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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727660/alcohol-use-disorder-moderates-the-effect-of-age-on-heart-rate-variability-in-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
John M Ray, Jeffrey M Pyne, Richard N Gevirtz
Research on heart rate variability (HRV) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) is limited despite its use as a biomarker of both disorders. This study examined whether AUD comorbidity contributes an additive effect on HRV for veterans with PTSD. HRV was assessed in 70 male Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with PTSD, including 32 with co-occurring AUD. Mean HRV values for both groups were below the mean for healthy adults, but additive effects of PTSD and AUD on HRV were not observed...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682982/development-of-adaptive-coping-from-mid-to-late-life-a-70-year-longitudinal-study-of-defense-maturity-and-its-psychosocial-correlates
#2
John S Martin-Joy, Johanna C Malone, Xing-Jia Cui, Pål-Ørjan Johansen, Kevin P Hill, M Omar Rahman, Robert J Waldinger, George E Vaillant
The present study examines changes in defense maturity from mid to late life using data from an over 70-year longitudinal study. A sample of 72 men was followed beginning in late adolescence. Participants' childhoods were coded for emotional warmth. Defense mechanisms were coded by independent raters using the Q-Sort of Defenses (Roston et al., 1992, Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers 217-233) based on interview data gathered at approximately ages 52 and 75. We examined psychosocial correlates of defenses at midlife, late life, and changes in defense from mid to late life...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682981/risk-factors-of-delayed-onset-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-chronically-critically-ill-patients
#3
Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann, Jenny Rosendahl, Kerstin Weidner, Bernhard Strauß, Katja Petrowski
The main aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with a delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the intensive care unit (ICU) treatment of patients with a chronic critical illness (CCI). Patients (n = 97) with critical illness polyneuropathy or critical illness myopathy were interviewed via the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. The diagnosis of the acute stress disorder was assessed within 1 month (t1), the diagnosis of PTSD at 3 (t2) and 6 (t3) months after transfer from the acute care ICU to the post-acute ICU...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682983/can-anger-be-helpful-soldier-perceptions-of-the-utility-of-anger
#4
Amy B Adler, Daniel F Brossart, Robin L Toblin
Studies have found that soldiers returning from combat deployment report elevated levels of anger and aggression. The present study examined the perception that anger was helpful in performing occupationally related duties and whether this perception was associated with mental health problems, somatic symptoms, and functioning. Soldiers (N = 627) completed a survey 4 months after their deployment to Afghanistan and again 3 months later. When examining anger over time, findings revealed four groups of different latent classes: low stable (resilient), high stable (chronic), decreasing over time (improved), and increasing over time (delayed problems)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661934/associations-among-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-substance-use-and-affective-attentional-processing-in-oef-oif-ond-veterans
#5
Gabrielle I Liverant, Melissa M Amick, Shimrit K Black, Michael Esterman, Blair E Wisco, Molly C Gibian, Brian P Marx, Regina E McGlinchey
The majority of research examining affective attentional bias in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not examined the influence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. This study examined the individual and interactive effects of PTSD symptoms and substance use disorders (SUDs) on affective attentional processing among 323 veterans deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Participants were divided into those with SUD (SUD+, n = 46) and those without (SUD-, n = 277). Substance use disorder was determined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640037/epidemiology-of-major-depressive-disorder-disability-in-the-us-military-fy-2007-2012
#6
Elizabeth R Packnett, Hoda Elmasry, Christine F Toolin, David N Cowan, Michael R Boivin
This study assesses the incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) disability discharge and retirement in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force and describes MDD comorbidity. Service members with a disability discharge for either MDD (n = 2,882) or any nonpsychiatric disability (n = 56,145), between fiscal years 2007 and 2012, were included in the study population. Those with MDD disability at first evaluation but not at last evaluation were excluded. The incidence of MDD disability discharge increased significantly in the Army and Air Force between fiscal years 2007 and 2012...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632514/childhood-precursors-of-the-narcissistic-personality
#7
Phebe Cramer
