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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124577/clinical-correlates-of-cannabis-use-among-individuals-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Ariel Brandt, Jürgen Rehm, Shaul Lev-Ran
In this study, we explored patterns and clinical correlates of cannabis use among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule. We used multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders, and substance use disorders. Prevalence of cannabis use among individuals with and without ADHD was 14...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124576/predictors-of-sustained-employment-among-individuals-with-serious-mental-illness-findings-from-a-5-year-naturalistic-longitudinal-study
#2
Zlatka Russinova, Philippe Bloch, Nancy Wewiorski, Heather Shappell, E Sally Rogers
Despite decades of research, understanding of the employment trajectories of individuals with serious mental illnesses remains elusive. We conducted a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study using a geographically broad sample of individuals who met established criteria for sustained competitive employment (N = 529). We collected data on an annual basis with a specifically designed survey instrument. Despite stable employment at study entry, more than half of the participants experienced work interruptions during the 5-year follow-up period...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124575/full-neurological-recovery-from-escherichia-coli-meningitis-associated-with-near-death-experience
#3
Surbhi Khanna, Lauren E Moore, Bruce Greyson
A 54-year-old otherwise healthy man presented with altered mental status. On admission, the patient was confused and agitated, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 11, suggesting moderate brain injury. He was sedated, placed on a ventilator, and started on tobramycin and ceftazidime for presumed bacterial meningitis, but switched to ceftriaxone once cultures returned as Escherichia coli. During his 8-day hospitalization, his mental status fluctuated from confused to nonresponsive, with GCS scores between 6 and 11...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124574/manic-episodes-due-to-medical-illnesses-a-literature-review
#4
Julio Torales, Israel González, Iván Barrios, Antonio Ventriglio, Dinesh Bhugra
The body of evidence for mania as a secondary syndrome due to organic diseases is small. The clinical diagnosis and management of these patients are mainly based on clinical experience and on some case reports. Treatment should be focused on both the underlying medical illness and the control of acute symptoms. Mania due to a medical condition is relevant in the clinical setting, and thus more research is needed to add evidence-based recommendations to the currently available clinical knowledge. In this review, we summarize the latest information on the etiology, epidemiology, diagnostic aspects, and management of secondary mania...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124573/a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-prevalence-and-risk-correlates-of-mental-disorders-the-granad%C3%AE-p-study
#5
Jorge A Cervilla, Blanca Gutiérrez, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Inmaculada Ibanez-Casas, Miguel Pérez-García, Eulalio Valmisa, José Carmona, Esther Molina, Berta Moreno-Kustner, Margarita Rivera, Vanessa Lozano, José Eduardo Muñoz-Negro, Ana Ching, Margarita Guerrero, Alejandro Porras-Segovia, Isabel Ruiz-Pérez
This is a cross-sectional study of participants from a population census living in the province of Granada (Spain). A total of 1176 persons were contacted, 367 (31%) refused and 54 (6.7%) needed substitution. A final sample of 809 participants (response rate, 69.3%) were screened for mental disorder (MD) using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a comprehensive interview validated to generate diagnoses compatible with ICD-10/DSM-4 criteria. Current (1-month) prevalence for any MD was 11.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124572/comparison-of-clinical-significance-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-psychodynamic-therapy-for-major-depressive-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Mariana Carret Soares, Thaíse Campos Mondin, Giovanna Del Grande da Silva, Luana Porto Barbosa, Mariane Lopez Molina, Karen Jansen, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two brief psychotherapy models for major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a randomized clinical trial with 247 individuals diagnosed with MDD. Supportive-expressive dynamic psychotherapy (SEDP) (18 sessions) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) (16 sessions) were the two models used in this study. Participants were evaluated at baseline, during treatment, and postintervention (last session). Clinically significant changes were found in both psychotherapy models, and CBT showed higher response rates...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124571/narcissism-and-interpersonal-problems-among-psychiatric-outpatients-what-is-the-role-of-defensive-style
#7
Michal Mielimaka, John S Ogrodniczuk, David Kealy, Joanna Cheek, Anthony S Joyce
