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Journal of Medical Entomology

J K Lee, G M Moraru, J V Stokes, R W Wills, E Mitchell, E Unz, B Moore-Henderson, A B Harper, A S Varela-Stokes
Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, may also be infected with a rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae." Infection rates with these rickettsiae vary geographically, and coinfected ticks have been reported. In this study, infection rates of R. parkeri and "Ca R. andeanae" were evaluated, and rickettsial DNA levels quantified, in 335 questing adult A. maculatum collected in 2013 (n = 95), 2014 (n = 139), and 2015 (n = 101) from Oktibbeha County, MS...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Atchara Phumee, Apiwat Tawatsin, Usavadee Thavara, Theerakamol Pengsakul, Suwich Thammapalo, Jérôme Depaquit, Frédérick Gay, Padet Siriyasatien
Although female sand flies are best known as the vectors of Leishmania parasites and viruses, several previous reports have demonstrated that these insects can also act as vectors for the trypanosomes of bats, lizards, and snakes. In this report, we created an inventory of Phlebotomine sand flies from southern Thailand. A novel trypanosome was found in a specimen of Phlebotomus stantoni, and two sand fly species newly recorded in the country, Sergentomyia khawi and Sergentomyia hivernus, were described. PCR primer pairs specific for the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) gene of trypanosomatids were used to demonstrate the presence of the parasite in the sand fly...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Aline F Spindola, Le Zheng, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Patricia J Thyssen
The present study aimed to determine if the presence of immatures of the invasive blow fly species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) influences the adult behavior of the native species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) in Brazil. The level of attraction and oviposition by the native species was assessed in a dual-choice assay. The evaluation was based on sex and stage of ovarian development of L. eximia adults to a resource not colonized (NCR) or colonized (RPC) with eggs, different instars, or densities of C. albiceps A significant difference in attraction was observed based on sex and stages of ovarian development...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
H Memona, F Manzoor, A A Anjum
This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
R Bassini-Silva, F C Jacinavicius, J A Mendoza-Roldan, E Daemon, D M Barros-Battesti
The chigger mite genus Blankaartia includes 28 known species, of which 10 are distributed in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. These species preferentially parasitize birds, but occasionally they can also be found on rodents, bats, and reptiles, showing low host selectivity. In the present study, we report the presence of this genus in Brazil for the first time, including the first report of Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Floch and Fauran) and the description of a new species of Blankaartia collected from birds (Order Passeriformes)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
James E Joy
Putative sensory structures in the food canal, and distal vestibule region entering the canal of Tabanus atratus F., are described. Two pairs of sensilla were observed in the walls of the vestibule-a distal pair of the basiconic type, and a pair of setifiorm sensilla at the base of the vestibule. Vestibular sensilla were constant in type, number, and position. Conversely, setiform sensilla in right and left walls of the food canal varied in number from one fly specimen to another, and lacked evidence of pairing (i...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Rebecca J Eisen, Rebecca J Clark, Andrew J Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Mark J Delorey, Charles B Beard
Local knowledge of when humans are at elevated risk for exposure to tick vectors of human disease agents is required both for the effective use of personal protection measures to avoid tick bites and for implementation of control measures to suppress host-seeking ticks. Here, we used previously published data on the seasonal density of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls nymphs, the primary vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western USA, collected across a broad habitat and climate gradient in northwestern California to identify predictors of periods of time within the year when questing nymphal density is elevated...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
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October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Brian J Johnson, Tim Hurst, Hung Luu Quoc, Isik Unlu, Christopher Freebairn, Ary Faraji, Scott A Ritchie
We report on the use of the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) as a surveillance device for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) relative to the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap in field studies conducted in Trenton, NJ, and on Hammond Island, Queensland, Australia. A parallel study conducted in Nha Trang, Vietnam, assessed the use of the GAT as an indoor surveillance device as well as the use of canola oil as a noninsecticide killing agent. In Trenton and Hammond Island, the GAT collected fewer male (0.40 ± 0.12 and 0.43 ± 0.30, respectively) and female (3...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Ana M Palomar, Aránzazu Portillo, Paula Santibáñez, David Mazuelas, Lidia Roncero, Óscar Gutiérrez, José A Oteo
