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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Domenic V Cicchetti, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
Cohen's (Educ Psychol Meth. 1960;23:37-40) kappa statistic has been criticized recently for providing low chance-corrected coefficients (<0.40) despite high levels of examiner agreement (e.g., ≥85%). The AC1 statistic (Series. 2002;2:1-9; BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:61), the alpha statistic (J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:775-782), the B statistic (BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:97), and the delta statistic (Commun Statist Theory Meth. 2008;37:760-772) were developed to "correct" this "problem." Each of these statistics produces inaccurate results because they either derive from levels of chance agreement that are incorrect (Gwet's AC1 statistic) or fail to correct for chance levels of agreement (the alpha, B, and delta approaches)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Marina Kukla, Amy M Strasburger, Michelle P Salyers, Nicholas A Rattray, Paul H Lysaker
New research suggests that group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may help improve employment outcomes in persons with mental illness, yet the effects and potential key elements facilitating change in such interventions are unclear. Using a mixed methods approach, this study examined the perspectives of persons with mental illness after participating in a pilot study of the "CBT for Work Success" intervention. Findings demonstrate that participants valued the intervention and perceived that it assisted them in achieving work goals...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Manuela Caslini, Cristina Crocamo, Antonios Dakanalis, Martina Tremolada, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
Stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs) may lead to reduced treatment seeking. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of stigmatizing trends and beliefs related to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), and the associations with the experiential knowledge of the problem, in a large sample of Italian undergraduates. A total of 2109 participants completed an online survey including questionnaires related to stigmatizing beliefs toward AN and BN, and personal contacts with people with EDs. Undergraduates reported almost overlapping low levels of stigmatizing trends for AN and BN, apart from personal responsibility and social distance...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Claudia Del Grande, Carlo Contini, Elisa Schiavi, Grazia Rutigliano, Martina Maritati, Silva Seraceni, Barbara Pinto, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabrizio Bruschi
Recent evidence suggests the involvement of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the emergence of psychotic and affective disorders. In this report, we describe the case of a young Brazilian woman affected by recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis and presenting with a manic episode with psychotic features in the context of a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD), type I. We observed a relationship between ocular manifestations and the clinical course of bipolar illness, confirmed by molecular analyses (nested-PCR), as well as by the high level of T...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Eric Floyd Crawford, Gregory K Wolf, Tracy Kretzmer, Kirsten H Dillon, Christina Thors, Rodney D Vanderploeg
In contrast to concerns that cognitive limitations and neurobehavioral symptoms (NBS) associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may inhibit treatment effectiveness, a recent study found prolonged exposure (PE) led to large reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among Iraq-Afghanistan veterans with a range of TBI severity (article by Wolf, Kretzmer, Crawford, Thors, Wagner, Strom, Eftekhari, Klenk, Hayward, and Vanderploeg [J Trauma Stress 28:339-347, 2015]). We further examined this sample of 69 veterans to determine whether system, veteran, and therapist factors predicted clinically significant responses...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Mei Shi, Hongli Sun, Ye Xu, Zhenhua Wang, Hongyu Cui, Chengmin Wang, Wei Liu, Ganghui An, Jian Hu
This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the methylation status of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese Han population. A total of 96 patients with MDD and 55 healthy volunteers were recruited, and the methylation index (MtI) at six positions in the cytosine-phosphate-guanosine island of 5-HTT gene was measured for each subject using bisulfite pyrosequencing. MtIs at positions 5 and 6 were higher in patients with MDD than those in controls. According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, MtIs at positions 4 and 5 were significantly associated with MDD...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Kelsey A Bonfils, Lauren Luther, Sunita George, Kelly D Buck, Paul H Lysaker
Emotional awareness deficits in people with schizophrenia have been linked to poorer objective outcomes, but no work has investigated the relationship between emotional awareness and subjective recovery indices or metacognitive self-reflectivity. The authors hypothesized that increased emotional awareness would be associated with greater self-esteem, hope, and self-reflectivity and that self-reflectivity would moderate links between emotional awareness and self-esteem and hope-such that significant relationships would only be observed at lower levels of self-reflectivity...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Shawna N Smith, Zongshan Lai, Daniel Almirall, David E Goodrich, Kristen M Abraham, Kristina M Nord, Amy M Kilbourne
Policy is a powerful motivator of clinical change, but implementation success can depend on organizational characteristics. This article used validated measures of organizational resources, culture, and climate to predict uptake of a nationwide Veteran's Health Administration (VA) policy aimed at implementing Re-Engage, a brief care management program that reestablishes contact with veterans with serious mental illness lost to care. Patient care databases were used to identify 2738 veterans lost to care. Local recovery coordinators (LRCs) were to update disposition for 2738 veterans at 158 VA facilities and, as appropriate, facilitate a return to care...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Josep Manel Santos, Esther Pousa, Estel Soto, Anna Comes, Pere Roura, Francesc X Arrufat, Jordi E Obiols
The present study analyzed the capacity for mentalization of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and their first-degree relatives (FDR) and examined the implications of clinical variables and cognitive deficits. The study recruited 31 patients with type I BD, 18 FDR, and 31 paired healthy controls. Their capacity for mentalization was explored by means of first- and second-order false-belief tasks, the hinting task, and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). Patients and FDR were found to have a theory of mind (ToM) deficit when they were evaluated with the MASC, which was also related to a worse neurocognitive performance and to being a patient or FDR...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Richard Neugebauer, Allana Forde, Kinga E Fodor, Prudence W Fisher, J Blake Turner, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Saori Yamabe
