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Journal of Medical Entomology

Pdnn Sirisena, Ankit Kumar, Sujatha Sunil
Arthropod-borne virus disease cycles constitute interactions among three primary players-the host, the vector, and the virus-in which the virus needs to interact with the host and the vector to establish its survival. While in the host, some arboviruses replicate aggressively, resulting in host pathogenicity, and manifest as a disease condition. These viruses more often utilize the vectors as reservoirs before they are transmitted to the host and therefore do not amplify to as large titers as they do in the hosts...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
M K Rust, B L Blagburn, I Denholm, M W Dryden, P Payne, N C Hinkle, S Kopp, M Williamson
An international team of scientists and veterinarians was assembled in 1999 to develop a monitoring program to determine the susceptibility of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), to imidacloprid. Cat flea eggs were collected, shipped to laboratories, and tested for their susceptibility to imidacloprid. Over 3,000 C. felis populations were collected from 2002 to 2017 from 10 different countries. Of these, 66.3% were collected from cats and 33.7% from dogs. C. f. felis populations (n = 2,200) were bioassayed by exposing cat flea eggs and the emerging larvae to a Diagnostic Dose (DD) of 3 ppm imidacloprid in larval rearing medium...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Eduardo I Faúndez
Bagrada hilaris is an invasive stink bug present in Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, and recently found in Chile, South America. Painted bug is well known as an agricultural pest, attacking mostly Brassicaceae. First records of the painted bug B. hilaris invading homes are given from Chile, from the Metropolitan, and Valparaiso Regions, including mild and heavily infested homes. In addition, the first case ever of an adventitious bite in a human being by this species is provided and described. Additionally, first alleged cases of occupational allergy are also mentioned...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mary E Danforth, William K Reisen, Christopher M Barker
Most species of mosquitoes consume sugar to survive and during sugar feeding can expectorate virus. Scientists have used this behavior to develop novel methods of mosquito control and arbovirus surveillance. In this study, we use sugar feeding and corresponding viral expectoration to develop an affordable method of monitoring individual mosquitoes for longitudinal data collection. Female Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) that consumed an infectious bloodmeal of West Nile virus were placed into separate containers and offered a sucrose-soaked cotton wick...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Andrea Gloria-Soria, Tommaso G Chiodo, Jeffrey R Powell
Wolbachia is a genus of endosymbiotic bacteria that infects 66% of all insect species. Its major impact on insects is in reproduction: sterility, production of one sex, and/or parthenogenesis. Another effect was discovered when the disease-transmitting mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae), was infected with Wolbachia isolated from Drosophila: infected female mosquitoes became less capable of transmitting diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya. This has led to releases of Ae. aegypti carrying Wolbachia in an attempt to control disease...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
B A Santos, K R Reinhold-Castro, E C Cristóvão, T G V Silveira, U Teodoro
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania and it is one of the six most important infectious diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to conduct a research on the fauna and most frequented ecotopes by sandflies on islands of the Paraná River. The sandflies were collected with Falcão light traps in 10 islands in the municipalities of São Pedro do Paraná, Porto Rico, and Querência do Norte, in Paraná State, Brazil, from November 2012 to November 2014. In total, 76,145 specimens of Nyssomyia neivai, the only species found, were collected, of which 63,015 were female and 13,130, male...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Constanza Schapheer, Gino Sandoval, Cristian A Villagra
Our species have altered their surroundings since its early dispersion on Earth. Unfortunately, thanks to human-modified habitats, several pest organisms such as domiciliary insects have expanded their distributions. Moreover, pest-related microorganisms may also be aided by anthropization. Pest cockroaches are globally distributed and capable of carrying several diseases. We explored if urbanization may buffer environmental conditions allowing pest insects to expand their distribution. Specifically, we suggest that human settlements may generate suitable microhabitats for synanthropic cockroaches, helping them to survive and establish with disregard to overall climatic restrictions...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
P R Mulieri, M S Olea, L D Patitucci, M Battán-Horenstein
Abundance of sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae species was monitored by using baited traps and active captures with hand net. Analysis of field data collected in three protected areas in the Valdivian temperate forest of South America (Lanín National Park, Lago Puelo National Park, and Los Alerces National Park) indicated that bottle traps baited with putrescine is a reliable method to estimate local abundance of sarcosaprophagous species by comparison to the active capture method. Also, we describe and compare general patterns of sex bias for four dominant species: Sarconesia magellanica (Le Guillou), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Microcerella spinigena (Rondani), and Oxysarcodexia varia (Walker)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Miguel Ángel Peribáñez, Carlos Calvete, María Jesús Gracia
A survey conducted from 2002 to 2012 of 759 customers from 84 veterinary practices allows us to examine the habits of dog and cat owners regarding the use of insecticides for flea control. The results indicate that the percentage of animals treated during the 12 mo prior to the survey was not very high (71% in dogs and 50% in cats), considering that 100% of animals included in the study were flea-infested. Statistical analysis shows that animals older than 4 mo are treated more frequently and that dogs are more likely to be treated than cats...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jalil Nejati, Abedin Saghafipour, Hassan Vatandoost, Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi
Anopheles subpictus Grassi is considered a secondary malaria vector in parts of Asia. The current study determined some ecological and bionomical characteristics of this species in southeastern Iran. The temporal patterns of abundance, resting behavior, blood feeding activity, host selection, adult susceptibility to insecticides and larval habitats were investigated. Most adults were collected by pyrethrum space-spray collection, followed by pit shelters and outlet window traps, respectively. The abdominal condition index of gravid to blood fed females resting outdoors was more than one, thereby showing exophilic resting behavior...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Agustín Alvarez Costa, Paula V Gonzalez, Laura V Harburguer, Héctor M Masuh
