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Journal of Medical Entomology

Kai Ling Kho, Sun Tee Tay
Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) is an emergent human pathogen that causes febrile illnesses in various parts of the world. This study describes the identification and growth characteristics of a R. felis-like organism (designated as Rickettsia sp. TH2014) cultured from Ctenocephalides orientis fleas in rural Malaysia. In this study, culturing of rickettsiae from filtered triturated flea lysates was performed in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells. Cytopathic effects were observed from one of the samples 4 d post-inoculation...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Shiva Kamdar, Mostafa Farmani, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Abbas Jafari, Saber Gholizadeh
Musca domestica L., the common housefly, is a very important mechanical vector of pathogens. Continuous exposure to pyrethroid insecticides has led to insecticide resistance in houseflies. Some mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (vgsc) reduce the binding affinity of pyrethroids target site insensitivity. We collected houseflies from the Urmia district of Northwestern Iran. Following DNA extraction, 580 bp regions of the vgsc known to contain knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations were amplified and sequenced using specific primers...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Genimar R Julião, Shênia P C Novo, Claudia M Ríos-Velásquez, Sylvain J M Desmoulière, Sérgio L B Luz, Felipe A C Pessoa
Roads and highways can affect the spread of insect-borne diseases by limiting or amplifying the spatiotemporal distribution of vectors, pathogens, and hosts, which can, in turn, lead to the creation of a nidus of infection. The aim of this study was to compare the diversity (richness and abundance) of phlebotomine sand flies in household and forest edge environments found along two different segments of an Amazonian highway. Sampling was conducted along the northern and southern portions of highway BR-319, in Amazonas State, Brazil...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Kai Ling Kho, Poai Ean Tan, Sun Tee Tay
High seropositivity to Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia felis has been reported in Malaysian indigenous community living in settlements adjacent to forest areas. The current study was conducted to determine the type and distribution of rickettsiae in feeding and questing ticks that were collected from a forest reserve area at Kuala Lompat in Pahang, Malaysia. Using PCR assays targeting citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and B (ompB) genes, rickettsiae were detected from approximately one-third of 98 ticks (mainly Dermacentor and Haemaphysalis spp...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Bao-Ting Yu, Yan-Mei Ding, Yin Hu, Jia-Xin Tian, Xiao-Gang Song, Zu-Guang Li, Jian-Chu Mo
Abelia chinensis R. Br. (Dipsacales: Caprifoliaceae) is one of the preferred nectar host plants for Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae). However, the volatile compounds of its flowers that might be involved in directing mosquitoes' orientation to its nectaries remain unknown. In the present study, the volatile compounds released by A. chinensis florets were collected by solid phase microextraction fiber and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Based on the major component species in the volatile profile, a synthetic phytochemical blend (Blend B, composed of six compounds at their most attractive concentrations) was formulated, and its attractiveness was tested against the pentane extract of A...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
R S Walgama, T J Lysyk
We examined the effect of augmenting black light trap with CO2 at two release rates for monitoring and surveillance of Culicoides at northern latitudes. Species composition was highly correlated among black light (BL) traps with no CO2 (BL0 traps) and traps augmented with 300 and 1000 ml/min CO2 (BL300 and BL1000 traps, respectively); however, traps augmented with CO2 captured one to three more rare species than BL0 traps and can detect rare species that might be missed if BL0 traps were used. Addition of CO2 increased the number of individuals captured from 1...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Joseph R McMillan, Rebekah A Blakney, Daniel G Mead, Sarah M Coker, Levi T Morran, Lance A Waller, Uriel Kitron, Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec
In urban environments, road-side catch basins are common larval habitats of Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and important targets of larval control in areas subject to West Nile virus (WNv) transmission. We quantified the impact of larviciding basins on Culex spp. populations and WNv infection prevalence by treating basins in and around urban parks in Atlanta, GA, using Mosquito Dunks and Bits (active ingredient, a.i., Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. isrealensis, Dunks-10.31%, Bits-2.86%) and Altosid 30-Day Briquets (a...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Dylan T Simpson, Molly S Teague, Joanna K Weeks, Andrew D Lewis, Phillip M D'Addio, Julia D Moore, Joseph A Thompson, Alan C Harris, Richard T Cannella, Brent Z Kaup, Oliver Kerscher, Matthias Leu
Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmatacae), an understudied bacterial pathogen emerging in the eastern United States, is increasing throughout the range of its vector, the lone star tick [Amblyomma americanum, L. (Acari: Ixodidae)]. To mitigate human disease risk, we must understand what factors drive E. chaffeensis prevalence. Here, we report patterns of E. chaffeensis prevalence in southeastern Virginia across 4 yr and ask how seasonal weather patterns affect variation in rates of E. chaffeensis occurrence...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Krystal Rae Hans, R LeBouthillier, S L VanLaerhoven
Making optimal oviposition decisions is especially important for female carrion colonizing insects whose larvae often depend on ephemeral resources. Optimal oviposition theory predicts that females should exhibit behaviors that will maximize the performance of their offspring. Oviposition can be influenced by a variety of factors, including temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on the oviposition behavior and egg load of two blow fly species native to southern Ontario: Phormia regina Meigen, and Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Eva Praprotnik, Sara Zupan, Vladimir Ivovic
The Transphlebotomus subgenus has been drawing attention in last decade due to the uncertain vector capacity and cryptic life history of the group. During a 2015 entomological survey, Phlebotomine flies were collected in western locations of Slovenia, with a total of 22 specimens of the Transphlebotomus subgenus collected. In addition to morphological identifications, we confirmed the presence of Phlebotomus mascittii Grassi, 1908 (Diptera: Psychodidae) by nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Luis Mario Romero, Luis Guillermo Chaverri, Luis Fernando Chaves
Knowledge about mosquito species diversity at tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) in Mesoamerica is scarce. Here, we present data on mosquito species richness from samples biweekly collected, from January to December 2017, in ovitraps installed in a TMCF patch at Vázquez de Coronado County, Costa Rica. Ovitraps were placed at 2.25, 1.50 and 0.75 m at 16 sampling points. During the study period we measured relative humidity and air temperature at each sampling point, and water temperature, volume and pH in each ovitrap...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Marina Ciminera, Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg, Henri Caron, Melfran Herrera, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Ivan Scotti, Niklas Tysklind, Alain Roques
Hylesia moths impact human health in South America, inducing epidemic outbreaks of lepidopterism, a puriginous dermatitis caused by the urticating properties of females' abdominal setae. The classification of the Hylesia genus is complex, owing to its high diversity in Amazonia, high intraspecific morphological variance, and lack of interspecific diagnostic traits which may hide cryptic species. Outbreaks of Hylesia metabus have been considered responsible for the intense outbreaks of lepidopterism in Venezuela and French Guiana since the C20, however, little is known about genetic variability throughout the species range, which is instrumental for establishing control strategies on H...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Roseli La Corte, Pollyana Conceição Romão Maia, Silvio Santana Dolabella, Danilo Esdras Rocha Cruz, Letícia Silva Marteis
Even though the seasonally dry tropical Caatinga forest is an historically neglected biome, recent studies have enhanced our knowledge of its biodiversity. We investigated larval habitats as well as the frequency and dynamics of immature and adult Culicidae in a conservation unit within the Caatinga in the Brazilian state of Sergipe. We carried out monthly surveys between July 2011 and October 2012 to count both immature (tree holes, bromeliad tanks, ponds, and rock holes and depressions) and adult individuals (Shannon traps baited with light)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
L Trujillo-Pahua, S Ibáñez-Bernal