Whether children or adolescents exhibit higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in response to violence is an unresolved research question. We examine this issue in UNICEF's 1995 National Trauma Survey (NTS) of 8-19-year-olds (n = 942) who survived the Rwandan Genocide and lived and attended schools in the community. PTSS were assessed with a symptom checklist based on DSM-IV indexed using an overall score comprising the sum of scores on all items and mean item scores of each of five distinct factors identified in a factor analysis within this sample...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Andrea Fossati, Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Cesare Maffei, Kristian E Markon, Robert F Krueger
To evaluate the associations between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorder traits and domains and categorically diagnosed narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), respectively, 238 inpatient and outpatient participants who were consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy, were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Louisa G Sylvia, Stephanie Salcedo, Amy T Peters, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Ellen Frank, David J Miklowitz, Michael W Otto, Michael Berk, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
This study examined whether sleep disturbance predicted or moderated responses to psychotherapy in participants who participated in STEP-BD, a national, multisite study that examined the effectiveness of different treatment combinations for bipolar disorder. Participants received either a brief psychosocial intervention called collaborative care (CC; n = 130) or intensive psychotherapy (IP; n = 163), with study-based pharmacotherapy. Participants (N = 243) were defined as current (past week) short sleepers (<6 hours/night), normal sleepers (6...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Martin Bares, Tomas Novak, Martin Brunovsky, Miloslav Kopecek, Cyril Höschl
The substantial non-response rate in depressive patients indicates a continuing need to identify predictors of treatment outcome. The aim of this 6-week, open-label study was (1) to compare the efficacy of a priori defined predictors: ≥20% reduction in MADRS score at week 1, ≥20% reduction in MADRS score at week 2 (RM ≥ 20% W2), decrease of cordance (RC), and increase of serum and plasma level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor at week 1; and (2) to assess whether their combination yields higher efficacy in the prediction of response to selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) than when used singly...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Matthew T Luciano, Meghan E McDevitt-Murphy
Research indicates that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is strongly associated with physical health difficulties, and that social support may be protective for both problems. Social support, however, is often broadly conceptualized. The present analysis explores how Veteran-specific social support (during military deployment and postdeployment) may moderate the relationship between PTSD and physical health functioning. Participants were recruited from a VA Medical Center. Self-report data were analyzed from 63 Veterans (17...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Eric W Leppink, Brian L Odlaug, Katherine Lust, Gary Christenson, Jon E Grant
High levels of stress are common among young adults, particularly those enrolled in college. These degrees of stress have shown numerous deleterious effects across both academic and health variables. Findings regarding the role of stress in the presentation of impulse control disorders, particular among college students, are limited. This study examined potential associations between perceived stress, academic achievement, physical/mental health, and impulse control disorders in young adults. A total of 1805 students completed an online survey and were included in the analysis...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Michelle Andrews, Amanda L Baker, Sean A Halpin, Terry J Lewin, Robyn Richmond, Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Sacha L Filia, David Castle, Jill M Williams, Vanessa Clark, Robin Callister
Engaging and retaining individuals with psychotic disorders in psychosocial treatments is difficult. Early therapeutic alliance, treatment retention, and 12-month outcomes were examined in a subsample of smokers with a psychotic disorder (N = 178) participating in a healthy lifestyles study comparing a telephone versus face-to-face delivered intervention. Therapeutic alliance was assessed using the Agnew Relationship Measure; primary outcomes were treatment retention and changes in symptoms and health behaviors...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Isabel Morales-Muñoz, Rosa Jurado-Barba, Sara Fernández-Guinea, Roberto Rodríguez-Jiménez, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Arriero, José R Criado, Gabriel Rubio
Sensory gating deficits are commonly found in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is still scarce research on this issue. Thirty-eight patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) were compared to thirty-eight controls. A condition-test paradigm of event-related potentials (ERP), prepulse inhibition (PPI), and some specific tasks of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) were used (i.e., TMT, BACS-SC, and Fluency for processing speed and CPT-IP for attention and vigilance). The ERP components measured were P50, N1, and P2...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Amina Barghadouch, Jessica Carlsson, Marie Norredam
Studies show a high level of mental health problems among refugee children and adults. This study aimed to examine psychiatric disorders among refugee children in early adulthood. A total of 15,264 young adult refugees, who obtained residence permission January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2010, were matched 1:6 on age and sex with 99,313 Danish-born children. Rate ratios (RR) of having a first-time in- or outpatient hospital diagnosis with an affective (F30-39), psychotic (F29-30), neurotic (F40-48), or any psychiatric disorder (F00-99) according to ICD-10 were computed...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Krystal Hays, Tamika Gilreath
Although Black Americans have lower prevalence of depression compared to non-Hispanic Whites (10% vs. 17%), they are nearly twice as likely to have worse outcomes. One contributor to poor depression outcomes involves the ways in which Black Americans seek help for depression. However, little is known about depression help-seeking behavior, and the use of multiple sources of help, among Black Americans. This study used latent class analysis to identify unique constellations of depression help seeking, from multiple sources, among African American and Black Caribbeans...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Paul R McHugh
This lecture, given to celebrate the centennial of the founding of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Service at Johns Hopkins, addresses the career and contributions to psychiatry and neurology of Adolf Meyer, the first Phipps Professor. It reviews his achievements historically describing the bleak clinical situation of psychiatry when he began as a neuropathologist at Kankakee Hospital in Illinois in 1892, what he did to address them, the sources of help he found and exploited from leading figures in the emerging Progressive Era (1890-1917) in American life, and how he confronted and overcame resistances to his empirical, psychobiological conceptions of mental illness as he advanced...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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