An essential strategy to deal with mosquito-borne diseases is the control of larvae in their development sites. The mosquitoes Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae), a malaria vector, and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), vector of dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses, breed in very different habitats. Insecticide treatments of mosquito larvae focus mainly on their lethal effects. However, insecticide degradation or the poor dosage of larvicides will invariably lead to the sublethal exposure of a target (and nontarget) species, the nonlethal effects of these compounds may have important effects on vital insect activities, and therefore their evaluation is necessary...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Edwin R Burgess, Dana M Johnson, Christopher J Geden
Documented resistance to traditional insecticides in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), has expedited a need for alternative forms of control. One such method is the use of biological control organisms, such as the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo - Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Administering B. bassiana with a calorically rich phagostimulant such as sucrose may have the unintended effect of increasing fly vitality and thus reproduction before mortality sets in...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Clifton D McKee, Lynn M Osikowicz, Teresa R Schwedhelm, Sarah E Maes, Russell E Enscore, Kenneth L Gage, Michael Y Kosoy
Few studies have been able to provide experimental evidence of the ability of fleas to maintain rodent-associated Bartonella infections and excrete these bacteria. These data are important for understanding the transmission cycles and prevalence of these bacteria in hosts and vectors. We used an artificial feeding approach to expose groups of the oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild; Siphonaptera, Pulicidae) to rat blood inoculated with varying concentrations of Bartonella elizabethae Daly (Bartonellaceae: Rhizobiales)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Shayenne Olsson Freitas Silva, Cecilia Ferreira de Mello, Raquel M Gleiser, Alexandre A Oliveira, Daniele de Aguiar Maia, Jeronimo Alencar
Studies on the bioecology of Haemagogus leucocelaenus Dyar and Shannon 1924, Haemagogus janthinomys Dyar 1921, Aedes albopictus Skuse 1895 (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitos are extremely important from an epidemiologic point of view, as they are known to be vectors of many important pathogens and, therefore, act as the main factor responsible for the maintenance of several zoonoses natural cycles. The present work aimed to elucidate their seasonal egg-hatching rate using the immersion method. Ovitraps were used to collect mosquito eggs from an Atlantic Forest fragment, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from November 2015 to November 2016...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Robert Prose, Nicole E Breuner, Tammi L Johnson, Rebecca J Eisen, Lars Eisen
Clothing treated with the pyrethroid permethrin is available in the United States as consumer products to prevent tick bites. We used tick bioassays to quantify contact irritancy and toxicity of permethrin-treated clothing for three important tick vectors of human pathogens: the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae); the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae); and the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae). We first demonstrated that field-collected I...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Phatcharaphon Wiwattanawanichakun, Atcharee Ratwatthananon, Waraporn Poonsri, Thitaree Yooboon, Wanchai Pluempanupat, Narisara Piyasaengthong, Saksit Nobsathian, Vasakorn Bullangpoti
Culex quinquefasciatus is a common domestic mosquito that is widespread in many areas of Thailand and serves as a southeastern vector of Japanese encephalitis. The present study investigated the acute toxicity of crude extracts and alkaloid compounds of Piper retrofractum (Piperales: Piperaceae) in Cx. quinquefasciatus third instar larvae. P. retrofractum was sequentially extracted using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, and the crude extracts were tested on mosquito larvae. Detoxification and neuroenzymes were analyzed to establish the mode of action...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Kristofer B Kovach, Ryan C Smith
The mosquito fauna of Iowa has been extensively investigated over several decades, providing a wealth of information regarding species distributions, relative abundance, temporal activity patterns, and identifying vectors of medical importance. However, these investigations have had unequal coverage, leaving the mosquito fauna in some parts of the state, including southern Iowa, largely uncharacterized. With the heightened public health threat of Zika virus in the summer of 2016, greater emphasis was placed on surveying for two potential Zika virus vectors: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus)...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Julian R Dupuis, Felix D Guerrero, Steven R Skoda, Pamela L Phillips, John B Welch, Jack L Schlater, Ana Maria L Azeredo-Espin, Adalberto A Pérez de León, Scott M Geib
New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel 1858) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a myiasis-causing fly that can be a serious threat to the health of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Its progressive eradication from the southern United States, Mexico, and Central America from the 1950s to 2000s is an excellent example of successful pest management using sterile insect technique (SIT). In late 2016, autochthonous NWS were detected in the Florida Keys, representing this species' first invasion in the United States in >30 yr...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Batah Kunalan Prakash, Van Lun Low, Tiong Kai Tan, Wei Yin Vinnie-Siow, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Akhavan Rezaei Morvarid, Adzzie Shazleen Azman, Yze Shiuan Yeong, Sazaly AbuBakar, Mohd Sofian-Azirun
Hepatozoon canis has been widely reported in dogs. Its prevalence in ticks, however, has not been well-established. Here we determine the occurrence of Hepatozoon DNA in the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) sensu lato (s.l.) and domestic dogs from Peninsular Malaysia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA coding sequence. Our results revealed a relatively low prevalence of H. canis DNA in both R. sanguineus s.l. (0.7%) and dogs (3...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Lipin Ren, Wei Chen, Yanjie Shang, Fanming Meng, Lagabaiyila Zha, Yong Wang, Yadong Guo
Muscid Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) are of great forensic importance due to their wide distribution, ubiquitous and synanthropic nature. They are frequently neglected as they tend to arrive at the corpses later than the flesh flies and blow flies. Moreover, the lack of species-level identification also hinders investigation of medicolegal purposes. To overcome the difficulty of morphological identification, molecular method has gained relevance. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene has been widely utilized...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
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