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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Ernesto Magallón-Neri, Dorilyz Vila, Katyana Santiago, Pedro García, Glorisa Canino
Knowledge about prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and mental health services use among parents and relatives of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited, particularly when referring to epidemiologic samples. The current study is based on an island-wide probabilistic multistage cluster sample of adult individuals (N = 3062) living in Puerto Rico. Results showed a significantly higher rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and serious mental illness in parents (n = 34) or relatives (n = 34) of ASD individuals, as compared with the Puerto Rico adult population as a whole...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Thaíse Campos Mondin, Amanda Neumann Reyes, Suelen de Lima Bach, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of narrative cognitive therapy (NCT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the improvement of perception of quality of life in young adults with depression at 12-month follow-up. This was a randomized clinical trial conducted using seven sessions of NCT or CBT. Quality of life was measured using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form General Health Survey. The sample included 97 patients. Considering only completers to be samples, CBT was more effective than NCT for improvement of physical functioning (p = 0...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Susanne Stolzenburg, Simone Freitag, Sara Evans-Lacko, Holger Muehlan, Silke Schmidt, Georg Schomerus
The aim of this study was to investigate whether personal stigma decreases self-identification as having a mental illness in individuals with untreated mental health problems. We interviewed 207 persons with a currently untreated mental health problem as confirmed by a structured diagnostic interview. Measures included symptom appraisal, self-identification as having a mental illness (SELFI), self-labeling (open-ended question on the nature of their problem) stigma-related variables (explicit and implicit), as well as sociodemographics, current symptom severity, and previous treatment...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Melanie A Hom, Ian H Stanley, Sally Spencer-Thomas, Thomas E Joiner
This cross-sectional study investigated the association between harassment, career suicidality, and psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Women firefighters (n = 290) completed self-report measures of experiences with harassment on the job, career suicidality, and various psychiatric symptoms. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of variance were used to address study aims. Of the sample, 21.7% reported having experienced sexual harassment and 20.3% reported having been threatened or harassed in another way on their firefighting job...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Joseph Westermeyer, Paul Thuras, Gihyun Yoon, Tegan Batres-Y-Carr
Our goal consisted of describing the 4-year prevalence, contributors, and interventions for long QTc's in methadone maintenance treatment. Cardiologists' diagnosis of long QTc defined case-ness in 62 patients. Long QTc categories, drawn from epidemiological reports, encompassed 440 to 469 (borderline), 470 to 499 (moderate), and 500+ milliseconds (severe). Data collection included electrocardiograms, demographic characteristics, contributors to long QTc, and interventions-plus-outcomes (defined by resolution of long QTc)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Bonnie L Green, Maria Rosa Watson, Stacey I Kaltman, Adriana Serrano, Nicholas Talisman, Laura Kirkpatrick, Marcela Campoli
US Latinos are less likely to utilize mental health services than non-Latino whites and to take antidepressant medications. This mixed-method study followed a subset (N = 28) of a research sample of depressed Latino immigrant primary care patients, who took depression medication, with a telephone interview to study their knowledge about and experiences with antidepressant medications. Most (82%) reported taking medication for 2 months or more, and 75% reported feeling better, whereas more than half reported side effects...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Sophie M C Hengst, Geert E Smid, Cornelis J Laban
Emerging evidence suggests that the loss of loved ones under traumatic circumstances is highly prevalent among refugees and asylum seekers. We evaluated the effects of traumatic and multiple losses of family members and friends on psychopathology, disability, and quality of life in Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands, and investigated mediation of these effects through psychopathology. Respondents (N = 294) completed structured Arabic interviews. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The loss of a loved one was reported by 87...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lauren Luther, Kelsey A Bonfils, Ruth L Firmin, Kelly D Buck, Jimmy Choi, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Raffaele Popolo, Kyle S Minor, Paul H Lysaker
Metacognition deficits are a putative cause of reduced motivation in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, it is unclear whether certain levels of metacognition are necessary for motivation to emerge. This study used a Necessary Condition Analysis to test whether metacognition was necessary for the presence of motivation and to identify the minimum level of metacognition necessary for high motivation to be possible in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N = 175). Participants completed clinician-rated measures of metacognition and motivation...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Hanping Zhang, Yuqing Zhang, Lining Yang, Shuai Yuan, Xinyu Zhou, Juncai Pu, Lanxiang Liu, Xiaofeng Jiang, Peng Xie
We aimed to provide an overview of psychotherapy in young anxious children (mean age, <7 years). Seven electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ProQuest Dissertations, were searched. Randomized controlled trials that compared psychotherapies with control conditions were included. Efficacy (score change on an anxiety rating scale and rate of being freed from anxiety) and acceptability (discontinuations due to any event) were evaluated. Six of the total seven studies included in our study adopted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), with only one adopting behavior therapy (BT)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Steven P Segal, Vicky C Khoury, Ramy Salah, Jess Ghannam