This research identifies the childhood personality characteristics that predict the presence of narcissism in adulthood. Using data from the longitudinal study of Block and Block (The California Child Q-set. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980), childhood personality characteristics were assessed at age 11 (N = 100) using the California Child Q-set. A number of these were shown to differentially predict the presence of grandiose or vulnerable narcissism at age 23. Factor analyses of the Child Q-set items showed that the presence of Grandiose Narcissism was positively related to childhood factors representing social presence and negatively related to planfulness...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632513/prevalence-and-predictors-of-posttraumatic-stress-and-depression-symptoms-among-syrian-refugees-in-a-refugee-camp
#8
Ceren Acarturk, Mustafa Cetinkaya, Ibrahim Senay, Birgul Gulen, Tamer Aker, Devon Hinton
Turkey is hosting the majority of Syrian refugees. The current study investigates the prevalence of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among adult Syrians residing in a camp (N = 781) and potential predictors. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised was used to measure PTSD and the Beck Depression Inventory depression. Probable PTSD prevalence was 83.4%, with predictors being female sex (odds ratio [OR], 4.1), previous mental health problems (OR, 4.5), life threat (OR, 3.0), and injury of a loved one (OR, 1...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609313/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-life-satisfaction-in-a-representative-adolescent-and-adult-sample
#9
Timo Hennig, Ute Koglin, Sören Schmidt, Franz Petermann, Elmar Brähler
Although it is well documented that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced life satisfaction, the mechanisms that might explain this co-occurrence are unclear. We examined the correlation of ADHD symptoms with life satisfaction and whether this association is mediated by (lacking) social support and depressive symptoms. Self-reported ADHD symptoms, life satisfaction, social support, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a representative, predominantly adult sample from the general population (14-91 years, N = 2517)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609312/comorbid-ptsd-and-social-anxiety-disorder-associations-with-quality-of-life-and-suicide-attempts
#10
Katherine A McMillan, Gordon J G Asmundson, Jitender Sareen
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) frequently co-occur. Preliminary data from treatment-seeking and veteran samples suggest that the impact of PTSD-SAD comorbidity may be additive, conferring distress and impairment beyond that of either disorder alone. The current study sought to clarify and extend existent research using wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions, an epidemiological sample of American adults. Individuals who met criteria for comorbid PTSD-SAD were compared to those with either disorder alone on measures of lifetime suicide attempts or quality of life as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609311/gender-differences-of-stressful-life-events-coping-style-symptom-severity-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#11
Ji Eun Kim, In Han Song, Sang-Hyuk Lee
Although affective disorders have been known to have sex differences in the associated clinical characteristics and quality of life (QOL), sex differences among patients with panic disorder (PD) have remained relatively unexplored in Korea. We examined the sex differences in different types of stressful life events (SLEs), coping styles, symptom severity, and health-related QOL (HRQOL) in patients with PD. Data from 291 female and 254 male participants diagnosed with PD were analyzed using a structured clinical interview following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657961/suicidality-and-survivability-in-schizophrenia
#12
Ahmed Naguy, Amna Al-Rabaie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657960/characterization-of-risk-taking-in-adults-with-bipolar-spectrum-disorders
#13
Jonathan Reinharth, Raphael Braga, Mark Serper
Individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders experience higher morbidity and mortality rates relative to the general population because of increased commission of dangerous behaviors. Despite this impact, little is known about the overall rates of risk-taking behaviors in patients currently being treated for such illness. This study examined the frequency of a variety of risk-taking behaviors in 100 adults with bipolar spectrum disorders in an active outpatient psychiatric treatment. It was found that 70% of individuals assessed reported at least one risk-taking behavior over the preceding 7 days...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604418/dissociation-from-a-cross-cultural-perspective-implications-of-studies-in-brazil
#14
REVIEW
Everton de Oliveira Maraldi, Stanley Krippner, Maria Cristina Monteiro Barros, Alexandre Cunha
