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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Melissa Milanovic, Emma Ayukawa, Aleksandra Usyatynsky, Katherine Holshausen, Christopher R Bowie
We investigated the discrepancy between competence and real-world performance in major depressive disorder (MDD) for adaptive and interpersonal behaviors, determining whether self-efficacy significantly predicts this discrepancy, after considering depressive symptoms. Forty-two participants (Mage = 37.64, 66.67% female) with MDD were recruited from mental health clinics. Competence, self-efficacy, and real-world functioning were evaluated in adaptive and interpersonal domains; depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory II...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Kirsti Haracz, Michael Hazelton, Carole James
High levels of lifestyle risk factors compound medication side effects, resulting in high rates of obesity among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Obesity and related comorbidities increase the levels of disability and disadvantage in this population. Little research has explored the lived experiences in relation to this issue, and less has considered the experiences of women. Our aim in this study was to understand the experiences of women who gained weight after their diagnosis and treatment for SSDs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Orçun Yorulmaz, Seda Sapmaz-Yurtsever, Ceren Gökdağ, Servet Kaçar-Başaran, Ezgi Göcek-Yorulmaz, Melikenaz Yalçin, Seda Tokgünaydin-Aritürk, Zeynep Erdoğan-Yildirim, Nesibe Olgun-Kaval, Nimet Serap Görgü-Akçay
Making realistic predictions about the future is important in clinical psychology as in many other disciplines. This opinion survey aimed to examine clinical psychologists' predictions for the next 10 years regarding the status of psychotherapy in Turkey in two stages, with 107 participants in one and 69 in the other. The results revealed that the techniques predicted to increase the most in the next decade were the use of eclectic therapy, mindfulness therapy, solution-focused therapy, system/family approaches, and cognitive-behavioral therapy...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Manuela Gander, Cathrin Schiestl, Rainer Dahlbender, Joram Ronel, Anna Buchheim
The present study investigated differences in various aspects of facial behavior among female patients with complicated grief (CG; n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) during the assessment of their attachment representation using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System. All patients were classified with an unresolved attachment status. On a behavioral level, they demonstrated longer gazing behavior away from the interviewer and the picture stimuli, more speech pauses, less smiling toward the interviewer, and more crying, especially in response to stimuli portraying the theme of loss...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Harold G Koenig, Nagy A Youssef, Donna Ames, John P Oliver, Ellen J Teng, Kerry Haynes, Zachary D Erickson, Irina Arnold, Joseph M Currier, Keisha OʼGaro, Michelle Pearce
Moral injury (MI) involves feelings of shame, grief, meaninglessness, and remorse from having violated core moral beliefs related to traumatic experiences. This multisite cross-sectional study examined the association between religious involvement (RI) and MI symptoms, mediators of the relationship, and the modifying effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in 373 US veterans with PTSD symptoms who served in a combat theater. Assessed were demographic, military, religious, physical, social, behavioral, and psychological characteristics using standard measures of RI, MI symptoms, PTSD, depression, and anxiety...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Marina Kukla, Amy M Strasburger, Michelle P Salyers, Angela L Rollins, Paul H Lysaker
Persons with serious mental illness (SMI) struggle with work functioning even with the assistance of vocational services. The current study sought to address this problem by examining a cognitive-behavioral therapy to augment vocational services. Fifty-two adults with SMI receiving vocational services participated in a pre-post feasibility trial of the Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Work Success (CBTw) intervention. CBTw is a 12-week manualized intervention that addresses cognitive and behavioral factors that impact work functioning...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Giovanni Camardese, Massimo Vasale, Lucio DʼAlessandris, Marianna Mazza, Riccardo Serrani, Federico Travagliati, Coco Walstra, Leonardo Zaninotto, Beniamino Leone, Marco Di Nicola, Raffaella Franza, Giuseppe Marano, Lucio Rinaldi, Luigi Janiri
The present study describes a new mixed program of psychoeducational and psychological interventions for bipolar patients, applicable during everyday practice. Thirty-two bipolar patients recruited at a psychiatric day-hospital service have been admitted to a program consisting of 30 meetings and 2 follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. The psychoeducational support determined a general improvement of all included patients. At baseline, patients with residual depression had higher Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores than euthymic patients (mean score ± SD: 21...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Phebe Cramer
The developmental period of latency, during middle childhood, has not been previously studied for possible change in the use of defense mechanisms. Using a validated narrative method to assess defenses, the present research examines change in children's defense use during this period. As predicted from theory, there was a significant increase in the use of the defense of Identification. This finding is consistent with theory that posits a shift at this time from defense against anxiety that is based on lack of impulse control to defense that is based on anxiety due to violation of conscience...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Margaret Legarreta, Elliott Bueler, Jennifer DiMuzio, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
This study examined differences in suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SAs) among veterans with chronic pain. Pain-specific variables, including catastrophic thinking, disability, and sensory, affective, and evaluative pain descriptors, were a focus. Structured diagnostic and clinical interviews were conducted to examine SI/SA and mental health. Veterans completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale to assess Axis I symptoms and suicidal behavior(s)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Li Zhang, Long Sun, Chengchao Zhou, Dandan Ge, Yangyang Qian
