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Journal of Heredity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505369/identification-of-an-early-male-killing-agent-in-the-oriental-tea-tortrix-homona-magnanima
#1
Yusuke Tsugeno, Hironori Koyama, Takumi Takamatsu, Madoka Nakai, Yasuhisa Kunimi, Maki N Inoue
Arthropods are frequently infected with inherited symbionts, which sometimes confer fitness benefits on female hosts or manipulate host reproduction. Early male killing, in which infected males die during embryogenesis, is induced by some bacteria, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma. A female-biased sex ratio has been found in Homona magnanima, collected from a tea plantation in Japan. Here, we examined the male-killing trait in H. magnanima and identified the agent that induces early male killing. The sex-ratio distortion (SR) strain produced only females and no males, and its egg hatch rate was significantly lower than that of the normal (N) strain...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499014/captive-ancestry-upwardly-biases-estimates-of-relative-reproductive-success
#2
Janna R Willoughby, Mark R Christie
Supplementation programs, which release captive-born individuals into the wild, are commonly used to demographically bolster declining populations. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, the reproductive success of captive-born individuals released into the wild is often compared to the reproductive success of wild-born individuals in the recipient population (relative reproductive success, RRS). However, if there are heritable reductions in fitness associated with captive breeding, gene flow from captive-born individuals into the wild population can reduce the fitness of the wild population...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486592/constraints-on-the-fst-heterozygosity-outlier-approach
#3
Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
The FST-heterozygosity outlier approach has been a popular method for identifying loci under balancing and positive selection since Beaumont and Nichols first proposed it in 1996 and recommended its use for studies sampling a large number of independent populations (at least 10). Since then, their program FDIST2 and a user-friendly program optimized for large datasets, LOSITAN, have been used widely in the population genetics literature, often without the requisite number of samples. We observed empirical datasets whose distributions could not be reconciled with the confidence intervals generated by the null coalescent island model...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482087/effects-of-gene-action-marker-density-and-time-since-selection-on-the-performance-of-landscape-genomic-scans-of-local-adaptation
#4
Jeremy B Yoder, Peter Tiffin
Genomic "scans" to identify loci that contribute to local adaptation are becoming increasingly common. Many methods used for such studies have assumed that local adaptation is created by loci experiencing antagonistic pleiotropy and that the selected locus itself is assayed, and few consider how signals of selection change through time. However, most empirical data sets have marker density too low to assume that a selected locus itself is assayed, researchers seldom know when selection was first imposed, and many locally adapted loci likely experience not antagonistic pleiotropy but conditional neutrality...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482023/understanding-the-genomic-basis-of-adaptive-response-to-variable-osmotic-niches-in-freshwater-prawns-a-comparative-intraspecific-rna-seq-analysis-of-macrobrachium-australiense
#5
Azam Moshtaghi, Md Lifat Rahi, Peter B Mather, David A Hurwood
Understanding the molecular basis of adaptive response to variable environmental conditions is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Here we sought to identify potential outlier SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in three wild populations of a freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium australiense) that are exposed to differing osmotic niches by using a comparative transcriptomics approach. De novo assembly of approximately 542 million (75 nt) pair end reads collected from 10 individuals revealed 123,396 longer contigs/transcripts of variable length, that showed 97...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482006/predictability-and-parallelism-of-multi-trait-adaptation
#6
Randall Brian Langerhans
Environments shape the traits of organisms. Environmental variation may rarely alter selection on only a few traits, but instead precipitate wholesale changes of the multidimensional selective regime-many traits might experience divergent selection across divergent environments. Such changes in selection can elicit multifarious evolution. How predictable (from theory) and how parallel (consistent occurrences) is multi-trait divergence across replicated environments? Here, I address this question using the post-Pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes on Andros Island...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498961/range-wide-snow-leopard-phylogeography-supports-three-subspecies
#7
Jan E Janecka, Jan E Janecka, Zhang Yu-Guang, Li Di-Qiang, Bariushaa Munkhtsog, Munkhtsog Bayaraa, Naranbaatar Galsandorj, Tshewang R Wangchuk, Dibesh Karmacharya, Thomas McCarthy, Juan Li, Lu Zhi, Kubanychbek Zhumabai Uulu, Ajay Gaur, Satish Kumar, B Kesav Kumar, Shafqat Hussain, Ghulam Muhammad, Matthew Jevit, Charlotte Hacker, Pamela Burger, Claudia Wultsch, Mary J Janecka, Kristofer Helgen, William J Murphy, Rodney Jackson