A major issue in the study of dissociation concerns the cross-cultural validity of definitions and measurements used to identify and classify dissociative disorders. There is also extensive debate on the etiological factors underlying dissociative experiences. Cross-cultural research is essential to elucidate these issues, particularly regarding evidence obtained from countries in which the study of dissociation is still in its infancy. The aim of this article was to discuss Brazilian research on the topic of dissociation, highlighting its contributions for the understanding of dissociative experiences in nonclinical populations and for the validity and relevance of dissociative disorders in the contexts of psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604417/posttraumatic-stress-and-distress-tolerance-associations-with-suicidality-in-acute-care-psychiatric-inpatients
#15
Anka A Vujanovic, Jafar Bakhshaie, Colleen Martin, Madhavi K Reddy, Michael D Anestis
Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology have been associated with suicidality, including ideation and behavior. The current investigation evaluated, in acute-care psychiatric inpatients, the mediating role of perceived (self-reported) distress tolerance in the association between PTSD symptom severity and suicidality, defined as a) suicidal ideation, intent, or behavior leading to current psychiatric hospitalization; b) self-reported severity of suicidal desire; and c) percentage of days of suicidality during current hospitalization...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598958/internet-game-addiction-depression-and-escape-from-negative-emotions-in-adulthood-a-nationwide-community-sample-of-korea
#16
Dong Jun Kim, Kiwon Kim, Hae-Woo Lee, Jin-Pyo Hong, Maeng Je Cho, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Jung-Yoon Heo, Hong Jin Jeon
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between adult Internet game addiction (IGA) and mental disorders. A total of 1401 adults aged between 18 and 74 years participated in this study. The IGA group had significantly younger patients, and it showed a higher proportion of unmarried and unemployed adults, and higher rates of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt than the non-IGA group. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that IGA was significantly associated with major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depressive disorders adjusting for all variables...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598957/childhood-adversity-cortisol-levels-and-psychosis-a-retrospective-investigation
#17
Carlo Faravelli, Giovanni Mansueto, Sara Palmieri, Carolina Lo Sauro, Francesco Rotella, Francesco Pietrini, Giulia Fioravanti
Although it has been proposed that the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may act as a possible pathway linking early life stress to psychosis, this relationship has not yet been fully confirmed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood adversity (CA), cortisol levels, and psychosis. Eighty-five patients with psychosis and 170 control subjects were enrolled in the study. CA was evaluated using the Florence Psychiatric Interview, and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598956/the-rate-of-improvement-in-long-term-dynamic-psychotherapy-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#18
J Christopher Perry, Michael Bond, Vera Békés
Controlled trials of psychotherapy and follow-up studies of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have shown significant, but usually limited, improvement. We examined the hypothesis that BPD changes more slowly than nonborderline disorders. In a study of long-term dynamic psychotherapy, 16 subjects with BPD and 35 with non-BPD disorders were treated for a median of 3 years with a follow-up of 5 years. From periodic assessments, we calculated the rate of change for each subject over the course of the study on each measure of symptoms and functioning...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598955/the-comorbidity-of-daydreaming-disorder-maladaptive-daydreaming
#19
Eli Somer, Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Colin A Ross
To determine the comorbidity profile of individuals meeting criteria for a proposed new disorder, daydreaming disorder (more commonly known as maladaptive daydreaming [MD]), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders were administered to 39 participants who met criteria for MD on a structured interview. We determined high rates of comorbidity: 74.4% met criteria for more than three additional disorders, and 41...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590264/traumatic-brain-injury-sleep-quality-and-suicidal-ideation-in-iraq-afghanistan-era-veterans
#20
Bryann B DeBeer, Nathan A Kimbrel, Corina Mendoza, Dena Davidson, Eric C Meyer, Heidi La Bash, Suzy Bird Gulliver, Sandra B Morissette
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that sleep quality mediates the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) history and current suicidal ideation. Measures of TBI history, sleep quality, and suicidal ideation were administered to 130 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. As expected, sleep quality mediated the effect of TBI history on current suicidal ideation (indirect effect, 0.0082; 95% confidence interval, 0.0019-0.0196), such that history of TBI was associated with worse sleep quality, which was, in turn, associated with increased suicidal ideation...
July 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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