To date, few studies have examined the association between difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL) and suicidal ideation (SI) among the seniors in China. This study aims to explore this association among older adults in China. A total of 3313 older people (60+) were included in this study, and questionnaires were administered by face-to-face interview. In total, 4.2% of the participants reported SI. The mean score of ADL among older adults with SI (21.06 ± 10.92) was much higher than that in those without SI (16...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Katharina Radziej, Thomas Probst, Karina Limburg, Andreas Dinkel, Marianne Dieterich, Claas Lahmann
Despite the frequent observation that vertigo and dizziness (VD) disorders may trigger or exacerbate secondary psychiatric comorbidities, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this development. To address this gap, we investigated whether symptom-related fears and cognitions as indicated by questionnaire-based measures are mediators of the longitudinal effect of VD symptoms on anxiety and depression after 1 year. We analyzed data from a large study with patients of a treatment center specialized in vertigo (N = 210)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Andreas Maercker, Tobias Hecker, Mareike Augsburger, Sören Kliem
Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Keely Gordon-King, Robert D Schweitzer, Giancarlo Dimaggio
Metacognitive interpersonal therapy (MIT) is an integrative psychotherapeutic approach targeting personality disorders (PDs) featuring inhibition and avoidance. The current case series reports the outcome of a time-limited, 12-month MIT intervention for people with PDs featuring emotional inhibition. Seven participants were diagnosed with a PD on the basis of a structured clinical interview. The study followed a multiple baseline design, with baseline measures taken for 3 weeks before intervention. Participants underwent 12 months of weekly MIT sessions, with outcome measures taken every 3 months...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Awais Aftab, Jennifer Levin, Michelle Aebi, Chetan Bhat, Martha Sajatovic
This analysis was conducted on baseline data from 178 nonadherent bipolar disorder subjects in a randomized controlled trial. Medication adherence was measured with Tablets Routine Questionnaire as percentage of days with missed doses. Inclusion criteria required at least 20% nonadherence. Medication adherence, symptomatology, and functioning in individuals with and without a comorbid anxiety disorder were compared. There were 78.9% of subjects who had at least one or more current anxiety disorder, with the most common being posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Carla Maria Almeida, Maria Purificação Horta
Anger and low self-esteem characterize borderline individuals, yet little is known about their role and impact in the presence or absence of self-injury behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of anger and self-esteem in borderline patients and whether these variables distinguish these patients with and without self-injury. Patients were recruited from a psychiatric service and were evaluated for self-esteem and anger. Additionally, impulsivity and symptoms were assessed. Two groups were compared, one with self-injurious behavior (n = 18) and another one without it (n = 23)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Claudia Chow, Hana Morrissey, Patrick Ball
The aim of this project was to explore whether fourth-year pharmacy students in England are prepared to communicate with mental health patients. Mental health problems are rising in the United Kingdom, affecting around one in four people. A questionnaire-based study measured the knowledge about and attitude toward mental health problems. Participants were fourth-year pharmacy students from two west midlands universities. More males than females correctly answered the "attitude towards mental health" questions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Joseph W Boffa, Ian H Stanley, Lia J Smith, Brittany M Mathes, Jana K Tran, Sam J Buser, Norman B Schmidt, Anka A Vujanovic
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are positively related to suicide risk among firefighters. One mechanism that may account for this relationship is anxiety sensitivity (AS) cognitive concerns-the fear that cognitive symptoms of anxiety will have catastrophic consequences. We sought to replicate the mediating effect of AS cognitive concerns on the relationship between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among 214 trauma-exposed male firefighters with non-zero suicide risk. Bootstrap mediation analyses tested AS cognitive concerns as a statistical mediator of PTSD symptoms (total and symptoms clusters scores) and suicide risk, controlling for depression symptoms and relevant demographic variables...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lence Miloseva, Tatjana Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, Vladimir Milosev, Thompson Davis
The purposes of this article were to determine which risk factors are significant predictors of the occurrence of depression in adolescence and to discriminate among clinical, subclinical, and control groups. The sample consisted of 412 adolescents (61.7% female, 38.3% male) aged 13 to 17 years. Cognitive vulnerability factors for depression (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative inferential style, ruminative response style) and psychosocial risk factors (i.e., negative life events, perceived social support) were measured...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lonneke I M Lenferink, Ineke Wessel, Paul A Boelen
Adaptive regulation of positive and negative affect after the loss of a loved one may foster recovery. In two studies, using similar methods but different samples, we explored the association between positive (i.e., dampening and enhancing) and negative (i.e., rumination) affect regulation strategies and symptoms levels of postloss psychopathology. Study 1 used data from 187 people confronted with the death of a loved one. In study 2, the sample consisted of 134 relatives of long-term missing persons. Participants completed self-reports tapping prolonged grief, depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and affect regulation strategies...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Guangzhe Yuan, Wei Xu, Zhen Liu, Yuanyuan An
Previous studies have shown that resilience is associated with lower severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and more posttraumatic growth (PTG) in people who have experienced traumatic events. The present study investigated the ways in which resilience is related to PTSD symptoms and to PTG in Chinese traumatized adolescents by considering the role of perceived social support. A total of 247 Chinese adolescents who had experienced a severe tornado 3 months before this study were recruited for this study...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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