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Journal of Heredity

Amanda J Finger, Brian Mahardja, Kathleen M Fisch, Alyssa Benjamin, Joan Lindberg, Luke Ellison, Tewdros Ghebremariam, Tien-Chieh Hung, Bernie May
Genetic adaptation to captivity is a concern for threatened and endangered species held in conservation hatcheries. Here, we present evidence of genetic adaptation to captivity in a conservation hatchery for the endangered Delta Smelt (Fish Conservation and Culture Laboratory, University of California Davis; FCCL). The FCCL population is genetically managed with parentage analysis and the addition of wild fish each year. Molecular monitoring indicates little loss of genetic variation and low differentiation between the wild and conservation populations...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Heredity
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July 16, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Libby Natola, Theresa M Burg
The root of understanding speciation lies in determining the forces which drive it. In many closely-related species, including Sphyrapicus varius, S. nuchalis, and S. ruber, it is assumed that speciation occurred due to isolation in multiple Pleistocene refugia. We used genetic data from 457 samples at the control region, COI, and CHD1Z to examine rangewide population genetic structure and differentiation amongst these three species across each species' breeding range. In addition, we modelled these species' ecological niches for the Holocene (~6,000 ya), Last Glacial Maximum (~22,000 ya), and Last Interglacial (~120,000-140,000 ya) to determine if Pleistocene glaciations could have contributed to allopatric distributions, therefore allowing these groups to differentiate...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Paola Modesto, Cristina Biolatti, Livio Favaro, Silvia Colussi, Simone Peletto, Sara Piga, Maria Vittoria Riina, Daniela Pessani, Egle Trincas, Valentina Isaja, Pier Luigi Acutis
Genealogical relationships among colony members, inbreeding status, and presence of hybrids are crucial data that can assist zoo curators in captive colony management and decision-making on relocation for reproduction. This study employed molecular markers to study a large colony (n=56) of African Penguin hosted in an Italian biopark. A panel of 15 STRs (single tandem repeats) was selected, and genotype data were analyzed using COLONY software to determine parentage relationships and compare the existing studbook information to a pedigree built from genetic analyses...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Joshua M Miller, Maud C Quinzin, Danielle L Edwards, Deren A R Eaton, Evelyn L Jensen, Michael A Russello, James P Gibbs, Washington Tapia, Danny Rueda, Adalgisa Caccone
Genome-wide assessments allow for fuller characterization of genetic diversity, finer-scale population delineation, and better detection of demographically significant units to guide conservation compared to those based on "traditional" markers. Galapagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) have long provided a case study for how evolutionary genetics may be applied to advance species conservation. Ongoing efforts to bolster tortoise populations, which have declined by 90%, have been informed by analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence and microsatellite genotypic data, but could benefit from genome-wide markers...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Kim Scribner, Iyob Tsehaye, Travis Brenden, Wendylee Stott, Jeannette Kanefsky, James Bence
Recent assessments indicate the emergence of naturally produced lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) recruitment throughout Lake Huron in the North American Laurentian Great Lakes (>50% of fish <7 yrs). Because naturally produced fish derived from different stocked hatchery strains are unmarked, managers cannot distinguish strains contributing to natural recruitment. We used 15 microsatellite loci to identify strains of naturally produced lake trout (N=1567) collected in assessment fisheries during early (2002-2004) and late (2009-2012) sampling periods...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Martha J Nelson-Flower, Ryan R Germain, Elizabeth A MacDougall-Shackleton, Sabrina S Taylor, Peter Arcese
Variation in immune gene sequences is known to influence resistance to infectious diseases and parasites, and hence survival and mate choice, across animal taxa. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise one essential gene family in the vertebrate innate immune system, and recognize evolutionarily conserved structures from all major microorganism classes. However, the causes and consequences of TLR variation in passerine birds remain largely unexplored. We examined seven TLR genes in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a species that is studied across North America...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Faisal Almathen, Haitham Elbir, Hussain Bahbahani, Joram Mwacharo, Olivier Hanotte
Pigmentation in mammals is primarily determined by the distribution of eumelanin and pheomelanin, the ratio of which is mostly controlled by the activity of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and agouti signalling protein (ASIP) genes. Using 91 animals from ten Arabian camel populations, that included the four predominant coat color phenotypes observed in the dromedary (light brown, dark brown, black and white), we investigated the effects of the MC1R and ASIP sequence variants and identified candidate polymorphisms associated with coat color variation...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Aimee Elizabeth Kessler, Malia A Santos, Ramona Flatz, Nyambayar Batbayar, Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj, Dashnyam Batsuur, Fyodor G Bidashko, Natsag Galbadrakh, Oleg Goroshko, Valery V Khrokov, Tuvshin Unenbat, Ivan I Vagner, Muyang Wang, Christopher Irwin Smith
The Great Bustard is the heaviest bird capable of flight and an iconic species of the Eurasian steppe. Populations of both currently recognized subspecies are highly fragmented and critically small in Asia. We used DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the mitochondrial control region to estimate the degree of mitochondrial differentiation and rates of female gene flow between the subspecies. We obtained genetic samples from 51 individuals of Otis tarda dybowskii representing multiple populations, including the first samples from Kazakhstan and Mongolia and samples from near the Altai Mountains, the proposed geographic divide between the subspecies, allowing for better characterization of the boundary between the two subspecies...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Edward Pfeiler
Genetic diversity in mitochondrial DNA barcodes, comprising a segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, was used to infer demographic histories in selected taxa of the cactophilic Drosophila repleta species group in North America. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were determined in 16 taxa based on both previously published and new sequences. Haplotype diversity (h) differed dramatically in different taxa, varying from h = 0 in D. eremophila, D. hexastigma and D. bifurca to h = 0.99 in D...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Mi Ok Lee, Lauren Dobson, Brian W Davis, Loren Skow, James Derr, James E Womack
