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Journal of Heredity

Nararat Laopichienpong, Narongrit Muangmai, Lawan Chanhome, Sunutcha Suntrarachun, Panupon Twilprawat, Surin Peyachoknagul, Kornsorn Srikulnath
Snakes exhibit genotypic sex determination with female heterogamety (ZZ males and ZW females), and the state of sex chromosome differentiation also varies among lineages. To investigate the evolutionary history of homologous genes located in the non-recombining region of differentiated sex chromosomes in snakes, partial sequences of the gametologous CTNNB1 gene were analyzed for 12 species belonging to henophid (Cylindrophiidae, Xenopeltidae, and Pythonidae) and caenophid snakes (Viperidae, Elapidae, and Colubridae)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Heredity
Mabel D Giménez, Daniel W Förster, Eleanor P Jones, Fríða Jóhannesdóttir, Sofia I Gabriel, Thadsin Panithanarak, Moira Scascitelli, Valeria Merico, Silvia Garagna, Jeremy B Searle, Heidi C Hauffe
The first natural chromosomal variation in the house mouse was described nearly 50 years ago in Val Poschiavo on the Swiss side of the Swiss-Italian border in the Central Eastern Alps. Studies have extended into neighboring Valtellina, and the house mice of the Poschiavo-Valtellina area have been subject to detailed analysis, reviewed here. The maximum extent of this area is 70 km, yet it has 4 metacentric races and the standard 40-chromosome telocentric race distributed in a patchwork fashion. The metacentric races are characterized by highly reduced diploid numbers (2n = 22-26) resulting from Robertsonian fusions, perhaps modified by whole-arm reciprocal translocations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Heredity
Tariq Ezaz, Kornsorn Srikulnath, Jennifer A Marshall Graves
The diversity of sex chromosomes among amniotes is the product of independent evolution of different systems in different lineages, defined by novel sex-determining genes. Convergent evolution is very common, suggesting that some genes are particularly adept at taking on a sex-determining role. Comparative gene mapping, and more recently whole genome sequencing, have now turned up other surprising relationships; different regions of the amniote genome that have become sex determining in some taxa seem to share synteny, or share sequence, in others...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Heredity
Frances E Clark, Matthew A Conte, Irani A Ferreira-Bravo, Andreia B Poletto, Cesar Martins, Thomas D Kocher
B chromosomes are extra chromosomes found in many species of plants, animals, and fungi. B chromosomes often manipulate common cellular processes to increase their frequency, sometimes to the detriment of organismal fitness. Here, we characterize B chromosomes in several species of Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Whole genome sequencing of Metriaclima zebra "Boadzulu" individuals revealed blocks of sequence with unusually high sequence coverage, indicative of increased copy number of those sequences. These regions of high sequence coverage were found only in females...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Heredity
Kohta Yoshida, Takashi Makino, Jun Kitano
Degeneration of Y chromosomes is a common evolutionary path of XY sex chromosome systems. Recent genomic studies in flies and plants have revealed that even young neo-sex chromosomes with the age of a few million years show signs of Y degeneration, such as the accumulation of nonsense and frameshift mutations. However, it remains unclear whether neo-Y chromosomes also show rapid degeneration in fishes, which often have homomorphic sex chromosomes. Here, we investigated whether a neo-Y chromosome of Japan Sea stickleback (Gasterosteus nipponicus), which was formed by a Y-autosome fusion within the last 2 million years, accumulates deleterious mutations...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Heredity
Sam B Groth, Justin P Blumenstiel
Genomes are comprised of contrasting domains of euchromatin and heterochromatin, and transposable elements play an important role in defining these genomic regions. Therefore, understanding the forces that control transposable element abundance can help us understand the chromatin landscape of the genome. What determines the burden of transposable elements in populations? Some have proposed that drift plays a determining role. In small populations, mildly deleterious transposable element insertion alleles are allowed to fix, leading to increased copy number...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Heredity
Heath Blackmon, Laura Ross, Doris Bachtrog
Insects harbor a tremendous diversity of sex determining mechanisms both within and between groups. For example, in some orders such as Hymenoptera, all members are haplodiploid, whereas Diptera contain species with homomorphic as well as male and female heterogametic sex chromosome systems or paternal genome elimination. We have established a large database on karyotypes and sex chromosomes in insects, containing information on over 13000 species covering 29 orders of insects. This database constitutes a unique starting point to report phylogenetic patterns on the distribution of sex determination mechanisms, sex chromosomes, and karyotypes among insects and allows us to test general theories on the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes, sex chromosomes, and sex determination systems in a comparative framework...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Heredity
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Kristina M Cammen, Kimberly R Andrews, Emma L Carroll, Andrew D Foote, Emily Humble, Jane I Khudyakov, Marie Louis, Michael R McGowen, Morten Tange Olsen, Amy M Van Cise
