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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Awais Aftab, Jennifer Levin, Michelle Aebi, Chetan Bhat, Martha Sajatovic
This analysis was conducted on baseline data from 178 nonadherent bipolar disorder subjects in a randomized controlled trial. Medication adherence was measured with Tablets Routine Questionnaire as percentage of days with missed doses. Inclusion criteria required at least 20% nonadherence. Medication adherence, symptomatology, and functioning in individuals with and without a comorbid anxiety disorder were compared. There were 78.9% of subjects who had at least one or more current anxiety disorder, with the most common being posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Carla Maria Almeida, Maria Purificação Horta
Anger and low self-esteem characterize borderline individuals, yet little is known about their role and impact in the presence or absence of self-injury behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of anger and self-esteem in borderline patients and whether these variables distinguish these patients with and without self-injury. Patients were recruited from a psychiatric service and were evaluated for self-esteem and anger. Additionally, impulsivity and symptoms were assessed. Two groups were compared, one with self-injurious behavior (n = 18) and another one without it (n = 23)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Claudia Chow, Hana Morrissey, Patrick Ball
The aim of this project was to explore whether fourth-year pharmacy students in England are prepared to communicate with mental health patients. Mental health problems are rising in the United Kingdom, affecting around one in four people. A questionnaire-based study measured the knowledge about and attitude toward mental health problems. Participants were fourth-year pharmacy students from two west midlands universities. More males than females correctly answered the "attitude towards mental health" questions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Joseph W Boffa, Ian H Stanley, Lia J Smith, Brittany M Mathes, Jana K Tran, Sam J Buser, Norman B Schmidt, Anka A Vujanovic
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are positively related to suicide risk among firefighters. One mechanism that may account for this relationship is anxiety sensitivity (AS) cognitive concerns-the fear that cognitive symptoms of anxiety will have catastrophic consequences. We sought to replicate the mediating effect of AS cognitive concerns on the relationship between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among 214 trauma-exposed male firefighters with non-zero suicide risk. Bootstrap mediation analyses tested AS cognitive concerns as a statistical mediator of PTSD symptoms (total and symptoms clusters scores) and suicide risk, controlling for depression symptoms and relevant demographic variables...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lence Miloseva, Tatjana Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, Vladimir Milosev, Thompson Davis
The purposes of this article were to determine which risk factors are significant predictors of the occurrence of depression in adolescence and to discriminate among clinical, subclinical, and control groups. The sample consisted of 412 adolescents (61.7% female, 38.3% male) aged 13 to 17 years. Cognitive vulnerability factors for depression (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative inferential style, ruminative response style) and psychosocial risk factors (i.e., negative life events, perceived social support) were measured...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lonneke I M Lenferink, Ineke Wessel, Paul A Boelen
Adaptive regulation of positive and negative affect after the loss of a loved one may foster recovery. In two studies, using similar methods but different samples, we explored the association between positive (i.e., dampening and enhancing) and negative (i.e., rumination) affect regulation strategies and symptoms levels of postloss psychopathology. Study 1 used data from 187 people confronted with the death of a loved one. In study 2, the sample consisted of 134 relatives of long-term missing persons. Participants completed self-reports tapping prolonged grief, depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and affect regulation strategies...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Guangzhe Yuan, Wei Xu, Zhen Liu, Yuanyuan An
Previous studies have shown that resilience is associated with lower severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and more posttraumatic growth (PTG) in people who have experienced traumatic events. The present study investigated the ways in which resilience is related to PTSD symptoms and to PTG in Chinese traumatized adolescents by considering the role of perceived social support. A total of 247 Chinese adolescents who had experienced a severe tornado 3 months before this study were recruited for this study...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jonathan D Prince, Adashima Oyo, Olivia Mora, Katarzyna Wyka, Andrew D Schonebaum
Although studies show that loneliness increases risk of illness and hastens death, it is poorly understood among persons with severe mental illness (SMI). Using data on 150 people with SMI, we used logistic regression to predict (1) loneliness from sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and (2) psychiatric hospitalization from presence of loneliness. We also examined mediating effects. Study participants who were most willing to ask for help were 70% less likely (odds ratio [OR], 0.30; confidence interval [CI], 0...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Tim Bastiaens, Laurence Claes, Dirk Smits, Dominique Vanwalleghem, Marc De Hert
We investigated the relation between subjective cognitive biases measured with the Dutch Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases (DACOBS-NL) and (1) the presence of a psychotic versus nonpsychotic psychiatric disorder, (2) the current dose of antipsychotic medication and current psychotic symptoms, and (3) the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) Psychoticism personality trait. Results showed that DACOBS-NL subjective cognitive biases (1) were equally present in patients diagnosed with nonpsychotic disorders compared with patients with a psychotic disorder, (2) could not be explained by the current dose of antipsychotic medication, nor by current psychotic symptoms, and (3) significantly correlated with all PID-5 Personality domains...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
To clarify the origins of parent-child resemblance for drug abuse (DA), using national Swedish data, we fit path models to information on DA in parents and children from six informative family types: i) not-lived-with father, ii) not-lived-with mother, iii) stepfather, iv) stepmother, v) triparental, and vi) adoptive. From these families, we estimated parent-offspring resemblance reflecting the effects of genes + rearing, genes only, and rearing only. The estimates of parent-offspring correlations were statistically homogenous across family types...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Dominick Gamache, Claudia Savard, Sophie Lemelin, Alexandre Côté, Évens Villeneuve
