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Journal of Heredity

Mi Ok Lee, Lauren Dobson, Brian W Davis, Loren Skow, James Derr, James E Womack
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of natural peptides with varying numbers of amino acids. They are principal components of innate immunity in vertebrates, encoding natural antibiotics and providing a protective response against a broad range of microbes including those responsible for tuberculosis, an important disease in bison. NK-lysins are AMPs that have been described in various organisms and are coded by a single gene in several mammalian species, including human. Recently, we described a family of four NK-lysin genes in cattle...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Jessica R Brandt, Peter J Van Coeverden de Groot, Kelsey E Witt, Paige K Engelbrektsson, Kristofer M Helgen, Ripan S Malhi, Oliver A Ryder, Alfred L Roca
The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), once widespread across Southeast Asia, now consists of as few as 30 individuals within Sumatra and Borneo. To aid in conservation planning, we sequenced 218 bp of control region mitochondrial (mt) DNA, identifying 17 distinct mitochondrial haplotypes across modern (N = 13) and museum (N = 26) samples. Museum specimens from Laos and Myanmar had divergent mtDNA, consistent with the placement of western mainland rhinos into the distinct subspecies D. s. lasiotis (presumed extinct)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Camila L Chaves, Bernd Degen, Birte Pakull, Malte Mader, Euridice Honorio, Paulo Ruas, Niklas Tysklind, Alexandre M Sebbenn
Deforestation - reinforced by illegal logging - is a serious problem in many tropical regions and causes pervasive environmental and economic damage. Existing laws which intend to reduce illegal logging need efficient, fraud resistant control methods. We developed a genetic reference database for Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril), an important, high value timber species from the Neotropics. The data set can be used for controls on declarations of wood origin. Samples from 308 Hymenaea trees from 12 locations in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, and French Guiana have been collected and genotyped on ten nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs), 13 chloroplast SNPs (spSNP), and 1 chloroplast indel marker...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Robin S Waples, Kim Scribner, Jennifer Moore, Hope Draheim, Dwayne Etter, Mark Boersen
The idealized concept of a population is integral to ecology, evolutionary biology, and natural resource management. To make analyses tractable, most models adopt simplifying assumptions, which almost inevitably are violated by real species in nature. Here we focus on both demographic and genetic estimates of effective population size per generation (Ne), the effective number of breeders per year (Nb), and Wright's neighborhood size (NS) for black bears (Ursus americanus) that are continuously distributed in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Evelyn L Jensen, Joshua M Miller, Danielle L Edwards, Ryan C Garrick, Washington Tapia, Adalgisa Caccone, Michael A Russello
Empirical population genetic studies generally rely on sampling subsets of the population(s) of interest and of the nuclear or organellar genome targeted, assuming each are representative of the whole. Violations of these assumptions may impact population-level parameter estimation and lead to spurious inferences. Here we used targeted capture to sequence the full mitochondrial genome from 123 individuals of the Galapagos giant tortoise endemic to Pinzón Island (Chelonoidis duncanensis) sampled at two time points pre- and post-bottleneck (circa 1906 and 2014) to explicitly assess differences in diversity estimates and demographic reconstructions based on subsets of the mitochondrial genome versus the full sequences, and to evaluate potential biases associated with diversity estimates and demographic reconstructions from post-bottlenecked samples alone...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Carole Blay, Serge Planes, Chin-Long Ky
Grafting mantle tissue of a donor pearl oyster into the gonad of a recipient oyster results in the formation of a chimera, the pearl sac. The phenotypic variations of this chimera are hypothesized to be the result of interactions between the donor and recipient genomes. In this study, the heritability of phenotypic variation and its association with gene expression were investigated for the first time during P. margaritifera pearl production. Genetic variance was evaluated at different levels, 1) before the graft operation (expression in graft tissue), 2) after grafting (pearl sac tissue expression in chimera) and 3) on the product of the graft (pearl phenotype traits) based on controlled bi-parental crosses and the F1 generation...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Euan R O Allan, Jacob A Tennessen, Thomas J Sharpton, Michael S Blouin
Freshwater snails are the intermediate hosts for numerous parasitic worms which can have negative consequences for human health and agriculture. Understanding the transmission of these diseases requires a more complete characterization of the immunobiology of snail hosts. This includes the characterization of its microbiome and genetic factors which may interact with this important commensal community. Allelic variation in the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex (GRC) genomic region of Guadeloupean Biomphalaria glabrata influences their susceptibility to schistosome infection, and may have other roles in the snail immune response...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Robin S Waples
Three published papers in this journal have considered the proposition that under a Wahlund effect caused by population mixture, a positive correlation is expected between single-locus values of FIS for a sample from the mixture and FST between the populations contributing to the mixture. Two of the papers assumed unbiased samples to estimate FST but did not consider possible effects of null alleles; the other paper focused on effects of nulls but used biased samples that also included Wahlund effects to estimate FST...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Akitsugu Konno, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Shinji Yabuta, Akiko Tonoike, Miho Nagasawa, Kazutaka Mogi, Takefumi Kikusui
Drug detection dogs can be trained to locate various prohibited drugs with targeted odors, and they play an important role in the interdiction of drug smuggling in human society. Recent studies provide the interesting hypothesis that the oxytocin system serves as a biological basis for co-evolution between dogs and humans. Here, we offer the new possibility that genetic variation of the canine oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene may regulate the success of a dog's training to become a drug detection dog. A total of 340 Labrador Retriever dogs that were trained to be drug detection dogs in Japan were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Hernando Rodríguez-Correa, Ken Oyama, Mauricio Quesada, Eric J Fuchs, Antonio González-Rodríguez