The dramatic increase in the application of genomic techniques to non-model organisms (NMOs) over the past decade has yielded numerous valuable contributions to evolutionary biology and ecology, many of which would not have been possible with traditional genetic markers. We review this recent progression with a particular focus on genomic studies of marine mammals, a group of taxa that represent key macroevolutionary transitions from terrestrial to marine environments and for which available genomic resources have recently undergone notable rapid growth...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Jason Baumsteiger, Andrew P Kinziger, Andres Aguilar
Ecological generalists may contain a wealth of information concerning diversity, ecology, and geographic connectivity throughout their range. We explored these ideas in prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), a small generalist freshwater fish species where coastal forms have potentially undergone radiations into inland lacustrine and riverine environments. Using a 962bp cytochrome b mtDNA marker and 11 microsatellites, we estimated diversity, divergence times, gene flow, and structure among populations at 43 locations throughout California...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Elaine M Norton, James R Mickelson, Matthew M Binns, Sarah C Blott, Paul Caputo, Cajsa M Isgren, Annette M McCoy, Alison Moore, Richard J Piercy, June E Swinburne, Mark Vaudin, Molly E McCue
Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses is characterized by episodes of muscle rigidity and cell damage that often recur upon strenuous exercise. The objective was to evaluate the importance of genetic factors in RER by obtaining an unbiased estimate of heritability in cohorts of unrelated Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses. Four hundred ninety-one Thoroughbred and 196 Standardbred racehorses were genotyped with the 54K or 74K SNP genotyping arrays. Heritability was calculated from genome-wide SNP data with a mixed linear and Bayesian model, utilizing the standard genetic relationship matrix (GRM)...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Emily Rose, Heather D Masonjones, Adam G Jones
Isolated populations provide special opportunities to study local adaptation and incipient speciation. In some cases, however, morphological evolution can obscure the taxonomic status of recently founded populations. Here, we use molecular markers to show that an anchialine-lake-restricted population of seahorses, originally identified as Hippocampus reidi, appears on the basis of DNA data to be Hippocampus erectus We collected seahorses from Sweetings Pond, on Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, during the summer of 2014...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Fausto Valenzuela-Quiñonez, Juan A De-Anda-Montañez, Elizabeth Gilbert-Horvath, John Carlos Garza, Francisco J García-De León
Conservation of the evolutionary legacy of endangered species is a key component for long-term persistence. Totoaba is a long-lived fish endemic to the Gulf of California and is considered critically endangered. There is currently a debate concerning its conservation status and whether it can be used as a fishery resource. Unfortunately, basic information on biological and genetic population structure of the species is lacking. We sampled 313 individuals and employed 16 microsatellite loci and 3 mitochondrial DNA markers (16S, 547 pb; COI, 619 pb; control region, 650 pb) to assess population structure and demography of totoaba in the Gulf of California, with samples from locations that encompass nearly all of its recognized geographic distribution...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Wesley A Larson, Garrett J McKinney, James E Seeb, Lisa W Seeb
Loci that can be used to screen for sex in salmon can provide important information for study of both wild and cultured populations. Here, we tested for associations between sex and genotypes at thousands of loci available from a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) dataset to discover sex-associated loci in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). We discovered 7 sex-associated loci, developed high-throughput assays for 2 loci, and tested the utility of these 2 assays in 8 collections of sockeye salmon sampled throughout North America...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Rebekah L Horn, David E Cowley
Self-fertilization has both negative and positive fitness effects on species evolution. Selfing can increase inbreeding depression, thereby decreasing genetic diversity. In contrast, self-fertilization can preserve beneficial gene combinations and facilitate colonization success. Within the class of crustaceans Branchiopoda, selfing is a primary reproductive mode. Some species of Triops, in the family Notostraca, are a few of the animal species thought to have a mixed mating system between hermaphrodites and males termed androdioecy...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
Diego Hepp, Gislene Lopes Gonçalves, Gilson Rudinei Pires Moreira, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas
Different pigmentation genes have been associated with color diversity in domestic animal species. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), agouti signaling protein (ASIP), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), and v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) genes are candidate genes responsible for variation in wool color among breeds of sheep. Although the influence of these genes has been described in some breeds, in many others the effect of interactions among genes underlying wool color has not been investigated...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
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