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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875386/correlation-between-posttraumatic-growth-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-based-on-pearson-correlation-coefficient-a-meta-analysis
#1
An-Nuo Liu, Lu-Lu Wang, Hui-Ping Li, Juan Gong, Xiao-Hong Liu
The literature on posttraumatic growth (PTG) is burgeoning, with the inconsistencies in the literature of the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms becoming a focal point of attention. Thus, this meta-analysis aims to explore the relationship between PTG and PTSD symptoms through the Pearson correlation coefficient. A systematic search of the literature from January 1996 to November 2015 was completed. We retrieved reports on 63 studies that involved 26,951 patients. The weighted correlation coefficient revealed an effect size of 0...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861460/existential-well-being-spirituality-or-well-being
#2
Anja Visser, Bert Garssen, Ad Jjm Vingerhoets
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality and of well-being among patients with cancer, by determining a) the divergent validity of the subscales of the SAIL compared with a well-being questionnaire and b) the differences in their associations to changes in pain and fatigue, and the occurrence of negative life events...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861459/effects-of-scheduled-waiting-for-psychotherapy-in-patients-with-major-depression
#3
Pasi Ahola, Mikko Joensuu, Paul Knekt, Olavi Lindfors, Pirjo Saarinen, Tommi Tolmunen, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Tuija Jääskeläinen, Esa Virtala, Jari Tiihonen, Johannes Lehtonen
The role of nonspecific factors in the outcome of psychotherapy is poorly understood. To study the effects of pretreatment expectancy of scheduled psychotherapy, we examined the effects of an agreed waiting time on the outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Thirty-three treatment-naive outpatients with major depressive disorder were randomly selected to start psychotherapy either directly (DG; n = 17) or after waiting for 6 months (WG; n = 16). In WG, 18% to 60% of the total decline in symptoms took place during the waiting time...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861458/combat-related-multifaceted-trauma-focused-group-therapy-a-pilot-study
#4
Ofir Levi, Ilan Wald, Vlad Svetlitsky, Sergei Zusmanovitz, Eli Parasha, Yael Shoval-Zuckerman, Gal Afik, Gal Haikin, Eyal Fruchter
The efficacy of combat-related trauma-focused group therapy (TFGT) was tested using a unique technique that combines principles from prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, and art therapy. Eighty Israeli male veterans exposed to traumatic events participated in the study. They were divided into eight therapeutic groups led by four pairs of trained therapists. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms and levels of functioning were taken at pretherapy, end of therapy, and 6 months posttherapy...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861457/burden-and-distress-in-caregivers-of-patients-with-panic-disorder-and-agoraphobia
#5
Evandro Luis Pampani Borgo, Ana Teresa de Abreu Ramos-Cerqueira, Albina Rodrigues Torres
We estimated the prevalence, severity, and correlates of burden and distress in caregivers of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The instruments used in this cross-sectional study with 40 caregivers and 40 outpatients were Carer Burden Interview (CBI), Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS-BR), Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), and Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview. Bivariate analyses were followed by regression analyses. The patients' mean PAS score was 29...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805985/validity-of-the-associated-symptom-criteria-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder-observations-from-the-singapore-mental-health-study
#6
Siau Pheng Lee, Clarissa Ong, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
Previous findings on the diagnostic validity and reliability of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)-associated symptom criteria suggest need for further evaluation. The current study examined convergent validity and specificity of GAD-associated symptoms in a representative Singapore community sample. The Singapore of Mental Health Study a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted among 6166 Singapore residents aged 18 and older. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 was used to diagnose mental disorders...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805984/hypochondriasis-differs-from-panic-disorder-and-social-phobia-specific-processes-identified-within-patient-groups
#7
Volkmar Höfling, Florian Weck
Studies of the comorbidity of hypochondriasis have indicated high rates of cooccurrence with other anxiety disorders. In this study, the contrast among hypochondriasis, panic disorder, and social phobia was investigated using specific processes drawing on cognitive-perceptual models of hypochondriasis. Affective, behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual processes specific to hypochondriasis were assessed with 130 diagnosed participants based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria (66 with hypochondriasis, 32 with panic disorder, and 32 with social phobia)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805983/can-religion-protect-against-suicide
#8
Michael A Norko, David Freeman, James Phillips, William Hunter, Richard Lewis, Ramaswamy Viswanathan