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of natural peptides with varying numbers of amino acids. They are principal components of innate immunity in vertebrates, encoding natural antibiotics and providing a protective response against a broad range of microbes including those responsible for tuberculosis, an important disease in bison. NK-lysins are AMPs that have been described in various organisms and are coded by a single gene in several mammalian species, including human. Recently, we described a family of four NK-lysin genes in cattle...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Robin S Waples, Roland Kays, Richard J Fredrickson, Krishna Pacifici, L Scott Mills
Defining units that can be afforded legal protection is a crucial, albeit challenging, step in conservation planning. As we illustrate with a case study of the red wolf (Canis rufus) from the southeastern United States, this step is especially complex when the evolutionary history of the focal taxon is uncertain. The US Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of species, subspecies, or Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of vertebrates. Red wolves were listed as an endangered species in 1973, and their status remains precarious...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Benjamin N Sacks, Zachary T Lounsberry, Mark J Statham
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) occurs on multiple continents in diverse habitats, making it an informative system for evolutionary genomic research. However, its phylogeography remains unclear. Previously, mitochondrial DNA and small numbers of nuclear loci provided discordant views. Both markers indicated deep divergence (~ 0.5 million years [MY]) between Eurasian and southern North American populations but differed in the apparent continental affinity of Alaskan red foxes, implying some degree of gene exchange during secondary contact (~0...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Mattias L Johansson, Tamara A Shiganova, Halldis Ringvold, Alexandra N Stupnikova, Daniel D Heath, Hugh J MacIsaac
The genus Beroe Browne, 1756 (Ctenophora, Beroidae) occurs worldwide, with 25 currently-described species. Because the genus is poorly studied, the definitive number of species is uncertain. Recently, a possible new Beroe species was suggested based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from samples collected in Svalbard, Norway. Another species, Beroe ovata, was introduced to Europe from North America, initially in the Black Sea and subsequently (and possibly secondarily) into the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Robert R Fitak, Sarah E Rinkevich, Melanie Culver
The Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was historically distributed throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Extensive predator removal campaigns during the early 20th century, however, resulted in its eventual extirpation by the mid 1980s. At this time, the Mexican wolf existed only in 3 separate captive lineages (McBride, Ghost Ranch, and Aragón) descended from 3, 2, and 2 founders, respectively. These lineages were merged in 1995 to increase the available genetic variation, and Mexican wolves were reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico in 1998...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Robin S Waples
Three published papers in this journal have considered the proposition that, under a Wahlund effect caused by population mixture, a positive correlation is expected between single-locus values of FIS for a sample from the mixture and FST between the populations contributing to the mixture. Two of the papers assumed unbiased samples to estimate FST but did not consider possible effects of null alleles; the other paper focused on effects of nulls but used biased samples that also included Wahlund effects to estimate FST...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Matthijs P van den Burg, Patrick G Meirmans, Timothy P van Wagensveld, Bart Kluskens, Hannah Madden, Mark E Welch, Johannes A J Breeuwer
The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) is an endangered species threatened by habitat loss and hybridization with non-native Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguana delicatissima has been extirpated on several islands, and the Green Iguana has invaded most islands with extant populations. Information is essential to protect this species from extinction. We collected data on 293 iguanas including 17 juveniles from St. Eustasius, one of the few remaining I. delicatissima strongholds. Genetic data were leveraged to test for hybridization presence with the Green Iguana using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, including 16 microsatellite loci...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Roozbeh Behrooz, Mohammad Kaboli, Véronique Arnal, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Atefeh Asadi, Amin Salmanian, Mohsen Ahmadi, Claudine Montgelard
Northern and western mountains of Iran are among the most important biodiversity and endemism hot spots for reptiles in the Middle East. Among herpetofauna, the montivipers represent an emblematic and fragmented endemic group for which estimating their level of genetic differentiation and defining conservation priorities is urgently needed. Here, we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic study on the Montivipera raddei species group comprising all 5 known taxa, among which 3 are endemic to Iran. Based on 2 mitochondrial genes, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed 3 major lineages each presenting very contrasting distribution areas...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Thiago G Lima, Christopher S Willett
The formation of reproductive barriers between allopatric populations involves the accumulation of incompatibilities that lead to intrinsic postzygotic isolation. The evolution of these incompatibilities is usually explained by the Dobzhansky-Muller model, where epistatic interactions that arise within the diverging populations, lead to deleterious interactions when they come together in a hybrid genome. These incompatibilities can lead to hybrid inviability, killing individuals with certain genotypic combinations, and causing the population's allele frequency to deviate from Mendelian expectations...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Tony Gamble, Erin McKenna, Wyatt Meyer, Stuart V Nielsen, Brendan J Pinto, Daniel P Scantlebury, Timothy E Higham
Sex-specific genetic markers identified using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, or RADseq, permits the recognition of a species' sex chromosome system in cases where standard cytogenetic methods fail. Thus, species with male-specific RAD markers have an XX/XY sex chromosome system (male heterogamety) while species with female-specific RAD markers have a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome (female heterogamety). Here, we use RADseq data from 5 male and 5 female South American dwarf geckos (Gonatodes humeralis) to identify an XX/XY sex chromosome system...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Heredity
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