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Journal of Medical Entomology

R C D Cruz, S L C E Silva, I A Souza, S A Gualberto, K S Carvalho, F R Santos, M G Carvalho
Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
D M Rajonhson, A Miarinjara, S Rahelinirina, M Rajerison, S Boyer
Fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), the main vector of Yersinia pestis (Yersin), the causative agent of plague, in Madagascar. The effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against X. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "Lethal Dose 50" (LD50). Two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil mixture from which X...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Hellen Koka, Rosemary Sang, Helen Lydia Kutima, Lillian Musila
In this study, ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya were tested for Rickettsia spp. infections in geographical regions where the presence of tick-borne arboviruses had previously been reported. Rickettsial and arbovirus infections have similar clinical features which makes differential diagnosis challenging when both diseases occur. The tick samples were tested for Rickettsia spp. by conventional PCR using three primer sets targeting the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes followed by amplicon sequencing. Of the tick pools screened, 25% (95/380) were positive for Rickettsia spp...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
P Kate Carson, Kimberly Holloway, Kristina Dimitrova, Laura Rogers, Andrew C Chaulk, Andrew S Lang, Hugh G Whitney, Michael A Drebot, Thomas W Chapman
Arthropod-borne diseases negatively affect humans worldwide. Understanding the biology of the arthropod vectors and the pathogens they harbor, the arthropods are moving targets as a result of climate change, ecosystem degradation, species introductions, and increased human travel. Viruses within the California serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae) are among the mosquito-borne viruses of concern owing to their zoonotic potential. Two of these, snowshoe hare virus (SSHV) and Jamestown Canyon virus, were shown, using a combination of serology and virus isolations, to circulate on the Island of Newfoundland, Canada, in the 1980s...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Michelle E J Allerdice, Joy A Hecht, Sandor E Karpathy, Christopher D Paddock
Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is an aggressive, human-biting ixodid tick distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States and is the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging human pathogen. Amblyomma maculatum has diverse host preferences that include white-tailed deer, a known reservoir for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species, including the human pathogens E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis To examine more closely the potential role of A. maculatum in the maintenance of various pathogenic Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species, we screened DNA samples from 493 questing adult A...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Tara Roth, Robert S Lane, Janet Foley
Francisella tularensis and Rickettsia spp. have been cultured from Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard, but their prevalence in this tick has not been determined using modern molecular methods. We collected H. leporispalustris by flagging vegetation and leaf litter and from lagomorphs (Lepus californicus Gray and Sylvilagus bachmani (Waterhouse)) in northern California. Francisella tularensis DNA was not detected in any of 1,030 ticks tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas 0.4% of larvae tested in pools, 0 of 117 individual nymphs, and 2...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Dorothy Wallace, Olivia Prosper, Jacob Savos, Ann M Dunham, Jonathan W Chipman, Xun Shi, Bryson Ndenga, Andrew Githeko
A dynamical model of Anopheles gambiae larval and adult populations is constructed that matches temperature-dependent maturation times and mortality measured experimentally as well as larval instar and adult mosquito emergence data from field studies in the Kenya Highlands. Spectral classification of high-resolution satellite imagery is used to estimate household density. Indoor resting densities collected over a period of one year combined with predictions of the dynamical model give estimates of both aquatic habitat and total adult mosquito densities...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
J L Smith, J D Wells
Being able to efficiently differentiate between male and female individuals in the immature forms of insects allows for investigations into sexually dimorphic patterns of growth rates and gene expression. For species lacking sex-specific morphological characteristics during these periods, alternative methods must be devised. Commonly, isolation of sex determination genes reveals sex-specific band patterns and allows for markers that can be used in insect control. For blow flies, a family that includes flies of medical and forensic importance, sex has previously been identified in some members using the male-specific exon in the transformer gene...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Roberto Barrera, Veronica Acevedo, Gilberto E Felix, Ryan R Hemme, Jesus Vazquez, Jorge L Munoz, Manuel Amador
Puerto Rico detected the first confirmed case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in May 2014 and the virus rapidly spread throughout the island. The invasion of CHIKV allowed us to observe Aedes aegypti (L.) densities, infection rates, and impact of vector control in urban areas using CDC autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO traps) for mosquito control over several years. Because local mosquitoes can only get the virus from infectious residents, detecting the presence of virus in mosquitoes functions as a proxy for the presence of virus in people...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mariah L Scott, Mary F Adams, Joseph J Karchesy, Janet C McAllister