Lower Central America is an important area to study recent population history and diversification of Neotropical species due to its complex and dynamic geology and climate. Phylogeographic studies in this region are few in comparison with other regions and even less for tree species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phylogeographic structure in two partially co-distributed endemic oak species (Quercus costaricensis and Q. bumelioides) of the Costa Rican mountains using chloroplast short sequence repeats (cpSSRs), and to test for the effect of geological and palaeoclimatic processes on their population history...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Joshua M Miller, Maud C Quinzin, Elizabeth H Scheibe, Claudio Ciofi, Fredy Villalva, Washington Tapia, Adalgisa Caccone
An aim of many captive breeding programs is to increase population sizes for reintroduction and establishment of self-sustaining wild populations. Genetic analyses play a critical role in these programs: monitoring genetic variation, identifying the origin of individuals, and assigning parentage to track family sizes. Here we use genetic pedigree analyses to examine three seasons of a pilot breeding program for the Floreana island Galapagos giant tortoise, C. niger, that had been declared extinct for ~150 years until individuals with mixed ancestry were recently discovered...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Robert R Fitak, Sarah E Rinkevich, Melanie Culver
The Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was historically distributed throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Extensive predator removal campaigns during the early 20th century, however, resulted in its eventual extirpation by the mid 1980s. At this time, the Mexican wolf existed only in 3 separate captive lineages (McBride, Ghost Ranch, and Aragón) descended from 3, 2, and 2 founders, respectively. These lineages were merged in 1995 to increase the available genetic variation, and Mexican wolves were reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico in 1998...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Heredity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Atsushi Tominaga, Masafumi Matsui, Natsuhiko Yoshikawa, Koshiro Eto, Kanto Nishikawa
Hybridizations on a secondary contact zone between 2 diverged lineages can have various evolutionary consequences, including the genetic replacement of one lineage by another. We detected such a case between 2 lineages (the Central and Western lineages) of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster in the Chugoku district of western Japan. We genotyped 269 individuals from 30 localities using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 11 microsatellite loci. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis revealed that the 2 lineages were mostly distributed parapatrically to each other but co-occurred around the contact zone, whereas the microsatellite analyses indicated the presence of a hybrid zone...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Patrick G Meirmans, Shenglin Liu, Peter H van Tienderen
Though polyploidy is an important aspect of the evolutionary genetics of both plants and animals, the development of population genetic theory of polyploids has seriously lagged behind that of diploids. This is unfortunate since the analysis of polyploid genetic data-and the interpretation of the results-requires even more scrutiny than with diploid data. This is because of several polyploidy-specific complications in segregation and genotyping such as tetrasomy, double reduction, and missing dosage information...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Heredity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Matthijs P van den Burg, Patrick G Meirmans, Tim van Wagensveld, Bart Kluskens, Hannah Madden, Mark E Welch, Johannes A J Breeuwer
The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) is an endangered species threatened by habitat loss and hybridization with non-native Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguanadelicatissima has been extirpated on several islands, and the Green Iguana has invaded most islands with extant populations. Information is essential to protect this species from extinction. We collected data on 293 iguanas including 17 juveniles from St. Eustasius, one of the few remaining I. delicatissima strongholds. Genetic data was leveraged to test for hybridization presence with the Green Iguana using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, including 16 microsatellite loci...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Amy Zhang, Tomoko Y Steen
The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents have called forth a growing body of research on their biological aftermaths. A variety of wild organisms, including primates, birds, fish, insects, and worms are being studied in the affected areas, with emerging morphological, physiological, and genetic aberrations ascribed to ionizing radiation. Despite the effort in surveying Chernobyl and Fukushima wildlife, little is known about the microorganisms associated with these radiation-contaminated animals. The microbiota, especially the gut commensal, plays an important role in shaping the metabolic reservoir and immune system of the host, and is sensitive to a wide array of environmental factors, including ionizing radiation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Christopher J Schell
Urban habitats are quickly becoming exceptional models to address adaptation under rapid environmental change, given the expansive temporal and spatial scales with which anthropogenic landscape conversion occurs. Urban ecologists in the last 10-15 years have done an extraordinary job of highlighting phenotypic patterns that correspond with urban living, as well as delineating urban population structure using traditional genetic markers. The underpinning genetic mechanisms that govern those phenotypic patterns, however, are less well established...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Kathryn G Turner, Daisie I Huang, Quentin C B Cronk, Loren H Rieseberg
Wildflower seeds are routinely spread along highways and thoroughfares throughout North America as part of federal beautification policy, but the genetic effect of the introduction of these cultivated populations on wild populations of the same species is unknown. Interbreeding may occur between these seeded and wild populations, resulting in several possible outcomes. Here we sample 187 individuals in 12 matched pairs of neighboring wild and seeded populations of the Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis), a species popular in commercially available wildflower seed mixes used by both the Texas Department of Transportation and the public...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Heredity
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