A growing body of evidence points to significant interpersonal problems associated with narcissism in clinical samples. Less well understood are the mechanisms by which narcissism negatively impacts one's interpersonal functioning. The present study investigated defensive style as a possible mediator of the relationship between narcissism and interpersonal problems. A sample of 53 adult psychiatric outpatients completed measures of narcissism, defensive style, interpersonal problems, and current symptom distress...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124570/are-adult-adhd-patients-good-informants-of-their-symptoms-a-qualitative-literature-review-of-concordance-between-clinician-and-self-report-adhd-symptoms
#8
Jessica Abrams, Stephen V Faraone, K Yvonne Woodworth, Thomas J Spencer, Itai Biederman, Joseph Biederman
To conduct a comprehensive review on the agreement between clinician-rated and self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adults, the following terms were searched in PubMed: "ADHD self-concordance," "Self-report AND ADHD AND Valid," "(self-report) AND ADHD AND clinician," and "(self-report) AND ADHD AND versus AND investigator." Nine articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria (English language, operationalized measures of clinician-rated and self-reported ADHD, and neither a review nor opinion article)...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124569/the-relationships-between-weight-bias-perceived-weight-stigma-eating-behavior-and-psychological-distress-among-undergraduate-students-in-hong-kong
#9
Man Yan Cheng, Shu-Mei Wang, Yin Ying Lam, Hiu Tung Luk, Yuk Ching Man, Chung-Ying Lin
Weight bias issues are rarely discussed in Asian. Therefore, we examined the relationships between weight bias, perceived weight stigma (PWS), eating behavior, and psychological distress among Hong Kong people. Using cross-sectional design, 400 undergraduate students (175 men) completed questionnaires and were assigned into a self-reported overweight (n = 61) or nonoverweight group (n = 339) using body mass index, and a self-perceived overweight (n = 84) or nonoverweight group (n = 316) based on self-perception...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124568/suicide-acceptability-and-suicide-attempt-a-case-control-study-with-medically-serious-suicide-attempters-aged-15-to-54-years-in-rural-china
#10
Long Sun, Jie Zhang
In the past decades, many studies have discussed the topic of suicide acceptability. However, there is no empirical study which identified that suicide acceptability is associated with suicide attempt worldwide. In the present study participants were 791 medically serious suicide attempters and controls aged 15 to 54 years in rural China. Suicide acceptability was evaluated by four questions in the General Social Survey and some social psychological variables were collected in a face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between suicide acceptability and suicide attempt...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124567/smoking-and-risk-for-alzheimer-disease-a-meta-analysis-based-on-both-case-control-and-cohort-study
#11
Huikun Niu, Yangming Qu, Zhijun Li, Rui Wang, Lu Li, Meiqi Li, Xin Lv, Chunshi Gao, Yuanyuan Song, Bo Li
This study was performed to identify the association between smoking and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To perform this meta-analysis based on case-control and cohort studies, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the CNKI electronic databases were searched through April 30, 2017. Our meta-analysis included 27 studies, including 16 that reported odds ratios (ORs) and 11 that reported hazard ratios (HRs) or ratio risks. No significant association was found between smoking and AD among the studies that reported ORs (1.020, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124566/can-we-ameliorate-psychotic-symptoms-by-improving-implicit-self-esteem-a-proof-of-concept-experience-sampling-study-of-an-evaluative-classical-conditioning-intervention
#12
Regina Espinosa, Carmen Valiente, Filippo Varese, Richard P Bentall
There is a need to develop novel interventions for psychosis, targeted at specific psychological mechanisms. We used a classical conditioning paradigm to a) modify implicit self-esteem and b) examine subsequent effects on subclinical psychotic symptoms measured by the Experience Sampling Methodology. This study is a proof-of-concept pilot investigation conducted with 28 students with high paranoia levels, assessing variations in their self-esteem, paranoid beliefs, and subclinical psychotic symptoms daily. After 2 days, participants were randomized to receive either a positive conditioning task (repeatedly pairing self-relevant words with an image of a smiling face) or a neutral conditioning task (repeatedly pairing self-relevant words with random smiling, angry, or neutral faces)...
September 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059435/patient-wars
#13
John A Talbott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028360/emotion-regulation-difficulties-in-relation-to-anxiety-depression-and-functional-impairment-among-treatment-seeking-smokers
#14
Tannah Chase, Ellen J Teng, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
Psychological distress is elevated among smokers and plays a key role in the maintenance of smoking behavior. Although research has implicated emotion regulation (ER) difficulties as a transdiagnostic construct for psychological distress, empirical work has not yet investigated ER difficulties among treatment-seeking smokers. The purpose of the current study was to increase understanding of ER difficulties in relation to depression, anxious arousal, and functional impairment among treatment-seeking smokers...