The vast majority of the world's population is affiliated with a religious belief structure, and each of the major faith traditions (in its true form) is strongly opposed to suicide. Ample literature supports the protective effect of religious affiliation on suicide rates. Proposed mechanisms for this protective effect include enhanced social network and social integration, the degree of religious commitment, and the degree to which a particular religion disapproves of suicide. We review the sociological data for these effects and the general objections to suicide held by the faith traditions...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805982/pilot-study-of-an-exercise-intervention-for-depressive-symptoms-and-associated-cognitive-behavioral-factors-in-young-adults-with-major-depression
#9
Yasmina Nasstasia, Amanda L Baker, Sean A Halpin, Terry J Lewin, Leanne Hides, Brian J Kelly, Robin Callister
This study assesses the feasibility of integrating motivational interviewing (MI) with an exercise intervention. It also explores patterns of depressive symptom changes (cognitive, affective, and somatic subscales) and their relationship to cognitive, behavioral, and immunological factors (interleukin 6, IL-6, a marker for inflammation) across the exercise intervention. Twelve young adults (20.8 ± 1.7 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder received a brief MI intervention followed by a 12-week exercise intervention...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805981/you-won-t-get-me-therapist-responses-to-patient-impression-management-tactics
#10
Sarah Frühauf, Patrick Figlioli, Franz Caspar
In psychotherapy, therapist and patient influence each other constantly. We aimed to investigate how therapists respond to patient impression management and influence tactics. For 60 videotaped intake interviews, judges rated therapist responses to patient tactics as neutral, desired, or undesired from the patient perspective. Judges rated the therapist responses in 57% as neutral, in 40% as desired, and in 2% as undesired by the patients. The proportions of response outcomes varied across tactics. Therapist responses were unrelated to therapist and patient sex...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741082/assessing-binary-diagnoses-of-bio-behavioral-disorders-the-clinical-relevance-of-cohen-s-kappa
#11
Domenic V Cicchetti, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
Cohen's (Educ Psychol Meth. 1960;23:37-40) kappa statistic has been criticized recently for providing low chance-corrected coefficients (<0.40) despite high levels of examiner agreement (e.g., ≥85%). The AC1 statistic (Series. 2002;2:1-9; BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:61), the alpha statistic (J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:775-782), the B statistic (BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:97), and the delta statistic (Commun Statist Theory Meth. 2008;37:760-772) were developed to "correct" this "problem." Each of these statistics produces inaccurate results because they either derive from levels of chance agreement that are incorrect (Gwet's AC1 statistic) or fail to correct for chance levels of agreement (the alpha, B, and delta approaches)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741081/subjective-experiences-of-the-benefits-and-key-elements-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-focused-on-community-work-outcomes-in-persons-with-mental-illness
#12
Marina Kukla, Amy M Strasburger, Michelle P Salyers, Nicholas A Rattray, Paul H Lysaker
New research suggests that group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may help improve employment outcomes in persons with mental illness, yet the effects and potential key elements facilitating change in such interventions are unclear. Using a mixed methods approach, this study examined the perspectives of persons with mental illness after participating in a pilot study of the "CBT for Work Success" intervention. Findings demonstrate that participants valued the intervention and perceived that it assisted them in achieving work goals...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741079/bipolar-disorder-with-psychotic-features-and-ocular-toxoplasmosis-a-possible-pathogenetic-role-of-the-parasite
#13
Claudia Del Grande, Carlo Contini, Elisa Schiavi, Grazia Rutigliano, Martina Maritati, Silva Seraceni, Barbara Pinto, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabrizio Bruschi
Recent evidence suggests the involvement of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the emergence of psychotic and affective disorders. In this report, we describe the case of a young Brazilian woman affected by recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis and presenting with a manic episode with psychotic features in the context of a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD), type I. We observed a relationship between ocular manifestations and the clinical course of bipolar illness, confirmed by molecular analyses (nested-PCR), as well as by the high level of T...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668355/patient-therapist-and-system-factors-influencing-the-effectiveness-of-prolonged-exposure-for-veterans-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Eric Floyd Crawford, Gregory K Wolf, Tracy Kretzmer, Kirsten H Dillon, Christina Thors, Rodney D Vanderploeg
In contrast to concerns that cognitive limitations and neurobehavioral symptoms (NBS) associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may inhibit treatment effectiveness, a recent study found prolonged exposure (PE) led to large reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among Iraq-Afghanistan veterans with a range of TBI severity (article by Wolf, Kretzmer, Crawford, Thors, Wagner, Strom, Eftekhari, Klenk, Hayward, and Vanderploeg [J Trauma Stress 28:339-347, 2015]). We further examined this sample of 69 veterans to determine whether system, veteran, and therapist factors predicted clinically significant responses...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668354/methylation-status-of-the-serotonin-transporter-promoter-cpg-island-is-associated-with-major-depressive-disorder-in-chinese-han-population-a-case-control-study