The goal of the present study was to establish profiles of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who dropped out early from an outpatient psychotherapy program. From a sample of 56 BPD patients who dropped out after the first of a three-year program, a TwoStep cluster analysis procedure was performed, using the five factors of the Treatment Attrition-Retention Scale for Personality Disorders (Gamache et al., J Pers Disord 1-21, 2017) and the Global Assessment of Functioning score (Spitzer et al...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jeffrey M Pyne, Ellen P Fischer, Dinesh Mittal, Richard Owen
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a patient-centered and sustainable antipsychotic medication adherence intervention. The study design was a randomized controlled trial. Data from 61 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were analyzed. The intervention included a checklist of barriers, facilitators, and motivators (BFM) for taking antipsychotic medications. The results of the checklist were summarized and a note was placed in the electronic medical record (EMR) and a hard copy was given to the patient...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Maja Bruhn, Susan Rees, Mohammed Mohsin, Derrick Silove, Jessica Carlsson
Trauma-affected refugees commonly experience postmigration stressors, which can compound conflict-related emotional distress. Our study aimed to assess clinician-rated frequency and types of postmigration stressors deemed to be interfering with the treatment of refugees attending a service for trauma-related mental distress. A total of 116 patients completed 6 months of multidisciplinary treatment. Clinician-rated postmigration stressors were registered at each session. Outcome measures were Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Global Assessment of Functioning, function (GAF-F) and symptom...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Ora Nakash, Maayan Nagar, Drew Westen
We examined the interrater reliability and diagnostic efficiency of clinician report (both the treating clinician and independent expert clinical interviewer) and patient self-report of clinically meaningful information pertaining to adaptive functioning. A convenience sample of clinicians (N = 80) and patients (N = 170) from eight community mental health clinics in Israel participated in the study. Our findings suggest that clinicians overall reliably report on adaptive functioning of patients (overall correct classification rates range, 0...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Ernesto Magallón-Neri, Dorilyz Vila, Katyana Santiago, Pedro García, Glorisa Canino
Knowledge about prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and mental health services use among parents and relatives of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited, particularly when referring to epidemiologic samples. The current study is based on an island-wide probabilistic multistage cluster sample of adult individuals (N = 3062) living in Puerto Rico. Results showed a significantly higher rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and serious mental illness in parents (n = 34) or relatives (n = 34) of ASD individuals, as compared with the Puerto Rico adult population as a whole...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Thaíse Campos Mondin, Amanda Neumann Reyes, Suelen de Lima Bach, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of narrative cognitive therapy (NCT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the improvement of perception of quality of life in young adults with depression at 12-month follow-up. This was a randomized clinical trial conducted using seven sessions of NCT or CBT. Quality of life was measured using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form General Health Survey. The sample included 97 patients. Considering only completers to be samples, CBT was more effective than NCT for improvement of physical functioning (p = 0...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Susanne Stolzenburg, Simone Freitag, Sara Evans-Lacko, Holger Muehlan, Silke Schmidt, Georg Schomerus
The aim of this study was to investigate whether personal stigma decreases self-identification as having a mental illness in individuals with untreated mental health problems. We interviewed 207 persons with a currently untreated mental health problem as confirmed by a structured diagnostic interview. Measures included symptom appraisal, self-identification as having a mental illness (SELFI), self-labeling (open-ended question on the nature of their problem) stigma-related variables (explicit and implicit), as well as sociodemographics, current symptom severity, and previous treatment...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Melanie A Hom, Ian H Stanley, Sally Spencer-Thomas, Thomas E Joiner
This cross-sectional study investigated the association between harassment, career suicidality, and psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Women firefighters (n = 290) completed self-report measures of experiences with harassment on the job, career suicidality, and various psychiatric symptoms. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of variance were used to address study aims. Of the sample, 21.7% reported having experienced sexual harassment and 20.3% reported having been threatened or harassed in another way on their firefighting job...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jeffrey Guina, Ramzi W Nahhas, Paige Sutton, Seth Farnsworth
Although it is well known that different trauma histories can uniquely affect subsequent trauma-related symptoms, this is the first study to evaluate individual posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in relation to trauma type and timing. This cross-sectional study surveyed a consecutive sample of mental health outpatients (n = 602), using regression to estimate associations between DSM-5 PTSSs and demographics, several trauma types, and age at first trauma in those with trauma (n = 367). Combat and sexual trauma were associated with worse total PTSS severity...
January 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lia Ring, Osnat Lavenda, Yaira Hamama-Raz, Menachem Ben-Ezra, Shani Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Udi Y David, Adi Zaken, Michal Mahat-Shamir
ICD-11 has provided a revised definition for adjustment disorder (AjD). The current study examined whether mortality salience effect, a possible consequence of a terror attack, may serve as a significant predictor associated with each of the AjD subscales. Using an online survey, 379 adult participants were recruited and filled out self-reported questionnaires dealing with adjustment disorder symptoms as well as mortality salience effect. Findings revealed that mortality salience effect was a significant predictor of all AjD subscales...
January 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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