August 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028359/is-internet-addiction-a-clinical-symptom-or-a-psychiatric-disorder-a-comparison-with-bipolar-disorder
#15
Alice Caldiroli, Marta Serati, Massimiliano Buoli
The general purpose of this review is to present an updated literature overview of neurobiological/clinical aspects of Internet addiction (IA), particularly of overlaps and differences with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). Articles with clinical/neurobiological aspects of IA or similarities/differences with BPAD as main topics, from 1990 to present and written in English language, were included. Comorbidity between IA and other psychiatric disorders, including BPAD, is common. Dysfunctions in dopaminergic pathways have been found both in IA and in mood disorders...
August 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020211/supernatural-explanations-of-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-among-health-care-professionals-at-an-academic-tertiary-care-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#16
Haythum Tayeb, Alaa Khayat, Haneen Milyani, Yousuf Alsawwaf, Faten Alzaben, Harold G Koenig
Saudi society is one of many where supernatural explanations for neurological and psychiatric disorders are prevalent among lay persons. The frequency of such beliefs among health care professionals in this country, however, is unknown. The frequency of supernatural explanations for neurological and psychiatric disorders was assessed in 126 health care professionals at an academic medical center in Jeddah. A high frequency of belief in supernatural factors as a cause for neurological and psychiatric illness, including the evil eye, divine testing and punishment, and sorcery, was found...
August 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020210/change-in-children-s-self-confidence-and-the-use-of-defense-mechanisms
#17
Phebe Cramer
Change in the personality trait of self-confidence was studied in a group of children from the Berkeley Guidance Longitudinal study. Self-confidence was assessed at age 6 (n = 99) and again at age 10 (n = 97). Results indicated that a change in level of self-confidence was related to the use of defense mechanisms, as assessed from Thematic Apperception Test stories. A decrease in self-confidence was positively related to the use of the immature defense of denial and negatively related to the use of the relatively mature defense of identification...
August 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020209/single-versus-multiple-suicide-attempts-a-prospective-examination-of-psychiatric-factors-and-wish-to-die-wish-to-live-index-among-military-and-civilian-psychiatrically-admitted-patients
#18
Kristen M Kochanski, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Gregory K Brown, Aaron T Beck, Kanchana U Perera, Laura Novak, Jessica M LaCroix, Rene M Lento, Marjan Ghahramanlou-Holloway
Individuals with multiple suicide attempts have a greater risk for eventual suicide death. We investigated clinical differences in participants with single versus multiple suicide attempts. Individuals with multiple attempts were more likely to have severe depressive symptoms, drug use disorder, and a higher wish to die. Borderline personality disorder traits and drug use disorder were significant predictors of multiple attempts when adjusting for other psychiatric disorders. Participants with multiple attempts sustained higher suicidal ideation-worst and wish to die/wish to live-worst scores during the 3-month assessment period...
August 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020208/an-initial-study-of-alexithymia-and-its-relationship-with-cognitive-abilities-among-mild-cognitive-impairment-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-and-healthy-volunteers
#19
Daniela Smirni, Janelle N Beadle, Sergio Paradiso
The present study examined the degree to which alexithymia is greater in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relative to healthy volunteers (healthy comparison [HC]), and investigated relationships between alexithymia and cognition. Eighty-five participants (MCI = 30, AD = 21, HC = 34) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Relative to HC, MCI and AD reported greater alexithymia total scores and higher scores on the TAS factor difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF)...
August 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020207/less-mindful-more-struggle-and-growth-mindfulness-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-posttraumatic-growth-of-breast-cancer-survivors
#20
Xiaoyan Liu, Lili Wang, Qian Zhang, Ruifang Wang, Wei Xu
Treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and facilitation of posttraumatic growth (PTG) are two encouraging areas of research, yet little is understood about the relationships between dispositional mindfulness, PTSSs, and PTG. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PTSSs is correlated with PTG among breast cancer patients in China and explore the role of mindfulness in this relationship. A sample of 202 Chinese breast cancer patients voluntarily participated in the study by completing a set of questionnaires...
August 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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