#15
Mei Shi, Hongli Sun, Ye Xu, Zhenhua Wang, Hongyu Cui, Chengmin Wang, Wei Liu, Ganghui An, Jian Hu
This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the methylation status of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese Han population. A total of 96 patients with MDD and 55 healthy volunteers were recruited, and the methylation index (MtI) at six positions in the cytosine-phosphate-guanosine island of 5-HTT gene was measured for each subject using bisulfite pyrosequencing. MtIs at positions 5 and 6 were higher in patients with MDD than those in controls. According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, MtIs at positions 4 and 5 were significantly associated with MDD...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668352/implementing-effective-policy-in-a-national-mental-health-reengagement-program-for-veterans
#16
Shawna N Smith, Zongshan Lai, Daniel Almirall, David E Goodrich, Kristen M Abraham, Kristina M Nord, Amy M Kilbourne
Policy is a powerful motivator of clinical change, but implementation success can depend on organizational characteristics. This article used validated measures of organizational resources, culture, and climate to predict uptake of a nationwide Veteran's Health Administration (VA) policy aimed at implementing Re-Engage, a brief care management program that reestablishes contact with veterans with serious mental illness lost to care. Patient care databases were used to identify 2738 veterans lost to care. Local recovery coordinators (LRCs) were to update disposition for 2738 veterans at 158 VA facilities and, as appropriate, facilitate a return to care...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660998/theory-of-mind-in-euthymic-bipolar-patients-and-first-degree-relatives
#17
Josep Manel Santos, Esther Pousa, Estel Soto, Anna Comes, Pere Roura, Francesc X Arrufat, Jordi E Obiols
The present study analyzed the capacity for mentalization of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and their first-degree relatives (FDR) and examined the implications of clinical variables and cognitive deficits. The study recruited 31 patients with type I BD, 18 FDR, and 31 paired healthy controls. Their capacity for mentalization was explored by means of first- and second-order false-belief tasks, the hinting task, and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). Patients and FDR were found to have a theory of mind (ToM) deficit when they were evaluated with the MASC, which was also related to a worse neurocognitive performance and to being a patient or FDR...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660997/are-children-or-adolescents-more-at-risk-for-posttraumatic-stress-reactions-following-exposure-to-violence-evidence-from-post-genocide-rwanda
#18
Richard Neugebauer, Allana Forde, Kinga E Fodor, Prudence W Fisher, J Blake Turner, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Saori Yamabe
Whether children or adolescents exhibit higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in response to violence is an unresolved research question. We examine this issue in UNICEF's 1995 National Trauma Survey (NTS) of 8-19-year-olds (n = 942) who survived the Rwandan Genocide and lived and attended schools in the community. PTSS were assessed with a symptom checklist based on DSM-IV indexed using an overall score comprising the sum of scores on all items and mean item scores of each of five distinct factors identified in a factor analysis within this sample...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660995/do-sleep-disturbances-predict-or-moderate-the-response-to-psychotherapy-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
Louisa G Sylvia, Stephanie Salcedo, Amy T Peters, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Ellen Frank, David J Miklowitz, Michael W Otto, Michael Berk, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
This study examined whether sleep disturbance predicted or moderated responses to psychotherapy in participants who participated in STEP-BD, a national, multisite study that examined the effectiveness of different treatment combinations for bipolar disorder. Participants received either a brief psychosocial intervention called collaborative care (CC; n = 130) or intensive psychotherapy (IP; n = 163), with study-based pharmacotherapy. Participants (N = 243) were defined as current (past week) short sleepers (<6 hours/night), normal sleepers (6...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660994/the-comparison-of-effectiveness-of-various-potential-predictors-of-response-to-treatment-with-ssris-in-patients-with-depressive-disorder
#20
Martin Bares, Tomas Novak, Martin Brunovsky, Miloslav Kopecek, Cyril Höschl
The substantial non-response rate in depressive patients indicates a continuing need to identify predictors of treatment outcome. The aim of this 6-week, open-label study was (1) to compare the efficacy of a priori defined predictors: ≥20% reduction in MADRS score at week 1, ≥20% reduction in MADRS score at week 2 (RM ≥ 20% W2), decrease of cordance (RC), and increase of serum and plasma level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor at week 1; and (2) to assess whether their combination yields higher efficacy in the prediction of response to selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) than when used singly...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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