner, Kate H Bentley, Laren R Conklin, Todd J Farchione, David H Barlow
Dysregulated anger is often present in the emotional (i.e., anxiety, mood, and related) disorders; however, it is rarely targeted in treatment. Transdiagnostic treatments, which focus on processes that contribute to dysregulated emotions across the range of psychopathology, might represent an efficient way to treat this anger. Using a subset of data from a recently completed equivalency trial comparing the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) to single diagnosis protocols (SDPs) for specific disorders, this study began exploring whether the UP led to great reductions in anger compared with the SDPs...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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