This study evaluates contributors to the mental health status of Palestinians, Syrians, and nonrefugee residents of Lebanon's Shatila Refugee Camp. Primary health care clinic patients in Shatila were screened for mental illness between 2012 and 2013 using the K6, the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the Modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Logistic regressions enabled the consideration of potential contributors to participants' positive mental illness screens. The sample (n = 254) included 63...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jiao-Mei Xue, Ping-Zhen Lin, Ji-Wei Sun, Feng-Lin Cao
Here, we explored the functional and neural mechanisms underlying aggression related to adverse childhood experiences. We assessed behavioral performance and event-related potentials during a go/no-go and N-back paradigm. The participants were 15 individuals with adverse childhood experiences and high aggression (ACE + HA), 13 individuals with high aggression (HA), and 14 individuals with low aggression and no adverse childhood experiences (control group). The P2 latency (initial perceptual processing) was longer in the ACE + HA group for the go trials...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Tae-Sung Yeum, Bora Kim, Eun Young Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Kyooseob Ha, Yong Min Ahn
This is the first national survey study in South Korea investigating the relationship between suicide lethality and the clinical information of suicide attempters. An interview questionnaire was used to assess their sociodemographic factors, medical and psychiatric information, and two suicide scales, the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale and the Suicide Intent Scale. Suicide methods were categorized as low and high lethality; low lethality covered drug overdose or self-cutting behavior, and high lethality covered all other methods...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Everton de Oliveira Maraldi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Marc J Weintraub, Margaret M Van de Loo, Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
Self-harm refers to the purposeful destruction of bodily tissue without suicidal intention and for purposes that are not socially sanctioned. Little is known about the associations between a history of self-harm, mood symptoms, and functioning in adults with different types of mood disorders. Lifetime histories of self-harm, current mood symptoms, global functioning, and affective traits were collected on 142 adults with mood disorders. The prevalence of lifetime self-harm was higher in patients with bipolar disorder compared with patients with a unipolar depressive disorder...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Fernando Caravaggio, Gary Brucato, Lawrence S Kegeles, Eugénie Lehembre-Shiah, Leigh Y Arndt, Tiziano Colibazzi, Ragy Girgis
Metabolic health and positive symptom severity has been investigated in schizophrenia, but not in clinical high risk (CHR) patients. We hypothesized that greater body mass index (BMI) in CHR patients would be related to less positive symptoms. We examined this relationship in CHR patients being treated with 1) no psychotropic medications (n = 58), 2) an antipsychotic (n = 14), or 3) an antidepressant without an antipsychotic (n = 10). We found no relationship between BMI and positive symptoms in unmedicated CHR patients, the majority of whom had a narrow BMI range between 20 and 30...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Fady Rachid
Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) is a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and is thought to induce more rapid and longer-lasting effects on synaptic plasticity than conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols. TBS is being used as an investigational and more recently as a therapeutic tool. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss the studies that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of this technique in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's disorder, nicotine and cocaine addiction, and pathological gambling...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jimmy Choi, Paul H Lysaker, Morris D Bell, Lisa Dixon, Paul Margolies, Matthew Gold, Elizabeth Golden-Roose, Warren Thime, Lawrence C Haber, Michael J Dewberry, Michael Stevens, Godfrey D Pearlson, Joanna M Fiszdon
This study introduces a computerized clinical decision-support tool, the Fluid Outpatient Rehabilitation Treatment (FORT), that incorporates individual and ever-evolving patient needs to guide clinicians in developing and updating treatment decisions in real-time. In this proof-of-concept feasibility pilot, FORT was compared against traditional treatment planning using similar behavioral therapies in 52 adults with severe mental illness attending community-based day treatment. At posttreatment and follow-up, group differences and moderate-to-large effect sizes favoring FORT were detected in social function, work readiness, self-esteem, working memory, processing speed, and mental flexibility...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Eva Neumann
Theoretical and empirical works have pointed out that depression comes along with adverse interpersonal experiences in childhood and adult life. The purpose of this study was to explore whether past and current experiences differ in their relevance for depression. A clinical group of 80 psychotherapy patients diagnosed with a depressive disorder was contrasted with a control group of 111 nondepressed patients from somatic facilities. Child abuse, neglect, and adult attachment dimensions were measured with self-report scales...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Dolores Vojvoda, Elina A Stefanovics, Robert A Rosenheck
A new generation of veterans from Iraq/Afghanistan wars is seeking psychotropic pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the Veterans Health Administration, but little is known about differences in prescribing practices between this group and Vietnam era veterans with the same diagnosis. The Veterans Health Administration administrative data for fiscal year 2012 were used to compare prescribing for 155,631 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans and for 327,634 Vietnam era veterans diagnosed with PTSD...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Candida R Graham, Roseann Larstone, Brenda Griffiths, Sarah de Leeuw, Lesley Anderson, Stephanie Powell-Hellyer, Nansi Long
Mental health service users (MHSUs) have elevated rates of cardiometabolic disturbance. Improvements occur with physical activity (PA) programs. We report the development and evaluation of three innovative peer-developed and peer-led PA programs: 1) walking; 2) fitness; and 3) yoga. Qualitative evaluation with 33 MHSUs in British Columbia, Canada, occurred. These programs yielded improvements for participants, highlighted by powerful narratives of health improvement, and improved social connections. The feasibility and acceptability of innovative peer-developed and peer-led programs were shown...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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