The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, is an elusive high-altitude specialist that inhabits vast, inaccessible habitat across Asia. We conducted the first range-wide genetic assessment of snow leopards based on noninvasive scat surveys. Thirty-three microsatellites were genotyped and a total of 683-bp of mitochondrial DNA sequenced in 70 individuals. Snow leopards exhibited low genetic diversity at microsatellites (AN = 5.8, HO = 0.433, HE = 0.568), virtually no mtDNA variation, and underwent a bottleneck in the Holocene (~8,000 years ago) coinciding with increased temperatures, precipitation, and upward treeline shift in the Tibetan Plateau...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460111/genetic-variation-for-mitochondrial-function-in-the-new-zealand-freshwater-snail-potamopyrgus-antipodarum
#8
Joel Sharbrough, Jennifer L Cruise, Megan Beetch, Nicole M Enright, Maurine Neiman
The proteins responsible for mitochondrial function are encoded by two different genomes with distinct inheritance regimes, rendering rigorous inference of genotype-phenotype connections intractable for all but a few model systems. Asexual organisms provide a powerful means to address these challenges because offspring produced without recombination inherit both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes from a single parent. As such, these offspring inherit mitonuclear genotypes that are identical to the mitonuclear genotypes of their parents and siblings and different from those of other asexual lineages...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459986/color-biased-dispersal-inferred-by-fine-scale-genetic-spatial-autocorrelation-in-a-color-polymorphic-salamander
#9
Alexa H Grant, Eric B Liebgold
Behavioral traits can be influenced by predation rates of color morphs, potentially leading to reduced boldness or increased escape behaviors in one color morph. The red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is a small terrestrial salamander whose color morphs have different diets and select different microhabitats, but little is known about potential differences in dispersal behaviors. We used fine-scale genetic spatial autocorrelation to examine 122 P. cinereus in a color-polymorphic population at ten microsatellite loci in order to generate estimates of spatial genetic structure for each color morph...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453641/phenotypic-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-leopard-complex-spotting-in-noriker-horses
#10
Thomas Druml, Gertrud Grilz-Seger, Markus Neuditschko, Barbara Neuhauser, Gottfried Brem
Genetic analyses of coat colors are frequently restricted to subjectively categorized phenotype information. The aim of this study was to develop a method to numerically quantify the variability of leopard complex spotting phenotypes introducing tools from image analysis. Generalized Procrustes Analysis eliminates systematic errors due to imaging process. The binarization of normalised images and the application of Principal Component Analysis on the derived pixel matrices, transform pixel information into numerical data space...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444211/effects-of-sample-size-and-full-sibs-on-genetic-diversity-characterization-a-case-study-of-three-syntopic-iberian-pond-breeding-amphibians
#11
Gregorio Sánchez-Montes, Arturo H Ariño, José L Vizmanos, Jinliang Wang, Íñigo Martínez-Solano
Accurate characterization of genetic diversity is essential for understanding population demography, predicting future trends and implementing efficient conservation policies. For that purpose, molecular markers are routinely developed for non-model species, but key questions regarding sampling design, like calculation of minimum sample sizes or the effect of relatives in the sample, are often neglected. We used accumulation curves and sibship analyses to explore how these two factors affect marker performance in the characterization of genetic diversity...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444325/corrigendum
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430996/asymmetric-hybridization-in-cattails-typha-spp-and-its-implications-for-the-evolutionary-maintenance-of-native-typha-latifolia
#13
Sara J Pieper, Allison A Nicholls, Joanna R Freeland, Marcel E Dorken
Cattails (Typha spp.) have become an increasingly dominant component of wetlands in eastern North America and this dominance is largely attributable to the high frequency of Typha × glauca, the hybrid of native T. latifolia and putatively introduced T. angustifolia. Hybridization in this group is asymmetric, with T. angustifolia nearly always the maternal parent of F1 hybrids. However, the magnitude of hybrid infertility and whether mating asymmetries extend to the formation of advanced-generation hybrids have not been examined...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431090/current-status-of-the-blue-butterfly-in-fukushima-research
#14
Joji M Otaki, Wataru Taira
Adverse biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been revealed using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, since 2012, which were often considered incompatible with the conventional understanding of radiation biology. This discrepancy likely originates from different system conditions and methodologies. In this article, we first respond to comments from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) regarding our study; "technical errors" in unit usage and mathematical models noted by UNSCEAR are not errors but reflect our research philosophy not to introduce theoretical assumptions associated with unit conversion and mathematical fit...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398480/estimating-inbreeding-rates-in-natural-populations-addressing-the-problem-of-incomplete-pedigrees