Insecticides based on botanical sources have taken on increased attention due to differing modes of action from current insecticides in use and the view that they may be environmentally friendly. Thymoquinone, a component in the essential oil of incense cedar heartwood, has been shown to have insecticidal action against adult mosquitoes. This study evaluated relative toxicities of thymoquinone, selected derivatives of thymoquinone, hydroquinone, and arbutin to determine if any had similar or better activity...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Xi Wang, Wu-Chun Tu, En-Jiong Huang, Yen-Hou Chen, Jia-Hua Chen, Wen-Bin Yeh
Mosquitoes, which transmit infectious diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are harmful to human health. Thus, accurate and rapid identification of vectors is a critical step for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. However, phenotypic variations in adults, lack of recognizable features of the immature, and fragility of mosquitoes make identification difficult. Molecular approaches have been widely applied to identify mosquitoes, yet these methods have been focused only on the identification of a few species...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
A Jewiss-Gaines, L Barelli, F F Hunter
Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) were collected on sheep farms in southern Ontario to establish whether Culicoides spp pose a threat to the livestock industry. Specimens were collected in modified CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps, returned to the laboratory, freeze-killed, and identified to species under a microscope. In addition to Culicoides variipennis (Coquillet), we found that Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones occurred on a number of farms over a 2-yr period. These records represent a significant departure from C...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Natasha M Agramonte, Salvador A Gezan, Ulrich R Bernier
Repellents prevent mosquito bites and help reduce mosquito-borne disease, a global public health issue. Laboratory-based repellent bioassays predict the ability of compounds to deter mosquito feeding, but the variety of repellent bioassays and statistical analysis methods makes it difficult to compare results across methodologies. The most realistic data are collected when repellents are applied on the skin; however, this method exposes volunteers to chemicals and mosquito bites. Silicone membranes were investigated as an alternative to human skin in assays of repellent efficacy...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Howard S Ginsberg, Chong Lee, Barry Volson, Megan C Dyer, Roger A Lebrun
The relationship between engorgement weight of female Ixodes scapularis Say and characteristics of offspring was studied using field-collected females fed on rabbits in the laboratory. The number of eggs laid was positively related to maternal engorgement weight in one trial, and larval size (estimated by scutal area) was positively related to maternal engorgement weight in the other. These results suggest a trade-off in number of eggs produced versus average size of offspring, possibly determined during late engorgement...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Tammi L Johnson, Christine B Graham, Karen A Boegler, Cara C Cherry, Sarah E Maes, Mark A Pilgard, Andrias Hojgaard, Danielle E Buttke, Rebecca J Eisen
Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Luis Fernando Chaves
Patterns of mosquito spatial persistence and temporal presence, as well as synchrony, i.e., the degree of concerted fluctuations in abundance, have been scarcely studied at finely grained spatial scales and over altitudinal gradients. Here, we present a spatial persistence, temporal presence, and synchrony analysis of four common mosquito species across the altitudinal gradient of Mt. Konpira in Nagasaki, Japan. We found that Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was more frequently found at the mountain base. In contrast, Aedes japonicus (Theobald) and Aedes flavopictus Yamada were common higher in the mountain, while Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillet) was uniformly present across the mountain, yet less frequently than the other species during the studied period...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Qasim Ali, Mehboob Alam, Sarfraz Ali Shad, Shahid Majeed, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Binyameen
Culex quinquefasciatus Say is an important disease vector throughout much of the world. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different larval habitat substrates on the fitness and biting efficiency of Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Our findings indicate that the development time (egg to adult) of larvae reared in irrigation water was 8.63 d while that of larvae reared in distilled water was 17.10 d (Effect size = 0.95). However, the rate of adult emergence was similar for all the tested treatments...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Roxanne G Burrus, Jerome A Hogsette, Phillip E Kaufman, James E Maruniak, Amy H Simonne, Volker Mai
Efficient detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is important to monitor the safety of food products obtained from cattle, and it has been primarily accomplished by analyzing manure samples by selective cultivation techniques, PCR, and ELISA. As each technique suffers from different biases, there may be value in using multiple methods and samples to increase detection efficiency. Difficulties associated with cattle manure sampling can be circumvented by isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from house flies, Musca domestica (L...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Aioub Sofizadeh, Yavar Rassi, Hassan Vatandoost, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Abolfazl Mollalo, Sayena Rafizadeh, Amir Ahmad Akhavan
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a prevalent vector-borne disease in the Golestan province of Iran, with Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) serving as the main vector. The aim of this study was to model the probability of presence of this species in the study area, and to determine the underlying factors affecting its distribution. Three villages were selected from each county of the province and visited monthly for investigating ZCL. Sticky paper traps were used for collecting the sand flies to determine the species present...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
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January 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
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