Streblidae are ectoparasites exclusive to bats and feed only on their blood. Studies on ectoparasite fauna have increased our ecological knowledge of the parasitic relationship between streblids and their bat hosts. We evaluate assemblages of phyllostomid bats and their ectoparasitic flies in three scenarios with different types of anthropogenic use: pine-oak forest, avocado orchards, and an urban park during an annual cycle in the highlands of Michoacan, Mexico. We recorded a total of 325 bats belonging to nine species in three subfamilies: Glossophaginae, Desmodontinae, and Stenodermatinae, and obtained 225 bat flies belonging to seven species...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Carla G Cazorla, Raúl E Campos
Synanthropy and community structure of Ceratopogonidae in temperate Argentina were compared across an urbanization gradient to assess the impact of urbanization on species diversity and abundance. Adult ceratopogonids were collected from one natural, one Peri-urban, and two urban sites monthly for 12 months using CDC light traps. Nine-hundred one individuals belonging to nine genera and 59 species were collected. Forcipomyia Meigen was the genus with the highest species richness (n = 20), followed by Atrichopogon Kieffer (14), Dasyhelea Kieffer (8), Stilobezzia Kieffer (7), Culicoides Latreille (5), Bezzia Kieffer (2), Alluaudomyia Kieffer, Monohelea Kieffer, and Palpomyia Meigen (1)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Yanjie Shang, Lipin Ren, Wei Chen, Lagabaiyila Zha, Jifeng Cai, Jianan Dong, Yadong Guo
The flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are significant in forensic investigations. The mitochondrial genome (mitogeome) has been widely used as genetic markers for phylogenetic analysis and species identification. To further understand the mitogenome-level features in Sarcophagidae, the complete mitogenome of Sarcophaga formosensis (Kirneret Lopes, 1961) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Sarcophaga misera (Walker, 1849) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was firstly sequenced, annotated, and compared with other 13 Sarcophagidae species...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Carlos A Granados-Echegoyen, Manuel Jesús Chan-Bacab, Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales, Alfonso Vásquez-López, Luicita Lagunez-Rivera, Fidel Diego-Nava, Christine Gaylarde
Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), an arboviral and filarial vector, is one of the most widespread mosquitoes in the world. The indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides has led to the development of resistance in mosquito populations worldwide. The effect of continuous exposure to crude extracts of Argemone mexicana, the Mexican poppy, on the development and growth stages of second-instar larvae of the mosquito was studied, along with qualitative chemical analysis of the different plant parts...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
David A Eads
The following study investigates louse parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus (Ord, Rodentia: Sciuridae)) on 20 plots at 13 colonies in the short-grass prairie of New Mexico, USA, June-August, 2011-2012. Among 124 lice collected from 537 prairie dogs during 1,207 sampling events in which anesthetized animals were combed for ectoparasites, all of the lice were identified as Linognathoides cynomyis (Kim, Phthiraptera: Polyplacidae). Data were analyzed under an information-theoretic approach to identify factors predicting louse parasitism...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mackenzie Tietjen, Maria D Esteve-Gassent, Raul F Medina
The standard tick collection methods of flagging and dragging are successful for collecting all stages of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), in the northern United States. However, for unknown reasons, these methods are unsuccessful for collecting the immature stages of I. scapularis in the southern United States. Thus, a different collection strategy was employed to search for the immature stages of I. scapularis in the southern state of Texas. Monthly sampling of three types of microhabitats potentially harboring ticks was conducted for 17 mo at the Big Thicket National Preserve...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Ross N Cuthbert, Amanda Callaghan, Jaimie T A Dick
Biological control can be an effective tool to combat public health risks associated with mosquito-borne disease. However, target impacts of biological control agents may be reduced by biotic contexts such as the presence of alternative prey. In turn, this can impede our ability to realistically assess biocontrol agent efficacy. Here, we examine the effects of alternative ciliate prey on the predation potential of two cyclopoid copepods, Macrocyclops albidus Jurine (Cyclopoida: Cyclopidae) and Megacyclops viridis Jurine (Cyclopoida: Cyclopidae), toward larvae of the West Nile virus vector mosquito Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae)...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
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