#15
Mark P Miller, Susan M Haig, Jonathan D Ballou, E Ashley Steel
Understanding and estimating inbreeding is essential for managing threatened and endangered wildlife populations. However, determination of inbreeding rates in natural populations is confounded by incomplete parentage information. We present an approach for quantifying inbreeding rates for populations with incomplete parentage information. The approach exploits knowledge of pedigree configurations that lead to inbreeding coefficients of F = 0.25 and F = 0.125, allowing for quantification of Pr(I|k): the probability of observing pedigree I given the fraction of known parents (k)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387863/neutral-genetic-processes-influence-mhc-evolution-in-threatened-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#16
Jean P Elbers, Rachel W Clostio, Sabrina S Taylor
Levels of adaptive genetic variation influence how species deal with environmental and ecological change, but these levels are frequently inferred using neutral genetic markers. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a key role in the adaptive branch of the immune system and have been used extensively to estimate levels of adaptive genetic variation. Parts of the peptide binding region, sites where MHC molecules directly interact with pathogen and self-proteins, were sequenced from a MHC class I (95/441 tortoises) and class II (245/441 tortoises) gene in threatened and non-threatened populations of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus), and adaptive genetic variation at MHC genes was compared to neutral genetic variation derived from 10 microsatellite loci (441 tortoises)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379457/pedigree-analysis-reveals-a-generational-decline-in-reproductive-success-of-captive-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii-implications-for-captive-management-of-threatened-species
#17
Katherine A Farquharson, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine E Grueber
Captive breeding programs are an increasingly popular tool to augment the conservation of threatened wild populations. Many programs keep detailed pedigrees, which are used to prescribe breeding targets to meet demographic and genetic goals. Annual breeding targets are based on previous productivity, but do not account for changes in reproductive success that may occur over generations in captivity and which may impair the ability of a program to meet its goals. We utilise a large studbook from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) captive breeding program to investigate biological, genetic and environmental factors that affect variation in reproductive success among individuals and over generations of captive breeding...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369439/population-genetic-structure-of-the-giant-cactus-echinopsis-terscheckii-in-northwestern-argentina-is-shaped-by-patterns-of-vegetation-cover
#18
Vilma B Quipildor, Paula Mathiasen, Andrea C Premoli
Species inhabiting drylands commonly depend on the surrounding vegetation for recruitment under stress, while competition may affect populations in moister environments. Our objective was to analyze how different climates and vegetation affect the fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) of the columnar cactus Echinopsis terscheckii. At four sites we estimated vegetation cover by digitized patches and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We mapped 30 individuals per population and collected tissue for isozyme electrophoresis using 15 putative loci...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498992/reproductive-strategy-of-the-polyploid-species-varronia-curassavica-jacq-in-restinga-environment
#19
Marcia Patricia Hoeltgebaum, Diana Marcela Morales Londoño, Ana Paula Lando, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis
This study aimed to elucidate the breeding strategies of Varronia curassavica, an important medicinal species associated with Brazilian restinga. This was accomplished by combining phenological and genetic data. Every 2 weeks over a period of 2 years, we measured flowering and fruiting phenology to evaluate the activity and intensity of phenophases (n = 60). We evaluated the mating system, pollen ovule ratio and genotypes from progeny and mother plants using 8 nuclear microsatellite loci. We observed flowering and fruiting of V...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498991/population-differentiation-in-common-walnut-juglans-regia-l-across-major-parts-of-its-native-range-insights-from-molecular-and-morphometric-data
#20
Wladimir Roor, Heino Konrad, Davletbek Mamadjanov, Thomas Geburek
Juglans regia is an economically highly important species for fruit and wood production in the warm temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Besides the natural influence of climatic and geomorphological barriers, its genetic structure has been strongly modified by humans and the population history is still unclear. For this reason, we investigated mainly natural walnut populations across the Eurasian continent on a molecular (44 populations, 581 trees) and morphometric level (23 populations, 1391 ripe nuts)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
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