The genus Borrelia includes species responsible for severe human diseases such as Lyme disease. Birds are involved in their epidemiology as dispersers of infected ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and as reservoirs or amplifiers of the bacterium. Herein, the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner in 336 ticks collected from birds in the north of Spain from 2009 to 2011 was investigated. Nucleic acid extracts from 174 Ixodes frontalis (Panzer), 108 Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzango, 34 Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 17 Ixodes ricinus (L...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Gilian van Duijvendijk, Wouter van Andel, Manoj Fonville, Gerrit Gort, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Willem Takken
Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jirod Nararak, Sunaiyana Sathantriphop, Monthathip Kongmee, Michael J Bangs, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap
The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus Theobald using an excito-repellency test system. Both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. Comparing unadjusted escape responses for An. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irritant and repellent activity responses at 1-5% concentrations (90...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Sebastián Pita, Francisco Panzera, Antonio Sánchez, Teresa Palomeque, Pedro Lorite
In order to provide a broad picture on the origin and evolution of holocentric X chromosomes in heteropteran species, we prepared a sex chromosome painting probe by microdissection of the X1 and X2 chromosomes from a kissing bug Mepraia spinolai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Fluorescence in situ hybridization on four species of the Triatomini having different amounts of autosomal heterochromatin and sex chromosome systems show that the Xs probe hybridizes on the euchromatin, located both on autosomes and X chromosomes...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
J O M Infran, D A Souza, W S Fernandes, A E Casaril, G U Eguchi, E T Oshiro, C E S Fernandes, A C Paranhos Filho, A G Oliveira
Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Abedin Saghafipour, Hassan Vatandoost, Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Yavar Rassi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Amir Ahmad Akhavan
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Lars Eisen, Nicole E Breuner, Andrias Hojgaard, J Charles Hoxmeier, Mark A Pilgard, Adam J Replogle, Brad J Biggerstaff, Marc C Dolan
Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii In this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420) of I...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
G Nentwig, S Frohberger, R Sonneck
One essential oil (clove oil), one skin repellent (icaridin), and one insecticide (transfluthrin) were tested for spatial repellent effects against non-blood-fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. The compounds were tested in acetone dilution series using a Y-olfactometer, a double cage system, and a double room system. All compounds exhibited spatial repellent effects at certain concentrations. Clove oil required relative high dosages to cause high effects (Y-olfactometer 6 mg, double cage 60 mg, and double room 1,200 mg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Maciej Skoracki, Mateusz Zmudzinski, Markus Unsoeld, Bozena Sikora
The parasitic quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Prostigmata) are recorded on ibises and spoonbills (Pelecaniformes: Threskiornithidae) for the first time. Four new species of the genus Stibarokris Kethley, 1970 are described: 1) S. theristicus Skoracki, Zmudzinski & Unsoeld sp. nov. ex Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783) from Brazil, 2) S. geronticus Skoracki, Zmudzinski & Unsoeld sp. nov. ex Geronticus calvus (Boddaert, 1783) from South Africa, 3) S. brevisetosus Skoracki & Zmudzinski sp...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Heung-Chul Kim, Myung-Soon Kim, Kwang-Shik Choi, Do-Un Hwang, Jaree L Johnson, Terry A Klein
Adult mosquito surveillance and field trials evaluated selected commercially available ultraviolet black-light (BL) and light-emitting diode (LED) traps at three sites where vivax malaria is endemic from May to October 2015 in northwestern Republic of Korea. Collections totaled 283,929 adult mosquitoes (280,355 [98.74%] females and 3,574 [1.26%] males) comprising 17 species (including six members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) belonging to six genera. The four most predominant female species collected were Aedes vexans nipponii (Theobald) (83...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Yi-Ju Chen, Chin-Gi Huang, Ju-Chun Hsu, Wen-Jer Wu
Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché)) are a common flea species mostly found on cats and dogs. They not only cause discomfort to pets and their owners but also act as important vectors for human and pet zoonoses. Over the past 15 yr, the control of cat fleas on pets has been revolutionized through the use of various treatments. At present, fipronil and imidacloprid are used for flea control in Taiwan and are available in spot-on and spray formulations. Outside Taiwan, spinosad in tablet form is also available...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
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